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Sample records for women attending antenatal

  1. Pattern and outcome of antenatal care among women attending a Catholic mission hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aluko, J O; Oluwatosin, A

    2008-09-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) services have the aim of monitoring the course of pregnancy, in order to promote favourable outcomes. In spite of the fact that its components have been found to improve pregnancy outcomes, maternal/infant morbidity and mortality still remain public health problems in most developing countries including Nigeria. These unacceptable health indicators form the basis of this study. The records of 581 women who attended ANC at the Catholic Hospital between October 2005 and September 2006 were accessed. The data collected with the aid of a checklist were processed using statistical package of social sciences (SPSS). The age range of the participants was 17-45; with the mean age of 30.3 (SD = 4.8). Three hundred and forty-seven (59.7%), sixty-nine (29.1%) of the women had tertiary and secondary education respectively. A total of 325 (55.9%) were nulliparous. Only 44 (7.6%) of the women began ANC at the first trimester. Out of 159 abortions recorded among the women, 72 (45%) were self-induced prior to marriage. Findings showed apparent low rate of first trimester booking, irregular antenatal clinic visits and initiation of ANC at the appearance of symptoms of illness among the women studied. Therefore the study recommends hospitals to adopt the WHO modified ANC with fewer visits to improve better compliance and coverage, provision of family life education especially on the benefits of early ANC booking and family planning services through available media. PMID:18982815

  2. Sociodemographic and Obstetric Characteristics of Anaemic Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Bolgatanga Regional Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ahenkorah, Benjamin; Nsiah, Kwabena; Baffoe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The study determined the sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics of pregnant women which contribute to the risk of developing anaemia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit at the Bolgatanga Regional Hospital Antenatal Clinic. Anaemia was significantly associated (p < 0.05) with younger maternal age, parity, gravidity, trimester of pregnancy, and source of drinking water. Multivariate logistic regression identified the following factors with adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI): unemployment (aOR = 4.76 (CI: 2.26–11.33); p < 0.0001), rural dwelling (aOR = 3.10 (CI: 2.16–4.91); p = 0.0071), primigravida (aOR = 2.13 (CI: 1.34–3.18); p = 0.0201), nulliparity (aOR = 1.92 (CI: 1.23–2.86); p = 0.0231), first antenatal visit at second trimester (aOR = 1.71 (CI: 1.33–3.12); p = 0.0149) and first antenatal visit at third trimester (aOR = 2.73 (CI: 1.24–4.35); p = 0.0017), drinking from well and boreholes (aOR = 2.78 (CI: 2.27–5.21); p < 0.0001), and the presence of domestic livestock (aOR = 2.15 (CI: 1.33–3.68); p = 0.0019). This study has shown the various sociodemographic and obstetric factors which significantly contribute to anaemia in pregnancy.

  3. Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Wekesa, A. W.; Mulambalah, C. S.; Muleke, C. I.; Odhiambo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%). Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%), hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%), and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%). Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75) and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75) were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57). It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment. PMID:24971167

  4. Sero-prevalence and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Mwanza, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Serological screening of pregnant women for Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies is not practiced as an antenatal care in Tanzania; and there is a limited data about sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection in developing countries. We therefore conducted this study to determine the sero-prevalence and factors associated with T. gondii infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods Between 1st November 2012 and 31st May 2013 a total of 350 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Mwanza were enrolled and screened for IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii using the ELISA technique. Results Of 350 pregnant women, 108 (30.9%) were sero-positive for T. gondii-specific antibodies. The risk of contracting T. gondii infection increases by 7% with each yearly increase in a woman’s age (OR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.11, p=0.002). The sero-positivity rate of T. gondii-specific antibodies was higher among pregnant women from the urban than those from rural communities (41.5% versus 22.0%); [OR=2.2, 95% CI; 1.4 - 3.7, p=0.001]. Likewise employed/business women were more likely to get T. gondii infection than peasants (40.0% versus 25.9%) [OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2 - 3.0, p=0.006]. Conclusions Sero-prevalence of T. gondii-specific antibodies is high among pregnant women in Mwanza with a significant proportion of women at risk of contracting primary T. gondii infections. Screening of T. gondii infections during antenatal care should be considered in Tanzania as the main strategy to minimize congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:23915834

  5. Timing of First Antenatal Care Attendance and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebremeskel, Feleke; Dibaba, Yohannes; Admassu, Bitiya

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the timing of first antenatal care attendance and associated factors among pregnant women in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District, south Ethiopia. Method. Facility based cross-sectional study employing both quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted from February to March, 2014, in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District. Data were collected from 409 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in nine public health facilities using systematic random sampling. Analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done. Results. The mean (SD±) age of the respondents was 26 ± 5.5 years. The mean gestational age at first antenatal care attendance was 5 ± 1.5 months. This study indicated that pregnant women with low monthly income (AOR = 4.9, CI: 1.71, 14.08), women who did not receive advise on when to start ANC (AOR = 3, CI: 1.48, 6.24), women with household food insecurity (AOR = 4.66, CI: 1.007, 21.59) and women with unplanned pregnancy (AOR = 4.49, CI: 2.16, 9.35) had higher odds of late antenatal care attendance compared with their counterparts. Conclusions. The study showed that majority of the pregnant women attended late for first antenatal care. Hence, providing health education on the timing of antenatal care is important. PMID:26543485

  6. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Antenatal Depression among Women Attending Antenatal Care Service at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayele, Tadesse Awoke; Azale, Telake; Alemu, Kassahun; Abdissa, Zewditu; Mulat, Haregewoin; Fekadu, Abel

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder during pregnancy and is associated with psychosocial and clinical obstetric factors. Depressive disorders are not only common and chronic among women throughout the world but also principal sources of disability. The scarce information and limited attention to the problem might aggravate the consequence of the problem and can limit the intervention to be taken. Therefore, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence and identify associated factors for antenatal depression. Methods Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted by taking a sample of 388 pregnant women coming for ANC service at Gondar University Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was employed to recruit the study participants. Structured, pretested and interview administered questionnaire was used to collect related information while Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess individuals`depression condition. A cut off point with high sensitivity and specificity was determined and internal consistency of the tool was checked (Cronbach alpha = 0.82). Ep Info V. 2002 and STATA 12 were used for data entry and analyses, respectively. Adjusted Odds Ratio with its 95% CI was used to declare the statistical significance of the factors. Results Depression among pregnant women was found to be 23% (95%CI: 18.48%, 26.86%). Factors significantly associated with depression were: woman`s age (20 to 29, AOR = 0.18,95% CI:0.07,0.49), occupation (housewife, AOR = 2.57,95%CI:1.21,5.46, merchant and daily laborers, AOR = 3.44 (1.38,8.58), previous pregnancy (No, AOR = 4.74,95% CI:1.58,14.17) and previous ANC follow up pattern (irregular, AOR = 11.43,95% CI:3.68,35.49), no follow up, AOR = 11.98, 95% CI:4.73,30.33). Conclusion Depression symptoms are common in pregnant mothers in the study area and interventions that would address the aforementioned factors would benefit to tackle further complications. PMID:27153193

  7. Brief Report: HIV Testing Among Pregnant Women Who Attend Antenatal Care in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Tenthani, Lyson; Haas, Andreas D; Egger, Matthias; Van Oosterhout, Joep J; Jahn, Andreas; Chimbwandira, Frank; Tal, Kali; Myer, Landon; Estill, Janne; Keiser, Olivia

    2015-08-15

    Malawi adopted the Option B+ strategy in 2011. Its success in reducing mother-to-child transmission depends on coverage and timing of HIV testing. We assessed HIV status ascertainment and its predictors during pregnancy. HIV status ascertainment was 82.3% (95% confidence interval: 80.2 to 85.9) in the pre-Option B+ period and 85.7% (95% confidence interval: 83.4 to 88.0) in the Option B+ period. Higher HIV ascertainment was independently associated with higher age, attending antenatal care more than once, and registration in 2010. The observed high variability of HIV ascertainment between sites (50.6%-97.7%) and over time suggests that HIV test kit shortages and insufficient numbers of staff posed major barriers to reducing mother-to-child transmission. PMID:25950205

  8. Correlates of syphilis seropositivity and risk for syphilis-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes among women attending antenatal care clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Melanie M; Ebrahim, Shahul; Abiola, Nadine; Kinkodi, Didine Kaba; Mpingulu, Minlangu; Kabuayi, Jean Pierre; Ekofo, Felly; Newman, Daniel R; Peterman, Thomas A; Kamb, Mary L; Sidibe, Kassim

    2014-09-01

    Screening and treatment for syphilis among pregnant women is the primary means of prevention of congenital syphilis. Sentinel surveillance for syphilis can inform these prevention efforts. We reviewed antenatal syphilis screening results to assess trends and to identify correlates of seropositivity among women attending antenatal care clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo during 2011. Syphilis seropositivity among the 17,669 women attending the antenatal care clinics during 2011 was 4.2% (range 0.4%-16.9%). Syphilis seropositivity was significantly higher among women attending rural clinics (5.0%) as compared to urban clinics (3.0%) and those tested in antenatal care clinics in the provinces of Equateur (7.6%) and Orientale (7.7%) as compared to other provinces (p < 0.001). Based on the antenatal care syphilis seroprevalence and national pregnancy estimates, we estimate that approximately 128,591 pregnant women countrywide would have tested seropositive for syphilis during 2011. Over 85,000 adverse pregnancy outcomes would have resulted from these maternal infections, assuming prenatal syphilis diagnosis and treatment were not available. The prevalence of syphilis was highest in rural areas, but exceeded 1% in every area, indicating a need to assure screening and treatment throughout Democratic Republic of Congo. These sentinel surveillance estimates can be used to guide national congenital syphilis prevention efforts. PMID:24452733

  9. Low Serum Vitamin C Status Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, Northwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu; Iwasam, Elemi Agbor; Nwali, Matthew Igwe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin C levels are low in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine serum Vitamins C levels among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu, Kano, and this can help further research to determine the place of Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. Methods: This was a prospective study of 400 pregnant women who presented for antenatal care in General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, Kano, Nigeria. Research structured questionnaire was administered to 400 respondents. Determination of serum Vitamin C was done using appropriate biochemical methods. Results: Vitamin C deficiency was found in 79.5% of the participants. The values for Vitamin C were 0.20 ± 0.18 mg/dl during the first trimester, 0.50 ± 0.99 mg/dl in the second trimester, and 0.35 ± 0.36 mg/dl in the third trimester and P = 0.001. Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in the serum Vitamins C concentration throughout the period of pregnancy with the highest levels in the second trimester. Therefore, Vitamin C supplementation is suggested during pregnancy, especially for those whose fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate. PMID:27014432

  10. Health service barriers to HIV testing and counseling among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic; a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV testing and counseling (HTC) remains critical in the global efforts to reach a goal of universal access to prevention and timely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and health care. Routine HIV testing has been shown to be cost-effective and life-saving by prolonging the life expectancy of HIV patients and reducing the annual HIV transmission rate. However, these benefits of routine HIV testing may not be seen among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) due to health facility related factors. This paper presents the influence of health facility related factors on HTC to inform HTC implementation. Methods The study was cross-sectional in design and used structured questionnaire and interview guides to gather information from 300 pregnant women aged 18 to 49 years and had attended ANC for more than twice at the time of the study. Twelve health workers were interviewed as key informants. Respondents were selected from the five sub metro health facilities in the Kumasi Metropolis through systematic random sampling from August to November 2011. Pregnant women who had not tested after two or more ANC visits were classified as not utilizing HTC. Data was analyzed with STATA 11. Logistic regression was run to assess the odds ratios at 95% confidence level. Results Twenty-four percent of the pregnant women had not undergone HTC, with “never been told” emerging as the most cited reason as reported by 29.5% of respondents. Decisions by pregnant women to take up HTC were mostly influenced by factors such as lack of information, perceptions of privacy and confidentiality, waiting time, poor relationship with health staff and fear of being positive. Conclusions Access to HTC health facility alone does not translate into utilization of HTC service. Improving health facility related factors such as health education and information, confidentiality, health staff turnaround time and health staff-client relationship related to HTC will improve implementation. PMID:24942820

  11. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two hospitals in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bayo, Pontius; Ochola, Emmanuel; Oleo, Caroline; Mwaka, Amos Deogratius

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two referral hospitals in northern Uganda. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Two tertiary hospitals in a postconflict region in a low-income country. Participants Randomly selected 402 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two referral hospitals. Five women withdrew consent for personal reasons. Data were analysed for 397 participants. Primary outcome Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity. Results Of 397 pregnant women aged 13–43 years, 96.2% were married or cohabiting. 47 (11.8%) tested positive for HBsAg; of these, 7 (14.9%) were HBeAg positive. The highest HBsAg positivity rate was seen in women aged 20 years or less (20%) compared with those aged above 20 years (8.7%), aOR=2.54 (95% CI 1.31 to 4.90). However, there was no statistically significant difference between women with positive HBsAg and those with negative tests results with respect to median values of liver enzymes, haemoglobin level, absolute neutrophil counts and white cell counts. HIV positivity, scarification and number of sexual partners were not predictive of HBV positivity. Conclusions One in eight pregnant women attending antenatal care in the two study hospitals has evidence of hepatitis B infection. A significant number of these mothers are HBeAg positive and may be at increased risk of transmitting hepatitis B infection to their unborn babies. We suggest that all pregnant women attending antenatal care be tested for HBV infection; exposed babies need to receive HBV vaccines at birth. PMID:25387757

  12. Nutritional Practices and Taboos Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital in Kano, Northwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, EA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors contributing to maternal undernutrition in pregnancy. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore some of the taboos and nutritional practices among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu LGA, Kano, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 220 pregnant women. Interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used to interview the respondents, which showed various sociodemographic information, cultural nutritional processes, taboos of the community, and a 24 h food recall. The ages, parities, and gestational ages of the women were collated. Descriptive statistics was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software Version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Association between sociodemographic factors and nutritional practices and taboos was determined using Chi-square test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: At the end of the study, 200 participants (91%) gave complete information. Most of the women, 70% (140/200) were in the 20–39 years age range with mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 23.7 (6.1) years, mostly uneducated, 70% (140/200), and unemployed, 51% (102/200). Most of the women did a child spacing of 12–24 months, 62% (124/200) with mean (SD) child spacing interval of 26.32 (10.19) months. Gestational age at booking was mostly 13–26 weeks, 48% (96/200) with an average of 26.60 (8.01). Most of the women had 1–4 children, 54.5% (109/200) with mean (SD) of 2.47 (2.50). Most of the women agreed that they had adequate intake of oil, 86% (172/200), meat/fish, 92% (194/200), fruit/vegetables 56% (112/200), and had 3 meals/day 80% (152/200), and did not practice pica 83% (166/200). All of the women, 100% (200/200) believe that women should eat more during pregnancy in order to have healthy babies. They were mostly supported by their husbands, 53% (106/200) and less likely by the community, 34% (17/200). The nutritional practices and taboos of the women showed a statistically significant association with age, parity, and support received from husband and community (P < 0.05). Educational status is not associated with their nutritional practices and taboos. Conclusion: Although sociocultural indices of the respondents were poor, their intake of good nutrition and abstinence from nutrition taboos were satisfactory. Further studies are intended to objectively study the nutritional practices/taboos in pregnancy. PMID:27213094

  13. Parvovirus B19 antibodies and correlates of infection in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Emiasegen, Samuel E; Nimzing, Lohya; Adoga, Moses P; Ohagenyi, Adamu Y; Lekan, Rufai

    2011-03-01

    Human parvovirus B19 infection is associated with spontaneous abortion, hydrops foetalis, intrauterine foetal death, erythema infectiosum (5th disease), aplastic crisis and acute symmetric polyarthropathy. However, data concerning Nigerian patients with B19 infection have not been published yet. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of B19 IgG and IgM antibodies, including correlates of infection, among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nigeria. Subsequent to clearance from an ethical committee, blood samples were collected between August-November 2008 from 273 pregnant women between the ages of 15-40 years who have given their informed consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Recombinant IgG and IgM enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits (Demeditec Diagnostics, Germany) were used for the assays. Out of the 273 participants, 111 (40.7%) had either IgG or IgM antibodies. Out of these, 75 (27.5%) had IgG antibodies whereas 36 (13.2%) had IgM antibodies, and those aged 36-40 years had the highest prevalence of IgG antibodies. Significant determinants of infection (p < 0.05) included the receipt of a blood transfusion, occupation and the presence of a large number of children in the household. Our findings have important implications for transfusion and foeto-maternal health policy in Nigeria. Routine screening for B19 IgM antibodies and accompanying clinical management of positive cases should be made mandatory for all Nigerian blood donors and women of childbearing age. PMID:21537685

  14. Parvovirus B19 antibodies and correlates of infection in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in central Nigeria.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Emiasegen SE; Nimzing L; Adoga MP; Ohagenyi AY; Lekan R

    2011-03-01

    Human parvovirus B19 infection is associated with spontaneous abortion, hydrops foetalis, intrauterine foetal death, erythema infectiosum (5th disease), aplastic crisis and acute symmetric polyarthropathy. However, data concerning Nigerian patients with B19 infection have not been published yet. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of B19 IgG and IgM antibodies, including correlates of infection, among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nigeria. Subsequent to clearance from an ethical committee, blood samples were collected between August-November 2008 from 273 pregnant women between the ages of 15-40 years who have given their informed consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Recombinant IgG and IgM enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits (Demeditec Diagnostics, Germany) were used for the assays. Out of the 273 participants, 111 (40.7%) had either IgG or IgM antibodies. Out of these, 75 (27.5%) had IgG antibodies whereas 36 (13.2%) had IgM antibodies, and those aged 36-40 years had the highest prevalence of IgG antibodies. Significant determinants of infection (p < 0.05) included the receipt of a blood transfusion, occupation and the presence of a large number of children in the household. Our findings have important implications for transfusion and foeto-maternal health policy in Nigeria. Routine screening for B19 IgM antibodies and accompanying clinical management of positive cases should be made mandatory for all Nigerian blood donors and women of childbearing age.

  15. Vitamins A and E Deficiencies among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, North-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamins A and E deficiency is prevalent in developing countries, and plasma levels are low in pregnancy. This study was undertaken to determine the serum Vitamins A and E status among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu, Kano and to provide the necessary information needed to suggest the supplementation of Vitamins A and E during pregnancy. Methods: The study was done in General Hospital Dawakin Kudu Local Government Area. Dawakin Kudu, a rural community in Kano State is about 12 km from Kano metropolis which is the most populous city in Nigeria and commercial nerve center of Northern Nigeria. Most of the women are housewives, however, some engage in subsistent farming and petty trading. This was a prospective study of 200 pregnant women at various maternal ages, gestational ages, and parities. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Research structured questionnaire was administered to 200 respondents which showed age and parity distributions. Determination of Serum Vitamins A and E was done using methods of Bessey, et al. and Tsen. Ethical approval for the research was obtained from General Hospital, Dawakin Kudu, Kano. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 17 statistical software (SPSS Inc., IL, Chicago, USA). Descriptive statistics was done. Mean serum Vitamins A and E concentration between trimesters were compared using two-way ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of the women were aged 20–39 years with mean of 23.67 ± 6.11. Most were in the 1–4 parity range. Mean birth weight was 2.42 ± 0.74 kg. Above 65% were deficient while 34.5% had normal levels of Vitamin A and 51% were deficient of serum Vitamin E. Serum Vitamins A and E levels showed a marked reduction from first through third trimester. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in the serum Vitamins A and E concentration throughout the period of pregnancy with the highest levels in the first trimester. Therefore, further studies should evaluate the value of Vitamins A and E supplementation during pregnancy especially for those whose fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate. PMID:26288709

  16. How Do Women Prepare for Pregnancy? Preconception Experiences of Women Attending Antenatal Services and Views of Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Judith; Patel, Dilisha; Barrett, Geraldine; Howden, Beth; Copas, Andrew; Ojukwu, Obiamaka; Pandya, Pranav; Shawe, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Main objective To determine the extent to which women plan and prepare for pregnancy. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of pregnant women attending three maternity services in London about knowledge and uptake of preconception care; including a robust measure of pregnancy planning, and phone interviews with a range of health care professionals. Main results We recruited 1173/1288 (90%) women, median age of 32 years. 73% had clearly planned their pregnancy, 24% were ambivalent and only 3% of pregnancies were unplanned. 51% of all women and 63% of those with a planned pregnancy took folic acid before pregnancy. 21% of all women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking alcohol in the 3 months before pregnancy; 48% of smokers and 41% of drinkers reduced or stopped before pregnancy. The 51% of all women who reported advice from a health professional before becoming pregnant were more likely to adopt healthier behaviours before pregnancy [adjusted odds ratios for greatest health professional input compared with none were 2.34 (95% confidence interval 1.54–3.54) for taking folic acid and 2.18 (95% CI 1.42–3.36) for adopting a healthier diet before pregnancy]. Interviews with 20 health professionals indicated low awareness of preconception health issues, missed opportunities and confusion about responsibility for delivery of preconception care. Significance of the findings Despite a high level of pregnancy planning, awareness of preconception health among women and health professionals is low, and responsibility for providing preconception care is unclear. However, many women are motivated to adopt healthier behaviours in the preconception period, as indicated by halving of reported smoking rates in this study. The link between health professional input and healthy behaviour change before pregnancy is a new finding that should invigorate strategies to improve awareness and uptake of pre-pregnancy health care, and bring wider benefits for public health. PMID:25058333

  17. Utilization of folic acid and iron supplementation services by pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic at a regional referral hospital in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Maina-Gathigi, L; Omolo, J; Wanzala, P; Lindan, C; Makokha, A

    2013-09-01

    To determine utilization of iron and folic acid supplementation services among pregnant women in Kenya. A cross sectional study was conducted at Nyeri Hospital, a regional referral hospital in central Kenya. Women attending the antenatal clinic were selected through systematic sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on utilization of folic acid and iron supplementation services. Women who ingested folic acid or iron supplements for >4 days in a week were considered "highly compliant". The health worker in-charge of the antenatal clinic was interviewed about the frequency of supplement stock-outs during the past year. Haemoglobin concentration was measured directly from one drop of capillary blood and measured using portable HEMOCUE B-Hb photometer. Of the 381 women interviewed, only 23.6 % obtained antenatal care in the first trimester; 69.3 and 51.2 % received folic acid and iron supplements, respectively. However, only half (45-58 %) received any information about supplementation. Most women were initiated on folic acid (80.7 %) or iron (67.7 %) after 12 and 16 weeks of gestation, respectively, well after the recommended time period. However, more than 80 % of those who received folic acid and iron were highly compliant. Stock-outs were common at the facility. Of 361 women tested for Hb level, the prevalence of anaemia (Hb levels < 11 g/dl) was 7.8 %. Health workers need to better explain the importance of supplements to pregnant women. Women who come late to antenatal clinic miss opportunities to start supplementation early in pregnancy. Problems with supply chain management exacerbate the problem. PMID:22907273

  18. Mental health, pregnancy and self-rated health in antenatal women attending primary health clinics.

    PubMed

    Sonkusare, S; Adinegara; Hebbar, S

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the determinants of self rated health in the low-risk pregnant women of Melaka Tengah in Malaysia. A total of 387 subjects were analysed. The role of mental health, psychosocial stressors, support from husband, coping skills, socio-economic status and pregnancy characteristics in determining self- rated health were studied. Health items were taken from the Duke Health Profile. Bad obstetric history, poor mental health, stress from the family were found to be significantly associated with poor self - rated health whereas good support from the husband was related to good self - rated health. PMID:18705476

  19. Satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town, Jimma zone, South West Ethiopia; a facility based cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Client satisfaction is essential for further improvement of quality of focused antenatal care and to provide uniform health care services for pregnant women. However, studies on level of client satisfaction with focused antenatal care and associated factors are lacking. So, the purpose of this study is to assess satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study involving both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used from Feb 1-30/2013. Three hundred eighty nine pregnant women those come to the health centers were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussion guide was employed to obtain the necessary information for this study. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Logistic regression model was used to compare level of satisfaction by predictors’ variables. Qualitative data was analyzed based on thematic frameworks to support the quantitative results. Result More than half of the respondents (60.4%) were satisfied with the service that they received. As to specific components, most of the respondents (80.7%) were satisfied with interpersonal aspects, and 62.2% were satisfied with organization of health care aspect. Meanwhile, 49.9% of the respondents were not satisfied with technical quality aspect and 67.1% were not satisfied with physical environment aspect. Multivariate logistic regression analysis result showed that type of health center, educational status of mother, monthly income of the family, type of pregnancy and history of stillbirth were the predictors of the level of satisfaction. The study found out that dissatisfaction was high in mothers utilizing service at Jimma health center, in mothers with tertiary educational level, in mothers with average monthly family income >1000birr, in mothers with unplanned pregnancy and in mothers with history of stillbirth. Conclusions Even though greater percentages of women (60.4%) were satisfied with the focused antenatal care service, the level of satisfaction was lower compared to other studies. The investigator recommends that patient feedback should be recognized as a legitimate method of evaluating health services in the health center as a whole. PMID:24646407

  20. Perceptions of antenatal care services by pregnant women attending government health centres in the Buea Health District, Cameroon: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Edie, Gregory Edie Halle Ekane; Obinchemti, Thomas Egbe; Tamufor, Emmanuel Njuma; Njie, Martin Mafany; Njamen, Theophile Nana; Achidi, Eric Akum

    2015-01-01

    Introduction User'sperception of quality of ANC services crucially impacts continuity of use of these services and hence pregnancy outcome. However in our community, ANC user's perceptions of quality are not known. Methods An observational analytic cross-sectional study was carried out amongst pregnant women attending selected government health centres in the Buea Health District. We recruited 385 consenting pregnant women for the study. Demographic and clinical data were collected using structured questionnaires. The data was entered into Microsoft Excel and exported toEpi-Info (Version 3.5.1) for analysis. Results Geographical accessibility and perceived quality of care were the predominant reasons for choosing or changing a site for ANC. One third of respondents (30.1%) attended a health centre out of their catchment health area with Buea Town health centre receiving the highest proportion of women out of the health area (56.8% of attendees). Knowledge about antenatal care varied and majority of respondents (96.4%) were satisfied with the antenatal services received. However, there were elements of dissatisfaction with health centre services, poor sitting facilities, amenities, few health education talks and poor nursing skills. High educational level (high school and university) (X2 = 8.714; p = 0.01) and first time pregnancy(X2= 4.217; p= 0.04) were significantly associated with poor satisfaction. Conclusion Policy makers should implement changes in the health care delivery system taking into account the users’ preferences, more so in the light of increasing female education in Cameroon. PMID:26405481

  1. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and its Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern Among Pregnant Women Attending the Antenatal Clinic at Kanpur, India

    PubMed Central

    Nawani, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Background: Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common in pregnant women. Pregnancy enhances the progression from ASB to symptomatic bacteriuria, which if left untreated, could lead to acute pyelonephritis and other adverse outcomes such as prematurity, postpartum, hypertensive disease, anaemia, UTIs and higher foetal mortality rates. Aim: To identify the prevalence of ASB, the most common causative microorganisms and the antibacterial susceptibilities of the isolated microorganisms at a tertiary care centre at Kanpur, India. Materials and Methods: A total number of 300 asymptomatic pregnant women were screened for ASB by urine culture by using a semi quantitative culture method. Results: In this study, significant bacteriuria was found in only 22 cases (7.3%). Growth of contaminants was seen in 40 cases (13.3%). Among cases which showed positive cultures, 48.9% were primigravidae and 51.1% were multigravidae. Highest incidence was reported in age group of 21-30 years. The predominant organisms which were isolated were Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. Escherichia coli, the most common isolate, was found to be only 61% and 70% sensitive to ampicillin and amoxicillin + clavulanate, respectively. Sensitivity to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin was 95%, and sensitivity to amikacin was 99%. Hundred percent sensitivity was found for the broad spectrum pencillins, imipenem, and meropenem. Klebsiella pneumoniae, the second most frequent organism which was grown on culture, was only 11% sensitive to ampicillin, while sensitivity to amoxicillin + clavulanate and cefuroxime was 86%. 100% sensitivity was found for cefepime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and meropenem. Conclusion: Routine urine culture test should be carried out for all antenatal women, to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria, and every positive case should be treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy, to prevent any obstetric complication which is associated with pregnancy. PMID:24959438

  2. Sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Mongolia: potential impact on the Mongolian HIV epidemic.

    PubMed

    Amindavaa, Oyunbileg; Kristensen, Sibylle; Pak, Chin Y; Khalzan, Davaajav; Chultemsuren, Byambaa; Randall, Andrea S; Mikolon, Andrea; Lkhamsuren, Erdenechimeg; Tulgaa, Khosbayar; Chimeddorj, Battogtokh; Natsag, Udval

    2005-02-01

    We conducted Mongolia's first nation-wide cross-sectional survey of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among pregnant women attending prenatal care. Among our 2000 participants, 386 (19.3%) were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis, 133 (6.7%) with Trichomonas vaginalis, 121 (6.1%) with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and 128 (6.4%) were seropositive for Treponemal antibodies. None of our participants were seropositive for HIV infection. Additionally, 605 (30.3%) of the women had at least one STI, 133 (6.7%) had a double infection, and 15 (0.8%) had a triple infection. Our results suggest that STIs are a serious problem in Mongolia. Pregnant women represent a lower-risk general population; these high STI rates suggest that at this nascent stage, the identification, treatment, and prevention of STIs as risk factors for HIV transmission are crucial in the prevention of the emerging Mongolian HIV epidemic. PMID:15807944

  3. High mobile phone ownership, but low Internet and email usage among pregnant, HIV-infected women attending antenatal care in Johannesburg.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Kate; Schwartz, Sheree R; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Vermund, Sten H; Pettifor, Audrey E

    2015-03-01

    We investigated mobile phone usage amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal services in a primary care clinic in Johannesburg (n?=?50). We conducted a semi-structured interview and asked them about their mobile phone, Internet and email use. The median age of the women was 28 years, 36% had moved one or more times in the past year, and most were employed or recently employed, albeit earning low wages. Nearly all women (94%) reported that they did not share their phone and 76% of the SIM cards were registered to the woman herself. The median time with the current phone was one year (range 1 month-6 years) and the median time with the current phone number was three years (range 1 month-13 years). Even though 42% of the participants were from outside South Africa, they all had mobile phone numbers local to South Africa. About one-third of respondents reported Internet use (30%) and about one-fifth reported using email (18%). Overall, 20% accessed the Internet and 10% accessed email on their mobile phone. Mobile phone interventions are feasible amongst HIV-positive pregnant women and may be useful in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Email and Internet-based interventions may not yet be appropriate. PMID:25586808

  4. High mobile phone ownership, but low internet and email usage among pregnant, HIV-infected women attending antenatal care in Johannesburg

    PubMed Central

    Clouse, Kate; Schwartz, Sheree R.; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Vermund, Sten H.; Pettifor, Audrey E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary We investigated mobile phone usage amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal services in a primary care clinic in Johannesburg (n=50). We conducted a semi-structured interview and asked them about their mobile phone, Internet and email use. The median age of the women was 28 years, 36% had moved one or more times in the past year, and most were employed or recently employed, albeit earning low wages. Nearly all women (94%) reported that they did not share their phone and 76% of the SIM cards were registered to the woman herself. The median time with the current phone was one year (range 1 month–6 years) and the median time with the current phone number was three years (range 1 month–13 years). Even though 42% of the participants were from outside South Africa, they all had mobile phone numbers local to South Africa. About one-third of respondents reported Internet use (30%) and about one-fifth reported using email (18%). Overall, 20% accessed the Internet and 10% accessed email on their mobile phone. Mobile phone interventions are feasible amongst HIV-positive pregnant women and may be useful in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Email and Internet-based interventions may not yet be appropriate. PMID:25586808

  5. Seroprevalence and Predictors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Routine Antenatal Care in Arba Minch Hospital, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yohanes, Tsegaye; Zerdo, Zerihun; Chufamo, Nega

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious cause of liver disease affecting millions of people throughout the world. When HBV is acquired during pregnancy, prenatal transmission can occur to the fetus. Therefore, this study is aimed at estimating seroprevalence and associated factors of HBV infection among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic (ANC) of Arba Minch Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 232 pregnant women visiting ANC from February to April, 2015. Data regarding sociodemographic and associated factors were gathered using questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. The overall seroprevalence of HBV infection was 4.3% (95% CI: 2.2–6.9%). Multivariate analysis showed that history of abortion (AOR = 7.775; 95% CI: 1.538–39.301) and having multiple sexual partners (AOR = 7.189; 95% CI: 1.039–49.755) were independent predictors of HBsAg seropositivity. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV infection is intermediate. Therefore, screening HBV infection should be routine part of ANC; health information on having single sexual partner for women of childbearing age and on following aseptic techniques during abortion should be provided to health facilities working on abortion. PMID:26904281

  6. Seroprevalence and Predictors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Routine Antenatal Care in Arba Minch Hospital, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yohanes, Tsegaye; Zerdo, Zerihun; Chufamo, Nega

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious cause of liver disease affecting millions of people throughout the world. When HBV is acquired during pregnancy, prenatal transmission can occur to the fetus. Therefore, this study is aimed at estimating seroprevalence and associated factors of HBV infection among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic (ANC) of Arba Minch Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 232 pregnant women visiting ANC from February to April, 2015. Data regarding sociodemographic and associated factors were gathered using questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. The overall seroprevalence of HBV infection was 4.3% (95% CI: 2.2-6.9%). Multivariate analysis showed that history of abortion (AOR = 7.775; 95% CI: 1.538-39.301) and having multiple sexual partners (AOR = 7.189; 95% CI: 1.039-49.755) were independent predictors of HBsAg seropositivity. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV infection is intermediate. Therefore, screening HBV infection should be routine part of ANC; health information on having single sexual partner for women of childbearing age and on following aseptic techniques during abortion should be provided to health facilities working on abortion. PMID:26904281

  7. Bacterial profile of urinary tract infection and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending at Antenatal Clinic in Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Derese, Behailu; Kedir, Haji; Teklemariam, Zelalem; Weldegebreal, Fitsum; Balakrishnan, Senthilkumar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial profile of urinary tract infection (UTI) and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending at antenatal clinic in Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Patients and methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 18, 2015 to March 25, 2015. Clean-catch midstream urine specimens were collected from 186 pregnant women using sterile containers. Then, culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by standard disk diffusion method. Patient information was obtained using pretested structured questionnaire. Data were entered and cleaned using EpiData Version 3 and then exported to Statistical Package for Social Science (Version 16) for further analysis. Results The prevalence of significant bacteriuria was 14%. Gram-negative bacteria were more prevalent (73%). Escherichia coli (34.6%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (19.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4%), and Klebsiella spp. (11.5%) were common bacterial isolates, where most of them were resistant against ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. Multidrug resistance (resistance in ≥2 drugs) was seen in 100% of the isolated bacteria. A majority of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Conclusion This study found a number of bacterial isolates with very high resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs from pregnant women with and without symptoms of UTI. Therefore, the early routine detection of causative agents of UTI and determining their drug susceptibility pattern are important for pregnant women to avoid complications in mother and fetus. Ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and erythromycin can be used with great care for the empirical treatment of UTI. PMID:26937197

  8. Predictors of skilled attendance at delivery among antenatal clinic attendants in Ghana: a cross-sectional study of population data

    PubMed Central

    Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Ansah, Evelyn K; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Grobbee, Diederick E; Kayode, Gbenga A; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify demographic, maternal and community predictors of skilled attendance at delivery among women who attend antenatal clinic at least once during their pregnancy in Ghana. Design A cross-sectional study using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. We used frequencies for descriptive analysis, χ2 test for associations and logistic regression to identify significant predictors. Predictive models were built with estimation of area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Setting Ghana. Participants A total of 2041 women who had a live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey, and attended an antenatal clinic having a skilled provider, at least once, during the pregnancy. Outcome Skilled attendance at delivery. Results Overall, 60.5% (1235/2041) of women in our study sample reported skilled attendance at delivery. Significant positive associations existed between skilled attendance at delivery and the variables such as maternal educational level, wealth status class, ever use of contraception, previous pregnancy complications and health insurance coverage (p<0.001). Significant predictors of skilled attendance were wealth status class, residency, previous delivery complication, health insurance coverage and religion in a model with AUC (95% CI) of 0.85 (0.83 to 0.88). Conclusions Women less likely to have skilled attendance at delivery can be identified during antenatal care by using data on wealth status class, health insurance coverage, residence, history of previous birth complications and religion, and targeted with interventions to improve skilled attendance at delivery. PMID:25991459

  9. Mobile phones improve antenatal care attendance in Zanzibar: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Applying mobile phones in healthcare is increasingly prioritized to strengthen healthcare systems. Antenatal care has the potential to reduce maternal morbidity and improve newborns’ survival but this benefit may not be realized in sub-Saharan Africa where the attendance and quality of care is declining. We evaluated the association between a mobile phone intervention and antenatal care in a resource-limited setting. We aimed to assess antenatal care in a comprehensive way taking into consideration utilisation of antenatal care as well as content and timing of interventions during pregnancy. Methods This study was an open label pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial with primary healthcare facilities in Zanzibar as the unit of randomisation. 2550 pregnant women (1311 interventions and 1239 controls) who attended antenatal care at selected primary healthcare facilities were included at their first antenatal care visit and followed until 42 days after delivery. 24 primary health care facilities in six districts were randomized to either mobile phone intervention or standard care. The intervention consisted of a mobile phone text-message and voucher component. Primary outcome measure was four or more antenatal care visits during pregnancy. Secondary outcome measures were tetanus vaccination, preventive treatment for malaria, gestational age at last antenatal care visit, and antepartum referral. Results The mobile phone intervention was associated with an increase in antenatal care attendance. In the intervention group 44% of the women received four or more antenatal care visits versus 31% in the control group (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.03-5.55). There was a trend towards improved timing and quality of antenatal care services across all secondary outcome measures although not statistically significant. Conclusions The wired mothers’ mobile phone intervention significantly increased the proportion of women receiving the recommended four antenatal care visits during pregnancy and there was a trend towards improved quality of care with more women receiving preventive health services, more women attending antenatal care late in pregnancy and more women with antepartum complications identified and referred. Mobile phone applications may contribute towards improved maternal and newborn health and should be considered by policy makers in resource-limited settings. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01821222. PMID:24438517

  10. Acceptance of HIV testing among women attending antenatal care in south-western Uganda: risk factors and reasons for test refusal.

    PubMed

    Dahl, V; Mellhammar, L; Bajunirwe, F; Björkman, P

    2008-07-01

    A problem commonly encountered in programs for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is low rates of HIV test acceptance among pregnant women. In this study, we examined risk factors and reasons for HIV test refusal among 432 women attending three antenatal care clinics offering PMTCT in urban and semi-urban parts of the Mbarara district, Uganda. Structured interviews were performed following pre-test counselling. Three-hundred-eighty women were included in the study, 323 (85%) of whom accepted HIV testing. In multivariate analysis, testing site (Site A: OR = 1.0; Site B: OR = 3.08; 95%CI: 1.12-8.46; Site C: OR = 5.93; 95%CI: 2.94-11.98), age between 30 and 34 years (<20 years: OR = 1.0; 20-24 years: OR = 1.81; 95%CI: 0.58-5.67; 25-29 years: OR = 2.15; 95%CI: 0.66-6.97; 30-34 years: OR = 3.88; 95%CI: 1.21-13.41), mistrust in reliability of the HIV test (OR = 20.60; 95%CI: 3.24-131.0) and not having been tested for HIV previously (OR = 2.15; 95%CI: 1.02-4.54) were associated with test refusal. Testing sites operating for longer durations had higher rates of acceptance. The most common reasons claimed for test refusal were: lack of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected women (88%; n=57), a need to discuss with partner before decision (82%; n=57) and fear of partner's reaction (54%; n=57). Comparison with previous periods showed that the acceptance rate increased with the duration of the program. Our study identified risk factors for HIV test refusal among pregnant women in Uganda and common reasons for not accepting testing. These findings may suggest modifications and improvements in the performance of HIV testing in this and similar populations. PMID:18576178

  11. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  12. Frequency and factors associated with carriage of multi-drug resistant commensal Escherichia coli among women attending antenatal clinics in Central India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Commensal Escherichia coli are a prominent reservoir of genes coding for antibiotic resistance and also responsible for endogenous infections in pregnant women. We studied the factors in pregnant women associated with carriage of multi-drug resistant (MDR) E. coli and genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance in them. Methods Women attending to Obstetric and Gynaecology department outpatient clinics for routine antenatal check-up were administered a questionnaire. Peri-anal swabs were collected for culture isolation and identification of E.coil. Antibiotic sensitivity was done using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as recommended by the CLSI guidelines. MICs for quinolones and third generation cephalosporins were done using the agar dilution method. Genes coding for production of beta lactamses and for the quinolone resistance determinant were screened by polymerase chain reaction. Rep-PCR was done on MDR isolates for detecting possible genetic similarity. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the independent factors associated with carriage of MDR isolates. Results A total of 710 isolates of E. coli from 710 women (mean age 26 years) were included in the study. Resistance to at least one antibiotic tested was detected in 94% of the E. coli isolates. A total of 109 isolates were ESBL producing and 35 isolates were MDR. In the MDR isolates MIC50 and MIC90 for quinolones and third generation cephalosporins were high for those isolates that carried blaTEM gene (26 isolates) and blaCTX-M gene (24 isolates). Both blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes were detected in 19 isolates. The commonest Plasmid Mediated Quinolone Resistance (PMQR) gene identified was aac(6′)-Ib-cr (n = 23/25). All isolates carrying the PMQR genes were also positive for blaCTX-M and blaTEM gene. Mutations in gyr A and par C genes were present in all 35 MDR isolates. The statistically significant risk factors for carriage of MDR E. coli were graduate or post-graduate education, a self-employed status, a family size of more than 10 members, antibiotic usage in last four weeks, and history of hospitalization in the last four weeks. Conclusions The presence of genes coding for extended spectrum of beta lactamases and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance in commensal E. coli is disconcerting. The study provides strong basis good antibiotic stewardship. PMID:23638834

  13. Prevalence of Anemia and Its Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Health Institutions of Arba Minch Town, Gamo Gofa Zone, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Alemayehu; Tilahun, Marelign

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality of pregnant women in developing countries and has both maternal and fetal consequences. Despite its known serious effect on health, there is very little research based evidence on this vital public health problem in Gamo Gofa zone in general and in Arba Minch town of Southern Ethiopia in particular. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence and factors associated with anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care in health institutions of Arba Minch town, Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Ethiopia. Method. Institution-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from February 16 to April 8, 2015, among 332 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at government health institutions of Arba Minch town. Interviewer-administered questionnaire supplemented by laboratory tests was used to obtain the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of anemia. Result. The prevalence of anemia among antenatal care attendant pregnant women of Arba Minch town was 32.8%. Low average monthly income of the family (AOR = 4.0; 95% CI: 5.62–11.01), having birth interval less than two years (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 6.01, 10.23), iron supplementation (AOR = 2.31; 95% CI: 7.21, 9.31), and family size >2 (AOR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.17, 6.81) were found to be independent predictors of anemia in pregnancy. Conclusion. Anemia is found to be a moderate public health problem in the study area. Low average monthly income, birth interval less than two years, iron supplementation, and large family size were found to be risk factors for anemia in pregnancy. Awareness creation towards birth spacing, nutritional counselling on consumption of iron-rich foods, and iron supplementation are recommended to prevent anemia among pregnant women with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size. PMID:27022481

  14. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Trichomonas vaginalis and candidiasis among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ortashi, O M; El Khidir, I; Herieka, E

    2004-08-01

    Antenatal screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has shown some benefits in countries where the practice is adopted. To date the prevalence of STIs in the Sudan is unknown. Our aims were to establish the prevalence of STIs among pregnant women in Khartoum (Sudan), to identify any risk factors and to suggest management. One hundred and fifty-one pregnant women were recruited for the study in an antenatal clinic in Khartoum in 1999. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, HIV, Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and vulvo-vaginal candidiasis among the study population was established; 7.3% of patients suffered multiple infections. No risk factors for acquiring an STI were identified apart from genital ulcer disease. These findings suggest that a syndromic approach for treating STIs during pregnancy might not be possible. We conclude that STIs have a high prevalence among pregnant Sudanese women in Khartoum. The providers of health care in the Sudan need to revise their priority list. PMID:15369929

  15. HIV Prevalence and Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women in a Large Home-Based HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ndege, Samson; Washington, Sierra; Kaaria, Alice; Prudhomme-O’Meara, Wendy; Were, Edwin; Nyambura, Monica; Keter, Alfred K.; Wachira, Juddy; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the uptake of and factors associated with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in a large-scale home-based HIV counseling and testing (HBCT) program in western Kenya. Methods In 2007, the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Program (AMPATH) initiated HBCT to all individuals aged ≥13 years and high-risk children <13 years. Included in this analysis were females aged 13–50 years, from 6 catchment areas (11/08-01/12). We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression to describe factors associated with HIV prevalence. Results There were 119,678 women eligible for analysis; median age 25 (interquartile range, IQR: 18–34) years. Of these, 7,396 (6.2%) were pregnant at the time of HBCT; 4,599 (62%) had ever previously tested for HIV and 2,995 (40.5%) had not yet attended ANC for their current pregnancy. Testing uptake among pregnant women was high (97%). HBCT newly identified 241 (3.3%) pregnant HIV-positive women and overall HIV prevalence among all pregnant women was 6.9%. HIV prevalence among those who had attended ANC in this pregnancy was 5.4% compared to 9.0% among those who had not. Pregnant women were more likely to newly test HIV-positive in HBCT if they had not attended ANC in the current pregnancy (AOR: 6.85, 95% CI: 4.49–10.44). Conclusions Pregnant women who had never attended ANC were about 6 times more likely to newly test HIV-positive compared to those who had attended ANC, suggesting that the cascade of services for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission should optimally begin at the home and village level if elimination of perinatal HIV transmission is to be achieved. PMID:26784957

  16. A Retrospective Analysis of the Relationship between Ethnicity, Body Mass Index, and the Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes in Women Attending an Australian Antenatal Clinic

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Rebecca; Karahalios, Amalia; Le, Thao; Said, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a multiethnic population, assess the association between country of birth (COB) and GDM, and assess whether the association varies by body mass index (BMI). Methods. A retrospective study of 5260 pregnant women attending Sunshine Hospital, Australia, between 1st July 2012 and 30th June 2013. We fitted logistic regression models to assess the association between COB and GDM. An interaction between BMI and COB was assessed by likelihood ratio test. Results. In the 4610 included in our analysis, most common were women born in Australia or New Zealand (ANZ, 1932, 41.9%) and in Southeast Asia (922, 20%). GDM was diagnosed in 606 (13.2%) women. After adjusting for confounders, women from East Asia were most likely to develop GDM (37, 24.0%) and 5-fold more likely than women from ANZ (OR = 4.77, 95% CI: 3.12, 7.31, p < 0.001). Women from other Asian countries had a 3-fold increased risk of GDM compared to women from ANZ. There was no evidence of an interaction by BMI (p = 0.24).  Conclusions. Women born in Asia have higher risk of GDM compared to women born in ANZ. These data provide support for including COB in GDM management policies. PMID:26504462

  17. Skilled Birth Attendance in Nigeria: A Function of Frequency and Content of Antenatal Care.

    PubMed

    Okigbo, Chinelo C; Eke, Ahizechukwu C

    2015-03-01

    The utilization rate of maternal services remains low in sub-Saharan Africa and may be contributing to the region's high maternal mortality rate. This study examines the influence of antenatal care (ANC) on skilled birth attendance (SBA) in Nigeria. The data used were collected from a nationally representative sample of women (aged 15-49) in 2011. The sample is restricted to women who were within two years postpartum (weighted n = 9879). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between ANC (number of visits attended and services received during last pregnancy) and SBA. Despite 70% of the women receiving any ANC, only 49% had SBA during their last childbirth. The number of ANC services received, rather than the number of ANC visits attended, was positively associated with having SBA during last childbirth after controlling for relevant covariates (p < 0.05). The focus, therefore, should be on increasing the number of services received during ANC. PMID:26103692

  18. Multiple antenatal bookings among pregnant women in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwogu-Ikojo, E E; Okafor, I I; Ezegwui, H U

    2010-04-01

    Some pregnant women do book concurrently with multiple antenatal care providers. Structured questionnaires were administered to women attending antenatal clinics in 12 facilities in Enugu, Nigeria. A total of 535 women responded: 372 (69.5%) were booked into more than one facility and 163 (30.5%) were booked into a single facility; 280 (52.3%) booked into the two Teaching Hospitals and 91 (12.5%) booked with a traditional birth attendant. Reasons for multiple bookings included selecting a facility with affordable prices (43.9%); selecting a facility promising vaginal delivery (35.3%); avoiding HIV testing (17.9%); avoiding caesarean section (10.8%); avoiding being regarded as unbooked (10.1%) and booking into a facility where they were not known. Possible disadvantages were confusion in deciding where to deliver (53.1%); default on expert advice (27.5%); mismanagement (18.7%); delays, complications and death (12.5%). Multiple bookings were common in this study. Disadvantages of this practice, including risk of death, were identified by the women. PMID:20373923

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Antenatal Depression among Omani Women in a Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azri, Mohammed; Al-Lawati, Iman; Al-Kamyani, Raya; Al-Kiyumi, Maisa; Al-Rawahi, Aisha; Davidson, Robin; Al-Maniri, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify the prevalence of antenatal depression and the risk factors associated with its development among Omani women. No previous studies on antenatal depression have been conducted in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out between January and November 2014 in Muscat, Oman. Pregnant Omani women ≥32 gestational weeks who were attending one of 12 local primary care health centres in Muscat for routine antenatal care were invited to participate in the study (n = 986). An Arabic version of the validated self-administered Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale questionnaire was used to measure antenatal depression. A cut-off score of ≥13 was considered to indicate probable depression. Results: A total of 959 women participated in the study (response rate: 97.3%). Of these, 233 were found to have antenatal depression (24.3%). A bivariate analysis showed that antenatal depression was associated with unplanned pregnancies (P = 0.010), marital conflict (P = 0.001) and a family history of depression (P = 0.019). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) after logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that antenatal depression was significantly associated with unplanned pregnancies (OR: 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.86) and marital conflict (OR: 13.83; 95% CI: 2.99–63.93). Conclusion: The prevalence of antenatal depression among the studied Omani women was high, particularly in comparison to findings from other Arab countries. Thus, antenatal screening for depression should be considered in routine primary antenatal care. Couples should also be encouraged to seek psychological support should marital conflicts develop during pregnancy. PMID:26909211

  20. Factors Affecting Antenatal Care Attendance: Results from Qualitative Studies in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Pell, Christopher; Meñaca, Arantza; Were, Florence; Afrah, Nana A.; Chatio, Samuel; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Hamel, Mary J.; Hodgson, Abraham; Tagbor, Harry; Kalilani, Linda; Ouma, Peter; Pool, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi) with varying levels of ANC attendance. Methods Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. Results Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care – checking the foetus’ position or monitoring its progress – motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women’s timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures – in spite of policies of free ANC – combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. Conclusion In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that ‘supply’ side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation. PMID:23335973

  1. Nutritional Epidemiology of Antenatal Smoking Cessation Among Japanese Women.

    PubMed

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nomachi, Shinobu; Suganuma, Nobuhiko

    2016-04-01

    This study compared the nutritional status before pregnancy, as well as dietary profiles and biomarkers during first trimester, between never-smokers and antenatal quitters among Japanese women. One hundred fifty pregnant women (79 never-smokers and 71 antenatal quitters) from two obstetrics and gynecology clinics were recruited in Japan. Subjects' prepregnancy nutritional status was indicated by their body mass index (BMI). In the first trimester, their dietary profiles were assessed by the Brief Diet-History Questionnaire (BDHQ) and pregnancy outcomes were screened by biomarker tests. Generalized linear regression was used to examine the differences of energy-adjusted dietary intakes and biomarker results between the two smoking groups, with adjustment of maternal age, BMI, gestation week, and parity. The results showed that antenatal quitters were more likely to have a prepregnancy underweight status than never-smokers. During the first trimester, antenatal quitters had significantly higher intakes of unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants (vegetable lipids and isoflavone), and lower intakes of total cholesterol than never-smokers. Moreover, antenatal quitters had a significantly higher level of serum homocysteine (6.36 nmol/mL vs 4.88 nmol/mL) than never-smokers. In conclusion, antenatal quitters are more likely to have a poor nutritional status before pregnancy than never-smokers. Quitting smoking before pregnancy and having a good nutritional profile during the trimester may not sufficiently reverse the adverse effects of former smoking behaviors on pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27028702

  2. Antenatal day care units versus hospital admission for women with complicated pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dowswell, Therese; Middleton, Philippa; Weeks, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Antenatal day care units have been widely used as an alternative to inpatient care for women with pregnancy complications including mild and moderate hypertension, and preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes. Objectives The objective of this review is to compare day care units with routine care or hospital admission for women with pregnancy complications in terms of maternal and perinatal outcomes, length of hospital stay, acceptability, and costs to women and health services providers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Groups Trials Register (February 2009). Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing day care with inpatient or routine care for women with complicated pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently carried out data extraction and assessed studies for risk of bias. Main results Three trials with a total of 504 women were included. For most outcomes it was not possible to pool results from trials in meta-analyses as outcomes were measured in different ways. Compared with women in the ward/routine care group, women attending day care units were less likely to be admitted to hospital overnight (risk ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 0.62). The average length of antenatal admission was shorter for women attending for day care, although outpatient attendances were increased for this group. There was evidence from one study that women attending for day care were significantly less likely to undergo induction of labour, but mode of birth was similar for women in both groups. For other outcomes there were no significant differences between groups. The evidence regarding the costs of different types of care was mixed; while the length of antenatal hospital stays were reduced, this did not necessarily translate into reduced health service costs. While most women tended to be satisfied with whatever care they received, women preferred day care compared with hospital admission. Authors conclusions Small studies suggest that there are no major differences in clinical outcomes for mothers or babies between antenatal day units or hospital admission, but women may prefer day care. PMID:19821282

  3. Frequency, Timing, and Diagnoses of Antenatal Hospitalizations in Women with High-Risk Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Brooten, Dorothy; Kaye, Jennifer; Poutasse, Sarah M.; Nixon-Jensen, Angelita; McLean, Heather; Brooks, Latina M.; Groden, Sandra; Polis, Nikki S.; Youngblut, JoAnne M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the frequency, time of gestation, and reasons for antenatal hospitalizations in women with medically high-risk pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN This secondary analysis reports all antenatal hospitalizations from a clinical trial testing transitional care to women with high-risk pregnancies. Data were collected from 1992 to 1996. Pregnant women with pregestational (n = 16) or gestational diabetes (n = 21), hypertension (n = 29), and diagnosed (n = 47) or at high risk for preterm labor (n = 37) were included. Diagnoses for each hospitalization and lengths of stay were collected from chart review and validated by attending physicians. Gestation was determined via ultrasonography. The sample (N = 150) consisted of predominately African-American women, never married, between the ages of 15 and 40 with Medicaid insurance. RESULTS Eighty-three percent (n = 125) of the women had one or more antenatal hospitalization with a mean length of stay of 123 hours. All women with diabetes were hospitalized at least once. Women with pregestational diabetes had the greatest number of hospitalizations whereas those with gestational diabetes had the least. Major reasons for hospitalizations were preterm labor, glucose control, premature cervical dilation, and preeclampsia. CONCLUSION Some hospitalizations could potentially be avoided or reduced through expanded patient education, improved screening, and more aggressive monitoring for early signs and symptoms of impending complications. PMID:9766414

  4. Influence of pregnancy perceptions on patterns of seeking antenatal care among women in reproductive age of Masaka District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atekyereza, Peter R; Mubiru, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Maternal mortality remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the recommended measures to improve maternal and child health. However, the influence of pregnancy definition and perception on patterns of seeking regular and timely antenatal care among women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is not known. The objectives of this study were to: (i) understand the women's social definitions and perceptions on their pregnancy; (ii) understand the socio-cultural beliefs related to pregnancy among women of the reproductive age group; and, (iii) examine the influence of social definitions, perceptions and beliefs about pregnancy on women's antenatal care seeking behaviour patterns to inform the decentralised health care delivery system in Uganda. A total of 45 women, mothers and expectant women who were purposively selected from Kimanya sub county of Masaka district in Uganda participated in the study. Ten key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Key findings indicate that the women's socio-definitions and perceptions of pregnancy influence their seeking behaviour on antenatal health care. To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and suffering. It is an uncomfortable and regrettable experience. Women also hold socio-cultural beliefs on pregnancy, which are culturally constructed and rooted in taboos, rituals and practices of their communities. It is therefore important to sensitise women and those who attend to them when they are pregnant to understand these perceptions and definitions to motivate them to seek antenatal and postnatal care for better maternal and child health. PMID:26891521

  5. Timing and reasons for coming late for the first antenatal care visit by pregnant women at Mulago hospital, Kampala Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mothers who attend antenatal care late miss the opportunity of early detection of HIV and STDs, malaria and anaemia prophylaxis, health education and treatment or prevention of complications. Whereas many women in Mulago hospital make their first antenatal care visit after 20 weeks of gestation, the reasons for coming late are not documented. The objectives were to determine the gestation age at which pregnant women make their first antenatal care visit and the reasons for late coming. Method The study was conducted in June 2012 among women with a gestation age of more than 20 weeks on their first antenatal care visit. We collected data on gestation age (from weeks of amenorrhea or based on ultrasound scan) and reasons for coming late. Results Four hundred women participated in the study. Their mean age was 25.2 years with a standard deviation of 5.2 years. The majority of the participants were Catholics (n = 126, 31.5%), they lived in a distance of greater than five kilometers from the hospital (n = 201, 50.3%) and had attained secondary education (n = 220, 55.0%). The mean of their weeks of amenorrhea was 27.9 (± 4.6) weeks. The results showed that 291 (72.7%) of the study participants did not know the right gestation age at which a pregnant woman should start attending antenatal care. One hundred and ten (27.5%) agreed that they did not have money for transport to bring them to the hospital while 37 (9.3%) thought that they had to pay for the antenatal care services. Two hundred thirteen (53.3%) reported that they did not have any problem with their current pregnancy and so they saw no reason to come early for antenatal care, even though some of these knew the right gestation age at which they should make their first antenatal care visit. Conclusion Pregnant women who come late for antenatal care in Mulago hospital, Uganda are not well-informed about the right gestation age at which they should make their first antenatal care visit and/or of the importance of early attendance at antenatal care. PMID:23706142

  6. A qualitative study of women's experiences of communication in antenatal care: identifying areas for action.

    PubMed

    Raine, Rosalind; Cartwright, Martin; Richens, Yana; Mahamed, Zuhura; Smith, Debbie

    2010-07-01

    To identify key features of communication across antenatal (prenatal) care that are evaluated positively or negatively by service users. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used to explore communication experiences of thirty pregnant women from diverse social and ethnic backgrounds affiliated to a large London hospital. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Women reported a wide diversity of experiences. From the users' perspective, constructive communication on the part of health care providers was characterised by an empathic conversational style, openness to questions, allowing sufficient time to talk through any concerns, and pro-active contact by providers (e.g. text message appointment reminders). These features created reassurance, facilitated information exchange, improved appointment attendance and fostered tolerance in stressful situations. Salient features of poor communication were a lack of information provision, especially about the overall arrangement and the purpose of antenatal care, insufficient discussion about possible problems with the pregnancy and discourteous styles of interaction. Poor communication led some women to become assertive to address their needs; others became reluctant to actively engage with providers. General Practitioners need to be better integrated into antenatal care, more information should be provided about the pattern and purpose of the care women receive during pregnancy, and new technologies should be used to facilitate interactions between women and their healthcare providers. Providers require communications training to encourage empathic interactions that promote constructive provider-user relationships and encourage women to engage effectively and access the care they need. PMID:19554436

  7. Factors Affecting Attendance at and Timing of Formal Antenatal Care: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Appropriate antenatal care (ANC) is key for the health of mother and child. However, in Papua New Guinea (PNG), only a third of women receive any ANC during pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research, this paper explores the influences on ANC attendance and timing of first visit in the Madang region of Papua New Guinea. Methods Data were collected in three sites utilizing several qualitative methods: free-listing and sorting of terms and definitions, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, observation in health care facilities and case studies of pregnant women. Respondents included pregnant women, their relatives, biomedical and traditional health providers, opinion leaders and community members. Results Although generally reported to be important, respondents’ understanding of the procedures involved in ANC was limited. Factors influencing attendance fell into three main categories: accessibility, attitudes to ANC, and interpersonal issues. Although women saw accessibility (distance and cost) as a barrier, those who lived close to health facilities and could easily afford ANC also demonstrated poor attendance. Attitudes were shaped by previous experiences of ANC, such as waiting times, quality of care, and perceptions of preventative care and medical interventions during pregnancy. Interpersonal factors included relationships with healthcare providers, pregnancy disclosure, and family conflict. A desire to avoid repeat clinic visits, ideas about the strength of the fetus and parity were particularly relevant to the timing of first ANC visit. Conclusions This long-term in-depth study (the first of its kind in Madang, PNG) shows how socio-cultural and economic factors influence ANC attendance. These factors must be addressed to encourage timely ANC visits: interventions could focus on ANC delivery in health facilities, for example, by addressing healthcare staff’s attitudes towards pregnant women. PMID:24842484

  8. Antenatal telephone support intervention with and without uterine artery Doppler screening for low risk nulliparous women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of routine antenatal visits provided to low risk nulliparous women has been reduced in the UK, acknowledging this change in care may result in women being less satisfied with their care and having poorer psychosocial outcomes. The primary aim of the study was to investigate whether the provision of proactive telephone support intervention (TSI) with and without uterine artery Doppler screening (UADS) would reduce the total number of antenatal visits required. A secondary aim was to investigate whether the interventions affected psychological outcomes. Methods A three-arm randomised controlled trial involving 840 low risk nulliparous women was conducted at a large maternity unit in North East England. All women received antenatal care in line with current UK guidance. Women in the TSI group (T) received calls from a midwife at 28, 33 and 36weeks and women in the telephone and Doppler group (T?+?D) received the TSI and additional UADS at 20weeks gestation. The main outcome measure was the total number of scheduled and unscheduled antenatal visits received after 20weeks gestation. Results The median number of unscheduled (n?=?2.0), scheduled visits (n?=?7.0) and mean number of total visits (n?=?8.8) were similar in the three groups. The majority (67%) of additional antenatal visits were made to a Maternity Assessment Unit because of commonly occurring pregnancy complications. Additional TSI+/UADS was not associated with differences in clinical outcomes, levels of anxiety, social support or satisfaction with care. There were challenges to the successful delivery of the telephone support intervention; 59% of women were contacted at 29 and 33weeks gestation reducing to 52% of women at 37weeks. Conclusions Provision of additional telephone support (with or without UADS) in low risk nulliparous women did not reduce the number of unscheduled antenatal visits or reduce anxiety. This study provides a useful insight into the reasons why this client group attend for unscheduled visits. Trial registration ISRCTN62354584 PMID:24685072

  9. Women as moral pioneers? Experiences of first trimester antenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clare; Sandall, Jane; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian; Heyman, Bob; Spencer, Kevin; Grellier, Rachel

    2005-11-01

    The implementation of innovative medical technologies can raise unprecedented ethical, legal and social dilemmas. This is particularly so in the area of antenatal screening, which is dominated by the language of risk and probabilities. Second trimester serum screening for Down's syndrome and neural tube defects has a well-established place in antenatal care. Increasingly, first trimester screening with biochemical and ultrasound markers is being proposed as advance on this, yielding higher detection rates of Down's syndrome at an earlier gestational age. This article explores the experiences of 14 women offered innovative first trimester screening, which takes place within the context of a detailed ultrasound scan. The study is set within the UK, where recent policy changes mean that the offer of screening for fetal anomalies, particularly Down's syndrome, will become a routine part of antenatal care and offered to all pregnant women. This paper focuses on the significance of the scan in first trimester screening, and some of the potential dilemmas for women that can result from this. It then discusses the ways in which women made their decisions about screening, in particular, their work as 'moral pioneers'. We found that the part played by the ultrasound scan in first trimester screening, particularly in relation to the higher-quality images now being obtained, has the potential to introduce new and novel ethical dilemmas for pregnant women. Although concerns have been raised about pregnant women viewing ultrasound scans as benign, many of the women reported having thought carefully through their own moral beliefs and values prior to screening. It seems that whatever other implications they may have, first trimester screening technologies will continue the tradition of pregnant women acting as 'moral pioneers' in increasingly complex settings. PMID:15899542

  10. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care.

    PubMed

    Mathibe-Neke, J M

    2008-09-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women's health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba's method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328) Literature was undertaken to compare the findings of this study with those of other previous studies. Women displayed several common expectations that led to the saturation of data. It also became apparent from the findings that each woman had varied expectations. There were also some commonalities within the women's expectations. Health care, as the major expectation and a basic human right, appeared to be basically fulfilled, with the exception of interactional characteristics such as the communication of information, guidance, involvement, the understanding and explanation of aspects, freedom of choice, punctuality, individualized care and continuity of care. The conclusions that were reached let to recommendations for nursing practice, education, research and the formulation of guidelines for the midwife practitioner for the implementation of effective antenatal care, based on the identified expectations. PMID:19177965

  11. A prospective observational description of frequency and timing of antenatal care attendance and coverage of selected interventions from sites in Argentina, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research is one of the largest international networks for testing and generating evidence-based recommendations for improvement of maternal-child health in resource-limited settings. Since 2009, Global Network sites in six low and middle-income countries have collected information on antenatal care practices, which are important as indicators of care and have implications for programs to improve maternal and child health. We sought to: (1) describe the quantity of antenatal care attendance over a four-year period; and (2) explore the quality of coverage for selected preventative, screening, and birth preparedness components. Methods The Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR) is a prospective, population-based birth and pregnancy outcomes registry in Global Network sites, including: Argentina, Guatemala, India (Belgaum and Nagpur), Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia. MNHR data from these sites were prospectively collected from January 1, 2010 – December 31, 2013 and analyzed for indicators related to quantity and patterns of ANC and coverage of key elements of recommended focused antenatal care. Descriptive statistics were generated overall by global region (Africa, Asia, and Latin America), and for each individual site. Results Overall, 96% of women reported at least one antenatal care visit. Indian sites demonstrated the highest percentage of women who initiated antenatal care during the first trimester. Women from the Latin American and Indian sites reported the highest number of at least 4 visits. Overall, 88% of women received tetanus toxoid. Only about half of all women reported having been screened for syphilis (49%) or anemia (50%). Rates of HIV testing were above 95% in the Argentina, African, and Indian sites. The Pakistan site demonstrated relatively high rates for birth preparation, but for most other preventative and screening interventions, posted lower coverage rates as compared to other Global Network sites. Conclusions Results from our large, prospective, population-based observational study contribute important insight into regional and site-specific patterns for antenatal care access and coverage. Our findings indicate a quality and coverage gap in antenatal care services, particularly in regards to syphilis and hemoglobin screening. We have identified site-specific gaps in access to, and delivery of, antenatal care services that can be targeted for improvement in future research and implementation efforts. Trial registration Registration at Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475) PMID:26063483

  12. Reduction in inequality in antenatal-care use and persistence of inequality in skilled birth attendance in the Philippines from 1993 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Honey Faith; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Seino, Kaoruko

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess changes in the inequalities associated with maternal healthcare use according to economic status in the Philippines. Design An analysis of four population-based data sets that were conducted between 1993 and 2008. Setting Philippines. Participants Women aged 15–49 years who had a live-birth within 1 year in 1993 (n=1707), 1998 (n=1513), 2003 (n=1325) and 2008 (n=1209). Outcomes At least four visits of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance and delivery in a medical facility. Results The adjusted OR for antenatal-care use when comparing the highest wealth-index quintile with the lowest quintile declined from 1993 to 2008: 3.43 (95% CI 2.22 to 5.28) to 2.87 (95% CI 1.31 to 6.29). On the other hand, the adjusted OR for the other two outcome indicators by the wealth index widened from 1993 to 2008: 9.92 (95% CI 5.98 to 16.43) to 15.53 (95% CI 6.90 to 34.94) for skilled birth attendance and 7.74 (95% CI 4.22 to 14.21) to 16.00 (95% CI 7.99 to 32.02) for delivery in a medical facility. The concentration indices for maternal health utilisation in 1993 and 2008 were 0.19 and 0.09 for antenatal care; 0.26 and 0.24 for skilled birth attendance and 0.41 and 0.35 for delivery in a medical facility. Conclusions Over a 16-year period, gradients in antenatal-care use decreased and the high level of inequalities in skilled birth attendance and delivery in a medical facility persisted. The results showed a disproportionate use of institutional care at birth among disadvantaged Filipino women. PMID:23794551

  13. Women's Autonomy and Skilled Attendance During Pregnancy and Delivery in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kc, Situ; Neupane, Subas

    2016-06-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the association between women's autonomy and skilled attendance during pregnancy and delivery in Nepal. Methods We adopt data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011). We include only married women who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the survey (N = 4148). Women's autonomy was assessed on the basis of four indicators of decision making: healthcare, visiting friends or relatives, household purchases and spending earned money. Each indicator was dichotomized (yes/no) and then summarized into a single variable to measure overall autonomy. Next, we measured health attendance (skilled vs. unskilled) during antenatal and delivery care. The association between women's autonomy and skilled attendance was analysed using a logistic regression model. Results Most women had a medium (40 %) and high (35 %) level of overall autonomy. The proportion of women accessing skilled providers during antenatal and delivery care was 51 and 36 %. Women with autonomy in healthcare, visiting friends or relatives, making household purchases and spending money earned were associated with a higher likelihood of receiving care from skilled providers during antenatal care and delivery. An elevated probability of access to skilled attendance during antenatal (aOR 1.33; 95 % CI 1.10-1.59) and delivery care (aOR 1.38; 95 % CI 1.12-1.70) was reported among women with higher levels of overall autonomy. Conclusion Women's autonomy was significantly associated with the maternal health care utilization by skilled attendants. This study will provide insights for policy makers to develop strategies in improving maternal health. PMID:26979612

  14. Coping strategies as psychological risk factor for antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression among Greek women.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2013-10-01

    A range of psychosocial, medical, and demographic variables may influence pregnant women's psychological status. However the association between coping strategies, anxiety, worries, and depression during pregnancy is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies, antenatal anxiety, pregnancy worries, and depressive symptomatology after controlling for the effects of background variables. The study sample consisted of 163 pregnant women, with gestational age ranging from 11 to 26 weeks, attending antenatal screening at a Greek public hospital. Coping strategies were measured with Brief COPE, pregnancy worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X version), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the univariate analysis, low annual income, unemployment, conception after an IVF treatment, and a previous history of miscarriage were associated with anxiety, depression, and worries. Additionally, almost all coping strategies (denial, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use, acceptance, positive reframing, active coping, and seeking emotional support) were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression. Linear regression analysis showed that only previous history of miscarriage, conception after IVF, as well as denial, behavioral disengagement and acceptance coping strategies were significantly related to anxiety, worries and depressive symptomatology. The risk factors found in this study could help clinicians target anxiety and depression screening to high-risk populations of pregnant women. Provision of adequate training for obstetricians and midwives in the detection and management of anxiety and depression among pregnant women should help to decrease the psychological burden during pregnancy. PMID:23558945

  15. The effectiveness of antenatal education of Pakistani and Indian women living in this country.

    PubMed

    McEnery, G; Rao, K P

    1986-01-01

    Eighty-two Asian women (mostly Muslims) living in East London were prospectively studied through their pregnancy and delivery. Their infants were assessed during the second year of life for growth, nutrition, morbidity, development and vaccination history. There was no increase in perinatal or infant mortality over the general population in the same borough, though there was increased infant morbidity, most commonly iron deficiency (in 25%), and one child with subclinical rickets. One child had a genetic neurodegenerative disorder. The incidence of low birth weight babies was only slightly greater than that of the district as a whole, but after 1 year of age they were less well grown than the population studied by Tanner & Whitehouse. Sixty-four per cent of the women started to breast feed, but many also gave artificial milk and they usually ceased to breast feed earlier than most women in the same district. When half of the women were randomly allocated to receive specialized education, with the others acting as controls, very few attended and little benefit was detected. Though the significance is doubtful, the infants of those educated did tend to be better grown (especially in length), be less likely to have development well below average, have reduced morbidity and have more complete immunization schedules than those of the women not receiving education. This study shows no benefit due to antenatal education, but suggests that the children have advantages when their mothers have the drive to attend the education sessions. PMID:3815751

  16. Attendance and Utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC) Services: Multi-Center Study in Upcountry Areas of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    AkiiBua, Douglas; Aleni, Carol; Chitayi, Michael; Niwaha, Anxious; Kazibwe, Andrew; Sunya, Elizabeth; Mumbere, Eliud W.; Mutesi, Carol; Tukei, Cathy; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nakubulwa, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Globally every year 529,000 maternal deaths occur, 99% of this in developing countries. Uganda has high maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality ratios, typical of many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent findings reveal maternal mortality ratio of 435:100,000 live births and neonatal mortality rate of 29 deaths per 1000 live births in Uganda; these still remain a challenge. Women in rural areas of Uganda are two times less likely to attend ANC than the urban women. Most women in Uganda have registered late ANC attendance, averagely at 5.5 months of pregnancy and do not complete the required four visits. The inadequate utilization of ANC is greatly contributing to persisting high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in Uganda. This study was set to identify the factors associated with late booking and inadequate utilization of Antenatal Care services in upcountry areas of Uganda. Method Cross-sectional study design with mixed methods of interviewer administered questionnaires, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Data was entered using Epidata and analyzed using Stata into frequency tables using actual tallies and percentages. Ethical approval was sought from SOM-REC MakCHS under approval number “#REC REF 2012-117” before conducting the study. Results A total of four hundred one were enrolled with the majority being in the age group 20 – 24 years (mean age, 25.87 ± 6.26). Health workers played a great role (72.04%), followed by the media (15.46%) and friends (12.50%) in creating awareness about ANC. A significant number of respondents went to TBAs with reasons such as “near and accessible”, “my husband decided”, and “they are the only people I know”. 37.63% of the respondents considered getting an antenatal Card as an importance of ANC. 71 (19.67%) respondents gave a wrong opinion (late) on booking time with reasons like demands at work, no problems during pregnancy, advised by friends, just to get a card, long distance and others didn’t know. Almost half of the respondents never knew the recommended number of visits. Religion, occupation, level of education, and parity were found to influence place of ANC attendance, number of ANC visits and booking time. Husbands were necessary to provide financial support, accompany their wives ANC clinic, and ensure that they complete the visits. But their response was poor due to: fear of routine investigations and constrained economically. Conclusion The study findings show the actual rural setting of ANC services attendance and utilization. Much sensitization has to be done specifically in these rural areas to empower pregnant women and their husbands as to improve ANC attendance and utilization. PMID:26042190

  17. Why Do Women Not Use Antenatal Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries? A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Kenneth; Downe, Soo

    2013-01-01

    Background Almost 50% of women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) don't receive adequate antenatal care. Women's views can offer important insights into this problem. Qualitative studies exploring inadequate use of antenatal services have been undertaken in a range of countries, but the findings are not easily transferable. We aimed to inform the development of future antenatal care programmes through a synthesis of findings in all relevant qualitative studies. Methods and Findings Using a predetermined search strategy, we identified robust qualitative studies reporting on the views and experiences of women in LMICs who received inadequate antenatal care. We used meta-ethnographic techniques to generate themes and a line-of-argument synthesis. We derived policy-relevant hypotheses from the findings. We included 21 papers representing the views of more than 1,230 women from 15 countries. Three key themes were identified: “pregnancy as socially risky and physiologically healthy”, “resource use and survival in conditions of extreme poverty”, and “not getting it right the first time”. The line-of-argument synthesis describes a dissonance between programme design and cultural contexts that may restrict access and discourage return visits. We hypothesize that centralised, risk-focused antenatal care programmes may be at odds with the resources, beliefs, and experiences of pregnant women who underuse antenatal services. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there may be a misalignment between current antenatal care provision and the social and cultural context of some women in LMICs. Antenatal care provision that is theoretically and contextually at odds with local contextual beliefs and experiences is likely to be underused, especially when attendance generates increased personal risks of lost family resources or physical danger during travel, when the promised care is not delivered because of resource constraints, and when women experience covert or overt abuse in care settings. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23349622

  18. Decentralizing Maternity Services to Increase Skilled Attendance at Birth and Antenatal Care Utilization in Rural Rwanda: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Lisa M.; Shi, Quihu; Plewniak, Kari; Zhang, Charles; Nsabimana, Damien; Sklar, Marc; Mutimura, Eugene; Merkatz, Irwin R.; Einstein, Mark H.; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of decentralizing ambulatory reproductive and intrapartum services to increase rates of antenatal care (ANC) utilization and skilled attendance at birth (SAB) in Rwanda. A prospective cohort study was implemented with one control and two intervention sites: decentralized ambulatory reproductive healthcare and decentralized intrapartum care. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with primary outcome of lack of SAB and secondary outcome of ≥3 ANC visits. 536 women were entered in the study. Distance lived from delivery site significantly predicted SAB (p = 0.007), however distance lived to ANC site did not predict ≥3 ANC visits (p = 0.81). Neither decentralization of ambulatory reproductive healthcare (p = 0.10) nor intrapartum care (p = 0.40) was significantly associated with SAB. The control site had the greatest percentage of women receive ≥3 ANC visits (p < 0.001). Receiving <3 ANC visits was associated with a 3.98 times greater odds of not having SAB (p = 0.001). No increase in adverse outcomes was found with decentralization of ambulatory reproductive health care or intrapartum care. The factors that predict utilization of physically accessible services in rural Africa are complex. Decentralization of services may be one strategy to increase rates of SAB and ANC utilization, but selection biases may have precluded accurate analysis. Efforts to increase ANC utilization may be a worthwhile investment to increase SAB. PMID:25652061

  19. Rubella antibody status of patients attending a south-west London antenatal clinic, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Mortlock, S; Farthing, S

    2014-01-01

    Mass vaccination with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine for children aged 12-15 months was introduced in 1988; schoolgirl vaccination was discontinued in 1996 and replaced by a second dose of MMR for preschool children and post-partum vaccination of susceptible women identified through antenatal testing. In the UK, declining uptake rates due to concerns about the MMR vaccine, and increasing numbers of cases in some European countries where rubella surveillance and preconceptional vaccination are inadequate, coupled with poor uptake rates, has started to show in the number of rubella-susceptible patients presenting at antenatal clinics (ANCs). In this study, samples were collected in serum separator tubes at the West Middlesex University Hospital (WMUH) ANC and sent to the laboratory. Rubella status was determined using a third-generation rubella IgG enzyme immunoassay. Any negative results were retested and confirmed using an alternative method. The concentrations were expressed as iu/mL (World Health Organization [WHO] standard). Over a five-year period, the number of rubella-susceptible patients increased from 4.1% to 6.8% of the total number of specimens tested. The current population susceptibility levels seem to be influenced by a number of factors: the target population, age at vaccination and the level of coverage, and exposure to wild virus. PMID:25265756

  20. Impact of antenatal depression on perinatal outcomes and postpartum depression in Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sae Kyung; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, In Yang; Ko, Hyun Sun; Shin, Jong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal prenatal mental health has been shown to be associated with adverse consequences for the mother and the child. However, studies considering the effect of prenatal depressive symptoms are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of antenatal depressive symptoms on obstetric outcomes and to determine associations between antenatal and postpartum depressions. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. The Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) questionnaire was completed by pregnant women receiving obstetrical care at Seoul St. Mary's hospital in the third trimester of gestation. The electronic medical records were reviewed after delivery and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. The association between antenatal and postpartum depression was analyzed using the EPDS questionnaire, which was completed by the same women within 2 months of delivery. Results: Of the 467 participants, 26.34% (n = 123) had antenatal depressive symptoms, with EPDS scores of ≥10. There were no significant perinatal outcomes associated with antenatal depressive symptoms. During the postpartum period, 192 of the women in the initial study cohort were given the EPDS again as a follow-up. Of the 192 participants, 56 (29.17%) scored >10. Spearman correlation coefficient between the antenatal and postpartum EPDS scores was 0.604, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Antenatal depression does not lead to unfavorable perinatal outcomes. However, screening for antenatal depression may be helpful to identify women at risk of postpartum depression. PMID:25535492

  1. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Antenatal Women with Bad Obstetric History in a Tertiary-care Hospital of Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, B.; Sharma, Neelam; Roy, Rabindra Nath

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a well-documented cause of bad obstetric history (BOH) and a major reason of congenitally-acquired infection. The study was conducted to determine the seropositivity of toxoplasmosis in women with BOH, attending the antenatal clinic of the Mamata General Hospital, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study subjects included 105 antenatal women with BOH and 105 antenatal women who had previous normal deliveries. A serological evaluation was carried out to determine the presence of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, using commercial diagnostic kits, by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The seropositivity for Toxoplasma was 49.52% in the study group compared to 12.38% in the control group. The difference in seropositivity was significant (p=0.00). The seroprevalence gradually increased with advancing age. Abortion (51.92%) was the commonest form of pregnancy wastage, followed by stillbirths (36.53%) and premature deliveries (7.69%). The seropositivity of toxoplasmosis was significantly higher in the study group than that in the control group, and the seropositivity played an important role in determining the foetal outcome. Considering the subclinical pattern of infection, routine serological test is recommended for all pregnant women for both IgG and IgM antibodies. PMID:22524124

  2. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Olowe, Rita; Adekanle, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal infections in pregnancy are associated with considerable discomfort and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality and also predisposition to HIV/AIDS. This study evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among women attending antenatal clinic at a hospital in Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered and high vaginal swab samples were obtained from consenting pregnant women. The samples were processed following standard protocols. The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 36%, while those of trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis were 2% and 38%, respectively. Infections were higher in the third trimester and many women admitted to practices that increase risk of these infections. Significant association was found between recent intake of antibiotics and vaginal candidiasis, same association was also found with bacterial vaginosis. Adequate investigation and prompt treatment will reduce the morbidity and attendant effects of these prevalent infections on mother and fetus. PMID:25544891

  3. Malaria control in Bungoma District, Kenya: a survey of home treatment of children with fever, bednet use and attendance at antenatal clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, M. J.; Odhacha, A.; Roberts, J. M.; Deming, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To lay the basis for planning an improved malaria control programme in Bungoma District, Kenya. METHODS: By means of a cluster sample household survey an investigation was conducted into the home management of febrile children, the use of bednets, and attendance at antenatal clinics. FINDINGS: Female carers provided information on 314 recently febrile children under 5 years of age, of whom 43% received care at a health facility, 47% received an antimalarial drug at home, and 25% received neither. Of the antimalarial treatments given at home, 91% were started by the second day of fever and 92% were with chloroquine, the nationally recommended antimalarial at the time. The recommended dosage of chloroquine to be administered over three days was 25 mg/kg but the median chloroquine tablet or syrup dosage given over the first three days of treatment was 15 mg/kg. The total dosages ranged from 2.5 mg/kg to 82 mg/kg, administered over one to five days. The dosages were lower when syrup was administered than when tablets were used. Only 5% of children under 5 years of age slept under a bednet. No bednets had been treated with insecticide since purchase. At least two antenatal visits were made by 91% of pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: Carers are major and prompt providers of antimalarial treatment. Home treatment practices should be strengthened and endorsed when prompt treatment at a health facility is impossible. The administration of incorrect dosages, which proved common with chloroquine, may occur less frequently with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, as its dosage regimen is simpler. High levels of utilization of antenatal clinics afford the opportunity to achieve good coverage with presumptive intermittent malaria treatments during pregnancy, and to reach the goal of widespread bednet use by pregnant women and children by distributing nets during antenatal clinic visits. PMID:11731808

  4. Who attends antenatal care and expanded programme on immunization services in Chad, Mali and Niger? the implications for insecticide-treated net delivery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria remains one of the largest public health problems facing the developing world. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are an effective intervention against malaria. ITN delivery through routine health services, such as antenatal care (ANC) and childhood vaccination (EPI), is a promising channel of delivery to reach individuals with the highest risk (pregnant women and children under five years old). Decisions on whether to deliver ITNs through both channels depends upon the reach of each of these systems, whether these are independent and the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of each. Predictors of women attending ANC and EPI separately have been studied, but the predictors of those who attend neither service have not been identified. Methods Data from Chad, Mali and Niger demographic and health surveys (DHS) were analyzed to determine risk factors for attending neither service. A conceptual framework for preventative health care-seeking behaviour was created to illustrate the hierarchical relationships between the potential risk factors. The independence of attending both ANC and EPI was investigated. A multivariate model of predictors for non-attendance was developed using logistic regression. Results ANC and EPI attendance were found to be strongly associated in all three countries. However, 47% of mothers in Chad, 12% in Mali and 36% in Niger did not attend either ANC or EPI. Region, mother's education and partner's education were predictors of non-attendance in all three countries. Wealth index, ethnicity, and occupation were associated with non-attendance in Mali and Niger. Other predictors included religion, healthcare autonomy, household size and number of children under five. Conclusions Attendance of ANC and EPI are not independent and therefore the majority of pregnant women in these countries will have the opportunity to receive ITNs through both services. Although attendance at ANC and EPI are not independent, delivery through both systems may still add incrementally to delivery through one alone. Therefore, there is potential to increase the proportion of women and children receiving ITNs by delivering through both of these channels. However, modelling is required to determine the level of attendance and incremental potential at which it's cost effective to deliver through both services. PMID:22078175

  5. Trends in antenatal care attendance and health facility delivery following community and health facility systems strengthening interventions in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal morbidity and mortality remains high in Uganda; largely due to inadequate antenatal care (ANC), low skilled deliveries and poor quality of other maternal health services. In order to address both the demand and quality of ANC and skilled deliveries, we introduced community mobilization and health facility capacity strengthening interventions. Methods Interventions were introduced between January 2010 and September 2011. These included: training health workers, provision of medical supplies, community mobilization using village health teams, music dance and drama groups and male partner access clubs. These activities were implemented at Kitgum Matidi health center III and its catchment area. Routinely collected health facility data on selected outcomes in the year preceding the interventions and after 21 months of implementation of the interventions was reviewed. Trend analysis was performed using excel and statistical significance testing was performed using EPINFO StatCal option. Results The number of pregnant women attending the first ANC visit significantly increased from 114 to 150 in the first and fourth quarter of 2010 (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.39–2.12) and to 202 in the third quarter of 2011(OR 11.41; 95% CI 7.97–16.34). The number of pregnant women counselled, tested and given results for HIV during the first ANC attendance significantly rose from 92 (80.7%) to 146 (97.3%) in the first and fourth quarter of 2010 and then to 201 (99.5%) in the third quarter of 2011. The number of male partners counseled, tested and given results together with their wives at first ANC visit rose from 13 (16.7%) in the fourth quarter of 2009 to 130 (89%) in the fourth quarter of 2010 and to 180 (89.6%) in the third quarter of 2011. There was a significant rise in the number of pregnant women delivering in the health facility with provision of mama-kits (delivery kits), from 74 (55.2%) to 149 (99.3%) in the second and fourth quarter of 2010. Conclusions Combined community and facility systems strengthening interventions led to increased first ANC visits by women and their partners, and health facility deliveries. Interventions aimed at increasing uptake of maternal health services should address both the demand and availability of quality services. PMID:24134717

  6. Antenatal Care Utilisation and Content between Low-Risk and High-Risk Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Ping Ling; Hornetz, Klaus; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of antenatal care is to monitor and improve the wellbeing of the mother and foetus. The World Health Organization recommends risk-oriented strategy that includes: (i) routine care to all women, (ii) additional care for women with moderately severe diseases and complications, (iii) specialised obstetrical and neonatal care for women with severe diseases and complications. Antenatal care is concerned with adequate care in order to be effective. Measurement for adequacy of antenatal care often applies indexes that assess initiation of care and number of visits. In addition, adequacy of care content should also be assessed. Results of studies in developed settings demonstrate that women without risk factors use antenatal services more frequently than recommended. Such over-utilisation is problematic for low-resourced settings. Moreover, studies show that a substantial proportion of high-risk women had utilisation or content of care below the recommended standard. Yet studies in developing countries have seldom included a comparison between low-risk and high-risk women. The purpose of the study was therefore to assess adequacy of care and pregnancy outcomes for the different risk groups. Methods A retrospective study using a multistage sampling technique, at public-funded primary health care clinics was conducted. Antenatal utilisation level was assessed using a modified Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index that measures the timing for initiation of care and observed-to-expected visits ratio. Adequacy of antenatal care content assessed compliance to routine care based on the local guidelines. Results Intensive or “adequate-plus” antenatal care utilisation as defined by the modified index was noted in over half of the low-risk women. On the other hand, there were 26% of the high-risk women without the expected intensive utilisation. Primary- or non-educated high-risk women were less likely to have a higher antenatal care utilisation level compared with tertiary educated ones (OR = 0.20, P = 0.003). Half of all women had <80% of the recommended antenatal care content. A higher proportion of high-risk than low-risk women scored <80% of the routine care content (p<0.015). The majority of the additional laboratory tests were performed on high-risk women. Provision of antenatal education showed comparatively poor compliance to guidelines, more than half of the antenatal advice topics assessed were rarely provided to the women. High-risk women were associated with a higher prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcome. Conclusions Disproportionate utilisation of antenatal care according to risk level of pregnancy indicates the need for better scheduling of care. The risk-oriented approach often results in a tendency to focus on the risk conditions of the women. Training interventions are recommended to improve communication and to help healthcare professionals understand the priorities of the women. Further studies are required to assess the reason for disproportionate utilisation of antenatal care according to risk level and how delivery of antenatal advice can be improved, reviewing both user and provider perspectives. PMID:27010482

  7. Understanding why women adopt and sustain home water treatment: insights from the Malawi antenatal care program.

    PubMed

    Wood, Siri; Foster, Jennifer; Kols, Adrienne

    2012-08-01

    In many settings in Africa, social marketing has proven more successful in generating brand recognition for chlorine water treatment products than in promoting their use. To promote household use of one such product in Malawi, WaterGuard, the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Population Services International (PSI) distributed free hygiene kits that included WaterGuard to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in 2007. Follow-up surveys documented a sustained increase in WaterGuard use three years after the initial intervention. In 2010, PATH (www.path.org) conducted qualitative research on the factors motivating women to adopt, sustain, or discontinue use. To provide context, interviews were also conducted with their friends, relatives, and husbands. Interviews revealed that sustained use of WaterGuard does not necessarily imply consistent use. Most respondents reported switching back and forth between WaterGuard and stock chlorine distributed for free by the government, and many treated water seasonally rather than year-round. Qualitative findings suggest that two program strategies strongly influenced women's decisions to adopt, purchase, and continue using WaterGuard. First, positive, ongoing contacts with health care workers, especially during home visits, raised awareness of the need to treat water, encouraged trial use, and supported continuing use. Second, an extended free trial of the product overcame initial cost barriers and allowed women and their families to experience the health benefits of WaterGuard, appreciate its value and relevance to their lives, and get used to its taste. Social support-from like-minded relatives, friends, neighbors, health care workers, husbands, and children-was also a critical factor that promoted consistent, ongoing use of WaterGuard. The findings confirm the importance of interpersonal communication in prompting adoption of household water treatment and suggest that consumers assess the perceived value of a product, not simply its cost. Further research is planned to investigate questions raised about patterns of ongoing use. PMID:22051403

  8. Red Cell Alloimmunization to Rhesus Antigen Among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Al Harrasi, Yusra; Al-Duhli, Maymoona; Al-Rubkhi, Ikhlass; Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Riyami, Arwa Z.; Pathare, Anil V.; Gowri, Vaidyanathan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We sought to measure the presence of allosensitization to Rhesus D (RhD) antibodies in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and assess the fetal outcome in sensitized women. 
Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of pregnant Omani women who registered at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between June 2011 and June 2013. Pregnant women were tested for ABO blood type and were screened for RhD antigen and antibodies at their first antenatal clinic visit. In women who tested positive for the RhD antibodies, an antibody titer was performed to evaluate the severity of their case. Results Data was available on 1,251 pregnant women who were managed and delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. The prevalence of RhD negative pregnant women was 7.3%. Blood group O was the most common followed by A, B, and AB. The rate of RhD negative alloimmunization was 10%, and anti-D was the most common antibody detected. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Postnatal transfusion was necessary for only one baby. Conclusions The prevalence of RhD negativity was comparable to other Asian countries. Previous RhD alloimmunization and history of miscarriages were the most common maternal medical history. PMID:26813962

  9. Antenatal care and uptake of HIV testing among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Jayleen K L; Asaolu, Ibitola O; Center, Katherine E; Gibson, Steven J; Wightman, Patrick; Ezeanolue, Echezona E; Ehiri, John E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current guidelines recommend inclusion of HIV testing in routine screening tests for all pregnant women. For this reason, antenatal care (ANC) represents a vital component of efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. To elucidate the relationship between ANC services and HIV testing among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, we undertook an analysis of data from four countries. Methods Four countries (Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria and Uganda) were purposively selected to represent unique geographical regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Using Demographic and Health Survey datasets, weighted crude and adjusted logistic regression models were used to explore factors that influenced HIV testing as part of ANC services. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Arizona. Results Pooled results showed that 60.7% of women received HIV testing as part of ANC. Ugandan women had the highest rate of HIV testing as part of ANC (81.5%) compared with women in Mozambique (69.4%), Nigeria (54.4%) and Congo (45.4%). Difficulty reaching a health facility was a barrier in Congo and Mozambique but not Nigeria or Uganda. HIV testing rates were lower in rural areas, among the poorest women, the least educated and those with limited knowledge of HIV. In every country, crude regression analyses showed higher odds of being tested for HIV if women received their ANC services from a skilled attendant compared with an unskilled attendant. After adjusting for confounders, women in the total sample had 1.78 (99% CI: 1.45–2.18) times the odds of having an HIV test as part of their ANC if they went to a skilled attendant compared with an unskilled attendant. Conclusions There is a need for integration of HIV testing into routine ANC service to increase opportunities for PMTCT programmes to reach HIV-positive pregnant women. Attention should be paid to the expansion of outreach services for women in rural settings, and to the training, supervision and integration of unskilled attendants into formal maternal and child health programmes. Education of pregnant women and their communities is needed to increase HIV knowledge and reduce HIV stigma. PMID:26787516

  10. A Low-Cost Ultrasound Program Leads to Increased Antenatal Clinic Visits and Attended Deliveries at a Health Care Clinic in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Andrew B.; DeStigter, Kristen K.; Rielly, Matthew; Souza, Sonia; Morey, Gabriel Eli; Nelson, Melissa; Silfen, Eric Z.; Garra, Brian; Matovu, Alphonsus; Kawooya, Michael Grace

    2013-01-01

    Background In June of 2010, an antenatal ultrasound program to perform basic screening for high-risk pregnancies was introduced at a community health care center in rural Uganda. Whether the addition of ultrasound scanning to antenatal visits at the health center would encourage or discourage potential patients was unknown. Our study sought to evaluate trends in the numbers of antenatal visits and deliveries at the clinic, pre- and post-introduction of antenatal ultrasound to determine what effect the presence of ultrasound at the clinic had on these metrics. Methods and Findings Records at Nawanyago clinic were reviewed to obtain the number of antenatal visits and deliveries for the 42 months preceding the introduction of ultrasound and the 23 months following. The monthly mean deliveries and antenatal visits by category (first visit through fourth return visit) were compared pre- and post- ultrasound using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA. Following the introduction of ultrasound, significant increases were seen in the number of mean monthly deliveries and antenatal visits. The mean number of monthly deliveries at the clinic increased by 17.0 (13.3–20.6, 95% CI) from a pre-ultrasound average of 28.4 to a post-ultrasound monthly average of 45.4. The number of deliveries at a comparison clinic remained flat over this same time period. The monthly mean number of antenatal visits increased by 97.4 (83.3–111.5, 95% CI) from a baseline monthly average of 133.5 to a post-ultrasound monthly mean of 231.0, with increases seen in all categories of antenatal visits. Conclusions The availability of a low-cost antenatal ultrasound program may assist progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 by encouraging women in a rural environment to come to a health care facility for skilled antenatal care and delivery assistance instead of utilizing more traditional methods. PMID:24205234

  11. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Arega Sadore, Abinet; Abebe Gebretsadik, Lakew; Aman Hussen, Mamusha

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777)), knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537)), and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368)) were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation. PMID:26839573

  12. Bed net ownership, use and perceptions among women seeking antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): Opportunities for improved maternal and child health

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey; Taylor, Eboni; Nku, David; Duvall, Sandra; Tabala, Martine; Meshnick, Steve; Behets, Frieda

    2008-01-01

    Background To describe malaria knowledge, attitudes toward malaria and bed net use, levels of ownership and use of bed nets, and factors associated with ownership and use among pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Kinshasa, DRC. Methods Women attending their first ANC visit at one maternity in Kinshasa were recruited to take part in a study where they were given free insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) and then followed up at delivery and 6 months post delivery to assess ITN use. This study describes the baseline levels of bed net ownership and use, attitudes towards net use and factors associated with net use Results Among 351 women interviewed at baseline, 115 (33%) already owned a bed net and 86 (25%) reported to have slept under the net the previous night. Cost was reported as the reason for not owning a net by 48% of the 236 women who did not own one. In multivariable analyses, women who had secondary school or higher education were 3.4 times more likely to own a net (95% CI 1.6–7.3) and 2.8 times more likely to have used a net (95% CI 1.3–6.0) compared to women with less education Conclusion Distribution of ITNs in antenatal clinics in this setting is needed and feasible. The potential for ITN use by this target population is high. PMID:18816373

  13. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    PubMed

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women. PMID:24150690

  14. Risk Factors for Stress During Antenatal Period Among Pregnant Women in Tertiary Care Hospital of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Manisha Madhai; Abraham, Anuja; Kurian, Suja; Regi, Annie; Rebekah, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Background The well-being of an infant may be affected when the mother is subjected to psychosocial stress during her pregnancy. Mothers exposed to stressful conditions were more prone for preterm birth than those without any stress. In this study perceived stress has been used as an indicator of levels of stress. There are very few studies published from developing countries on the levels of perceived stress and its causes in pregnant women. Materials and Methods This study employed a cross-sectional assessment of pregnant women attending the outpatient services of a tertiary care hospital for regular antenatal check-up. Women not known to have any risk factors at 28 weeks to 34 weeks of pregnancy who agreed to participate in the study were interviewed to assess the perceived stress score. Results Among the total patients 57.7% were primigravida and the mean score on perceived stress scale was 13.5±5.02. The majority of the group (102; 65.4%) scored higher than the mean value of total score on the perceived stress scale. Unplanned pregnancy and husband’s employment status were associated with high levels of perceived stress in multivariate analysis in this set of women. Conclusion Individual as well as pregnancy related factors can contribute to perceived stress in pregnant women. With the established relationship between maternal mental health, pregnancy outcome and infant growth, the assessment and management of stress early in the pregnancy is crucial. PMID:26557568

  15. Antenatal and Postnatal Psychopathology Among Women with Current and Past Eating Disorders: Longitudinal Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Abigail; Solmi, Francessca; Bye, Amanda; Taborelli, Emma; Corfield, Freya; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate longitudinal patterns of psychopathology during the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current (C-ED) and past (P-ED) eating disorders. Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study: C-ED (n = 31), P-ED (n = 29) and healthy control (HC; n = 57). Anxiety, depression and ED symptoms were measured at four time points: first/second trimester, third trimester, 8 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Linear mixed effects models were used to test for group differences. Women with C-ED and P-ED, in all diagnostic categories, had significantly higher levels of psychopathology at all time points. ED symptoms decreased in the C-ED group, compared with an overall increase in the other two groups but subsequently increased after pregnancy. Overall, depression and state and trait anxiety scores decreased in the C-ED group compared with the HC group throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods. High levels of psychopathology are common throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current and past ED, and despite some overall reductions, symptoms remain clinically significant. © 2014 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25345371

  16. Antenatal and postnatal psychopathology among women with current and past eating disorders: longitudinal patterns.

    PubMed

    Easter, Abigail; Solmi, Francessca; Bye, Amanda; Taborelli, Emma; Corfield, Freya; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate longitudinal patterns of psychopathology during the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current (C-ED) and past (P-ED) eating disorders. Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study: C-ED (n = 31), P-ED (n = 29) and healthy control (HC; n = 57). Anxiety, depression and ED symptoms were measured at four time points: first/second trimester, third trimester, 8 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Linear mixed effects models were used to test for group differences. Women with C-ED and P-ED, in all diagnostic categories, had significantly higher levels of psychopathology at all time points. ED symptoms decreased in the C-ED group, compared with an overall increase in the other two groups but subsequently increased after pregnancy. Overall, depression and state and trait anxiety scores decreased in the C-ED group compared with the HC group throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods. High levels of psychopathology are common throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current and past ED, and despite some overall reductions, symptoms remain clinically significant. © 2014 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25345371

  17. Opportunities and obstacles to screening pregnant women for intimate partner violence during antenatal care in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Shamu, Simukai; Abrahams, Naeemah; Temmerman, Marleen; Zarowsky, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy offers an opportunity for midwives to recognise and respond to women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). However, most antenatal care interventions have been conducted in private specialist services in high-income countries and do not address the structural and cultural realities of developing country settings. We report on an exploratory qualitative study conducted in antenatal public health facilities in Harare, Zimbabwe, involving six in-depth interviews with midwives and seven FGDs with 64 pregnant and postpartum women. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic content analysis. We found that identifying and responding to IPV in antenatal care is hampered by inadequate human, financial and infrastructural resources as well as poor support of gender-based violence training for midwives. Midwives had divergent views of their role, with some perceiving IPV as a non-clinical, social and domestic problem that does not require their attention, while others who had been sensitised to the problem felt that it could easily overwhelm them. A comprehensive response to IPV by midwives would be difficult to achieve in this setting but sensitised midwives could respond to cues to violence and ultimately assist abused women in culturally sensitive and appropriate ways. PMID:23343085

  18. Prevalence of selected reproductive tract infections among pregnant women attending an urban maternal and childcare unit in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Begum, Afroza; Nilufar, Sofia; Akther, Khaleda; Rahman, Abdur; Khatun, Fatema; Rahman, Motiur; Khatoon, Fatema

    2003-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted during May-December 2000 among pregnant women attending an urban maternal and childcare-delivery unit in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and syphilis. All pregnant women at 16-24 weeks gestation attending the clinic for antenatal check-up irrespective of symptoms were enrolled. Sociodemographic information and obstetric history were obtained from each enrolled subject. High vaginal swabs and serum samples were tested for bacterial vaginosis, and T. vaginalis and syphilis respectively. In total, 284 pregnant women were enrolled. Of them, 17.7% had bacterial vaginosis, 1.4% had Trichomonas infection, and 3% had syphilis. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was higher in women with low socioeconomic status. PMID:13677438

  19. Timing of the initiation of antenatal care: An exploratory qualitative study of women and service providers in East London

    PubMed Central

    Hatherall, Bethan; Morris, Joanne; Jamal, Farah; Sweeney, Lorna; Wiggins, Meg; Kaur, Inderjeet; Renton, Adrian; Harden, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Objective to explore the factors which influence the timing of the initiation of a package of publically-funded antenatal care for pregnant women living in a diverse urban setting Design a qualitative study involving thematic analysis of 21 individual interviews and six focus group discussions. Setting Newham, a culturally diverse borough in East London, UK Participants individual interviews were conducted with 21 pregnant and postnatal women and focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 26 health service staff members(midwives and bilingual health advocates) and 32 women from four community groups (Bangladeshi, Somali, Lithuanian and Polish). Findings initial care-seeking by pregnant women is influenced by the perception that the package of antenatal care offered by the National Health Service is for viable and continuing pregnancies, as well as little perceived urgency in initiating antenatal care. This is particularly true when set against competing responsibilities and commitments in women’s lives and for pregnancies with no apparent complications or disconcerting symptoms. Barriers to access to this package of antenatal care include difficulties in navigating the health service and referral system, which are compounded for women unable to speak English, and service provider delays in the processing of referrals. Accessing antenatal care was sometimes equated with relinquishing control, particularly for young women and women for whom language barriers prohibit active engagement with care. Conclusions and implications for practice if women are to be encouraged to seek antenatal care from maternity services early in pregnancy, the purpose and value to all women of doing so need to be made clear across the communities in which they live. As a woman may need time to accept her pregnancy and address other priorities in her life before seeking antenatal care, it is crucial that once she does decide to seek such care, access is quick and easy. Difficulties found in navigating the system of referral for antenatal care point to a need for improved access to primary care and a simple and efficient process of direct referral to antenatal care, alongside the delivery of antenatal care which is woman-centred and experienced as empowering. PMID:27106937

  20. Antenatal HIV testing: evaluation of uptake and women's attitudes in a low risk population.

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, G.; McGeagh, J.; Roberts, R.

    2004-01-01

    The number of HIV-positive heterosexuals in the UK is increasing, with a resultant increase in the number of pregnant women who are HIV-positive. The benefits of diagnosing an HIV-positive woman antenatally are well established. The Department of Health of England issued guidelines recommending named voluntary antenatal testing, with a view to achieving a maternal diagnosis rate of 90% by December 2002. In Northern Ireland the policy was distributed in 2003. The screening programme in our hospital had an uptake rate of 98.7 %. Responses to a questionnaire to evaluate the process indicate that HIV testing was associated with low levels of anxiety and that patients were well satisfied with the counselling they received. PMID:15651768

  1. Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mbada, Chidozie E.; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Arije, Olujide O.; Dada, Olumide O.; Akinwande, Olabisi A.; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Alonge, Ibidun A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

  2. Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Mbada, Chidozie E; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B; Arije, Olujide O; Dada, Olumide O; Akinwande, Olabisi A; Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Alonge, Ibidun A

    2014-01-01

    Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

  3. Men's role in women's antenatal health status: evidence from rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mosiur; Islam, Mohammad Touhidul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Reza, Md Shahin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to extend notions of men's role in women's antenatal care (ANC) status in rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The analyses were based on response of 480 men aged 15 to 54 years, living with at least 1 child younger than 3 years. Only 27% men accompanied their wives for ANC. Men's perception of actual roles for ANC services was low: 63% approved of women undergoing checkups; 33% discussed their wives' pregnancy with health professionals. Only 18% scored highly on the overall index of knowledge. From multivariate analysis, it was found that the number of men accompanying their wives for ANC was higher among those respondents who were married for the first time in the age-group 25 to 34 years and aged 35 years or more, had their last child at age-group 20 to 24 years or 25 to 34 years, had completed primary or secondary and higher education, and had mass media facilities. PMID:22426562

  4. Increasing Partner Attendance in Antenatal Care and HIV Testing Services: Comparable Outcomes Using Written versus Verbal Invitations in an Urban Facility-Based Controlled Intervention Trial in Mbeya, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Theuring, Stefanie; Jefferys, Laura F; Nchimbi, Philo; Mbezi, Paulina; Sewangi, Julius

    2016-01-01

    In many Sub-Saharan African settings male partner involvement in antenatal care (ANC) remains low, although great benefits for maternal and infant health outcomes have been long recognised, in particular regarding the prevention of HIV transmission. Yet there is paucity on evidence regarding the effectiveness of strategies to increase male partner involvement. This controlled intervention trial in Ruanda Health Centre in Mbeya, Tanzania, assessed the effectiveness of invitation letters for male involvement in ANC. Pregnant women approaching ANC without partners received official letters inviting the partner to attend ANC. A control group was instructed to verbally invite partners. Partner attendance was recorded at two subsequent ANC visits. Rates for male partner return, couple voluntary counselling and testing (CVCT), and influencing factors were analysed. From 199 ANC clients in total, 97 were assigned to the invitation letter group; 30 of these (30.9%) returned with their male partners for ANC. In the control group of 102 women, 28 (27.5%) returned with their partner. In both groups CVCT rates among jointly returning couples were 100%. Partner return/CVCT rate was not statistically different in intervention and control group (OR 1.2, p = 0.59). Former partner attendance at ANC during a previous pregnancy was the only factor found to be significantly linked with partner return (p = 0.03). Our study demonstrates that rather simple measures to increase male partner attendance in ANC and CVCT can be effective, with written and verbal invitations having comparable outcomes. In terms of practicability in Sub-Saharan African settings, we recommend systematic coaching of ANC clients on how to verbally invite male partners in the first instance, followed by written invitation letters for partners in case of their non-attendance. Further studies covering both urban and rural settings will be more informative for effective translation into policy. PMID:27043707

  5. Increasing Partner Attendance in Antenatal Care and HIV Testing Services: Comparable Outcomes Using Written versus Verbal Invitations in an Urban Facility-Based Controlled Intervention Trial in Mbeya, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Theuring, Stefanie; Jefferys, Laura F.; Nchimbi, Philo; Mbezi, Paulina; Sewangi, Julius

    2016-01-01

    In many Sub-Saharan African settings male partner involvement in antenatal care (ANC) remains low, although great benefits for maternal and infant health outcomes have been long recognised, in particular regarding the prevention of HIV transmission. Yet there is paucity on evidence regarding the effectiveness of strategies to increase male partner involvement. This controlled intervention trial in Ruanda Health Centre in Mbeya, Tanzania, assessed the effectiveness of invitation letters for male involvement in ANC. Pregnant women approaching ANC without partners received official letters inviting the partner to attend ANC. A control group was instructed to verbally invite partners. Partner attendance was recorded at two subsequent ANC visits. Rates for male partner return, couple voluntary counselling and testing (CVCT), and influencing factors were analysed. From 199 ANC clients in total, 97 were assigned to the invitation letter group; 30 of these (30.9%) returned with their male partners for ANC. In the control group of 102 women, 28 (27.5%) returned with their partner. In both groups CVCT rates among jointly returning couples were 100%. Partner return/CVCT rate was not statistically different in intervention and control group (OR 1.2, p = 0.59). Former partner attendance at ANC during a previous pregnancy was the only factor found to be significantly linked with partner return (p = 0.03). Our study demonstrates that rather simple measures to increase male partner attendance in ANC and CVCT can be effective, with written and verbal invitations having comparable outcomes. In terms of practicability in Sub-Saharan African settings, we recommend systematic coaching of ANC clients on how to verbally invite male partners in the first instance, followed by written invitation letters for partners in case of their non-attendance. Further studies covering both urban and rural settings will be more informative for effective translation into policy. PMID:27043707

  6. Neurodevelopmental outcome for offspring of women treated for antenatal depression: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Previti, Giovanni; Pawlby, Susan; Chowdhury, Sahmina; Aguglia, Eugenio; Pariante, Carmine M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to appraise existing literature on the effects of treatments for antenatal depression on the neurodevelopment outcomes of the offspring. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify studies on different kinds of treatments for antenatal depression (antidepressants and alternative therapies) and their effects on infants' neurodevelopment. After reading the title, abstract, or full text and applying exclusion criteria, a total of 22 papers were selected. Nineteen papers studied the effects of antidepressant drugs, one on docosahexanoic acid (DHA) (fish oil capsules) and two on massage therapy; however, no studies used a randomized controlled design, and in most studies, the control group comprise healthy women not exposed to depression. Comparisons between newborns exposed to antidepressants in utero with those not exposed showed significant differences in a wide range of neurobehavioral outcomes, although in many cases, these symptoms were transient. Two studies found a slight delay in psychomotor development, and one study found a delay in mental development. Alternative therapies may have some benefits on neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our review suggests that antidepressant treatment may be associated with some neurodevelopmental changes, but we cannot exclude that some of these effects may be due to depression per se. PMID:25212663

  7. Antenatal lifestyle advice for women who are overweight or obese: LIMIT randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Deborah; McPhee, Andrew J; Deussen, Andrea R; Grivell, Rosalie M; Yelland, Lisa N; Crowther, Caroline A; Wittert, Gary; Owens, Julie A; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of antenatal dietary and lifestyle interventions on health outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. Design Multicentre randomised trial. We utilised a central telephone randomisation server, with computer generated schedule, balanced variable blocks, and stratification for parity, body mass index (BMI) category, and hospital. Setting Three public maternity hospitals across South Australia. Participants 2212 women with a singleton pregnancy, between 10+0 and 20+0 weeks’ gestation, and BMI ≥25. Interventions 1108 women were randomised to a comprehensive dietary and lifestyle intervention delivered by research staff; 1104 were randomised to standard care and received pregnancy care according to local guidelines, which did not include such information. Main outcome measures Incidence of infants born large for gestational age (birth weight ≥90th centile for gestation and sex). Prespecified secondary outcomes included birth weight >4000 g, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and gestational diabetes. Analyses used intention to treat principles. Results 2152 women and 2142 liveborn infants were included in the analyses. The risk of the infant being large for gestational age was not significantly different in the two groups (lifestyle advice 203/1075 (19%) v standard care 224/1067 (21%); adjusted relative risk 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.07; P=0.24). Infants born to women after lifestyle advice were significantly less likely to have birth weight above 4000 g (lifestyle advice 164/1075 (15%) v standard care 201/1067 (19%); 0.82, 0.68 to 0.99; number needed to treat (NNT) 28, 15 to 263; P=0.04). There were no differences in maternal pregnancy and birth outcomes between the two treatment groups. Conclusions For women who were overweight or obese, the antenatal lifestyle advice used in this study did not reduce the risk delivering a baby weighing above the 90th centile for gestational age and sex or improve maternal pregnancy and birth outcomes. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12607000161426). PMID:24513442

  8. Antenatal prevalence of fear associated with childbirth and depressed mood in primigravid women

    PubMed Central

    Jaju, Sanjay; Al Kharusi, Lamya; Gowri, Vaidyanathan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the antenatal prevalence of fear of childbirth and its association with depressed mood in low-risk primigravidae in a referral teaching hospital. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in a tertiary referral center catering to three districts in the state of Kerala. This was a cross-sectional study with internal comparison of associated factors. Materials and Methods: Malayalam translation (translation back translation) of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was self-administered by the participants. It was followed by a structured interview based on the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD 10) after which the EPDS scale was scored. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used to compare the presence of fear in women with a EPDS of ? 12 and the association of fear and depression. Results: Fear associated with childbirth was expressed by 17.7% women. The prevalence of depressed mood based on the EPDS (score > 12) was 9.8% but based on the ICD 10 criteria, the prevalence of depression was 8.7%. A significant number of women with depressed mood and clinical depression had fear of childbirth of some sort. Conclusions: A significant number of primigravid women with depressed mood and clinical depression had fear of childbirth of some sort. PMID:26124521

  9. The utilization of antenatal care among rural-to-urban migrant women in Shanghai:a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving utilization of antenatal care is a critical strategy for achieving China’s Millennium Development Goal of decreasing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). While overall utilization has increased recently in China, an urban vs. rural disparity in access remains. Here we aim to assess utilization of antenatal care in rural-to-urban migrant women and identify its risk and protective factors. Methods Migrant women who had been living in Shanghai for more than six months, delivered in one of the two study hospitals between August 2009 and February 2010, and provided written consent were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results Of 767 women, 90.1% (691) made at least one antenatal care visit, while 49.7% (381) had adequately utilized antenatal care (i.e., made five or more antenatal care visits). Only 19.7% of women visited an antenatal care center during the first trimester (12 weeks). Women between the ages of 25 and 30 and women older than 30 were more likely than younger women to have adequately utilized antenatal care (AOR=2.2 and 1.9, 95%CI=1.4-3.5 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). Women whose husbands held Shanghai residency status (AOR=4.9, 95%CI=2.2-10.9) or who had more than 10 years of education (AOR=1.8, 95%CI=1.2-2.9), previously experienced a miscarriage or abortion (AOR=2.2, 95%CI=1.3-3.8), had higher household income (AOR=1.6, 95%CI=1.0-2.5) were more likely to have adequately utilized antenatal care. Women from high-income households were also more likely to receive antenatal care during the first 12 weeks (AOR=3.5, 95%CI=1.7-5.5). Conclusions Many migrant women in Shanghai did not receive adequate antenatal care and initiated antenatal care later than the optimal first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Poor antenatal care utilization was associated with low socioeconomic status, education, and certain demographic factors. Tailored health education for both migrant women and their husbands should be strengthened to improve maternal health. Financing supports should be provided to improve the utilization of antenatal care. PMID:23170773

  10. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards antenatal vaccines, group B Streptococcus and clinical trial participation in pregnancy: an online survey

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Fiona; Stevens, Zoe; Plumb, Jane; Hughes, Rhona; Voysey, Merryn; Heath, Paul T; Snape, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore factors influencing the likelihood of antenatal vaccine acceptance of both routine UK antenatal vaccines (influenza and pertussis) and a hypothetical group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccine in order to improve understanding of how to optimise antenatal immunisation acceptance, both in routine use and clinical trials. Setting An online survey distributed to women of childbearing age in the UK. Participants 1013 women aged 18–44 years in England, Scotland and Wales. Methods Data from an online survey conducted to gauge the attitudes of 1013 women of childbearing age in England, Scotland and Wales to antenatal vaccination against GBS were further analysed to determine the influence of socioeconomic status, parity and age on attitudes to GBS immunisation, using attitudes to influenza and pertussis vaccines as reference immunisations. Factors influencing likelihood of participation in a hypothetical GBS vaccine trial were also assessed. Results Women with children were more likely to know about each of the 3 conditions surveyed (GBS: 45% vs 26%, pertussis: 79% vs 63%, influenza: 66% vs 54%), to accept vaccination (GBS: 77% vs 65%, pertussis: 79% vs 70%, influenza: 78% vs 68%) and to consider taking part in vaccine trials (37% vs 27% for a hypothetical GBS vaccine tested in 500 pregnant women). For GBS, giving information about the condition significantly increased the number of respondents who reported that they would be likely to receive the vaccine. Health professionals were the most important reported source of information. Conclusions Increasing awareness about GBS, along with other key strategies, would be required to optimise the uptake of a routine vaccine, with a specific focus on informing women without previous children. More research specifically focusing on acceptability in pregnant women is required and, given the value attached to input from healthcare professionals, this group should be included in future studies. PMID:27098824

  11. Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: a prospective study of chinese women at maternal and child health centres

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Risk factors for postnatal depression (PND) are under-explored in the Chinese populations. There is increasing recognition of the importance of identifying predictive factors during the antenatal period for PND. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for postnatal depression in a community cohort of Chinese women with special focus on the antenatal risk factors. Methods Eight hundred and five Chinese women were interviewed during their third trimester of pregnancy and at around 2 months postnatally. Putative risk factors for PND were collected and the diagnosis of PND was confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The 2-month postnatal depression status was used as the dependent variable for univariate and multivariate analyses against putative risk factors. Results Marital dissatisfaction (Relative Risk = 8.27), dissatisfied relationship with mother-in-law (Relative Risk = 3.93), antenatal depressive symptomatology (Relative Risk = 3.90), and anxiety-prone personality (Relative Risk = 2.14) predicted PND in Chinese women independently. Conclusions Chinese women tend to keep their own feelings and emotions and it is important to monitor Chinese pregnant women with these predictive risk factors so that PND can be identified early. PMID:22436053

  12. Examining Antenatal Health Literacy in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Lori, Jody R.; Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y.; Ackah, Jacqueline V.; Adanu, Richard M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore Ghanaian pregnant women’s understanding and recognition of danger signs in pregnancy, birth preparedness and complication readiness, and their understanding of newborn care. Design An exploratory, qualitative study design was used. Methods Data were gathered through six focus group discussions with 68 pregnant women attending antenatal care at a busy urban hospital in Ghana. Qualitative and descriptive data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Health literacy was used as the guiding framework to analyze the qualitative data. Data were analyzed in the content domains of (a) understanding and recognition of danger signs in pregnancy, (b) preparedness for childbirth, (c) understanding and recognition of danger signs in the newborn, and (d) appropriate and timely referral. Findings Women in this study identified danger signs of pregnancy and in the newborn, but had difficulty interpreting and operationalizing information they received during antenatal care visits, indicating that health education did not translate to appropriate health behaviors. Cultural beliefs in alternative medicine, lack of understanding, and prior negative encounters with healthcare professionals may have led to underutilization of professional midwives for delivery and health services. Conclusions Women in this study exhibited low health literacy by incorrectly interpreting and operationalizing health education received during antenatal care. With limited health literacy, pregnant women cannot fully comprehend the scope of services that a health system can provide for them and their families. Clinical Relevance Achieving the greatest impact with limited time in antenatal care is a challenge. Since antenatal care is widely available to pregnant women in Ghana, it is vital to reexamine the way antenatal education is delivered. Pregnant women must receive health information that is accurate and easy to understand in order to make informed health choices that will improve maternal and child health. PMID:24930782

  13. Alcohol and Other Drug Use during Pregnancy among Women Attending Midwife Obstetric Units in the Cape Metropole, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Petersen Williams, Petal; Jordaan, Esmé; Mathews, Catherine; Lombard, Carl; Parry, Charles D. H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and extent of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa, despite the very high levels of AOD use in this part of the country. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending 11 Midwife Obstetric Units (MOUs) in greater Cape Town. A two-stage cluster survey design was used. In total, 5231 pregnant women were screened to assess self-reported prevalence estimates. Of these, 684 (13.1%) were intentionally subsampled and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and provided a urine sample for biological screening. Urinalyses showed that 8.8% (95% CI: 6.7–10.9) of the subsample tested positive for at least one illicit drug. This is higher than the self-reported prevalence (3.6%). In addition, 19.6% (95% CI: 16.3–22.8) of the sub-sample tested positive for alcohol which is lower than the self-reported prevalence (36.9%). There are high levels of substance use among pregnant women attending public sector antenatal clinics. There is a need for routine screening for AOD use and appropriate responses depending on the women's level of risk. PMID:24639899

  14. Conceptual bases and methodology for the evaluation of women's and providers' perception of the quality of antenatal care in the WHO Antenatal Care Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Langer, A; Nigenda, G; Romero, M; Rojas, G; Kuchaisit, C; al-Osimi, M; Orozco, E

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the conceptual bases and methodology used to assess women's and providers' perception of the quality of antenatal care, as part of a large randomised trial in four developing countries. Information has been obtained by applying both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The focus group discussions and in-depth interviews have contributed useful insights into the cultural milieu in which care is provided, users' and providers' expectations, and their concept of quality. Based on these findings, we developed two standardised questionnaires, one being administered to a representative sample of pregnant women (n = 1600) and the other for all care providers. In this paper we present some of the findings of the focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with women in one country as an example of the kind of information we have obtained. Women expressed their point of view concerning a reduced number of visits, type of provider, information that they get during clinical encounters and interpersonal relations with health professionals. The qualitative information, together with the data we obtain from the surveys, will highlight the aspects that will have be to considered if the new model of care is to be introduced on a routine basis. PMID:9805725

  15. Seroprevalence of HIV infection amongst antenatal women in greater Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, K; Kasule, J; Makuyana, D; Moyo, S; Mbidzo, M; Tswana, S

    1991-10-01

    Prevalence of HIV infection appears to be rising in many African countries. HIV infection in the pregnant woman poses a dilemma for the mother as well as for her unborn child. There are no data on HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe. This prospective study designed to determine HIV prevalence, enrolled pregnant women booking for antenatal care at Harare hospital and two of its peripheral municipal clinic. Two Elisa and a confirmatory Western Blot test on 1008 blood samples provided an HIV sero-prevalence rate in the studied population of 18 pc. High groups included unskilled labourers who were unbooked, single, divorced or cohabiting and below 30 years of age. Regarding education and income, women with over 11 years of education or earning over $600 per month constituted a lower risk category. Implications of this high prevalence rate are discussed and the urgency to examine feto maternal transmission and the effect of pregnancy on HIV status is expressed. Further more, intensification of preventive information and education programmes is recommended. PMID:1813126

  16. Fertility awareness in women attending a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Blake, D; Smith, D; Bargiacchi, A; France, M; Gudex, G

    1997-08-01

    Eighty women attending for consultation at a tertiary referral fertility unit over a 3-month period were surveyed for their knowledge of fertility awareness and how they used this information to enhance their chances of conception. It was hypothesized that less than 50% of the subjects had an adequate understanding of when the fertile time occurred in their menstrual cycle. A questionnaire was completed anonymously by each subject and these were scored in 3 categories for fertility awareness by 2 independent Natural Family Planning teachers. Scores ranged from 0 for women who had no concept of fertility awareness, to 6 for women who were highly aware. The results showed that 26% (N = 21) of subjects had a score of 4 or greater which was considered as having an adequate understanding. The hypothesis was accepted, giving reason for concern about the effectiveness of consumer education at all levels of fertility investigation. PMID:9325525

  17. Women's experiences and views about costs of seeking malaria chemoprevention and other antenatal services: a qualitative study from two districts in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Tanzanian government recommends women who attend antenatal care (ANC) clinics to accept receiving intermittent preventive treatment against malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at subsidized prices. Little emphasis has been paid to investigate the ability of pregnant women to access and effectively utilize these services. Objectives To describe the experience and perceptions of pregnant women about costs and cost barriers for accessing ANC services with emphasis on IPTp in rural Tanzania. Methods Qualitative data were collected in the districts of Mufindi in Iringa Region and Mkuranga in Coast Region through 1) focus group discussions (FGDs) with pregnant women and mothers to infants and 2) exit-interviews with pregnant women identified at ANC clinics. Data were analyzed manually using qualitative content analysis methodology. Findings FGD participants and interview respondents identified the following key limiting factors for women's use of ANC services: 1) costs in terms of money and time associated with accessing ANC clinics, 2) the presence of more or less official user-fees for some services within the ANC package, and 3) service providers' application of fines, penalties and blame when failing to adhere to service schedules. Interestingly, the time associated with travelling long distances to ANC clinics and ITN retailers and with waiting for services at clinic-level was a major factor of discouragement in the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women because it seriously affected their domestic responsibilities. Conclusion A variety of resource-related factors were shown to affect the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women in rural Tanzania. Thus, accessibility to ANC services was hampered by direct and indirect costs, travel distances and waiting time. Strengthening of user-fee exemption practices and bringing services closer to the users, for example by promoting community-directed control of selected public health services, including IPTp, are urgently needed measures for increasing equity in health services in Tanzania. PMID:20163707

  18. Women's perceptions of antenatal, delivery, and postpartum services in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mahiti, Gladys Reuben; Mkoka, Dickson Ally; Kiwara, Angwara Dennis; Mbekenga, Columba Kokusiima; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal health care provision remains a major challenge in developing countries. There is agreement that the provision of quality clinical services is essential if high rates of maternal death are to be reduced. However, despite efforts to improve access to these services, a high number of women in Tanzania do not access them. The aim of this study is to explore women's views about the maternal health services (pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum period) that they received at health facilities in order to identify gaps in service provision that may lead to low-quality maternal care and increased risks associated with maternal morbidity and mortality in rural Tanzania. Design We gathered qualitative data from 15 focus group discussions with women attending a health facility after child birth and transcribed it verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis. Results ‘Three categories emerged that reflected women's perceptions of maternal health care services: “mothers perceive that maternal health services are beneficial,” “barriers to accessing maternal health services” such as availability and use of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and the long distances between some villages, and “ambivalence regarding the quality of maternal health services” reflecting that women had both positive and negative perceptions in relation to quality of health care services offered’. Conclusions Mothers perceived that maternal health care services are beneficial during pregnancy and delivery, but their awareness of postpartum complications and the role of medical services during that stage were poor. The study revealed an ambivalence regarding the perceived quality of health care services offered, partly due to shortages of material resources. Barriers to accessing maternal health care services, such as the cost of transport and the use of TBAs, were also shown. These findings call for improvement on the services provided. Improvements should address, accessibility of services, professionals' attitudes and stronger promotion of the importance of postpartum check-ups, both among health care professionals and women. PMID:26498576

  19. Nutritional factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in the early stage of pregnancy among urban South Indian women.

    PubMed

    Lukose, Ammu; Ramthal, Asha; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2014-01-01

    Many women of reproductive age from developing countries have poor nutritional status, and the prevalence of depression during pregnancy is high. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy, and to identify the demographic and nutritional factors associated with these symptoms in a sample of urban South Indian pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was the baseline assessment of a prospective randomized controlled trial of vitamin B12 supplementation in urban pregnant south Indian women between the ages of 18 and 40 years ( www.clinicaltrials.gov : NCT00641862). 365 women in their first trimester of pregnancy were screened for depressive symptoms at an urban clinic in Karnataka, South India, using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10). Nutritional, clinical and biochemical factors were also assessed. Mean (SD) age of the cohort was 22.6 (3.7) years and mean (SD) BMI was 20.4 (3.3) kg/m(2). 121 (33 %) of the women in the 1st trimester had symptoms consistent with depression (K-10 score >6). In multivariate log binomial regression analysis, presence of antenatal depressive symptoms in the first trimester were positively associated with vomiting, prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.54 (95 % CI 1.10, 2.16) and negatively with anemia, PR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.47, 0.96). Nutrient intakes, serum vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and red cell folate levels were not associated with measures of depression. Antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy are highly prevalent in urban Indian women and are more common in women with vomiting and without anemia. In this cross-sectional data, blood concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate were not associated with depressive symptoms. The relationship between nutritional status and depressive symptoms may require larger and longitudinal studies. PMID:23440491

  20. Perceptions about Eclampsia, Birth Preparedness, and Complications Readiness among Antenatal Clients Attending a Specialist Hospital in Kano, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lawan, Umar Muhammad; Takai, Idris Usman; Ishaq, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Background. Eclampsia is a reliable indicator of poor birth preparedness and complications readiness. We determined perceptions about eclampsia, birth preparedness, and complications readiness among antenatal clients in Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Method. A cross-sectional design was used to study 250 randomly selected antenatal clients. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Result. The mean age of the respondents was 26.1 ± 6.4 years. The majority perceived that eclampsia is preventable through good ANC (76.4%) and hospital delivery (70.8%). Overall, 66.8% had good perception about eclampsia. Having at least secondary school education and multigravidity were associated with good perception about eclampsia on multivariate analysis. About a third (39.6%) of the mothers was less prepared. On binary logistic regression, good perception about eclampsia and multigravidity were associated with being very prepared for birth. Up to 37.6% were not ready for complications. Half (50.4%) knew at least three danger signs of pregnancy, and 30.0% donated blood or identified suitable blood donor. On multivariate analysis, having at least secondary school education, being very prepared for birth, and multigravidity emerged as the only predictors of the respondents' readiness for complications. Conclusion and Recommendations. Health workers should emphasize the practicability of birth preparedness and complications readiness during ANC and in the communities, routinely review plans, and support clients meet-up challenging areas. The importance of girl-child education to at least secondary school should be buttressed. PMID:26257792

  1. The association between ethnicity and late presentation to antenatal care among pregnant women living with HIV in the UK and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Shema; Elford, Jonathan; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Tookey, Pat A

    2012-01-01

    UK and Ireland guidelines state that all pregnant women should have their first antenatal care appointment by 13 weeks of pregnancy (antenatal booking). We present the results of an analysis looking at the association between maternal ethnicity and late antenatal booking in HIV-positive women in the UK and Ireland. We analysed data from the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC). We included all pregnancies in women who were diagnosed with HIV before delivery and had an estimated delivery date between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2009. Late booking was defined as antenatal booking at 13 weeks or later. The baseline reference group for all analyses comprised women of "white" ethnicity. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR). There were 2721 eligible reported pregnancies; 63% (1709) had data available on antenatal care booking date. In just over 50% of pregnancies (871/1709), the antenatal booking date was ≥13 weeks of pregnancy (i.e., late booking). Women diagnosed with HIV during the current pregnancy were more likely to present for antenatal care late than those previously diagnosed (59.1% vs. 47.5%, p<0.001). Where women knew their HIV status prior to becoming pregnant, the risk of late booking was raised for those of African ethnicity (AOR 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14, 2.82; p=0.011). In women diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy, the risk of late booking was also higher for women of African ethnicity (AOR 2.98: 95% CI 1.45, 6.11; p=0.003) and for women of other black ethnicity (AOR 3.74: 95% CI 1.28, 10.94; p=0.016). Overall, women of African or other black ethnicity were more likely to book late for antenatal care compared with white women, regardless of timing of diagnosis. This may have an adverse effect on maternal and infant outcomes, including mother-to-child transmission of HIV. PMID:22519823

  2. A qualitative study exploring how Somali women exposed to female genital mutilation experience and perceive antenatal and intrapartum care in England

    PubMed Central

    Moxey, Jordan M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore how Somali women exposed to female genital mutilation experience and perceive antenatal and intrapartum care in England. We explored women's perceptions of deinfibulation, caesarean section and vaginal delivery; their experiences of care during pregnancy and labour; and factors that affect ability to access these services, in order to make recommendations about future practice. Design A descriptive, exploratory qualitative study using face-to-face semistructured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and data were analysed using a thematic approach. An interpreter was used when required (n=3). Setting Participants recruited from 2 community centres in Birmingham, England. Participants Convenience and snowball sample of 10 Somali women resident in Birmingham, who had accessed antenatal care services in England within the past 5 years. Results 3 core themes were interpreted: (1) Experiences of female genital mutilation during life, pregnancy and labour: Female genital mutilation had a significant physical and psychological impact, influencing decisions to undergo deinfibulation or caesarean section. Women delayed deinfibulation until labour to avoid undergoing multiple operations if an episiotomy was anticipated. (2) Experience of care from midwives: Awareness of female genital mutilation from midwives led to open communication and stronger relationships with women, resulting in more positive experiences. (3) Adaptation to English life: Good language skills and social support networks enabled women to access these services, while unfavourable social factors (eg, inability to drive) impeded. Conclusions Female genital mutilation impacts Somali women's experiences of antenatal and intrapartum care. This study suggests that midwives should routinely ask Somali women about female genital mutilation to encourage open communication and facilitate more positive experiences. As antenatal deinfibulation is unpopular, we should consider developing strategies to promote deinfibulation to non-pregnant women, to align with current guidelines. Women with unfavourable social factors may require additional support to improve access to English antenatal care services. PMID:26743705

  3. Refugee and Migrant Women's Views of Antenatal Ultrasound on the Thai Burmese Border: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Thwin, May Myo; Ladda Kajeechewa, Honey Moon; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Lwin, Khin Maung; Jones, Caroline; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal ultrasound suits developing countries by virtue of its versatility, relatively low cost and safety, but little is known about women’s or local provider’s perspectives of this upcoming technology in such settings. This study was undertaken to better understand how routine obstetric ultrasound is experienced in a displaced Burmese population and identify barriers to its acceptance by local patients and providers. Methodology/Principal Findings Qualitative (30 observations, 19 interviews, seven focus group discussions) and quantitative methods (questionnaire survey with 644 pregnant women) were used to provide a comprehensive understanding along four major themes: safety, emotions, information and communication, and unintended consequences of antenatal ultrasound in refugee and migrant clinics on the Thai Burmese border. One of the main concerns expressed by women was the danger of childbirth which they mainly attributed to fetal malposition. Both providers and patients recognized ultrasound as a technology improving the safety of pregnancy and delivery. A minority of patients experienced transitory shyness or anxiety before the ultrasound, but reported that these feelings could be ameliorated with improved patient information and staff communication. Unintended consequences of overuse and gender selective abortions in this population were not common. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study are being used to improve local practice and allow development of explanatory materials for this population with low literacy. We strongly encourage facilities introducing new technology in resource poor settings to assess acceptability through similar inquiry. PMID:22514615

  4. Male participation in pregnancy and delivery in Nigeria: a survey of antenatal attendees.

    PubMed

    Olayemi, O; Bello, F A; Aimakhu, C O; Obajimi, G O; Adekunle, A O

    2009-07-01

    This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 462 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study's aims were to assess the level of participation of Nigerian men in pregnancy and birth, the attitude of the women and likely targets for improved care delivery. Three hundred and forty-nine women (75.5%) were aware that husbands could participate in childbirth. Most women did not think it was their husbands' place to attend antenatal clinic (48.3%) or counselling sessions (56.7%). Nearly all husbands (97.4%) encouraged their wives to attend antenatal clinic - paying antenatal service bills (96.5%), paying for transport to the clinic (94.6%) and reminding them of their clinic visits (83.3%). Three hundred and thirty-five husbands (72.5%) accompanied their wives to the hospital for their last delivery, while 63.9% were present at last delivery. More-educated women were less likely to be accompanied to the antenatal clinic, while more-educated men were likely to accompany their wives. Yoruba husbands were less likely to accompany their wives, but Yoruba wives with non-Yoruba husbands were 12 times more likely to be accompanied. Women in the rural centre were less likely to receive help with household chores from their husbands during pregnancy, while educated women were more likely to benefit from this. Monogamous unions and increasing level of husbands' education were associated with spousal presence at delivery. It appears that male participation is satisfactory in some aspects, but increased attendance at antenatal services and delivery would be desirable. PMID:19302728

  5. Spatial autocorrelation in uptake of antenatal care and relationship to individual, household and village-level factors: results from a community-based survey of pregnant women in six districts in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The majority of maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths are concentrated in a few countries, many of which have weak health systems, poor access to health services, and low coverage of key health interventions. Early and consistent antenatal care (ANC) attendance could significantly reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Despite this, most Kenyan mothers initiate ANC care late in pregnancy and attend fewer than the recommended visits. Methods We used survey data from 6,200 pregnant women across six districts in western Kenya to understand demand-side factors related to use of ANC. Bayesian multi-level models were developed to explore the relative importance of individual, household and village-level factors in relation to ANC use. Results There is significant spatial autocorrelation of ANC attendance in three of the six districts and considerable heterogeneity in factors related to ANC use between districts. Working outside the home limited ANC attendance. Maternal age, the number of small children in the household, and ownership of livestock were important in some districts, but not all. Village proportions of pregnancy in women of child-bearing age was significantly correlated to ANC use in three of the six districts. Geographic distance to health facilities and the type of nearest facility was not correlated with ANC use. After incorporating individual, household and village-level covariates, no residual spatial autocorrelation remained in the outcome. Conclusions ANC attendance was consistently low across all the districts, but factors related to poor attendance varied. This heterogeneity is expected for an outcome that is highly influenced by socio-cultural values and local context. Interventions to improve use of ANC must be tailored to local context and should include explicit approaches to reach women who work outside the home. PMID:24314170

  6. Antenatal Iron Supplementation Regimens for Pregnant Women in Rural Vietnam and Subsequent Haemoglobin Concentration and Anaemia among Their Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thach Duc; Fisher, Jane; Hanieh, Sarah; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Tran, Ha; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background Little evidence about the effects of antenatal iron supplementation on infant anaemia is available. The aim was to compare effects on six-month-old infants’ Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and anaemia of daily iron–folic acid (IFA), twice-weekly IFA with or without other micronutrients (MMN) and usual antenatal care in rural Vietnam. Methods and Findings Secondary data analysis from: a prospective population-based observational study (OS) which examined effects of antenatal psychosocial factors, anaemia and iron deficiency on infant development and health; and a three-arm cluster randomised trial (CRT) of different antenatal iron supplementation regimens. In the OS 497 women (<20 weeks gestation) from 50 randomly-selected communes participated, and in the CRT 1,258 pregnant women (<16 weeks gestation) in 104 communes were allocated randomly to trial arms. The main outcome was six-month-old infant Hb concentration. Baseline data included women’s socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive health, Hb and serum ferritin. Mean differences in infant Hb and odds ratios of infant anaemia between CRT arms and OS were calculated by multivariable regression models, controlling for baseline differences and clustering, using robust standard errors. Infant anaemia prevalence was 68.6% in the OS, 47.2% daily IFA, 53.5% weekly IFA, and 50.3% MMN conditions. After adjustment, mean infant haemoglobin levels in daily IFA (mean difference = 0.95 g/dL; 95%CI 0.7-11.18); weekly IFA (0.91; 95%CI 0.69-1.12) and MMN (1.04; 95%CI 0.8-1.27) were higher than in the OS. After adjustment there were lower odds ratios of anaemia among infants in the daily IFA (OR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.22-0.43), weekly IFA (0.38; 95%CI 0.26-0.54) and MMN (0.33; 95%CI 0.23-0.48) groups than in the OS. Conclusions Infant anaemia is a public health problem in Vietnam and other resource-constrained countries. All supplementation regimens could have clinically significant benefits for Hb and reduce anaemia risk among six-month-old infants. Universal provision of free intermittent iron supplements is warranted. PMID:25928545

  7. Bedouin-Arab women's access to antenatal care at the interface of physical and structural barriers: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Nora; Belmaker, Ilana; Bilenko, Natalya; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2011-01-01

    Since 2000, the Israeli Public Health Services have established eight Maternal-and-Child-Health (MCH) stations in unrecognised Bedouin-Arab villages in South Israel in order to reduce barriers to healthcare. The goals of this pilot study were: (1) to explore the new MCH stations' impact on antenatal care (ANC) accessibility; and (2) to compare access to ANC between women from villages with MCH stations and women from villages without MCH stations. The study combined quantitative and qualitative methods including structured interviews with 174 MCH service users, review of 158 ANC records and 16 in-depth interviews with Bedouin-Arab women. The establishment of MCH stations in unrecognised villages has improved physical access to ANC and secondarily diminished other barriers related to financial and sociocultural dimensions of women's access to healthcare, thus enhancing women's options for independent healthcare-seeking; yet, limited opening hours, staff shortages and communication problems hamper ANC delivery at the new MCH stations. This pilot study indicates that the MCH stations' establishment in unrecognised villages was a successful intervention, which improved women's access to ANC. Even though current service delivery challenges need to be overcome to achieve the intervention's full potential, its replication should be considered in further villages. PMID:20521192

  8. Specialised antenatal clinics for women with a pregnancy at high risk of preterm birth (excluding multiple pregnancy) to improve maternal and infant outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, Melissa; Quenby, Siobhan; Cockerill, Ruth O; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Amongst the risk factors for preterm birth, previous preterm delivery is a strong predictor. Specialised clinics for women with a history of spontaneous preterm delivery have been advocated as a way of improving outcomes for women and their infants. Objectives To assess using the best available evidence, the value of specialised antenatal clinics for women with a pregnancy at high risk of preterm delivery when compared with ‘standard’ antenatal clinics. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2011). Selection criteria All published, unpublished, and ongoing randomised controlled trials (including cluster-randomised trials) examining specialised compared with standard antenatal clinic care for women with a singleton pregnancy considered at high risk of preterm labour. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results We included three trials with 3400 women, all carried out in the USA. All focused on specialised clinics for women at high risk of preterm birth. Gestational age at delivery, preterm delivery, or both were primary outcomes in all studies. The interventions in the three trials differed. Overall there was very little data on our prespecified outcomes. For most outcomes a single study provided data, hence there was not the statistical power to detect any possible differences between groups. There was no clear evidence that specialised antenatal clinics reduce the number of preterm births. Authors’ conclusions Specialised antenatal clinics are now an accepted part of care in many settings, and carrying out further randomised trials may not be possible. Any future research in this area should include psychological outcomes and should focus on which aspects of service provision are preferred by women. Such research could underpin further service development in this area. PMID:21901705

  9. Testing for the endogenous nature between women's empowerment and antenatal health care utilization: evidence from a cross-sectional study in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Zaky, Hassan H M; Armanious, Dina M; Hussein, Mohamed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Women's relative lack of decision-making power and their unequal access to employment, finances, education, basic health care, and other resources are considered to be the root causes of their ill-health and that of their children. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the interactive relation between women's empowerment and the use of maternal health care. Two model specifications are tested. One assumes no correlation between empowerment and antenatal care while the second specification allows for correlation. Both the univariate and the recursive bivariate probit models are tested. The data used in this study is EDHS 2008. Factor Analysis Technique is also used to construct some of the explanatory variables such as the availability and quality of health services indicators. The findings show that women's empowerment and receiving regular antenatal care are simultaneously determined and the recursive bivariate probit is a better approximation to the relationship between them. Women's empowerment has significant and positive impact on receiving regular antenatal care. The availability and quality of health services do significantly increase the likelihood of receiving regular antenatal care. PMID:25140310

  10. Determinants of access to antenatal care and birth outcomes in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ntui, Asundep N.; Carson, April; Turpin, Cornelius Archer; Berhanu, Tameru; Agidi, Ada; Zhang, Kui; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors that influence antenatal care utilization and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes (defined as low birth weight, stillbirth, preterm delivery or small for gestational age) among pregnant women in Kumasi. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted of 643 women aged 19-48 years who presented for delivery at selected public hospitals and private traditional birth attendants from July-November 2011. Participants’ information and factors influencing antenatal attendance were collected using a structured questionnaire and antenatal records. Associations between these factors and adverse pregnancy outcomes were assessed using chi-square and logistic regression. Nineteen percent of the women experienced an adverse pregnancy outcome. For 49% of the women, cost influenced their antenatal attendance. Cost was associated with increased likelihood of a woman experiencing an adverse outcome (adjusted OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.16-3.99; p = 0.016). Also, women with >5 births had an increased likelihood of an adverse outcome compared with women with single deliveries (adjusted OR = 3.77; 95% CI = 1.50-9.53; p = 0.005). The prevalence of adverse outcomes was lower than previously reported (44.6% - 19%). Cost and distance were associated with adverse outcomes after adjusting for confounders. Cost and distance could be minimized through a wider application of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme. PMID:24206799

  11. Safety and efficacy of antenatal milk expressing for women with diabetes in pregnancy: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Della A; Jacobs, Susan; Amir, Lisa H; Davis, Peter; Walker, Susan P; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Donath, Susan M; Moorhead, Anita M; Ford, Rachael; McNamara, Catharine; Aylward, Amanda; Gold, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many maternity providers recommend that women with diabetes in pregnancy express and store breast milk in late pregnancy so breast milk is available after birth, given (1) infants of these women are at increased risk of hypoglycaemia in the first 24 h of life; and (2) the delay in lactogenesis II compared with women without diabetes that increases their infant's risk of receiving infant formula. The Diabetes and Antenatal Milk Expressing (DAME) trial will establish whether advising women with diabetes in pregnancy (pre-existing or gestational) to express breast milk from 36 weeks gestation increases the proportion of infants who require admission to special or neonatal intensive care units (SCN/NICU) compared with infants of women receiving standard care. Secondary outcomes include birth gestation, breastfeeding outcomes and economic impact. Methods and analysis Women will be recruited from 34 weeks gestation to a multicentre, two arm, unblinded randomised controlled trial. The intervention starts at 36 weeks. Randomisation will be stratified by site, parity and diabetes type. Women allocated to the intervention will be taught expressing and encouraged to hand express twice daily for 10 min and keep an expressing diary. The sample size of 658 (329 per group) will detect a 10% difference in proportion of babies admitted to SCN/NICU (85% power, α 0.05). Data are collected at recruitment (structured questionnaire), after birth (abstracted from medical record blinded to group), and 2 and 12 weeks postpartum (telephone interview). Data analysis: the intervention group will be compared with the standard care group by intention to treat analysis, and the primary outcome compared using χ2 and ORs. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval will be obtained from participating sites. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented to clinicians, policymakers and study participants. Trial registration number Australian Controlled Trials Register ACTRN12611000217909. PMID:25358679

  12. Quality of antenatal services at the primary care level in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladapo, Olufemi T; Iyaniwura, Christianah A; Sule-Odu, Adewale O

    2008-12-01

    A survey of 452 pregnant women accessing care at first level public health facilities in a local government area in southwest Nigeria was conducted to assess their perspectives on the quality of antenatal care received. Majority of the women expressed satisfaction with the level of expertise and basic technical competence of their careproviders. Less than 30% were pleased with the existing patients' referral mechanisms. At least two-thirds received as much information as desired in salient aspects of antenatal health information needs. Frequency of antenatal visits was "about the same as expected" for 93.6% of the women. The mean reported waiting time before antenatal consultation was 131.1 minutes although 106 (43.3 %) women expected to be attended within 30 minutes of arrival. Approximately two-thirds of women were unhappy about their involvement in decision-making with respect to birth planning and postpartum contraception. Compared to other elements of quality, women were least pleased with constellation of services especially sanitary facilities and number of skilled healthcare providers. On the whole, respondents expressed a high level of overall satisfaction (81.4%) with the care received. The survey indicates that antenatal women may generally express satisfaction with the quality of services despite some inconsistencies between received care and their expectations of the facilities. PMID:19435014

  13. Role of intravenous iron sucrose in correction of anemia in antenatal women with advanced pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Avantika; Rathore, Asmita Muthal; Manaktala, Usha; Gupta, Ashutosh; Gupta, Sangeeta

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to observe rise in haematological parameters after treatment with iron sucrose in antenatal patients with moderate anemia with period of gestation 32 to 35 weeks. The study included 45 antenatal patients with period of gestation from 32 to 35 weeks having iron deficiency anemia with haemoglobin levels 7-9 g% and serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/mL. Intravenous iron sucrose was given in the dose of 200 mg on alternate days, according to the calculated dose. The mean haemoglobin and red blood cell indices were compared on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and at the time of delivery from the baseline value. There was a statistically significant rise in haemoglobin value from baseline on days 14, 21, 28 as well as at the time of delivery (p value <0.0001). The mean rise in haemoglobin values was 0.56 g% on day 14, 1.44 g% on day 21 and 2.0 g% on day 28. At the time of delivery, mean haemoglobin was 11.24 g%. After 28 days of treatment, there was a statistically significant rise in the levels of serum ferritin from 10.33 ± 3.8 ng/mL to 36.89 ± 5.7 ng/mL. Thus, earlier response achieved by iron sucrose can be utilised in the patients presenting at an advanced period of gestation with iron deficiency anemia. PMID:25825567

  14. Impact of the Integration of Water Treatment and Handwashing Incentives with Antenatal Services on Hygiene Practices of Pregnant Women in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Anandi N.; Russo, Elizabeth T.; Menon, Manoj; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Weinger, Merri; Kudzala, Amose C.; Tauzie, Blessius; Masuku, Humphreys D.; Msowoya, Tapona E.; Quick, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and improved hygiene are important for reducing morbidity and mortality from diarrhea. We surveyed 330 pregnant women who participated in an antenatal clinic-based intervention in Malawi that promoted water treatment and hygiene through distribution of water storage containers, sodium hypochlorite water treatment solution, soap, and educational messages. Program participants were more likely to know correct water treatment procedures (62% versus 27%, P < 0.0001), chlorinate drinking water (61% versus 1%, P < 0.0001), demonstrate correct handwashing practices (68% versus 22%, P < 0.0001), and purchase water treatment solution after free distribution (32% versus 1%, P < 0.0001). Among participants, 72% had at least three antenatal visits, 76% delivered in a health facility, and 54% had a postnatal check. This antenatal-clinic-based program is an effective new strategy for promoting water treatment and hygiene behaviors among pregnant women. Participants had high use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal services, which could improve maternal and child health. PMID:21118942

  15. Understanding cervical screening non-attendance among ethnic minority women in England

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, L A V; Wardle, J; Waller, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds are less likely to attend cervical screening than White British women. This study explored sociodemographic and attitudinal correlates of cervical screening non-attendance among BAME women. Methods: Women (30–60 years) were recruited from Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African and White British backgrounds (n=720). Participants completed structured interviews. Results: BAME women were more likely to be non-attenders than white British women (44–71% vs 12%) and fell into two groups: the disengaged and the overdue. Migrating to the United Kingdom, speaking a language other than English and low education level were associated with being disengaged. Being overdue was associated with older age. Three attitudinal barriers were associated with being overdue for screening among BAME women: low perceived risk of cervical cancer due to sexual inactivity, belief that screening is unnecessary without symptoms and difficulty finding an appointment that fits in with other commitments. Conclusions: BAME non-attenders appear to fall into two groups, and interventions for these groups may need to be targeted and tailored accordingly. It is important to ensure that BAME women understand cancer screening is intended for asymptomatic women and those who have ceased sexual activity may still be at risk. PMID:26171938

  16. My Rock: Black Women Attending Graduate School at a Southern Predominantly White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Quentin R.; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Participants in this phenomenological study were 11 Black women who received an undergraduate degree from a historically Black college or university and were currently attending graduate school at a southern predominantly White university. This study investigated the adjustment experiences of these women to life on a southern predominantly White…

  17. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Intimate Partner Violence Among Pregnant Women Attending Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omolo, Jared; Kamweya, Abel M.; Harder, Valarie S.; Mutai, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women seeking antenatal care. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya amongst randomly selected pregnant women. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Participants self-reported about their own IPV experience (lifetime, 12 months prior to and during index pregnancy) and associated risk factors. Data were analyzed using Epi-info. The mean age of the 300 participants was 23.7 years. One hundred and ten (37 %) of them experienced at least one form of IPV during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common (29 %), followed by sexual (12 %), and then physical (10 %). Women who experienced IPV during pregnancy were more likely to have witnessed maternal abuse in childhood (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI = 1.05–4.89), been in a polygamous union (aOR 2.48, 95 % CI = 1.06–5.8), been multiparous (aOR 1.94, 95 % CI = 1.01–3.32) or had a partner who drank alcohol (aOR 2.32, 95 % CI = 1.21–4.45). Having a partner who attained tertiary education was protective against IPV (aOR 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.16–0.83). We found no association between HIV status and IPV. IPV is common among women seeking antenatal care at Kisumu District Hospital. Health care providers should be alerted to the possibility of IPV during pregnancy in women who witnessed maternal abuse in childhood, are multiparous, polygamous, have a partner who drinks alcohol or has low level education. Screening for IPV, support and referral is urgently needed to help reduce the burden experienced by pregnant women and their unborn babies. PMID:22569943

  18. Risk and Prevalence of Anemia among Women Attending Public and Private Universities.

    PubMed

    Marques, Marcelo Rodrigues; De Oliveira E Silva, Lília Maria Monteiro; Dos Santos Beserra Pessoa, Marcia Luiza; Da Mota Araújo, Marcos Antônio; Dos Reis Moreira-Araújo, Regilda Saraiva

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a global public health problem. Women are known to be more susceptible to anemia; however, no controlled study has yet assessed differences in the prevalence of anemia exclusively among women with higher education. The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of anemia among women attending universities. The hemoglobin concentration of 140 women aged 18 to 45 years old from a private and a public university was measured. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were also collected. The risk of developing anemia was almost threefold higher among the students attending the public university (OR: 2.71; p=.0248). The prevalence of anemia was much higher than in the overall female population (79%). The higher education was not a protective factor for anemia in women when analysed separately from the total population of women. PMID:25976426

  19. Investigating validity and reliability evidence for the maternal antenatal attachment scale in a sample of Italian women.

    PubMed

    Busonera, Alessandra; Cataudella, Stefania; Lampis, Jessica; Tommasi, Marco; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare

    2016-04-01

    This study focused on the development of the emotional tie of the expectant mother towards her unborn child and aimed to achieve structural and external validity evidence for an Italian version of the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS; Br J Med Psychol 66: 167-183, 1993). The MAAS was translated into Italian and was administered to a sample of 482 Italian expectant women (age 20-43 years), together with other questionnaires measuring maternal-fetal attachment, psychological well-being, and relational variables. The hypothesised relationships with external concurrent and predictive criteria were substantiated. Internal consistencies were adequate for the total scale and for one of the two subscales. Confirmatory factor analyses provided general support for an oblique two-factor model, with minor model misfit. Therefore, an exploratory factor analysis with oblimin rotation was performed. The findings suggested that some items may represent extraneous constructs. Implications for future research regarding the functioning of the instrument are addressed. PMID:26189447

  20. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Businge, Charles Bitamazire; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Mathews, Verona

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol. PMID:26800877

  1. Syrian Women’s Perceptions and Experiences of Ultrasound Screening in Pregnancy: Implications for Antenatal Policy

    PubMed Central

    Bashour, Hyam; Hafez, Raghda; Abdulsalam, Asmaa

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasound scanning is firmly embedded in antenatal maternity care around the world. This paper reports on a qualitative study carried out in 2003 of 30 Syrian women’s perceptions and experiences of routine ultrasound in pregnancy. It was part of a larger study of the experiences of pregnancy and childbirth of 500 women from Damascus and its suburbs who had recently given birth to healthy newborns. The women had had multiple scans during pregnancy and accepted its use uncritically nearly all the time. The scans gave them reassurance that the baby was healthy, the pregnancy was progressing well and allowed them to learn the sex of the baby. The women also reacted positively to the antenatal educational messages that were conveyed using scans. However, we found the excessive use of this technology worrying. We believe private doctors, who attend 80% of pregnant women, use ultrasound primarily to attract women to their clinics and increase their income. We recommend that maternity care in Syria should be better regulated; that women and their doctors should be made aware of the essential components of antenatal care; that national guidelines for antenatal care should be developed and that Syrian women should be empowered to ask questions about pregnancy and childbirth and the care they receive. PMID:16035608

  2. An Augmented SMS Intervention to Improve Access to Antenatal CD4 Testing and ART Initiation in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Bennett, Kara; Hughes, Michael D.; Veres, Adrian; John, Oaitse; Pradhananga, Rosina; Boyer, Matthew; Brown, Carolyn; Sakyi, Bright; van Widenfelt, Erik; Keapoletswe, Koona; Mine, Madisa; Moyo, Sikhulile; Asmelash, Aida; Siedner, Mark; Mmalane, Mompati; Shapiro, Roger L.; Lockman, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than one-third of HIV-infected pregnant women eligible for combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally initiate treatment prior to delivery, with lack of access to timely CD4 results being a principal barrier. We evaluated the effectiveness of an SMS-based intervention to improve access to timely antenatal ART. Methods We conducted a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial of a low-cost programmatic intervention in 20 antenatal clinics in Gaborone, Botswana. From July 2011-April 2012, 2 clinics were randomly selected every 4 weeks to receive an ongoing clinic-based educational intervention to improve CD4 collection and to receive CD4 results via an automated SMS platform with active patient tracing. CD4 testing before 26 weeks gestation and ART initiation before 30 weeks gestation were assessed. Results Three-hundred-sixty-six ART-naïve women were included, 189 registering for antenatal care under Intervention and 177 under Usual Care periods. Of CD4-eligible women, 100 (59.2%) women under Intervention and 79 (50.6%) women under Usual Care completed CD4 phlebotomy before 26 weeks gestation, adjusted odds ratio (aOR, adjusted for time that a clinic initiated Intervention) 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI]0.47–1.63, P = 0.67). The SMS-based platform reduced time to clinic receipt of CD4 test result from median of 16 to 6 days (P<0.001), was appreciated by clinic staff, and was associated with reduced operational cost. However, rates of ART initiation remained low, with 56 (36.4%) women registering under Intervention versus 37 (24.2%) women under Usual Care initiating ART prior to 30 weeks gestation, aOR 1.06 (95%CI 0.53–2.13, P = 0.87). Conclusions The augmented SMS-based intervention delivered CD4 results more rapidly and efficiently, and this type of SMS-based results delivery platform may be useful for a variety of tests and settings. However, the intervention did not appear to improve access to timely antenatal CD4 testing or ART initiation, as obstacles other than CD4 impeded ART initiation during pregnancy. PMID:25693050

  3. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    PubMed

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. PMID:25604971

  4. A Mixed-Method Analysis of African-American Women's Attendance at an HIV Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, R. M.; McKay, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Grounded in a model of service utilization, this study conceptualizes attendance of African-American women at an HIV prevention intervention as associated with influences across three ecological domains--individual, service (program), and social network. First, the texts of responses to semistructured, open-ended elicitation interviews were…

  5. [Evaluation of the cardiovascular risk among climacteric women attended at a family health program].

    PubMed

    Piazza, Ivanete Perboni; De Lorenzi, Dino Roberto Soares; Saciloto, Bruno

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study has been evaluating the cardiovascular risk among climacteric women attended at a Family Health Program from June to September 2003. The cardiovascular risk was assessed through the Framinghan Score. The incidence of dyslipidaemias was of 61% with hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia rates of 41% and 21%, respectively. The average cardiovascular risk was of 3,5 % (+/-3,2) being higher among post-menopause women (p=0,04). These results reinforce the importance of the assistance to climacteric women in the health services in Brazil, what would contribute to the reduction of the female mortality rates. PMID:16468265

  6. Prevalence of RTI/STI agents and HIV infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic women attending peripheral health set-ups in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    RAY, K.; BALA, M.; BHATTACHARYA, M.; MURALIDHAR, S.; KUMARI, M.; SALHAN, S.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The study was carried out in symptomatic and asymptomatic women attending peripheral health centres to determine the laboratory prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI), reproductive tract infection (RTI) and HIV. A total of 4090 women in four study groups were subjected to general and speculum examination and screened for aetiological agents of RTI/STI by standard laboratory techniques. The main complaint was vaginal discharge, singly (11·2%) or along with other symptoms (49·0%). Prevalence of RTI/STI/HIV infection was 36·8%. Agents of RTIs were harboured by 24·3% and that of STIs by 12·5%. HIV seroprevalence was very low (0·1%). HSV-2 represented the commonest aetiological agent of STIs, suggesting the necessity of including anti-HSV treatment in the national syndromic management guidelines. The present study highlights the importance of routine RTI/STI screening of antenatal mothers to avoid adverse consequences to the unborn child, and periodic surveys to detect the infection pattern in symptomatic and asymptomatic women, in order to control HIV infection. PMID:18081951

  7. Cancer genetic clinics: why do women who already have cancer attend?

    PubMed

    Julian-Reynier, C; Eisinger, F; Chabal, F; Aurran, Y; Bignon, Y J; Noguès, C; Machelard, M; Maugard, C; Vennin, P; Sobol, H

    1998-09-01

    Cancer patients attend oncogenetic clinics so that the existence of a genetic risk can be checked and the relatives informed. The aim of this study was to describe the expectations of cancer patients about genetic counselling and their beliefs about the aetiology of their disease. A survey based on self-administered questionnaires before and after the consultation was carried out on 115 women with breast/ovarian cancer who attended one of the six French participating clinics. In 59 cases (51%), the consultees' expectations focused on the preventive options available and in 86 cases (75%) on their offspring; 87 (76%) found the consultation informative. On average, the women rated heredity and diet as lower risk factors (P < 0.05) after the consultation than before. Heredity, stress and the environment were thought to be more decisive than diet, smoking and alcohol. 34 patients who seemed unlikely to have a genetic risk in the consultant's opinion thought heredity to be less relevant (P < 0.05) after the consultation than before. At the time of the survey, cancer patients accounted for at least half of the consultees attending oncogenetic clinics in France. They need to have the clinical specificities of their disease and its medical management explained. They attend mainly for their offspring's sake, whereas healthy clients attend for their own sake. PMID:9893626

  8. A study of domestic violence among women attending a medical centre in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A M; Elmardi, A E

    2005-01-01

    To investigate domestic violence in the Sudanese family, we studied 394 literate, married women attending the Arda Medical Centre, Omdurman, from October 2001 to February 2002. Through self-administered questionnaires, the women provided data on sociodemographic characteristics and abuse by the husband. Abuse was reported by 164 women (41.6%), who suffered 525 violent episodes in the previous year, classified into controlling behaviour (194), threatening behaviour (169) and physical violence (162). Frequency of violent episodes varied from 1 (25%) to > 6 (20.7%). Violence during pregnancy was reported by 27 women (16.5%). Provoking events included suspicion of illicit relations, talking back and inadequate home care. Common reactions reported by the women included staying quiet, crying and resistance. PMID:16532685

  9. Candida species and C. albicans biotypes in women attending clinics in genitourinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Odds, F C; Webster, C E; Fisk, P G; Riley, V C; Mayuranathan, P; Simmons, P D

    1989-05-01

    Yeasts were isolated from two or more anatomical sites in 198 women attending genitourinary clinics on at least two occasions. The yeast biotypes isolated concurrently from the vagina and urethra were the same in 138 (99%) of 140 instances, and 94% of 124 concurrent genital and anal isolates were of matching types, whereas only 75% of concurrent genital and oral isolates were of the same type. Mixtures of Candida spp. or C. albicans biotypes were encountered only five times among 545 yeast-positive samples. In instances where Candida spp. were isolated at successive times from the same site in a patient, the same yeast type was encountered on 97 (87%) of 112 occasions when the interval between samples was less than 15 weeks, and on 19 (66%) of 29 occasions when the interval was 15 weeks or more. These data indicate a tendency to carriage of phenotypically consistent types of Candida among most women attending genitourinary clinics. PMID:2657069

  10. A microbiological study of vaginal discharge in women attending a Malaysian gynaecological clinic.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Y M; Ng, Y P; Chin, C S; Thambu, J

    1992-03-01

    Vaginal discharge is a common complaint of women attending gynaecological clinics. The purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of commonly implicated microorganisms in vaginal discharge amongst women with or without the complaint, attending a gynaecological and family planning clinic. The association of Gardnerella vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis was also studied. It was found that there were no significant differences between the cases and controls in the isolation rate of Gardnerella vaginalis, Torulopsis glabrata, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma ssp and Group B streptococcus (p greater than 0.05). Only the isolation rate of Candida albicans was significantly higher in the cases than controls (p less than 0.01). However, there was a significant association of G. vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis. PMID:1387449

  11. Factors affecting perinatal mortality (PNM) in women attending Bab El-Shaaria University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Azab, M A

    1995-01-01

    This study aimed to identify and to assess the important factors affecting perinatal mortality (PNM) in Cairo. 200 women were selected randomly from the gynecology and obstetric department of Bab El-Shaaria University Hospital. 100 women were the case group of perinatal deaths, while the other 100 women formed the control group. Both groups had similar life styles. The attendance rate for prenatal care was more frequent among the control group. High parity, short birth intervals, twins, preterm births, a birth order of 4 or higher, anemia, diabetes mellitus, and maternal age of 30 years and older were more prevalent among the case group and considered risk factors for perinatal mortality. Adequate health care and family planning services must be available to all women of reproductive age. Good prenatal care is needed for the prevention and control of coexisting diseases, and good obstetric care is needed to prevent the premature rupture of membranes. PMID:12295112

  12. Factors Associated with Four or More Antenatal Care Visits and Its Decline among Pregnant Women in Tanzania between 1999 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shivam; Yamada, Goro; Mpembeni, Rose; Frumence, Gasto; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A.; Stevenson, Raz; Brandes, Neal; Baqui, Abdullah H.

    2014-01-01

    In Tanzania, the coverage of four or more antenatal care (ANC 4) visits among pregnant women has declined over time. We conducted an exploratory analysis to identify factors associated with utilization of ANC 4 and ANC 4 decline among pregnant women over time. We used data from 8035 women who delivered within two years preceding Tanzania Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1999, 2004/05 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between all potential factors and utilization of ANC 4; and decline in ANC 4 over time. Factors positively associated with ANC 4 utilization were higher quality of services, testing and counseling for HIV during ANC, receiving two or more doses of SP (Sulphadoxine Pyrimethamine)/Fansidar for preventing malaria during ANC and higher educational status of the woman. Negatively associated factors were residing in a zone other than Eastern zone, never married woman, reported long distance to health facility, first ANC visit after four months of pregnancy and woman's desire to avoid pregnancy. The factors significantly associated with decline in utilization of ANC 4 were: geographic zone and age of the woman at delivery. Strategies to increase ANC 4 utilization should focus on improvement in quality of care, geographic accessibility, early ANC initiation, and services that allow women to avoid pregnancy. The interconnected nature of the Tanzanian Health System is reflected in ANC 4 decline over time where introduction of new programs might have had unintended effects on existing programs. An in-depth assessment of the recent policy change towards Focused Antenatal Care and its implementation across different geographic zones, including its effect on the perception and understanding among women and performance and counseling by health providers can help explain the decline in ANC 4. PMID:25036291

  13. Human papillomavirus infection in women attended at a cervical cancer screening service in Natal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo; de Vasconcellos Meissner, Rosely; Bezerra, Laelson Freire; de Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros; Fernandes, José Veríssimo

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed cervical specimens of 202 women, aged 15 to 64 years, attended at Luis Antonio Hospital, Natal, Brazil, to determine the prevalence of HPV and identify the more frequent genotypes and risk factors for HPV infection in women attended at a cervical cancer screening service. Two specimens were collected from each patient: one for cytological examination and the other to detect HPV DNA by PCR, and typing by dot blot hybridization. A total of 54.5% of the sample had normal cytology and 45.5% had cytological alterations. HPV was detected in 24.5% of the cytologically normal women and in 59.8% of those with altered cytology. Both single and double HPV infection increased the likelihood of cytological alterations. Thirteen types of HPV were identified, most of which were high risk. HPV 16 was the most prevalent single-type infection, followed by HPV 58. The most frequent double infection was the association between HPV 56 and 57. The prevalence of HPV in cytologically normal women was greater than that reported for countries on all the continents except Africa. The inverse was observed in women with cytological alterations. The distribution of HPV types was similar to that described for the Americas, with some differences. Multiple sexual partners was the only risk factor showing an association with the presence of HPV infection. PMID:24031268

  14. Impact of Male Partner Antenatal Accompaniment on Perinatal Health Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Carolina; Jennings, Larissa

    2015-09-01

    Encouraging male partners to accompany women to antenatal care (ANC) is an important first step in engaging men on maternal and newborn health. However, little is known regarding the impact of male partner antenatal accompaniment beyond HIV-related perinatal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize the evidence on the influence of male accompaniment on non-HIV outcomes during pregnancy and into the postpartum period. Eligible studies were published in English from 2003 to 2013 and evaluated the effect of male antenatal accompaniment on perinatal health in a developing country. Four electronic databases and selected reference lists were searched. Out of 84 potential citations retrieved, seven publications were retained for the assessment of male antenatal accompaniment's influence using iterative thematic analysis. During pregnancy, male antenatal accompaniment positively impacted women's knowledge of danger signs, but did not affect birth preparedness, ANC utilization, or miscarriages. During labor and delivery, men's ANC presence was associated with increases in institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance, but with no effect for birth-related outcomes. During the early postnatal period, male antenatal accompaniment was associated with higher uptake of postnatal services, but with mixed effects on breastfeeding and newborn survival. Couples' increased communication on pregnancy care and men's subsequent motivation to ensure safe delivery may explain these observed benefits. Inadequate communication, late accompaniment, or partner type may explain the lack of influence on some outcomes. More efforts are needed to expand the implementation and evaluation of male involvement strategies to improve perinatal health. PMID:25656727

  15. Pregnant and Postpartum Women's Experiences and Perspectives on the Acceptability and Feasibility of Copackaged Medicine for Antenatal Care and PMTCT in Lesotho

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Michelle M.; Hoffman, Heather J.; Tiam, Appolinaire; Mohai, Florence M.; Mokone, Majoalane; Isavwa, Anthony; Mohale, Sesomo; Makhohlisa, Matela; Ankrah, Victor; Luo, Chewe; Guay, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To improve PMTCT and antenatal care-related service delivery, a pack with centrally prepackaged medicine was rolled out to all pregnant women in Lesotho in 2011. This study assessed acceptability and feasibility of this copackaging mechanism for drug delivery among pregnant and postpartum women. Methods. Acceptability and feasibility were assessed in a mixed method, cross-sectional study through structured interviews (SI) and semistructured interviews (SSI) conducted in 2012 and 2013. Results. 290 HIV-negative women and 437 HIV-positive women (n = 727) participated. Nearly all SI participants found prepackaged medicines acceptable, though modifications such as size reduction of the pack were suggested. Positive experiences included that the pack helped women take pills as instructed and contents promoted healthy pregnancies. Negative experiences included inadvertent pregnancy disclosure and discomfort carrying the pack in communities. Implementation was also feasible; 85.2% of SI participants reported adequate counseling time, though 37.8% felt pack use caused clinic delays. SSI participants reported improvement in service quality following pack introduction, due to more comprehensive counseling. Conclusions. A prepackaged drug delivery mechanism for ANC/PMTCT medicines was acceptable and feasible. Findings support continued use of this approach in Lesotho with improved design modifications to reflect the current PMTCT program of lifelong treatment for all HIV-positive pregnant women. PMID:26649193

  16. Pregnant and Postpartum Women's Experiences and Perspectives on the Acceptability and Feasibility of Copackaged Medicine for Antenatal Care and PMTCT in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Gill, Michelle M; Hoffman, Heather J; Tiam, Appolinaire; Mohai, Florence M; Mokone, Majoalane; Isavwa, Anthony; Mohale, Sesomo; Makhohlisa, Matela; Ankrah, Victor; Luo, Chewe; Guay, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To improve PMTCT and antenatal care-related service delivery, a pack with centrally prepackaged medicine was rolled out to all pregnant women in Lesotho in 2011. This study assessed acceptability and feasibility of this copackaging mechanism for drug delivery among pregnant and postpartum women. Methods. Acceptability and feasibility were assessed in a mixed method, cross-sectional study through structured interviews (SI) and semistructured interviews (SSI) conducted in 2012 and 2013. Results. 290 HIV-negative women and 437 HIV-positive women (n = 727) participated. Nearly all SI participants found prepackaged medicines acceptable, though modifications such as size reduction of the pack were suggested. Positive experiences included that the pack helped women take pills as instructed and contents promoted healthy pregnancies. Negative experiences included inadvertent pregnancy disclosure and discomfort carrying the pack in communities. Implementation was also feasible; 85.2% of SI participants reported adequate counseling time, though 37.8% felt pack use caused clinic delays. SSI participants reported improvement in service quality following pack introduction, due to more comprehensive counseling. Conclusions. A prepackaged drug delivery mechanism for ANC/PMTCT medicines was acceptable and feasible. Findings support continued use of this approach in Lesotho with improved design modifications to reflect the current PMTCT program of lifelong treatment for all HIV-positive pregnant women. PMID:26649193

  17. A cluster randomized implementation trial to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by women for childbirth: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nepal is on track to achieve MDG 5 but there is a huge sub-national disparity with existing high maternal mortality in western and hilly regions. The national priority is to reduce this disparity to achieve the goal at sub-national level. Evidences from developing countries show that increasing utilization of skilled attendant at birth is an important indicator for reducing maternal death. Further, there is a very low utilization during childbirth in western and hilly regions of Nepal which clearly depicts the barriers in utilization of skilled birth attendants. So, there is a need to overcome the identified barriers to increase the utilization thereby decreasing the maternal mortality. The hypothesis of this study is that through a package of interventions the utilization of skilled birth attendants will be increased and hence improve maternal health in Nepal. Method/Design This study involves a cluster randomized controlled trial involving approximately 5000 pregnant women in 36 clusters. The 18 intervention clusters will receive the following interventions: i) mobilization of family support for pregnant women to reach the health facility, ii) availability of emergency funds for institutional childbirth, iii) availability of transport options to reach a health facility for childbirth, iv) training to health workers on communication skills, v) security provisions for SBAs to reach services 24/24 through community mobilization; 18 control clusters will not receive the intervention package. The final evaluation of the intervention is planned to be completed by October 2014. Primary study output of this study is utilization of SBA services. Secondary study outputs measure the uptake of antenatal care, post natal checkup for mother and baby, availability of transportation for childbirth, operation of emergency fund, improved reception of women at health services, and improved physical security of SBAs. Discussion The intervention package is designed to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by overcoming the barriers related to awareness, finance, transport, security etc. If proven effective, the Ministry of Health has committed to scale up the intervention package throughout the country. Trial registration number ISRCTN78892490. PMID:24646123

  18. Characterization of frequent douchers attending a community clinic primarily serving African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lisa V.; Rudy, Ellen T.; Ivie, Sylvia D.; Lee, Donzella; Visscher, Barbara; Kerndt, Peter

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to characterize African-American women attending a community clinic who report frequent douching (douching > or = 2 times per week). METHODS: A consecutive sample of 115 black women attending a community clinic were interviewed face-to-face about their douching practices. Logistic regression was used to control for age and compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Of the 115 women interviewed, 93% (107) had douched sometime during their lifetime; 16% (18) reported douching > or = 2 times per week. Frequent douchers compared with women who douche < 2 times per month were more likely to report douching after sex [89% (n=16) vs. 49% (n=32), odds ratio (OR): 5.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 26.2] or after discharge [89% (n=1 6) vs. 58% (n=38), OR: 8.11, 95% CI: 1.64, 40.1], and self-report a history of gonorrhea [28% (n=5) vs. 8% (n=5), OR: 4.87, 95% CI: 1.07, 22.2]. CONCLUSION: Further research should be done to understand the use of douching as an STD/HIV prevention method and the association between sexual risk behaviors and douching practices. PMID:16353660

  19. Increasing institutional deliveries among antenatal clients: effect of birth preparedness counselling

    PubMed Central

    Soubeiga, Dieudonné; Sia, Drissa; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends birth and emergency preparedness (BEP) as essential components of the Focused Antenatal Care model. The purpose of providing BEP messages to women during their antenatal visits is to increase the use of skilled attendance at childbirth. However, the effectiveness of this component has not yet been clearly established in routine contexts. This retrospective cohort study examined the association between exposing women to BEP messages during antenatal visits and the use of the skilled attendance at childbirth in two rural districts of Burkina Faso (Koupela and Dori). The study included 456 antenatal care users in 30 rural health centres in these two districts. Data were collected using modified questionnaires from the Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Gynecology and Obstetrics and from demographic and health surveys. Logistic regression was performed with a model of generalized estimating equation to adjust for clustered effects. In the Koupela district, where the rate of institutional deliveries (80%) was relatively high, the use of BEP messages was not associated with an increase in institutional deliveries. In contrast, in the district of Dori, where the rate of institutional deliveries (47%) was lower, messages regarding danger signs [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.93; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.07, 3.49] and cost of care (AOR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.09, 4.22) were associated with an increased probability of institutional births. Based on these results, it appears that birth and emergency preparedness messages provided during antenatal visits may increase the use of skilled attendance (increase the rate of institutional births) in areas where institutional births are low. Therefore, it is important to adapt the content of the messages to meet the particular needs of the users in each locality. Furthermore, BEP counselling should be implemented in health facilities. PMID:24270519

  20. Predictors of the timing of initiation of antenatal care in an ethnically diverse urban cohort in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the UK, women are recommended to engage with maternity services and establish a plan of care prior to the 12th completed week of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for late initiation of antenatal care within an ethnically diverse cohort in East London. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected electronic patient record data from Newham University Hospital NHS Trust (NUHT). All women who attended their antenatal booking appointment within NUHT between 1st January 2008 and 24th January 2011 were included in this study. The main outcome measure was late antenatal booking, defined as attendance at the antenatal booking appointment after 12 weeks (+6 days) gestation. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors. Results Late initiation of antenatal care was independently associated with non-British (White) ethnicity, inability to speak English, and non-UK maternal birthplace in the multivariable model. However, among those women who both spoke English and were born in the UK, the only ethnic group at increased risk of late booking were women who identified as African/Caribbean (aOR: 1.40: 95% CI: 1.11, 1.76) relative to British (White). Other predictors identified include maternal age younger than 20 years (aOR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.13-1.54), high parity (aOR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.77-2.46) and living in temporary accommodation (aOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.35-2.16). Conclusions Socio-cultural factors in addition to poor English ability or assimilation may play an important role in determining early initiation of antenatal care. Future research should focus on effective interventions to encourage and enable these minority groups to engage with the maternity services. PMID:23642084

  1. Antenatal Diagnosis and Down's Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The pamphlet, written for physicians and other health professionals who counsel parents, explain five factors which put women at high risk of giving birth to a child with Down's Syndrome and three antenatal diagnostic techniques. Five factors identified as indicating high risk are advanced maternal age (over 40 years old), a previous child with…

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-08-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis. PMID:6791761

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-01-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis. PMID:6791761

  4. Antenatal health care policy, services and clients in urban Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Marshall, L B; Lakin, J A

    1984-01-01

    This article describes the nurse-operated antenatal clinic services in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, and reports the findings of a survey of 365 women attending the Port Moresby General Hospital antenatal clinic. Only 9% of the women surveyed attended the clinic in the 1st trimester of their pregnancy, with the majority making their 1st visit toward the end of the 2nd trimester. There was a trend toward later 1st visits with higher parities. 74% of previous deliveries had been in a hospital. Low hemoglobin level (52% under 10 gm%) was the common risk factor noted in the sample. The number of attendees generally decreased with increasing distance between home and hospital. To explore the factors associated with clinic attendance, a subsample of 48 women were interviewed in depth. Clinic attendance was found to be significantly associated with the experience of current or previous obstetrical problems. The need to discover problems, obtain medication, and gain knowledge were reasons cited for clinic attendance. Respondents indicated they selected the hospital clinic because they expected greater expertise or better services. Clinic attendance was in some cases adversely affected by personal embarrassment stemming from questions about marital status from staff. Approximately 75% of women in the sample came from heterogeneous suburban areas that lack the social support systems commonly provided by extended family groupings. It is suggested that nursing interventions, based on comprehensive counseling as well as a caring approach, can play a unique role in the professional support system for obstetric care. It is important for nurses who function in antenatal clinic settings serving clients of diverse ethnicity to be aware of the cultural beliefs and values that influence health care perceptions and practices. Although nurses perform the majority of antenatal care in Papua New Guinea, their knowledge of high risk factors is weak. Use of a specialized antenatal clinic card, as well as continuing education, are recommended to sharpen nurses' assessment skills and facilitate early detection of high risk clients. PMID:6562080

  5. Knowledge and perception of Prevention of Mother to Child services amongst pregnant women accessing antenatal clinic in a Primary Health Care centre in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Omidokun, Adedoyin D.; Ige, Olusimbo K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies have assessed pregnant women's perceptions regarding prevention of mother to child of HIV and the available services at the primary health care level in Nigeria. Objective Assessment of knowledge and perception of antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees regarding Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV at primary health care facilities in south-west Nigeria. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 400 antenatal attendees in a Primary Health Care centre in Ibadan, Nigeria. Results Known methods of PMTCT were: use of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) during pregnancy (75.0%), ART at birth (65.8%) and not breastfeeding (61.8%). Previous HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) was reported by 71%, significantly higher proportions of those who were married, in the third trimester of pregnancy or engaged in professional and/or skilled occupations had been tested. Regarding the HCT services provided, 92.2% understood the HIV-related health education provided, 89.7.2% reported that the timing was appropriate, 92.6% assessed the nurses’ approach as acceptable but 34.0% felt the test was forced upon them. Majority (79.6%) were aware of non-breastfeeding options of infant feeding, but only 3.5% were aware of exclusive breastfeeding for a stipulated period as an infant feeding option. Nevertheless, the majority of the women found the non-breast feeding option culturally unacceptable. Conclusion Women in this survey were knowledgeable about the methods of PMTCT, but had negative perceptions regarding certain aspects of the HCT services and the recommended non-breastfeeding infant feeding option. Health workers should provide client friendly services and infant feeding counselling that is based on current WHO recommendations and culturally acceptable.

  6. Prevalence of anxiety among women attending a primary care clinic in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Arroll, Bruce; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

    2011-01-01

    Background This is the first study investigating anxiety among women attending a primary care clinic in Malaysia. Aim The objective was to determine the factors associated with anxiety among these women. Design This cross-sectional study was conducted in a government-funded primary care clinic in Malaysia. Consecutive female patients attending the clinic during the data-collection period were invited to participate in the study. Method Participants were given self-administered questionnaires, which included the validated Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire (GAD-7) Malay version to detect anxiety. Results Of the 1023 patients who were invited, 895 agreed to participate (response rate 87.5%). The prevalence of anxiety in this study was 7.8%, based on the GAD-7 (score ≥8). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that certain stressful life events and the emotional aspect of domestic violence were significantly associated with anxiety (P<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of anxiety among women in this study is similar to that found in other countries. Factors found to be associated with anxiety, especially issues on domestic violence, need to be addressed and managed appropriately. PMID:21801511

  7. Oral findings in postmenopausal women attending dental hospital in Western part of India

    PubMed Central

    Nidhi, Sinha; Sumita, Kaswan; Farzan, Rahman; Bharati, Doni; Ashok, KP

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To know the nature, incidence and severity of oral manifestations occurring in postmenopausal women. Study design: Oral changes were observed in 365 postmenopausal women and 365 age matched male individuals attending the department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. The patients were asked about complaints of dry mouth, taste and breath changes, mucosal and facial pain and were examined for oral changes such as ulceration, white and red lesions. The results obtained from the study were then correlated with various other similar studies. Results: The important oral findings in postmenopausal women were mucosal burning/pain (25.8%), dry mouth (27.1%), altered taste (3.6%), altered breath (6.3%) and facial pain (3.6%). Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) was significantly more common in males (5.5%) as compared to postmenopausal females (1.9%). Conclusion: Results from the present study reveal that oral symptoms are common problems in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal patients showed significantly more oral changes than the control. These changes could be related to the hormone alterations. Therefore, dentists need to refer postmenopausal women with oral symptoms to a gynaecologist for more careful examinations and medical interventions if necessary. Key words:Menopause; postmenopause; xerostomia; pallor; oral changes. PMID:24455055

  8. Motivations and reasons for women attending a Breast Self-Examination training program: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is a major threat to Taiwanese women's health. Despite the controversy surrounding the effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE) in reducing mortality, BSE is still advocated by some health departments. The aim of the study is to provide information about how women decide to practice BSE and their experiences through the training process. Sixty-six women aged 27-50 were recruited. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using small group and individual in-depth interviews to collect data, and using thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques for data analysis. Results It was found that a sense of self-security became an important motivator for entering BSE training. The satisfaction in obtaining a sense of self-security emerged as the central theme. Furthermore, a ladder motivation model was developed to explain the participants' motivations for entering BSE training. The patterns of motivation include opportunity taking, clarifying confusion, maintaining health, and illness monitoring, which were connected with the risk perception for breast cancer. Conclusions We recognize that the way women decide to attend BSE training is influenced by personal and social factors. Understanding the different risk assessments women rely on in making their health decisions is essential. This study will assist researchers and health professionals to gain a better understanding of alternative ways to deal with breast health, and not to be limited by the recommendations of the health authorities. PMID:20618986

  9. Predictors of consistent condom use among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    Costa, Eleonora C V; Oliveira, Rosa; Ferreira, Domingos; Pereira, M Graça

    2016-01-01

    Women account for 30% of all AIDS cases reported to the Health Ministry in Portugal and most infections are acquired through unprotected heterosexual sex with infected partners. This study analyzed socio-demographic and psychosocial predictors of consistent condom use and the role of education as a moderator variable among Portuguese women attending family planning clinics. A cross-sectional study using interviewer-administered fully structured questionnaires was conducted among 767 sexually active women (ages 18-65). Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between consistent condom use and the predictor variables. Overall, 78.7% of the women were inconsistent condom users. The results showed that consistent condom use was predicted by marital status (being not married), having greater perceptions of condom negotiation self-efficacy, having preparatory safer sexual behaviors, and not using condoms only when practicing abstinence. Living with a partner and having lack of risk perception significantly predicted inconsistent condom use. Less educated women were less likely to use condoms even when they perceive being at risk. The full model explained 53% of the variance in consistent condom use. This study emphasizes the need for implementing effective prevention interventions in this population showing the importance of taking education into consideration. PMID:26277905

  10. Factors associated with four or more antenatal care services among pregnant women: a cross-sectional survey in eight South Central Coast provinces of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Bui TT; Tac, Pham V; Duc, Duong M; Duong, Doan TT; Thi, Le M

    2015-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, four or more antenatal care (ANC4+) visits/services among pregnant women have not been officially reported in the health system. Moreover, the factors associated with the use of ANC4+ services have not been studied in previous studies. In this study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to identify the rate of utilization of ANC4+ services and factors associated with use of ANC4+ services among pregnant women in rural areas of Vietnam. Methods The study was conducted in eight provinces in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam between August 2013 and May 2014. A total of 907 women, who delivered in the past 1 year, participated in the study. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the association between all potential factors and utilization of ANC4+ services. Results The rate of utilization of ANC4+ services by women in eight South Central Coast provinces was 53.9%. Factors negatively associated with using ANC4+ services were belonging to ethnic minority groups having lower education, doing informal works, having lower income, having lower knowledge on ANC4+ services, and receiving no financial support from the husband. In particular, financial support from the husband was considered important in improving the use of ANC4+ services by women in rural areas. Conclusion The study asserted an inadequacy for ANC4+ utilization and can contribute to missed opportunities to achieve better maternal outcomes for women in rural areas of Vietnam. The necessity of introducing ANC4+ services in the national guidelines on maternal health care should be disseminated to health policy-makers. Strategies to increase ANC4+ utilization should focus on knowledge improvement and on poor, low-income, and ethnic minority women. PMID:26213477

  11. Alcoholics Anonymous and Hazardously Drinking Women Returning to the Community After Incarceration: Predictors of Attendance and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Strong, David R.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Brown, Richard A.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The number of females incarcerated within the United States has risen dramatically in recent decades and high rates of alcohol problems are evident among this population. Although little is known about the patterns of help utilization and efficacy for alcohol problems, preliminary evidence suggests that AA is a widely available resource for this population. Methods Data were collected as part of a study evaluating the effect of a brief intervention to reduce alcohol use among hazardously drinking (i.e., score of 8 or above on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test or 4 or more drinks at a time on at least 3 days in prior 3 months) incarcerated women. The current study characterized demographic, clinical, and previous AA attendance variables associated with AA attendance in the 6-months following incarceration. Associations between frequency of AA attendance and drinking outcomes following incarceration were also evaluated. Results Among the 224 participants who provided data about AA attendance, 54% reported some AA attendance during the follow-up assessment period. AA attendance in the year prior to study entry (OR = 4.02; 95% CI: 3.32–4.71) and greater baseline consequences of alcohol use (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.73–2.44) were associated with increased odds of higher frequency of AA attendance following incarceration. Weekly or greater AA attendance was associated with reductions in negative drinking consequences (B = −0.45; p < 0.01) and frequency of drinking days (B = −0.28; p < 0.01) following incarceration. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that AA is frequently utilized by hazardously drinking women following incarceration. Alcohol outcomes may be enhanced by AA attendance at a weekly or greater frequency is associated with better alcohol outcomes relative to lower levels of AA attendance. Evaluation of clinical guidelines for prescribing AA attendance for incarcerated women remains a task for future research. PMID:21158877

  12. Effect of aerobic exercise during pregnancy on antenatal depression

    PubMed Central

    El-Rafie, Mervat M; Khafagy, Ghada M; Gamal, Marwa G

    2016-01-01

    Background Antenatal depression is not uncommon and is associated with a greater risk of negative pregnancy outcomes. Aim Exploring the effect of exercise in preventing and treating antenatal depression. Methods This was a prospective interventional controlled study carried out in 100 pregnant women treated at the Ain-Shams Family Medicine Center and Maadi Outpatient Clinic, Cairo, Egypt. The participants were divided into two groups (n=50 in the exercise group and n=50 in the control group). The exercise group regularly attended supervised sessions for 12 weeks. The activities in each session included walking, aerobic exercise, stretching, and relaxation. The control group completed their usual antenatal care. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression symptoms at the first interview and immediately after the 12-week intervention. Results Compared to the control group, the exercise group showed significantly improved depressive symptoms as measured with the CES-D after the 12-week intervention on the CES-D (P=0.001). Within groups, the exercise group demonstrated a significant improvement of depressive symptoms from baseline to intervention completion, while the control group demonstrated no significant changes over time. Conclusion Exercise during pregnancy was positively associated with reduced depressive symptoms. PMID:26955293

  13. Combined use of the postpartum depression screening scale (PDSS) and Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) to identify antenatal depression among Chinese pregnant women with obstetric complications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Kane, Irene; Wang, Jing; Shen, Beibei; Luo, Jianfeng; Shi, Shenxun

    2015-03-30

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate antenatal depression screening employing two scales: the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for the population of Chinese pregnant women with obstetric complications. A convenience sample of 842 Chinese pregnant women with complications participated in this study. The PDSS total score correlated strongly with the EPDS total score (r=0.652, p=0.000). Each tool performed extremely well for detecting major and major/minor depressions with PDSS resulting in a better psychometric performance than EPDS (p<0.01). If combined use, the recommended EPDS cut-off score was 8/9 for major depression, at which the sensitivity (71.6%) and specificity (87.6%) were the best, and the recommended PDSS cut-off score was 79/80 for major depression, along with its best sensitivity (86.4%) and specificity (100%). The study concluded that EPDS and PDSS appear to be reliable assessments for major and minor depression among the Chinese pregnant women with obstetric complications. Combined use of these tools should consider lower cutoff scores to reduce the misdiagnosis and improve the screening validity. PMID:25677395

  14. Antenatal Corticosteroids for Reducing Adverse Maternal and Child Outcomes in Special Populations of Women at Risk of Imminent Preterm Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amiya, Rachel M.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Ota, Erika; Swa, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background This study synthesizes available evidence on antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) use among special subgroups of women at risk of imminent preterm birth, including those (1) with pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus, (2) undergoing elective caesarean section (CS) in late preterm (34 to<37 weeks), (3) with chorioamnionitis, and (4) with growth-restricted fetuses. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, POPLINE, and World Health Organization Regional Databases was conducted for all comparative studies. Two reviewers independently determined study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed study quality. Pooled mean differences and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated from available data, based on fixed- and random-effects models, as appropriate. Results No eligible studies were identified for ACS use in diabetic pregnant women or those undergoing elective CS at late preterm. Nine studies each on ACS use in women with chorioamnionitis and in women with fetal growth restriction met inclusion criteria; eight studies were separately included in the meta-analyses for the two subpopulations. For ACS administration in women with chorioamnionitis, pooled analyses showed reductions in neonatal mortality (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.34–0.73), respiratory distress syndrome (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.44–0.76), intraventricular haemorrhage (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.24–0.69), and severe intraventricular haemorrhage (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.24–0.69). Maternal and long-term newborn outcomes were not reported. Effects of ACS use were inconclusive for cases with fetal growth restriction. Conclusion Direct evidence on the effectiveness and safety of ACS is lacking for diabetic pregnant women at risk of preterm birth and those undergoing elective late-preterm CS, though this does not necessarily recommend against their use in diabetic women. While evidence remains inconclusive for women with growth-restricted preterm neonates, ACS appears to benefit preterm neonates delivered by women with chorioamnionitis. High-quality studies on maternal and long-term child outcomes in more diverse settings are needed to establish the balance of potential harms versus benefits in using ACS for these understudied subgroups. PMID:26841022

  15. The effect of a nutrition education programme on pregnant women attending Khartoum model clinic.

    PubMed

    El Hiday, M M; Zumrawi, F Y

    1992-12-01

    A comparative study conducted in the Sudan illustrated both the potential of a nutrition education program for pregnant women and the many obstacles to creating more optimal maternal nutrition. Included in the study were 1200 women 18-34 years of age attending the Khartoum Province Model Clinic for a minimum of 5 prenatal visits. 83.3% were Muslims and 48.2% were illiterate. The 60 women who comprised the experimental group were exposed to individual nutrition counseling and home visits. Overall, 70% of subjects were anemic, 27% had malaria, and 18% were hookworm. The average weight gain during pregnancy was 4.5 kgs; 25.0% of controls and 20.0% of those in the experimental group gained 3.5-4.0 kgs, 18.3% of controls and 33.3% of experimental subjects gained 4.5-5.0 kgs, and 23.3% of controls and 30.0% of those in the experimental groups gained 5.5 kgs or more. 53.0% of controls and 61.7% of women exposed to nutrition education breastfed for at least 6 months, and 70% of women in the former group and 95% of those in the latter had enrolled their infants in an immunization program. A baseline nutrition questionnaire revealed widespread misinformation, especially a belief that pregnant women should reduce their food intake from 3 to 1-2 meals per day to prevent the fetus from growing too large and making labor difficult. Foods such as fermented sorghum products, fresh fish, and water melon were regarded as abortifacients and avoided, while hot pepper, sour milk, and cola sodas were considered nutritious. Consumption was self-reported to be poor for milk products by 25% of mothers, for meat by 16%, and for fruits and vegetables by 40% Although the educational intervention increased women's knowledge of basic nutrition, it had only a minimal effect on actual practice. This finding is assumed to reflect the widespread belief that men and their guests should be given preference in food allocation, poverty, and avoidance, on the basis of tradition, of many healthy foods. Since 72% of women reported ownership of a television, use if this medium is recommended for nutrition education. PMID:12319273

  16. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency Among Iranian Women Attending Two University Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Sadaf; Saberi, Azin; Seifollahi, Akram; shirzad, Nooshin; Hosseini, Ladan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies indicated that there is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Middle East countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and assess some risk factors of vitamin D deficiency among women attending our clinics in Tehran, the capital of Iran. Patients and Methods: Five hundred and thirty-eight women aged 20-80 years were entered in this cross-sectional study from 2011 to 2012. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were measured in all participants after recruiting their demographic and anthropometric data and past medical histories. Deficiency was defined as levels less than 35 nmol/L and classified as mild (≥ 25 nmol/L), moderate (12.5-25 nmol/L) and severe (≤ 12.5 nmol/L). Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 69%; mild, moderate and severe degrees were seen in %10.4, %38.3, and %20.3 respectively. Analysis of logistic regression shows that age (OR:0.96, CI: 0.93-0.97), menopause (OR: 0.44, CI: 0.21-0.99) and consumption of multivitamin supplements (OR: 2.67, CI: 1.4-5) were independent predictive factors for Vitamin D deficiency. Conclusions: This study showed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Iranian women especially in reproductive ages. PMID:25763193

  17. Perceptions, attitude and uptake of rapid syphilis testing services in antenatal clinics in North-Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nnko, Soori; Changalucha, John; Mosha, Jacklin; Bunga, Catherine; Wamoyi, Joyce; Peeling, Rosanna; Mabey, David

    2016-06-01

    Infection with syphilis during pregnancy could cause spontaneous abortion, low birth weight and stillbirth. To prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes caused by syphilis, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends syphilis screening and treatment of all pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) services. Rapid syphilis testing (RST) demonstration project was introduced at ANC clinics in Tanzania in 2009, to assess the feasibility, acceptability and its impact on uptake of syphilis screening service. Data collection was composed of in-depth interviews with health workers and pregnant women attending ANC. Additionally, from the health facility registers we extracted information on the uptake of antenatal care services, including number of pregnant women screened and treated for syphilis. Introduction of RST at health facilities was appreciated by pregnant women attending ANC and health workers. Following the introduction of RST services at ANC clinics, we observed a significant increase of the uptake of syphilis screening. Pregnant women appreciated RST service since it reduced the frequency of their visits to the health facilities and shortened the duration that they spent at the clinics. Moreover, the provision of same-day screening and treatment services helped women to save money that they would have to spend on transportation for the follow up visits. Health workers felt that RST simplified procedures to diagnose syphilis, and enabled the health workers to test and treat large numbers of clients in a shorter period of time. Our study demonstrates that, it is feasible to introduce RST service in antenatal clinics. The RST was appreciated by health workers and pregnant women, since it simplifies syphilis screening procedures, saves the time that pregnant women used to waste to wait for the results, and saves the cost that women would have to spend on transportation to come back for treatment. PMID:26685146

  18. [Positive impact of a video and TV documentary on attendance of women to catch-up collective vaccinations and reasons for non-attendance].

    PubMed

    Painvin, C; Schlumberger, M; Chhem, Dy Bun; Savannarom, Dim; Phong, Phing; Gilberg, S

    2011-02-01

    The impact of medical documentaries on attendance to immunization sessions is not documented in developing countries. The impact of a video and TV medical documentary on women's vaccination during a catch-up tetanus collective immunization was studied in Cambodia (2002-2004). A medical video documentary produced locally was publicly shown in 10 villages chosen at random among 63 villages to be covered by collective tetanus immunization. In each village where the video was shown, 33 women, older than age 11, were selected at random and questioned about their tetanus vaccination records, to assess if they attended the video and to evaluate their knowledge about tetanus. A second interview was conducted after the first collective vaccination to check their attendance and to record reasons for non-attendance. The same interview was conducted 10 months later, after the documentary was shown on a local TV channel and a second collective tetanus vaccination conducted. Data were collected from 323 (98%) women. Seventy-eight (24%) women saw the video documentary and only eight (2.4%) saw it on TV. Compared to farmers, shopkeepers saw significantly less the documentary (χ² of Yates: 5.77,P = 0.016; 95% CI: 0.10 < RR = 0.29 < 0.88) and no home keeper or civil servant attended it. Women of childbearing age with no school education were significantly more attracted by the video documentary (χ² of Yates: 5.99,P = 0.01; 95% CI: 1.10 < RR = 1.57 < 2.22) than other childbearing-aged women, although their final immunization coverage was not better. The documentary did not increase the knowledge that contamination for tetanus may come from earth and tools, but not from air and water, and that all ages are at-risk for tetanus, but it increased significantly the knowledge that vaccination can prevent the disease (χ² of Yates: 13.98;P = 0.0001; 95% CI: 1.28 < RR = 1.57 < 1.93). Women who saw the video documentary attended the first collective session more often than those who did not (χ² of Yates: 11.00; P = 0.0006; 95% CI: 1.23 < RR = 1.51 < 1.84)in spite of their better vaccination status before the immunization, and this was mostly significant for farmers and women more than 45 years of age. Women who saw the documentary either on video or on TV also attended more the second collective session, but not significantly (χ² of Yates: 1.23;P = 0.266; 95% CI: 0.91 < RR = 1.23 < 1.66). Forty-nine percent of women had not attended school and the video documentary was re-run twice after the first performance. Women older than 45 years (55%) completely escaped immunization significantly more often than women of childbearing age (35%) (χ² of Yates: 17.26;P = 0.00003, 95% CI: 1.53 < RR = 2.13 < 2.97), who did it more often than schoolgirls (2%) (χ² of Yates: 9.69;P = 0.002; 95% CI: 0.01 < RR = 0.09 < 0.65). The main reasons for not being vaccinated during catch-up collective tetanus vaccinations were a too short interval between doses according to the WHO schedule (25%), agricultural task (18%), leisure travel (8%), fear of injections (7%), and being completely vaccinated according to the WHO schedule (7%). Only 2% of women were not informed, showing that vaccination was well-publicized. This educational technique should be re-used in all villages during coming catch-up tetanus collective immunizations in Cambodia, mostly in urban contexts where coverage during these sessions is lower. Video is still the best method in rural context if some education is also provided to the audience. According to the WHO schedule, the interval between two catch-up tetanus sessions should be extended to over a year to be able to give booster shots to women who already received three or more tetanus doses. Vaccination of schoolgirls is significantly easier to achieve with the help of the teachers. Vaccinating women aged over 45 should be encouraged as they are at risk of tetanus even in developed Asian countries. PMID:21279494

  19. Antenatal chloroquine chemoprophylaxis in Malawi: chloroquine resistance, compliance, protective efficacy and cost.

    PubMed

    Heymann, D L; Steketee, R W; Wirima, J J; McFarland, D A; Khoromana, C O; Campbell, C C

    1990-01-01

    The roles of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and compliance in the protective efficacy of the antenatal chloroquine prophylaxis programme in Malawi were evaluated by interviewing pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and examining them for P. falciparum parasites in thick smears and chloroquine metabolites in urine. 36% of 642 women had urine chloroquine metabolite levels compatible with regular compliance to the weekly chloroquine dosage schedule. Among a subgroup of 288 pregnant women who were provided weekly prophylaxis under supervision for 4 consecutive weeks, P. falciparum infection rates were 37%, representing the failure of chloroquine to eliminate P. falciparum in Malawi. Among pregnant women not taking prophylaxis, the P. falciparum infection rate was 48%. Based on the P. falciparum infection rates among these 2 groups of women, the protective efficacy of CQ chloroquine was estimated as 23%. If the 36% of pregnant women who had chloroquine in their urines accurately estimates the proportion of women who comply with the prophylaxis programme in Malawi, the actual protective efficacy of the programme would be 8%. The cost of preventing one P. falciparum infection among pregnant women in the Malawi programme is estimated at US$ 10.87. This is an unacceptably high cost in much of Africa, and research is required to define more cost-effective interventions, including more effective drugs, and health education programmes to improve compliance among pregnant women. PMID:2091336

  20. Awareness and practices of contraception among Pakistani women attending a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, N P; Tayyeb, R; Malik, N

    2004-08-01

    Pakistan is one of the most populous nations in the world, with an annual growth rate of 2.8 and high total fertility rate, even among developing nations. The Pakistan Reproductive Health and Family Planning Survey highlighted the wide gap between knowledge (97%) and use of contraceptives (28%) among currently married women. Our actual need is to enhance contraceptive practice in our country. This study was designed to investigate contraceptive knowledge and practice in Pakistani women attending a tertiary care hospital. This questionnaire-based study was conducted at the Gynaecology Unit II of Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 204 married women of reproductive age were interviewed by a registrar to record their age, occupation, educational status, number of children, knowledge about contraceptive methods, source of the knowledge, attitudes and practices of contraception. About 57% of women were between 26 and 35 years of age, while 52% of men were between 31 and 40 years. Educational status of the majority of females was below matriculation (33%), while 34% males were above matriculation; 88% of females were housewives and less than 1% of men were out of work. Regarding the social status of couples, 64% were living on income less than 5000 rupees /month (about 60 pound sterling). Of the women, 67% were para 2-5; 68% had some sort of awareness regarding contraception. The main source of information was television (26%) and relatives (24%). The majority knew about the pill (68%) and IUCD (55%). Only 47% were using some sort of contraception. The most common method chosen was the barrier method (15%), followed by IUCD (10%) and the pill (10%). The least common methods were sterilisation (2%) and the rhythm method (2%); 85% of the women and 74% of the men in the study group had a positive attitude toward contraception. In order to improve contraceptive use in Pakistan we need to use multiple media sources to educate couples and their parents regarding contraceptive services, strengthen the perceptions that religion not only allows but also recommends family planning and to create awareness among women to have their rights and opinions about the size of family. The concept of differentiation between sons and daughters should be discouraged. In addition government and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) should organise groups to provide counselling and promotion of contraceptive services at the doorstep. We must act as a team to control our growth rate for economic stabilisation of the country and to raise the living standards of our people. PMID:15369942

  1. Immigrant status, antenatal depressive symptoms, and frequency and source of violence: what's the relationship?

    PubMed

    Miszkurka, Malgorzata; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Goulet, Lise

    2012-10-01

    This study describes the prevalence of violence during pregnancy and examines the association between the experience of violence since the beginning of pregnancy and the prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms while taking into account immigrant status. Cross-sectional study including 5,162 pregnant women attending Montreal hospitals for antenatal care was conducted, with 1,400 being born outside of Canada. CES-D scale was used to evaluate depression at 24-26 weeks of pregnancy. The Abuse Assessment Screen scale was used to determine the frequency and severity of violence since the beginning of pregnancy. Relationship with abuser was also considered. All modeling was done using logistic regressions. Threats were the most frequent type of violence, with 63 % happening more than once. Long-term immigrant women reported the highest prevalence of all types of violence (7.7 %). Intimate partner violence (IPV) (15 %) was most frequently reported among the poorest pregnant women. Strong associations exist between more than one episode of abuse and depression (POR = 5.21 [3.73; 7.23], and IPV and depression [POR = 5.81 [4.19; 8.08]. Immigrant status did not change the associations between violence and depression. Violence against pregnant women is not rare in Canada, and it is associated with antenatal depressive symptoms. These findings support future development of perinatal screening for violence, follow-up, and a culturally sensitive referral system. PMID:22847826

  2. [Psychic experiences of women attended at public health centers in Teresina (PI, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Ana Célia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães

    2011-04-01

    The scope of this article is to examine the findings of the psychic experiences of women attended at Primary Care level in public healthcare centers in Teresina, State of Piaui, Brazil. Qualitative research was conducted in order to assess emotional, social, family, sexual and workplace experiences from the standpoint of women who seek Family Healthcare services in Teresina. Semi-structured interviews and non-systematic observation carried out in the Municipal Health Unit itself were used to collect the data. The information gathered revealed psychic suffering that is intrinsic to everyday experiences, family relationships and situations involving betrayal, separation, unemployment, violence and sexual experiences. The importance of integrating mental healthcare and basic healthcare was identified, requiring in-depth dialogue, bringing together staff, family and communities that will undoubtedly benefit from this to tackle day-to-day problems permeated by violence, abuse, maltreatment and negligence. The proposal put forward is to train healthcare professionals and implement an interface between Family Healthcare and psychosocial treatment permitting integrated action geared to the individual as a whole. PMID:21584462

  3. Health-Related Physical Fitness Profiles of Women who Attend Regular Activity Classes

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Derya Özer; Çelenay, Şeyda Toprak

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to investigate physical fitness profiles of women who attend activity classes of a regularly. Methods: Two hundred thirty one healthy women (age: 37.80±9.45years, weight: 75.46±13.72 kg, height: 1.62±0.05 m.) who regularly attended activity classes of a town sport center were participated. Body composition with bioelectrical impedance analysis (Bodystat 1500, Bodystat Ltd., England), cardio-respiratory fitness with UKK 2 km walk test, muscle strength of lower extremity with Biodex System 3 isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex Medical Systems, USA), hand grip with hand dynamometer (Chattanooga, TN, USA) and upper extremity endurance with push-ups test, trunk strength and endurance with back/leg/chest dynamometer (Baseline, USA) and static back extension, flexibility with sit and reach test were assessed. Results: Body mass index, fat mass, fat percentage, dry lean mass and waist hip ratio were as follows: 28.69±5.11 kg/cm2; 28.65±10.22 kg; 37.08±7.59; 12.74±2.47 kg; 0.83±0.06. They were overweight and fat percentage was over the border. One hundred forty eight participants completed the 2 km walk test. VO2 max according to the calculations of the test was found 132.63±17.80 which is slightly over the normal values. Lower extremity muscle strength at 60º/s for knee extension (123.43±45.02; 115.76±44.19 N/M) and flexion (70.68±27.49; 68.13±26.11 N/M) of right and left extremities were given respectively. Hand grip was 26.59±7.05 N on the dominant side. Push up scores were 19.09±6.24 rep/40 sec. Trunk strength 71.44±24.90 N, trunk endurance with static back extension was 45.14±29.36 sec. which is quite poor. Flexibility was 10.73±7.58 cm. Conclusion: Although the cardio respiratory functions of the participants who had tolerate the test were fine, body composition and musculoskeletal fitness results were found poor. Attention must be paid for the musculoskeletal fitness and weight control for these women.

  4. Time-dependent changes in insulin requirement for maternal glycemic control during antenatal corticosteroid therapy in women with gestational diabetes: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Arata; Saisho, Yoshifumi; Miyakoshi, Kei; Fukutake, Marie; Kasuga, Yoshifumi; Ochiai, Daigo; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Tanaka, Mamoru; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2016-01-31

    Though recommended for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth to improve perinatal outcomes, antenatal corticosteroid (ACS) treatment can cause maternal hyperglycemia, especially in cases of glucose intolerance. A standardized protocol for preventing hyperglycemia during ACS treatment remains to be established. We herein retrospectively investigated the time-dependent changes in insulin dose required for maternal glycemic control during ACS treatment in gestational diabetes (GDM). Twelve singleton pregnant women with GDM who received 12 mg of betamethasone intramuscularly twice 24 hours apart were included in this analysis. Of those, eight also received ritodrine hydrochloride for preterm labor. The blood glucose levels were maintained at 70-120 mg/dL with continuous intravenous infusion of insulin and nothing by mouth for 48 hours after the first betamethasone administration. After the first dose of betamethasone, the insulin dosage needed for glycemic control gradually increased and reached a maximum (6.6 ± 5.8 units/hr) at 10 hours, then, decreased to 4.1 ± 1.5 units/hr at 24 hours. Similar changes in the insulin requirement were found after the second betamethasone dose (the maximum insulin dosage: 5.5 ± 1.6 units/hr at 9 hours following the second administration). Women treated with ritodrine hydrochloride needed more insulin, than those without ritodrine hydrochloride treatment (130.8 ± 15.0 vs. 76.8 ± 15.2 units/day, respectively, p < 0.05). Our data indicated that the requirement for insulin is highest 9-10 hours after each dose of betamethasone. When GDM is treated with ACS, levels of blood glucose should be carefully monitored, especially in patients treated with ritodrine hydrochloride. PMID:26510662

  5. Audit of antenatal screening for syphilis and HIV in migrant and refugee women on the Thai-Myanmar border: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    McGready, Rose; Kang, Joy; Watts, Isabella; Tyrosvoutis, Mary Ellen G; Torchinsky, Miriam B.; Htut, Aung Myo; Tun, Nay Win; Keereecharoen, Lily; Wangsing, Chirapat; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Nosten, François H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The antenatal prevalence of syphilis and HIV/AIDS in migrants and refugees is poorly documented. The aim of this study was to audit the first year of routine syphilis screening in the same population and reassess the trends in HIV rates. Methods: From August 2012 to July 2013, 3600 pregnant women were screened for HIV (ELISA) and syphilis (VDRL with TPHA confirmation) at clinics along the Thai-Myanmar border. Results: Seroprevalence for HIV 0.47% (95% CI 0.30-0.76) (17/3,599), and syphilis 0.39% (95% CI 0.23-0.65) (14/3,592), were low. Syphilis was significantly lower in refugees (0.07% 95% CI 0.01-0.38) (1/1,469), than in migrants (0.61% 95% CI 0.36-1.04) (13/2,123). The three active (VDRL≥1:8 and TPHA reactive) syphilis cases with VDRL titres of 1:32 were easy to counsel and treat. Women with low VDRL titres (>75% were < 1:8) and TPHA reactive results, in the absence of symptoms and both the woman and her husband having only one sexual partner in their lifetime, and the inability to determine the true cause of the positive results presented ethical difficulties for counsellors. Conclusion: As HIV and syphilis testing becomes available in more and more settings, the potential impact of false positive results should be considered, especially in populations with low prevalence for these diseases. This uncertainty must be considered in order to counsel patients and partners accurately and safely about the results of these tests, without exposing women to increased risk for abuse or abandonment. Our findings highlight the complexities of counselling patients about these tests and the global need for more conclusive syphilis testing strategies. PMID:26664698

  6. The Experiences of Cuban American Women Attending a Hispanic Serving Institution and the Influences on Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owles, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding and gather insight into the experiences of Cuban American women attending a 4-year, public, Hispanic Serving Institution and how those experiences influenced their identity development. This was accomplished by conducting in-depth interviews and focus groups with 12 self-identified Cuban

  7. The Experiences of Cuban American Women Attending a Hispanic Serving Institution and the Influences on Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owles, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding and gather insight into the experiences of Cuban American women attending a 4-year, public, Hispanic Serving Institution and how those experiences influenced their identity development. This was accomplished by conducting in-depth interviews and focus groups with 12 self-identified Cuban…

  8. Increasing Antenatal Care and HIV Testing among Rural Pregnant Women with Conditional Cash Transfers to Self-Help Groups: An Evaluation Study in Rural Mysore, India.

    PubMed

    Madhivanan, Purnima; NiranjanKumar, Bhavana; Shaheen, Reshma; Jaykrishna, Poornima; Ravi, Kavitha; Gowda, Savitha; Srinivas, Vijaya; Arun, Anjali; Krupp, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Background. We describe a one-year evaluation study comparing SCIL intervention of mobile provision of integrated ANC/ HIV testing with an enhanced (SCIL+) intervention of community mobilization strategy providing conditional cash transfers (CCT) to women's SHG for identifying and accompanying pregnant women to mobile clinics. Methods. Twenty pairs of villages matched on population, socioeconomic status, access to medical facilities, and distance from Mysore city were divided between SCIL and SCIL+ interventions. The primary study outcome was the proportion of total pregnancies in these villages who received ANC and HIV testing. Results. Between April 2011 and March 2012, 552 pregnant women participated in SCIL or SCIL+ interventions. Among women who were pregnant at the time of intervention delivery, 181 of 418 (43.3%) women pregnant at the time of intervention delivery received ANC in the SCIL arm, while 371 of 512 (72.5%) received ANC in the SCIL+ arm (P < 0.001); 175 (97%) in the SCIL and 366 (98.6%) in the SCIL+ arm consented to HIV testing (P < 0.001). HIV prevalence of 0.6% was detected among SCIL clinic, and 0.9% among attending SCIL+ clinic attendees. Conclusion. Provision of CCT to women's microeconomic SHG appears to significantly increase uptake of ANC/HIV testing services in rural Mysore villages. PMID:26316971

  9. Increasing Antenatal Care and HIV Testing among Rural Pregnant Women with Conditional Cash Transfers to Self-Help Groups: An Evaluation Study in Rural Mysore, India

    PubMed Central

    Madhivanan, Purnima; NiranjanKumar, Bhavana; Shaheen, Reshma; Jaykrishna, Poornima; Ravi, Kavitha; Gowda, Savitha; Srinivas, Vijaya; Arun, Anjali; Krupp, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Background. We describe a one-year evaluation study comparing SCIL intervention of mobile provision of integrated ANC/ HIV testing with an enhanced (SCIL+) intervention of community mobilization strategy providing conditional cash transfers (CCT) to women's SHG for identifying and accompanying pregnant women to mobile clinics. Methods. Twenty pairs of villages matched on population, socioeconomic status, access to medical facilities, and distance from Mysore city were divided between SCIL and SCIL+ interventions. The primary study outcome was the proportion of total pregnancies in these villages who received ANC and HIV testing. Results. Between April 2011 and March 2012, 552 pregnant women participated in SCIL or SCIL+ interventions. Among women who were pregnant at the time of intervention delivery, 181 of 418 (43.3%) women pregnant at the time of intervention delivery received ANC in the SCIL arm, while 371 of 512 (72.5%) received ANC in the SCIL+ arm (P < 0.001); 175 (97%) in the SCIL and 366 (98.6%) in the SCIL+ arm consented to HIV testing (P < 0.001). HIV prevalence of 0.6% was detected among SCIL clinic, and 0.9% among attending SCIL+ clinic attendees. Conclusion. Provision of CCT to women's microeconomic SHG appears to significantly increase uptake of ANC/HIV testing services in rural Mysore villages. PMID:26316971

  10. Women’s Awareness of Periconceptional Use of Folic Acid Before and After Their Antenatal Visits

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Mark; Keriakos, Remon

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to assess women’s awareness of the benefit and use of folic acid during pregnancy and to assess whether their knowledge has improved following hospital visits. METHOD This is a prospective survey conducted in a large teaching hospital in the UK. The survey questionnaire consisted of 28 questions about demographic variables, behavioral variables, and knowledge about folic acid and neural tube defects (NTDs). RESULT A total of 603 women participated in this study. Some of them attended for the first time and others had more than one visit, either in their current or previous pregnancies. In about 25% of cases, the pregnancy was not planned. Between 14 and 19% of the women of First and Two+ Visit groups consulted their doctor or other healthcare professional before conception. Nearly 98% of the women stated that they had heard of folic acid, but only 42–52% knew the medical condition it protects against. The main sources of information for women who were aware of folic acid were midwives and general practitioners. Nearly 90% of women who attended their first antenatal visit were taking folic acid. However, only 40% of women knew that they should take it before pregnancy, and only between 36 and 46% knew the dietary sources of folic acid, although about 84% know the foods that should be avoided during pregnancy. This study found that attending antenatal clinic has not increased women’s awareness about folic acid. CONCLUSION There is still a high proportion of women who do not know that folic acid should be taken before pregnancy and continued for the first three months of pregnancy. School education, primary care team, and family planning service should take the lead in providing information to women about folic acid. PMID:24817820

  11. Antenatal Depression is Not Associated with Low-Birth Weight: A Study from Urban Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Nusrat; Munshi, Tariq; Jafri, Farhat; Husain, Meher; Parveen, Asia; Saeed, Qamar; Tomenson, Barbara; Naeem, Farooq; Chaudhry, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low-birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g) is considered to be a leading cause of cognitive impairment and physical disabilities in children. Incidence of LBW in South Asia has been reported to be as high as 33%. We investigated the association between antenatal depression and LBW in an urban community, in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1357 pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited into the study. They were screened for antenatal depression with Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Self-reporting questionnaire was also used to measure psychological distress. Birth weights of 763 newborns were obtained from the hospital records. Results: We did not find a significant association between antenatal depression and LBW (odds ratio 0.881, 95%CI 0.732–1.060) in mothers attending a charity run hospital in an urban setting in Pakistan. Conclusion: Antenatal depression is not associated with LBW in this urban population in Pakistan. However, the prevalence of depression is high during pregnancy. There is a need to develop culturally adapted psychosocial interventions to address the high rates of depression for this population group. PMID:25540627

  12. Foetal images: the power of visual technology in antenatal care and the implications for women's reproductive freedom.

    PubMed

    Zechmeister, I

    2001-01-01

    Continuing medico-technical progress has led to an increasing medicalisation of pregnancy and childbirth. One of the most common technologies in this context is ultrasound. Based on some identified 'pro-technology feminist theories', notably the postmodernist feminist discourse, the technology of ultrasound is analysed focusing mainly on social and political rather than clinical issues. As empirical research suggests, ultrasound is welcomed by the majority of women. The analysis, however, shows that attitudes and decisions of women are influenced by broader social aspects. Furthermore, it demonstrates how the visual technology of ultrasound, in addition to other reproductive technology in maternity care, is linked to the 'personification' of the foetus and has therefore contributed to a new image of the foetus. The exploration of these issues challenges some arguments of feminist discourse. It draws attention to possible adverse implications of the technology for women's reproductive freedom and indicates the importance of the topic for political discussions. PMID:11874254

  13. Treatment Buddies Improve Clinic Attendance among Women but Not Men on Antiretroviral Therapy in the Nyanza Region of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kibaara, Charles; Blat, Cinthia; Shade, Starley; Mbullo, Patrick; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Kenyan antiretroviral (ART) guidelines encourage treatment buddies (TBy) to maximize treatment adherence. This study examined the effect of TBys on clinic attendance in men and women on ART. Methods. This retrospective cohort study included all adult patients initiating ART from August 2007 to December 2011 at four health facilities in Kenya. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records and analyzed using Poisson regression. Results. Of 2,430 patients, 2,199 (91%) had a TBy. Relationship between TBy and clinic attendance differed in females and males (interaction p = 0.09). After demographic and clinic factor adjustment, females with a TBy were 28% more likely to adhere to all appointments than those without (adjusted aRR = 1.28; 95% CI 1.08–1.53), whereas males were no more likely to adhere (aRR = 1.01; 95% CI 0.76–1.32). Males reported partner/spouse (33%) or brother (11%) as the TBy while females reported sister (17%), partner/spouse (14%), or another family member (12%). Multivariable analysis found no association between clinic attendance and TBy relationship in either gender. Conclusion. Clinic attendance was higher among women with TBys but not men. Results support TBys to help women achieve ART success; alternate strategies to bolster TBy benefits are needed for men. PMID:27092271

  14. Cardiovascular risk in African American women attending historically Black colleges and universities: the role of dietary patterns and food preferences.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sandra Chaisson; Geiselman, Paula J; Broussard, Tracy

    2010-11-01

    There is a lack of data on the dietary patterns and food preferences of African American women attending historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). African American women have higher death rates from cardiovascular disease than White women, and the initiating events of cardiovascular disease often begin in young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns and food preferences of African American college women, which may act as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A convenience sample of 100 African American women, ages 18 to 40 years, was administered two surveys assessing food preferences and dietary patterns. The majority of the participants (65%) preferred high-fat foods, and most of the participants (87%) consumed more than 30% of their daily caloric intake from fat. There is a definite need for dietary education regarding the impact of dietary fat on cardiovascular health among college students. PMID:21099070

  15. Glycemic management after antenatal corticosteroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Kalra, Bharti; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2014-02-01

    Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) are recommended for use in antenatal mothers at risk of preterm delivery before 34 weeks. One common side-effect of these drugs is their propensity to cause hyperglycemia. A PubMed search was made using terms 'steroid,' 'dexamethasone,' 'betamethasone' with diabetes/glucose. Relevant articles were extracted. In addition, important cross-reference articles were reviewed. This review, based upon this literature search, discusses the available evidence on effects on glycemic status as well as management strategies in women with pre-existing diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus, as well as normoglycemic women after ACS use in pregnancy. PMID:24696828

  16. When Life Got in the Way: How Danish and Norwegian Immigrant Women in Sweden Reason about Cervical Screening and Why They Postpone Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Azerkan, Fatima; Widmark, Catarina; Sparén, Pär; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tillgren, Per; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden have an increased risk of cervical cancer compared to Swedish-born women. In addition, Danish and Norwegian immigrant women follow the national recommendations for attendance at cervical screening to much lesser extent than Swedish-born women. The aim of this study was to explore how Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden reason about attending cervical screening, focusing on women’s perceptions as to why they and their compatriots do not attend. Methods Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with Danish and Norwegian immigrant women living in Stockholm. The women were between 26 and 66 years of age at the time of the FGDs, and were aged between <1 and 48 years old when they immigrated to Sweden. A FGD guide was used, which included questions related to cervical screening, and obstacles and motivators to attend cervical screening. The FGDs were tape recorded and transcribed, and the results analysed according to the principles of qualitative content analysis. Results The main theme was “Women have a comprehensive rationale for postponing cervical screening, yet do not view themselves as non-attenders”. Investigation of women’s rationale for non-attendance after being invited to cervical screening revealed some complex reasons related to immigration itself, including competing needs, organisational and structural factors and differences in mentality, but also reasons stemming from other factors. Postponing attendance at cervical screening was the category that linked all these factors as the reasons to why women did not attend to cervical screening according to the recommendations of the authorities. Conclusions The rationale used to postpone cervical screening, in combination with the fact that women do not consider themselves to be non-attenders, indicates that they have not actively taken a stance against cervical screening, and reveals an opportunity to motivate these women to attend. PMID:26158449

  17. Evaluation of the 'healthy start to pregnancy' early antenatal health promotion workshop: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is an ideal time to encourage healthy lifestyles as most women access health services and are more receptive to health messages; however few effective interventions exist. The aim of this research was to deliver a low-intensity, dietitian-led behavior change workshop at a Maternity Hospital to influence behaviors with demonstrated health outcomes. Methods Workshop effectiveness was evaluated using an RCT; ‘usual care’ women (n = 182) received a nutrition resource at their first antenatal visit and 'intervention' women also attended a one-hour ‘Healthy Start to Pregnancy’ workshop (n = 178). Dietary intake, physical activity levels, gestational weight gain knowledge, smoking cessation, and intention to breastfeed were assessed at service-entry and 12 weeks later. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses examined change over time between groups. Results Approximately half (48.3%) the intervention women attended the workshop and overall response rate at time 2 was 67.2%. Significantly more women in the intervention met pregnancy fruit guidelines at time 2 (+4.3%, p = 0.011) and had a clinically-relevant increase in physical activity (+27 minutes/week) compared with women who only received the resource (ITT). Women who attended the workshop increased their consumption of serves of fruit (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.004), vegetables (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.006), met fruit guidelines (+11.9%, p < 0.001), had a higher diet quality score (p = 0.027) and clinically-relevant increases in physical activity (+21.3 minutes/week) compared with those who only received the resource (PP). Conclusions The Healthy Start to Pregnancy workshop attendance facilitates improvements in important health behaviors. Service changes and accessibility issues are required to assist women's workshop attendance to allow more women to benefit from the workshop’s effects. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000867998 PMID:23157894

  18. Seroepidemiology of Rubella in Women Under 25 Years Old Attending Medical Centers in Ahvaz, Iran in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ghafourian, Mehri; Shakunia, Abdolhussein; Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Kooti, Wesam; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollahe; Serajian, Amirarsalan; Chinipardaz, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rubella is a mild viral infection affecting women of reproductive age, and the fetus in early pregnancy, leading to miscarriage, stillbirth and Congenital Rubella Syndrome. Objectives: The present study aimed to assess serum level of anti-rubella antibodies in women younger than 25 years attending medical centers in Ahvaz city. Patients and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 760 women younger than 25 years attending medical centers in Ahvaz. A sample of 3 mL of venous blood was taken from each woman and ELISA method was used to assess anti-rubella IgG levels. Antibody level more than 11 IU/mL was considered safe. Data was analyzed by SPSS software using Chi-square, ANOVA and Pearson Correlation tests. Results: Of total samples, 683 women (88.9%) had immunity against rubella, 80 (10.4%) no immunity and 5 (0.7%) intermediate levels of antibody. Immunity to rubella increased significantly with aging (P = 0.001) and a significant association was found between age and antibody titer (P = 0.001, r = 0.261). Conclusions: More than 95% of 15 to 25 year-old women (main reproductive age in Iran) are within acceptable immunity range. Level of immunity to rubella in women of reproductive age in this region appears satisfactory. PMID:26870312

  19. Barriers to skilled birth attendance: a survey among mothers in rural Gambia.

    PubMed

    Lerberg, Priya Miriam; Sundby, Johanne; Jammeh, Abdou; Fretheim, Atle

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional survey were to identify the most important barriers for use of skilled attendance during childbirth by women in rural Gambia. We also assessed information received during antenatal care, preparations made prior to childbirth, and experiences and perceptions that may influence the use of skilled birth attendance in rural Gambia. The most frequently stated barriers for giving birth in a health facility were not having enough time to go (75%), and lack of transport (29%). The majority of the women (83%) stated that they preferred having a health worker attending their childbirth. More than seventy percent of the participants gave birth attended by a traditional birth attendant, but only 27% had intended to give birth at home. Sixty-four percent had made advance arrangements for the childbirth. Only 22% were informed about expected time of birth during antenatal care. Our findings suggest that the participants hold the knowledge and motivation that is necessary if practices are to be changed. Interventions aiming at ensuring timely transport of women to health facilities seem key to increased use of skilled birth attendants. PMID:24796167

  20. Benefits of Rapid Molecular Diagnosis of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections in Women Attending Family Planning Clinics.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois-Nicolaos, Nadège; Jaureguy, Françoise; Pozzi-Gaudin, Stéphanie; Masson, Claire; Guillet-Caruba, Christelle; Lavisse, Frédérique; Larmignat, Philippe; Benachi, Alexandra; Picard, Bertrand; Doucet-Populaire, Florence

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated the benefits of on-demand systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the Xpert CT/NG assay in 589 women attending family planning clinics. The sexually transmitted infection prevalence was 16.5% with 15.1% C. trachomatis and 3.1% N. gonorrhoeae infections. The on-demand test allowed for a quicker management of patients at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:26462191

  1. Influences of type of high school attended and current relationship status on life goal ratings of college women.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Renee M; Zucker, Evan L

    2002-12-01

    Scores on the Goals in Life Scale of 183 college women were compared based on type of high school attended, single-sex versus co-educational, and current relationship status, dating versus nondating. Type of high school alone did not influence any life goal, and those in dating relationships gave priority to relationships over life goals. Several significant interaction effects were present, however, as single-sex school attendees in dating relationships gave lower ratings to several life goals than did women in the other groups. PMID:12530755

  2. Infant Feeding among Women Attending an Immunisation Clinic at a Tertiary Health Institution in Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatiregun, A. A.; Abegunde, V. O.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal characteristics can affect a mother's decision to breastfeed. This study used a cross-sectional design to assess maternal variables and infant feeding patterns among nursing mothers attending an immunisation clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 264 mothers who consecutively attended the immunisation clinic and met certain inclusion

  3. Infant Feeding among Women Attending an Immunisation Clinic at a Tertiary Health Institution in Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatiregun, A. A.; Abegunde, V. O.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal characteristics can affect a mother's decision to breastfeed. This study used a cross-sectional design to assess maternal variables and infant feeding patterns among nursing mothers attending an immunisation clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 264 mothers who consecutively attended the immunisation clinic and met certain inclusion…

  4. [Antenatal care in immigrants].

    PubMed

    de la Torre, J; Coll, C; Coloma, M; Martín, J I; Padrón, E; González González, N L

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of immigration has had an impact on the health care of the population. The immigrant population in Spain today represents approximately 8% of the total population. The majority of this population proceeds from countries with low income, and its origin and distribution is diverse. The immigrant population is characterised by its being young and healthy, and with a capacity to adapt to changes, but its social, economic and labour conditions are frequently insecure and favour vulnerability to disease. In spite of the number of immigrants of the male sex being globally higher than that of women, the percentage of immigrants of the female sex is growing. This increase of the female immigrant population has resulted in the appearance of specific health care needs, especially with respect to sexual and reproductive health. To which we must add a substantial increase in pathologies prevalent in the countries of origin, such as anaemia, tuberculosis, malnutrition, haemoglobinopathies, consanguinity, hypocalcaemia, hepatitis B and/or C, sexually transmitted infections, infectious diseases transmitted by arthropods, such as Chagas disease and other parasitoses, as well as genital mutilations. The aim of this article is to analyse the factors that make it difficult to control gestation in the immigrant population, as well as to establish guidelines for acting in antenatal care consultations. Insistence is placed on health education and prevention during pregnancy, and consideration is given to the appearance of rare diseases related to some of these groups. PMID:16721417

  5. Socio-economic and ethnic group inequities in antenatal care quality in the public and private sector in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Victora, CG; Matijasevich, A; Silveira, MF; Santos, IS; Barros, AJD; Barros, FC

    2010-01-01

    Background Socio-economic inequalities in maternal and child health are ubiquitous, but limited information is available on how much the quality of care varies according to wealth or ethnicity in low- and middle-income countries. Also, little information exists on quality differences between public and private providers. Methods Quality of care for women giving birth in 2004 in Pelotas, Brazil, was assessed by measuring how many of 11 procedures recommended by the Ministry of Health were performed. Information on family income, self-assessed skin colour, parity and type of provider were collected. Results Antenatal care was used by 98% of the 4244 women studied (mean number of visits 8.3), but the number of consultations was higher among better-off and white women, who were also more likely to start antenatal care in the first trimester. The quality of antenatal care score ranged from 0 to 11, with an overall mean of 8.3 (SD 1.7). Mean scores were 8.9 (SD 1.5) in the wealthiest and 7.9 (SD 1.8) in the poorest quintiles (P < 0.001), 8.4 (SD 1.6) in white and 8.1 (SD 1.9) in black women (P < 0.001). Adjusted analyses showed that these differences seemed to be due to attendance patterns rather than discrimination. Mean quality scores were higher in the private 9.3 (SD 1.3) than in the public sector 8.1 (SD 1.6) (P < 0.001); these differences were not explained by maternal characteristics or by attendance patterns. Conclusions Special efforts must be made to improve quality of care in the public sector. Poor and black women should be actively encouraged to start antenatal care early in pregnancy so that they can fully benefit from it. There is a need for regular monitoring of antenatal attendances and quality of care with an equity lens, in order to assess how different social groups are benefiting from progress in health care. PMID:20123940

  6. Health system and community level interventions for improving antenatal care coverage and health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Medley, Nancy; Darzi, Andrea J; Richardson, Marty; Habiba Garga, Kesso; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends at least four antenatal care (ANC) visits for all pregnant women. Almost half of pregnant women worldwide, and especially in developing countries do not receive this amount of care. Poor attendance of ANC is associated with delivery of low birthweight babies and more neonatal deaths. ANC may include education on nutrition, potential problems with pregnancy or childbirth, child care and prevention or detection of disease during pregnancy. This review focused on community-based interventions and health systems-related interventions. Objectives To assess the effects of health system and community interventions for improving coverage of antenatal care and other perinatal health outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (7 June 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised trials and cluster-randomised trials. Trials of any interventions to improve ANC coverage were eligible for inclusion. Trials were also eligible if they targeted specific and related outcomes, such as maternal or perinatal death, but also reported ANC coverage. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Main results We included 34 trials involving approximately 400,000 women. Some trials tested community-based interventions to improve uptake of antenatal care (media campaigns, education or financial incentives for pregnant women), while other trials looked at health systems interventions (home visits for pregnant women or equipment for clinics). Most trials took place in low- and middle-income countries, and 29 of the 34 trials used a cluster-randomised design. We assessed 30 of the 34 trials as of low or unclear overall risk of bias. Comparison 1: One intervention versus no intervention We found marginal improvements in ANC coverage of at least four visits (average odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.22; participants = 45,022; studies = 10; Heterogeneity: Tau² = 0.01; I² = 52%; high quality evidence). Sensitivity analysis with a more conservative intra-cluster correlation co-efficient (ICC) gave similar marginal results. Excluding one study at high risk of bias shifted the marginal pooled estimate towards no effect. There was no effect on pregnancy-related deaths (average OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.08; participants = 114,930; studies = 10; Heterogeneity: Tau² = 0.00; I² = 0%; low quality evidence), perinatal mortality (average OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.07; studies = 15; Heterogeneity: Tau² = 0.01; I² = 58%; moderate quality evidence) or low birthweight (average OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.06; studies = five; Heterogeneity: Tau² = 0.00; I² = 5%; high quality evidence). Single interventions led to marginal improvements in the number of women who delivered in health facilities (average OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.15; studies = 10; Heterogeneity: Tau² = 0.00; I² = 0%; high quality evidence), and in the proportion of women who had at least one ANC visit (average OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.79; studies = six; Heterogeneity: Tau² = 0.24; I² = 76%; moderate quality evidence). Results for ANC coverage (at least four and at least one visit) and for perinatal mortality had substantial statistical heterogeneity. Single interventions did not improve the proportion of women receiving tetanus protection (average OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.15; studies = 8; Heterogeneity: Tau² = 0.01; I² = 57%). No study reported onintermittent prophylactic treatment for malaria. Comparison 2: Two or more interventions versus no intervention We found no improvements in ANC coverage of four or more visits (average OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.99 to 2.21; participants = 7840; studies = six; Heterogeneity: Tau² = 0.10; I² = 48%; low quality evidence) or pregnancy-related deaths (average OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.26; participants = 13,756; studies = three; Heterogeneity: Tau² = 0.00; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence). However, combined interventions led to improvements in ANC coverage of at least one visit (average OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.17; studies = five; Heterogeneity: Tau² = 0.00; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), perinatal mortality (average OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.95; studies = five; Heterogeneity: Tau² = 0.06; I² = 83%; moderate quality evidence) and low birthweight (average OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.80; studies = two; Heterogeneity: Tau² = 0.00; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence). Meta-analyses for both ANC coverage four or more visits and perinatal mortality had substantial statistical heterogeneity. Combined interventions improved the proportion of women who had tetanus protection (average OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.87; studies = 3; Heterogeneity: Tau² = 0.01; I² = 33%). No trial in this comparison reported on intermittent prophylactic treatment for malaria. Comparison 3: Two interventions compared head to head. No trials found. Comparison 4: One intervention versus a combination of interventions There was no difference in ANC coverage (four or more visits and at least one visit), pregnancy-related deaths, deliveries in a health facility or perinatal mortality. No trials in this comparison reported on low birthweight orintermittent prophylactic treatment of malaria. Authors' conclusions Implications for practice - Single interventions may improve ANC coverage (at least one visit and four or more visits) and deliveries in health facilities. Combined interventions may improve ANC coverage (at least one visit), reduce perinatal mortality and reduce the occurrence of low birthweight. The effects of the interventions are unrelated to whether they are community or health system interventions. Implications for research - More details should be provided in reporting numbers of events, group totals and the ICCs used to adjust for cluster effects. Outcomes should be reported uniformly so that they are comparable to commonly-used population indicators. We recommend further cluster-RCTs of pregnant women and women in their reproductive years, using combinations of interventions and looking at outcomes that are important to pregnant women, such as maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, alongside the explanatory outcomes along the pathway of care: ANC coverage, the services provided during ANC and deliveries in health facilities. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Health system and community level interventions for improving antenatal care coverage and health outcomes What is the issue? The World Health Organization recommends at least four antenatal visits for all pregnant women. Almost half of pregnant women worldwide miss out on this level of care, and this is more problematic in low- and middle-income countries. Why is this important? Healthcare during pregnancy is a priority because poor antenatal attendance is associated with delivery of low birthweight babies and more newborn deaths. Antenatal care also provides opportunity for nutritional and health checks, such as whether a woman has a disease like malaria or has been exposed to infectious diseases such as HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) or syphilis. What evidence did we find? We reviewed randomised controlled trials that tested ways to improve the uptake of antenatal care during pregnancy. Some trials tested community-based interventions (media campaigns, education on self and infant care or financial incentives for pregnant women to attend antenatal care), while other trials looked at health systems interventions (home visits for pregnant women or provision of equipment for clinics). We included 34 trials with approximately 400,000 women. Most trials took place in low- and middle-income countries, and most trials were conducted in a way that made us feel confident about trusting the published reports. We assessed 30 of the 34 trials as of low or unclear overall risk of bias. The quality rating (high, moderate or low) shows our level of confidence that the result is robust and meaningful. Trials comparing one intervention with no intervention Single interventions only marginally improved the numbers of women attending four antenatal visits (high quality). Interventions did not improve rates of maternal death (low quality), baby deaths (moderate quality) or low birthweight (high quality). Even so, interventions led to modest improvements in the number of women who had at least one antenatal visit (moderate quality) and who delivered in a health facility (high quality). The number of women who received intermittent preventive treatment for malaria was not reported. Trials comparing two or more interventions with no intervention Combined interventions did not improve the number of women with four or more visits (low quality), or reduce maternal deaths (moderate quality). Nor did it increase the number of women who delivered in a health facility (moderate quality). However, more women who received combined interventions had one or more antenatal visits (moderate quality); there were also fewer baby deaths (moderate quality) and fewer low birthweight babies (moderate quality). The number of women who received intermittent preventive treatment for malaria was not reported. We found no evidence that trials of community interventions worked differently from trials of health systems interventions. Trials comparing one intervention with another intervention - there were no trials for this comparison. Trials comparing one intervention with a combination of interventions - There was no difference in the number of women attending four or more antenatal visits (and at least one visit), maternal deaths, baby deaths, the number of deliveries in a health facility or the number of women who received intermittent preventive treatment for malaria. What does this mean? Single interventions may improve antenatal care coverage (women attending at least one visit and women attending four or more visits) and encourage women to give birth to their babies in health facilities. Combined interventions may also improve antenatal care coverage (at least one visit), reduce baby deaths and reduce the number of babies born with low birthweight. We recommend that further studies of pregnant women and women in their reproductive years use combinations of interventions to maximise impact and look at outcomes that are important to the women themselves, such as maternal and baby deaths or ill health and the use of healthcare services. PMID:26621223

  7. Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS): adaptation to Spanish and proposal for a brief version of 12 items.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Aresti, Lucía; Iraurgi, Ioseba; Iriarte, Leire; Martínez-Pampliega, Ana

    2016-02-01

    The psychometric properties of the adapted Spanish version of the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale were examined. The main goal was to investigate the reliability and construct validity of the conceptual structure of Condon's proposal. Five hundred twenty-five pregnant women, attending maternal education classes in Bizkaia (Spain), answered the translated and back-translated version of the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale. This scale comprises 19 items with five answer choices divided into two subscales: quality of attachment and intensity of attachment. Participants also answered a questionnaire about the reproductive history that was developed ad hoc for the present study. The Spanish adaptation of the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale final version comprises 12 items: seven items have been removed due to their inadequate psychometric properties. Internal consistency of the inventory is moderate-high (.73) and it ranges from .68 (intensity of attachment) to .75 (quality of attachment) for the dimensions. Three alternative structural models were proven using a confirmatory factor analysis. Lastly, the two-related-factor model was chosen, as it obtained suitable fit indexes (χ (2) = 102.28; p < .001; goodness-of-fit index (GFI) = .92; comparative fit index (CFI) = .95; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .042, 90 % CI [.030-.054]). Due to its adequate psychometric properties, the Spanish version of the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale can be proposed as a suitable instrument for the purpose of measuring antenatal attachment. The study of antenatal attachment helps to detect possible difficulties for the mother in establishing an affective relationship with the foetus. This may affect the foetus growth, delivery and the future mother-child relationship. PMID:25704802

  8. Contraceptive practices amongst HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy attending an ART clinic in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Andrew; van der Linde, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective contraceptive practices amongst HIV-positive women of reproductive age have been shown to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV by preventing unplanned pregnancies. However, most antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes focus on treatment, neglecting comprehensive contraceptive services. This results in a high frequency of pregnancies amongst HIV-positive women attending the ART clinic of a regional hospital north of Durban. Objectives This research aimed to explore contraceptive use amongst HIV-positive women attending an ART clinic by determining, (1) prevalence of contraceptive use, (2) pregnancy rate, (3) contraceptive preferences and (4) factors associated with contraceptive use. Methods In this observational, analytical, cross-sectional study of 420 women, aged 15 to 49 years, participants were selected by systematic random sampling. They completed standardised questionnaires. Results Of all participants, 95% of the participants used contraception. Factors associated with contraceptive practice were knowledge of HIV status 292 (72.8%), health worker advice 84 (20.9%), and spousal insistence 33 (8.2%). Of the 130 women (31%) who had fallen pregnant whilst on ART, 73 (56.2%) said that the pregnancy had been unplanned, whilst 57 (43.8%) had wanted to fall pregnant because of: partner's insistence (45.6%), desire for a child (36.8%), desire to conceal HIV status (15.8%), not wanting to die childless (5.3%), and death of a previous child (1.8%). Conclusion Contraceptive use amongst these women was high but the number of pregnancies is a cause for concern. Information regarding contraceptive use should therefore be provided at all ART clinics.

  9. Design and process of the EMA Cohort Study: the value of antenatal education in childbirth and breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Pascual, Carmen; Pinedo, Isabel Artieta; Grandes, Gonzalo; de Gamboa, Gurutze Remiro Fernandez; Hermosilla, Itziar Odriozola; de la Hera, Amaia Bacigalupe; Gordon, Janire Payo; Garcia, Guadalupe Manzano; de Pedro, Magdalena Ureta

    2008-01-01

    Background Antenatal education (AE) started more than 30 years ago with the purpose of decreasing pain during childbirth. Epidural anaesthesia has achieved this objective, and the value of AE is therefore currently questioned. This article describes the protocol and process of a study designed to assess AE results today. Methods/Design A prospective study was designed in which a cohort of 616 nulliparous pregnant women attending midwife offices of the Basque Health Service were followed for 13 months. Three exposure groups were considered based on the number of AE sessions attended: (a) women attending no session, (b) women attending 1 to 4, and (c) women attending 5 or more sessions. Sociodemographic, personality, and outcome variables related to childbirth and breastfeeding were measured. It was expected 40% of pregnant women not to have participated in any AE session. However, 93% had attended at least one session. This low exposure variability decreased statistical power of the study as compared to the initially planned power. Despite this, there was a greater than 80% power for detecting as significant differences between exposure groups of, for instance, 10% in continuation of breastfeeding at one and a half months and in visits for false labour. Women attending more sessions were seen to have a mean higher age and educational level, and to belong to a higher socioeconomic group (p < 0.01). Follow-up was completed in 99% of participants. Discussion Adequate prior estimation of variability in the exposure under study is essential for designing cohort studies. Sociodemographic characteristics may play a confounding role in studies assessing AE and should be controlled in design and analyses. Quality control during the study process and continued collaboration from both public system midwives and eligible pregnant women resulted in a negligible loss rate. PMID:18435856

  10. Knowledge of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases among women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Garland, M; Maggwa, B N; Mati, J K; Kihoro, J; Mbugua, S; Achola, P; Hunter, D J

    1993-01-01

    We interviewed 1,716 women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi between January 1990 and May 1991 about their knowledge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). When participants in the study were asked to name spontaneously the STDs they knew, more than 90% of the women named gonorrhea and AIDS, and 75.0% named syphilis; 65.4% could name two or more signs of AIDS; and 96.9%, 66.5%, and 58.3% mentioned sexual transmission, transmission via blood transfusion, and perinatal transmission, respectively, as routes of transmission of AIDS. Knowledge of most symptoms and routes of transmission of AIDS, as well as knowledge of gonorrhea and syphilis, was significantly positively associated with level of education. Unmarried women were significantly less likely to know symptoms and routes of transmission of AIDS than were married women. Level of knowledge of gonorrhea and syphilis was significantly positively associated with number of lifetime sexual partners. Although awareness of AIDS was very high, detailed knowledge of signs of AIDS and routes of transmission was deficient, particularly among less educated women. This positive association of detailed AIDS knowledge with level of education suggests a need to design AIDS prevention activities that are more accessible to, and better understood by, women who have little education. PMID:8439431

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasmosis among antenatal women in London: a re-examination of risk in an ethnically diverse population

    PubMed Central

    Flatt, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii in pregnancy can result in miscarriage, hydrocephalus, cerebral calcification and chorioretinitis in the newborn. The objective of our study was to evaluate seroprevalence of and analyse risk factors for toxoplasmosis in antenatal women from 2006 to 2008 in an ethnically diverse population of Central London to re-examine the need for a screening policy. Methods: We performed serum IgG estimations to T. gondii using a commercial kit, and analysed risk factors for acquisition using a questionnaire. Results: Seroprevalence for T. gondii was 17.32% in 2610 samples tested. In all, 67.7% were of UK origin (seroprevalence: 11.9%) and were significantly non-immune to T. gondii (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.31–0.47; P < 0.0001). Risk factors for seroprevalence included African/Afro-Caribbean (OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.83–3.88; P < 0.001; seroprevalence: 31.5%), Middle eastern (OR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.62–5.99; P ≤ 0.001; seroprevalence: 34.8%) and mixed (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.16–2.63; P = 0.007; seroprevalence: 23.3%) ethnic groups; eating undercooked meat (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.29–2.08; P ≤ 0.001; seroprevalence: 20.2%) and drinking unpasteurised milk (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.01–1.88; P = 0.05; seroprevalence: 23.1%). There was no association with pet cats or eating unpasteurised cheeses and antibody responses. Conclusion: Low national prevalence of toxoplasma seroconversion and congenital disease would likely not justify screening in the UK. Individual risk assessment is recommended in ethnically diverse urban areas where populations with relatively high seroprevalence and parasite-associated risk factors exist together with an indigenous population with low prevalence. One universal screening policy based on the indigenous prevalence and risk factors may not be suitable for all. PMID:22696530

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with use of herbal medicine among women attending an infertility clinic in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infertility is a public health problem associated with devastating psychosocial consequences. In countries where infertility care is difficult to access, women turn to herbal medicines to achieve parenthood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with herbal medicine use by women attending the infertility clinic. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 260 women attending the infertility clinic at Mulago hospital. The interviewer administered questionnaire comprised socio-demographic characteristics, infertility-related aspects and information on herbal medicine use. The main outcome measure was herbal medicines use for infertility treatment. Determinants of herbal medicine use were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Results The majority (76.2%) of respondents had used herbal medicines for infertility treatment. The mean age of the participants was 28.3 years ± 5.5. Over 80% were married, 59.6% had secondary infertility and 2/3 of the married participants were in monogamous unions. In a multivariable model, the variables that were independently associated with increased use of herbal medicine among infertile patients were being married (OR 2.55, CI 1.24-5.24), never conceived (OR 4.08 CI 1.86-8.96) and infertility for less than 3 years (OR 3.52 CI 1.51-8.821). Factors that were associated with less use of herbal medicine among infertile women were being aged 30 years or less (OR 0.18 CI 0.07-0.46), primary and no education (OR 0.12 CI 0.05-0.46) and living with partner for less than three years (OR 0.39 CI 0.16-0.93). Conclusions The prevalence of herbal medicine use among women attending the infertility clinic was 76.2%. Herbal medicine use was associated with the participants’ age, level of education, marital status, infertility duration, nulliparity, and duration of marriage. Medical care was often delayed and the majority of the participants did not disclose use of herbal medicines to the attending physician. Health professionals should enquire about use of herbal medicines. This may help in educating the patients about the health risks of using herbal medicine and may reduce delays in seeking appropriate care. Collaboration of health professionals with herbal medicine practitioners would help identify the common herbal medicines used for infertility treatment, their potential benefits and harm. PMID:24433549

  13. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing: Evidence from a community-based study in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV testing for pregnant women is an important component for the success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). A lack of antenatal HIV testing results in loss of benefits for HIV-infected mothers and their children. However, the provision of unnecessary repeat tests at a very late stage of pregnancy will reduce the beneficial effects of PMTCT and impose unnecessary costs for the individual woman as well as the health system. This study aims to assess the number and timing of antenatal HIV testing in a low-income setting where PMTCT programmes have been scaled up to reach first level health facilities. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV testing. Results The prevalence of women who lacked HIV testing among the study group was 10% while more than half of the women tested had had more than two tests during pregnancy. The following factors were associated with the lack of antenatal HIV test: having two children (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4), living in a remote rural area (aOR 7.8, 95% CI 3.4-17.8), late antenatal care attendance (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-10.1) and not being informed about PMTCT at their first antenatal care visits (aOR 7.4, 95% CI 2.6-21.1). Among women who had multiple tests, 80% had the second test after 36 weeks of gestation. Women who had first ANC and first HIV testing at health facilities at primary level were more likely to be tested multiple times (OR 2.9 95% CI 1.9-4.3 and OR = 4.7 95% CI 3.5-6.4), respectively. Conclusions Not having an HIV test during pregnancy was associated with poor socio-economic characteristics among the women and with not receiving information about PMTCT at the first ANC visit. Multiple testing during pregnancy prevailed; the second tests were often provided at a late stage of gestation. PMID:21439043

  14. Level of awareness of mammography among women attending outpatient clinics in a teaching hospital in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammography has been used in developed countries with considerable success but very little is known about this imaging modality in low resource settings. This study examined the level of awareness of mammography and determined factors influencing the level of awareness. Methods We conducted a hospital based cross sectional study to investigate the level of awareness of mammography among 818 randomly selected women attending the General Outpatient clinics (GOP) of the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Independent predictors of level of awareness of mammography were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The proportion of women who ever heard of mammography was 5%, and they demonstrated poor knowledge of the procedure. Those with primary or secondary levels of education were about three times less likely to be aware of mammography when compared with those with tertiary level of education (OR = 0.3, 95% CI, 0.12 – 0.73). Also, participation in community breast cancer prevention activities (OR = 3.4, 95% CI, 1.39 – 8.36), and previous clinical breast examination (OR = 2.34, 95% CI, 1.10 – 4.96) independently predicted mammography awareness. Newspapers and magazines appeared to be the most important sources of information about mammography screening. Conclusion The level of awareness of mammography is poor among women attending outpatient clinics in the studied population. Interventions promoting awareness of this screening procedure should give particular attention to the illiterate and older women while clinicians performing breast examinations should utilize the opportunity to inform women about the mammography procedure. Promotion of educational articles on breast cancer and its screening methods via media remains vital for the literate. PMID:23324312

  15. Evaluation of fetal echocardiography as a routine antenatal screening tool for detection of congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Krishnananda; Shetty, Ranjan; Narayan, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetal echocardiography plays a pivotal role in identifying the congenital heart defects (CHDs) in utero. Though foetal echocardiography is mostly reserved for high risk pregnant women, its role as a routine prenatal screening tool still needs to be defined. Performing foetal echocardiography based on only these indications can lead to a significant numbers of CHD cases going undetected who will be deprived of further management leading to increased early neonatal mortalities. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of CHDs by fetal echocardiography in an unselected population of pregnant women in comparison with pregnant women with conventional high risk factors for CHD. Methods This study enrolled consecutive pregnant women who attended antenatal clinic between 2008 and 2012 in a tertiary care hospital. These pregnant women were categorized into two groups: high risk group included pregnant women with traditional risk factors for CHD as laid down by Pediatric Council of the American Society of Echocardiography and low risk group. Detailed fetal 2 D echocardiography was done. Results A total of 1,280 pregnant women were included in study. The 118 women were categorized as the high risk group while remaining 1,162 were included in the low risk group. Twenty six cases of CHDs were detected based on abnormal foetal echocardiography (20.3 per 1,000). Two of the 26 cases of CHD occurred in high risk group whereas the remaining 24 occurred in low risk pregnancy. The difference in the incidence of CHDs between the two groups was not significant statistically (P=0.76). Conclusions Our study shows no difference in incidence of CHDs between pregnancies associated with high risk factors compared to low risk pregnancies. So we advocate foetal echocardiography should be included as a part of routine antenatal screening and all pregnant women irrespective of risk factors for CHDs. PMID:26885491

  16. Consumption of alcoholic beverages among pregnant urban Ugandan women.

    PubMed

    Namagembe, Imelda; Jackson, Leila W; Zullo, Melissa D; Frank, Scott H; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Sethi, Ajay K

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization estimated alcohol consumption in Uganda to be one of the highest in the world. We examined alcohol consumption among Ugandan women prior to and after learning of pregnancy. We developed a screening algorithm using factors that predicted alcohol consumption in this study. In 2006, we surveyed 610 women attending antenatal care at the national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda about consumption of traditional and commercial alcoholic beverages before and after learning of pregnancy. Predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy were examined and a practical screening algorithm was developed for use in antenatal clinics. One hundred eighty women (30%) drank alcohol at least monthly before learning of their pregnancy. Among these women, almost one-third reported usual consumption of at least one beverage type at quantities that equal binging levels for women. Overall, 151 women (25%) consumed alcohol after learning of pregnancy. Commercial beverages, particularly beer, were consumed more often than traditional drinks. A two-stage screening algorithm asking women about their religion, male partner or friends' drinking, and any lifetime drinking predicted self-reported consumption of alcohol during pregnancy with 97% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Alcohol consumption among pregnant Ugandan women attending antenatal care is high. A feasible screening algorithm can help providers target education and counseling to women who are likely drinking during pregnancy. Given the preference for commercial alcoholic beverages, it is recommended that labels be placed prominently on bottled alcoholic beverages warning of the adverse effects of consuming alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:19629663

  17. Managing Mental Health Problems Among Immigrant Women Attending Primary Health Care Services.

    PubMed

    Straiton, Melanie L; Powell, Kathryn; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in Norway explore treatment options in primary care for immigrant women with mental health problems compared with nonimmigrant women. Three national registers were linked together for 2008. Immigrant women from Sweden, Poland, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, and Russia were selected for analysis and compared with Norwegian women. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether treatment type varied by country of origin. Rates of sickness leave and psychiatric referrals were similar across all groups. Conversational therapy and use of antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower among Filipina, Thai, Pakistani, and Russian women than among Norwegians. Using the broad term "immigrants" masks important differences in treatment and health service use. By closely examining mental health treatment differences by country of origin, gaps in service provision and treatment uptake may be identified and addressed with more success. PMID:26251953

  18. Prevalence of Trichomoniasis by PCR in Women Attending Health Screening in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Ryong; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gu, Na-Yeong; Kim, Yong-Suk; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common curable sexually-transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. There are few reports on the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of trichomoniasis by PCR in Guri city, Korea. All adult women who visited Hanyang University Guri Hospital for health screening within the National Health Care Service were invited to participate in the study, and 424 women were enrolled between March and June 2011. PCR was used to detect Trichomonas vaginalis using primers based on a repetitive sequence cloned from T. vaginalis (TV-E650). Fourteen women (3.3%) were found to have T. vaginalis. All were over 50, and they were significantly older on average than the 410 Trichomonas-negative women (mean ages 63.4 vs 55.3 years). It seems that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in women receiving health screening, especially among those over 50. PMID:27180577

  19. Practice of breast self-examination amongst women attending a Malaysian Well Person's Clinic.

    PubMed

    Chan, S C

    1999-12-01

    The practice of breast self-examination (BSE) amongst 1,303 women registered with the Well Person's Clinic, Outpatient Department, Hospital Ipoh between April 1995 and March 1997 were assessed through a questionnaire. Majority (98.2%) were never taught and did not practise BSE, 17(1.3%) practised BSE while 6 (0.5%) were taught BSE but failed to put it into practice. Only 5.8% of 52 women with past/family history of breast cancer/lump and 2.9% of 207 women with past/family history of other cancers were practising BSE regularly. Three out of 64 women with breast lumps found on clinical breast examination discovered the lumps themselves. Five of the 64 women were subsequently confirmed to have breast carcinoma. PMID:11072459

  20. A randomised controlled trial comparing two schedules of antenatal visits: the antenatal care project.

    PubMed Central

    Sikorski, J.; Wilson, J.; Clement, S.; Das, S.; Smeeton, N.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the clinical and psychological effectiveness of the traditional British antenatal visit schedule (traditional care) with a reduced schedule of visits (new style care) for low risk women, together with maternal and professional satisfaction with care. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial. SETTING--Places in south east London providing antenatal care for women receiving shared care and planning to deliver in one of three hospitals or at home. SUBJECT--2794 women at low risk fulfilling the trial's inclusion criteria between June 1993 and July 1994. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Measures of fetal and maternal morbidity, health service use, psychosocial outcomes, and maternal and professional satisfaction. RESULTS--Pregnant women allocated to new style care had fewer day admissions (0.8 v 1.0; P=0.002) and ultrasound scans (1.6 v 1.7; P=0.003) and were less often suspected of carrying fetuses that were small for gestational age (odds ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.99). They also had some poorer psychosocial outcomes; for example, they were more worried about fetal wellbeing antenatally and coping with the baby postnatally, and they had more negative attitudes to their babies, both in pregnancy and postnatally. These women were also more dissatisfied with the number of visits they received (odds ratio 2.50; 2.00 to 3.11). CONCLUSIONS--Patterns of antenatal care involving fewer routine visits for women at low risk may lead to reduced psychosocial effectiveness and dissatisfaction with frequency of visits. The number of antenatal day admissions and ultrasound scans performed may also be reduced. For the variables reported, the visit schedules studied are similar in their clinical effectiveness. Uncertainty remains as to the clinical effectiveness of reduced visit schedules for rare pregnancy problems. PMID:8595286

  1. Intercultural consultations: investigation of factors that deter non-English speaking women from attending their general practitioners for cervical screening.

    PubMed Central

    Naish, J.; Brown, J.; Denton, B.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the factors that deter ethnic minority women living in east London from attending their general practitioner for cervical cytology screening. DESIGN--Qualitative study by means of focus group discussions between October 1993 and March 1994. SETTING--East London. SUBJECTS--Non-health specific established community groups and specially convened groups of Bengali, Kurdish, Turkish, Urdu and Punjabi, and Chinese speaking women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The spontaneous views of non-English speaking women resident in east London on cervical screening, focusing on attitudes to screening, their experiences of the cervical cytology screening services as currently provided, and their knowledge and beliefs about cervical screening. RESULTS--Some reported attitudinal barriers to cervical cytology screening such as fear of cancer were not deterrents. Administrative and language barriers were more important, as were inadequate surgery premises and concerns about sterility. CONCLUSION--Contrary to popular belief among general practitioners in east London, women from ethnic minorities are enthusiastic about cervical cytology screening once they understand the purpose of the test and the call and recall procedures. It is possible to consult with community groups in their own language through focus group discussions, working with bilingual health advocates who have had a short practical training in facilitating small group discussions. This form of user consultation could be carried out focusing on other aspects of health promotion. PMID:7987106

  2. Stillbirth history and Toxoplasma gondii infection in women attending public health centers in a northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C.; Pacheco-Vega, S. J.; Salcedo-Jaquez, M.; Sánchez-Anguiano, L. F.; Hernández-Tinoco, J.; Rábago-Sánchez, E.; Centeno-Tinoco, M. M.; Flores-Garcia, I. D.; Ramos-Nevarez, A.; Cerrillo-Soto, S. M.; Guido-Arreola, C. A.; Beristain-García, I.; Liesenfeld, O.; Berumen-Segovia, L. O.; Saenz-Soto, L.; Sifuentes-Álvarez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Through a cross-sectional study design, 150 women attending public health centers with a history of stillbirths were examined for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in Durango City, Mexico. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the women with stillbirth history. Of the 150 women (mean age: 32.09 ± 9.16 years) studied, 14 (9.3%) had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and six (42.9%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with high frequency (4–7 days a week) of eating meat (OR = 5.52; 95% CI: 1.48–20.59; P = 0.01), history of lymphadenopathy (OR = 4.52; 95% CI: 1.14–17.82; P = 0.03), and history of surgery (OR = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.04–72.15; P = 0.04). This is the first study on the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in women with a history of stillbirths in Mexico. The association of T. gondii exposure with a history of surgery warrants for further research. Risk factors for T. gondii infection found in the present survey may help to design optimal educational programs to avoid T. gondii infection. PMID:26185685

  3. Risk factors for gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomonas infections among women attending family planning clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Daly, C C; Maggwa, N; Mati, J K; Solomon, M; Mbugua, S; Tukei, P M; Hunter, D J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the risk factors for gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomonas infections among low risk women in Nairobi, Kenya. METHOD--In a cross-sectional study, 4,404 women attending two peri-urban family planning clinics between 1989 and 1991 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and examined for signs of sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. Cervical cultures for gonorrhoea, PAP smear (including microscopy for trichomonas), RPR and HIV testing were done. RESULTS--Positive cervical cultures for gonorrhoea were found in 3.2% of women, positive syphilis serology in 1.9%, and positive trichomonas microscopy in 5.2%. Genital ulcers were found in 1.9% of women. Although unmarried status and reporting more than one sex partner in the previous year were both significantly associated with each disease in the crude analysis, these associations were attenuated after controlling for each other and for other risk factors. The population attributable risks (PARs) for these factors were low (7-16%) owing to the high proportion of cases who were married and monogamous. The majority of women with microbiological evidence of infection had normal pelvic examinations. Clinical diagnostic algorithms for STDs in this population had a low sensitivity and positive predictive value. Nevertheless, a strong association between HIV seropositivity and STDs was observed. CONCLUSION--The low population attributable risks found in this study suggest that behaviour change messages directed to women, particularly if they are married have a low potential for preventing STDs. The poor performance of clinical diagnostic algorithms illustrates the desirability of testing these algorithms in a variety of populations and reinforces the need for low-cost methods of microbiologic diagnosis if populations with relatively low prevalences of these infections are to be included in programmes to diagnose and treat STDs. PMID:8039777

  4. High Prevalence of Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infection in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Patricia Carr; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). Methods: This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Results: Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women <26 years of age (p=0.06) and those reporting sex while intoxicated/high on alcohol or drugs (p=0.05). For rectal CT, only age <26 years was associated with prevalent infection in unadjusted models; this association strengthened after multivariable adjustment (prevalence ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.29–15.90). Conclusion: Nearly one in five women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have missed 14% of rectal infections. Standardized guidelines would increase rectal GC/CT testing in women and help detect missed infections. PMID:25692800

  5. Community Health Workers to Improve Antenatal Care and PMTCT Uptake in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A Quantitative Performance Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sando, David; Magesa, Lucy; Machumi, Lameck; Mungure, Esther; Mwanyika Sando, Mary; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Foster, Dawn; Kajoka, Deborah; Naburi, Helga; Ekström, Anna M.; Spiegelman, Donna; Li, Nan; Chalamilla, Guerino; Fawzi, Wafaie; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    Background: Home visits by community health workers (CHW) could be effective in identifying pregnant women in the community before they have presented to the health system. CHW could thus improve the uptake of antenatal care (ANC), HIV testing, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. Methods: Over a 16-month period, we carried out a quantitative evaluation of the performance of CHW in reaching women early in pregnancy and before they have attended ANC in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results: As part of the intervention, 213 CHW conducted more than 45,000 home visits to about 43,000 pregnant women. More than 75% of the pregnant women identified through home visits had not yet attended ANC at the time of the first contact with a CHW and about 40% of those who had not yet attended ANC were in the first trimester of pregnancy. Over time, the number of pregnant women the CHW identified each month increased, as did the proportion of women who had not yet attended ANC. The median gestational age of pregnant women contacted for the first time by a CHW decreased steadily and significantly over time (from 21/22 to 16 weeks, P-value for test of trend <0.0001). Conclusions: A large-scale CHW intervention was effective in identifying pregnant women in their homes early in pregnancy and before they had attended ANC. The intervention thus fulfills some of the conditions that are necessary for CHW to improve timely ANC uptake and early HIV testing and PMTCT enrollment in pregnancy. PMID:25436818

  6. Assessment of peer-based and structural strategies for increasing male participation in an antenatal setting in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mphonda, Steve M; Rosenberg, Nora E; Kamanga, Esmie; Mofolo, Innocent; Mwale, Gertrude; Boa, Edson; Mwale, Mwawi; Martinson, Francis; Hoffman, Irving; Hosseinipour, Mina C

    2014-06-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, although male involvement in antenatal care is associated with positive outcomes for HIV-infected women and their infants, men rarely accompany female partners. We implemented a project to increase the number of male partners attending an antenatal clinic at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. We evaluated changes in the proportion of women who came with a partner over three periods. During period 1 (January 2007 - June 2008) there was didactic peer education. During period 2 (July 2008 - September 2009) a peer-led male-involvement drama was introduced into patient waiting areas. During period 3 (October 2009 - December 2009) changes to clinical infrastructure were introduced to make the clinic more male-friendly. The proportion of women attending ANC with a male partner increased from 0.7% to 5.7%, to 10.7% over the three periods. Peer education through drama and male-friendly hospital infrastructure coincided with substantially greater male participation, although further gains are necessary. PMID:25022146

  7. Prevalence of lower genital tract infection among women attending maternal and child health and family planning clinics in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Anh, Phan Kim; Khanh, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Ha, Dinh Thu; Chien, Do Thi; Thuc, Pham Thi; Luong, Pham Hien; Kilmarx, Peter H; Wongchotigul, Varee; Kitayaporn, Dwip; Rowe, Patrick J

    2003-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) with Candida spp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and bacterial vaginosis among symptomatic and asymptomatic women attending maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP) clinics in Hanoi, Vietnam. A multi-centered, cross-sectional descriptive study stratified by reported symptoms of vaginal discharge was carried out in three MCH/FP clinics among 1,000 women aged 18-44 years in 1998. Of these, 89.1% lived in Hanoi, 97.6% were currently married, and 99.2% had only one sexual partner in the past 12 months. Regarding their contraceptive use, 28.2% did not use any contraception, 25.6% used an intrauterine device (IUD), 22.8% used condoms, and 23.4% used other methods. The overall prevalence of Candida spp was 11.1% (95% CI = 9.1-13.1%); T. vaginalis, 1.3% (95% CI = 0.6-2.0%); no gonococcal infection was found; the prevalence of C. trachomatis was 4.4% (95% CI = 3.1-5.7%); and of bacterial vaginosis, 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4-4.6%). The presence of LGTI was not associated with reported symptom of vaginal discharge. LGTI was common among married and monogamous women attending MCH/FP clinics in Hanoi, of whom many used IUDs and may have an increased risk of complications in the presence of LGTI. The lack of association between symptoms and laboratory-confirmed infection underscores the challenge of diagnosing LGTI when laboratory testing is not available. PMID:12971565

  8. Adverse health effects of spousal violence among women attending Saudi Arabian primary health-care clinics.

    PubMed

    Eldoseri, H M; Tufts, K A; Zhang, Q; Fish, J N

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the frequency of spousal violence among Saudi women and document the related health effects and injuries, as well as their attitudes to gender and violence. Structured interviews were conducted with 200 ever-married women recruited from primary-care centres in Jeddah. Nearly half of the surveyed women (44.5%) reported ever experiencing physical violence from their spouse. Although 37 women (18.5%) had received violence-related injuries, only 6.5% had reported these injuries to a health-care provider. Victims of spousal violence had poor perceptions of their overall health, and reported pain or discomfort, antidepressant use and suicidal thoughts. Women mostly disagreed with the presented justifications for wife-beating. However, the association between gender attitudes and spousal violence was not significant. The results of this study support calls for integration of education about partner violence into health-care curricula to enhance the access and quality of services. PMID:25601810

  9. Tablet computers for implementing NICE antenatal mental health guidelines: protocol of a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Marcano-Belisario, José S; Gupta, Ajay K; O'Donoghue, John; Morrison, Cecily; Car, Josip

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders that may affect women during pregnancy. The prompt identification of this disorder, and the provision of treatment, may help to reduce the likelihood of post-partum depression, prevent severe forms of the disease, and reduce its intergenerational impact. Despite women's repeated encounters with health services throughout their antenatal care, depression often goes undiagnosed. This is one area where mobile health could prove useful. We will assess the feasibility of using tablets to incorporate depression screening into antenatal pathways. We will also assess if survey layout could affect the quality of the data collected through these devices. Methods and analysis We will test the feasibility of using iPad Airs for the administration of the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in England. We will assess the impact of survey layout on the quality of the responses given to these screening scales using a parallel, randomised controlled study design. We will calculate the positive predictive value, the negative predictive value and the false omission rate of the Whooley questions in comparison with the EPDS. We will calculate differences in data equivalence, time needed to complete the surveys, break-off rates, data completeness and requests for help between the 2 experimental groups: using all questions in one screen and navigation by vertical scrolling, or a single question per screen and navigation by multiple pages. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee South East Coast—Surrey. Our findings will be disseminated through academic peer-reviewed publications, conferences and discussion with peers. PMID:26801468

  10. Machakos project studies. Agents affecting health of mother and child in a rural area of Kenya. XXI. Antenatal and delivery care.

    PubMed

    Voorhoeve, A M; Kars, C; van Ginneken, J K

    1982-03-01

    Traditional and modern antenatal and delivery care is described for women who delivered during 1975 and 1976 and who belonged to the study population of the Machakos project studies. During their pregnancy 84% of the women had visited at least once an antenatal clinic. When asked during pregnancy 56% of the women stated that they intended to deliver in hospital but only 26% ultimately did so. Hospital delivery seemed to depend mostly on opportunity and habit. Of the special risk factors for complications of pregnancy and delivery only previous caesarean section and low height, and to a lesser degree primiparity, operated in favour of hospitalisation. Abdominal massage, given by traditional midwives, was the main form of traditional antenatal care; it was used mainly for abdominal pain. There was little interference during labour of deliveries attended by traditional midwives and few harmful practices were discovered. Their factual knowledge and understanding of anatomy and physiology of pregnancy and delivery was limited. Suggestions are given on how to promote hospital delivery among those women who require this for medical reasons. PMID:7200646

  11. Changes in cervical cancer screening behavior for women attending Pap Test Week clinics

    PubMed Central

    Poliquin, V; Decker, K; Altman, AD; Lotocki, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to determine factors associated with inadequate cervical cancer screening and changes in cervical cancer screening behavior. Methods Data were acquired using the CervixCheck Manitoba registry and an ancillary database of demographic information collected from clinic attendees. Results The study included 1124 women. Of these, 53% (n = 598) were under-screened (no Pap test in the previous 2 years) prior to accessing the clinics. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.011.03), no doctor (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.051.54), and living in Canada < 1 year (OR = 5.5, 95% CI 2.7311.12) were associated with being under-screened prior to accessing the Pap Test Week clinics. Thirty-seven percent (n = 223) of under-screened women demonstrated improved screening status subsequent to the 2006 Pap Test Week (had a subsequent Papanicolaou [Pap] test performed within 2 years) and these women were more likely to live in an urban setting (P = 0.003), be younger (P < 0.001), originate outside Canada (P = 0.006), have lived in Canada for less than 1 year (P = 0.006), and have had an abnormal Pap test result in 2006 (P < 0.001). Previously under-screened women were less likely to become adequately-screened subsequent to 2006 if they had a Pap test performed at a Pap Test Week clinic compared to having a Pap test performed elsewhere (37% versus 60%, P < 0.001). Conclusion This study identified a subset of under-screened women accessing Pap Test Week clinics whose screening status might be most modifiable. PMID:23596357

  12. Perception and Experience Regarding Menopause among Menopaused Women Attending Teaching Hospitals in Erbil City

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Gazang Najmaddin; Sabir, Jwan Muhamad

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The timing of menopause, perception as well as menopausal symptoms varies between populations and within populations. The main objective of the present study was to assess women’s perception and experience regarding menopause, to find out symptoms and mean age of menopause and to study socio-demographic characteristics of menopaused women and to find out its relationship with their age at menopause and their knowledge about menopause. Methods: Over a period of eight months a descriptive cross sectional study were carried out at the outpatient departments of four teaching hospitals in Erbil city. A total of 500 menopaused women their age ranged from 40-60 years were interviewed using a close ended self administered questionnaire. Results: Mean age of menopause was 47.44 years with median age was 48 years, 4.4% had premature menopause and 23.6% had early menopause. The only factors that significantly associated with age at menopause were education and pattern of menstrual cessation and 93.4% of menopaused women were heard about menopause, 56.6% had prior knowledge of menopausal symptoms, cessation of menstruation was positive in 47.0% and 85.8% of women perceive menopause as natural condition and the most common menopausal symptoms were tiredness occurring in 83.2%. Conclusion: Most of menopaused women perceive menopause as natural condition and not aware about hormone replacement therapy and the mean age of menopause is comparable to that mean reported in other part of Iraq. Among menopaused women tiredness was the most common complaint was followed by hot flushes and night sweats. PMID:22980244

  13. Cervical intraepithelial lesions in females attending Women's Health Clinics in Alexandria, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hadi, Mona; Khalaf, Adel; Aboulkassem, Hanaa; Naeem, Noha; Baqy, Mohamed Abdel; Sallam, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of preinvasive cervical lesions. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in Egyptian women living in Alexandria to clarify the need for implementing a national organized screening program and a vaccination program in our community. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a 6 years period and covered the different socioeconomic levels to have a representative sample for women living in Alexandria. All women included did not have any cervical disorder related complaints. Conventional Pap smears were obtained and diagnosed using the Bethesda system. Women with abnormal Pap smears were managed according to the 2006 consensus guidelines within the available facilities. Persistent abnormal cytological results were referred for colposcopic biopsy. Histological results were grouped into: Reactive changes, CIN 1, CIN 2/CIN 3 and adenocarcinoma in-situ (AIS). Results: Out of the 6173 smears included in the study 6072 (98.36%) were normal and only 101 (1.63%) were abnormal. After colposcopic biopsies, 0.08% had CIN 1, 0.03% had CIN 2, 3 and 0.01% had AIS. Conclusion: We concluded that cervical cancer screening programs, although life-saving for a number of women, are not a sufficiently high priority in our community. Money for national health screening programs should preferably be directed more towards recruiting women for breast cancer screening, since breast cancer accounts for about 33% of all female cancers in Egypt ranking number one, while cervical cancer ranks number 13. PMID:26195985

  14. Antenatal memories and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Neighbour, Roger

    1981-01-01

    A case is described of suicidal impulses apparently stemming from the patient's experience before and during his birth. By using a technique of `rebirthing', antenatal memories were relived and their traumatic effects resolved. Theoretical and practical accounts of rebirthing are given, and its significance for general practitioners is discussed. PMID:7338871

  15. Pregnancy, Alcohol Intake, and Intimate Partner Violence among Men and Women Attending Drinking Establishments in a Cape Town, South Africa Township

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H.; Pieterse, Desiree; Pipitan, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Background The highest rates of fetal alcohol syndrome worldwide can be found in South Africa. Particularly in impoverished townships in the Western Cape, pregnant women live in environments where alcohol intake during pregnancy has become normalized and interpersonal violence (IPV) is reported at high rates. For the current study we sought to examine how pregnancy, for both men and women, is related to alcohol use behaviors and IPV. Methods We surveyed 2,120 men and women attending drinking establishments in a township located in the Western Cape of South Africa. Results Among women 13% reported being pregnant, and among men 12.2% reported their partner pregnant. For pregnant women, 61% reported attending the bar that evening to drink alcohol and 26% reported both alcohol use and currently experiencing IPV. Daily or almost daily binge drinking was reported twice as often among pregnant women than non-pregnant women (8.4% vs. 4.2%). Men with pregnant partners reported the highest rates of hitting sex partners, forcing a partner to have sex, and being forced to have sex. High rates of alcohol frequency, consumption, binge drinking, and problematic drinking were reported across the entire sample. In general, experiencing and perpetrating IPV were associated with alcohol use among all participants except for men with pregnant partners. Conclusions Alcohol use among pregnant women attending shebeens is alarmingly high. Moreover, alcohol use appears to be an important factor in understanding the relationship between IPV and pregnancy. Intensive, targeted, and effective interventions for both men and women are urgently needed to address high rates of drinking alcohol among pregnant women who attend drinking establishments. PMID:21744297

  16. [Accidents and violence among women attended in Sentinel Emergency Services--Brazil, 2009].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Celeste de Souza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Godinho, Tatau; Mascarenhas, Mrcio Dnis Medeiros; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves; Silva, Rurany Ester

    2012-09-01

    Accidents from external causes affect the human population in different ways. This article seeks to analyze emergency care for women who are victims of accidents and violence. Data from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents were analyzed. This study was carried out in 74 emergency units of 23 state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and included 6,965 women aged from 20-59 years. The age groups of 20-39 and 40-59 years were compared for the occurrence of accidents and violence. Accidents were more frequent among young black women (20-39 years) with more than nine years of schooling. The occurrence of violence was also prevalent in young black women but with less schooling. Falls were the most frequent accidents (38.6%), followed by traffic accidents. The occurrence of violence was more frequent in the home (p <0.000) and the mention of alcohol abuse among victims of violence was predominant. The most frequent type of violence was aggression (84.6%), in which the aggressor was male (79.1%) and identified as an intimate partner (44.1%). It is increasingly important that services are able to provide comprehensive and humanized care to the victims of this important public health problem. PMID:22996883

  17. Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

  18. Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes of Teenage Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Haddabi, Rahma; Al-Bash, Majeda; Al-Mabaihsi, Nadia; Al-Maqbali, Najla; Al-Dhughaishi, Tamima; Abu-Heija, Adel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the obstetrical and perinatal outcomes of teenage Omani girls with singleton pregnancies at a tertiary teaching hospital. Methods This is a retrospective case control study. We reviewed obstetric and perinatal outcomes of teenage nulliparous pregnant Omani girls with singleton pregnancies aged 14 to 19 years, delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2013. We compared their outcomes with outcomes of pregnant nulliparous Omani women with singleton pregnancies aged 20 to 25 years old delivered at the same hospital during the same period. Results When compared with pregnant women (n=307), teenage pregnant girls (n=307) were found to have higher proportion of preterm delivery <32 weeks (7% vs. 3%, p=0.040), preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes (PPROM) (19% vs. 11%, p=0.005) and anemia (58% vs. 44%, p=0.005). Cesarean section rate was higher in women than teenager girls (20% vs. 10%, p=0.001). Teenager girls had lighter babies (mean weight ± standard deviation 2,750±690 vs. 2,890±480, p=0.020), incidence of very low birth weight babies (<1,500g) was higher in teenagers (3.9% vs. 0.3%, p=0.003), but perinatal mortality rate was similar in the two groups. Conclusion Teenage pregnant Omani women are at increased risk of preterm delivery before 32 weeks gestation, PPROM, anemia, and delivering very low birth weight babies. PMID:25584155

  19. Reproductive tract disorders among Afghan refugee women attending health clinics in Haripur, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Balsara, Z P; Wu, I; Marsh, D R; Ihsan, A T; Nazir, R; Owoso, E; Robinson, C; Darmstadt, G L

    2010-10-01

    Afghans comprise one of the largest groups of refugees in the world, with the majority living in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify commonly-occurring reproductive tract infections (RTIs), describe knowledge of women about RTIs, and assess physical and behavioural factors contributing to the development of RTIs. Afghan women presenting at Basic Health Units in refugee camps in Haripur, Pakistan, with reproductive health-related complaints, were included in the study (n=634). Data collection included implementation of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, along with a physical examination and laboratory tests. A descriptive analysis was conducted first. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using predetermined themes. Chi-square test was used for determining the possible relationships between a binary outcome and categorical risk factors. Over three-fourths (76.7%) of those who reported to the health clinics with reproductive complaints had an RTI. Nearly half (49.5%) of these women were diagnosed with some form of vaginitis, and 14.7% were diagnosed with clinical suspicion of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Women with cervical prolapse (p = 0.033) or who cleansed after intercourse (p = 0.002) were more likely to have vaginitis. There was a significant difference (p = 0.017) in the prevalence of suspected PID among women who used mud only (11.1%), any water (18.8%), and an old cloth or toilet paper (9.8%) for cleansing after defaecation. Specific physical and behavioural contributors to the high prevalence of RTIs in this population were identified, and recommendations to ameliorate these factors are offered. PMID:20941902

  20. Reproductive Tract Disorders among Afghan Refugee Women Attending Health Clinics in Haripur, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Balsara, Z.P.; Wu, I.; Marsh, D.R.; Ihsan, A.T.; Nazir, R.; Owoso, E.; Robinson, C.

    2010-01-01

    Afghans comprise one of the largest groups of refugees in the world, with the majority living in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify commonly-occurring reproductive tract infections (RTIs), describe knowledge of women about RTIs, and assess physical and behavioural factors contributing to the development of RTIs. Afghan women presenting at Basic Health Units in refugee camps in Haripur, Pakistan, with reproductive health-related complaints, were included in the study (n=634). Data collection included implementation of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, along with a physical examination and laboratory tests. A descriptive analysis was conducted first. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using predetermined themes. Chi-square test was used for determining the possible relationships between a binary outcome and categorical risk factors. Over three-fourths (76.7%) of those who reported to the health clinics with reproductive complaints had an RTI. Nearly half (49.5%) of these women were diagnosed with some form of vaginitis, and 14.7% were diagnosed with clinical suspicion of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Women with cervical prolapse (p=0.033) or who cleansed after intercourse (p=0.002) were more likely to have vaginitis. There was a significant difference (p=0.017) in the prevalence of suspected PID among women who used mud only (11.1%), any water (18.8%), and an old cloth or toilet paper (9.8%) for cleansing after defaecation. Specific physical and behavioural contributors to the high prevalence of RTIs in this population were identified, and recommendations to ameliorate these factors are offered. PMID:20941902

  1. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy: a qualitative study of knowledge, attitudes and practices of district health managers, antenatal care staff and pregnant women in Korogwe District, North-Eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mubyazi, Godfrey; Bloch, Paul; Kamugisha, Mathias; Kitua, Andrew; Ijumba, Jasper

    2005-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) is a key intervention in the national strategy for malaria control in Tanzania. SP, the current drug of choice, is recommended to be administered in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy during antenatal care (ANC) visits. To allow for a proper design of planned scaling up of IPT services in Tanzania it is useful to understand the IPTp strategy's acceptability to health managers, ANC service providers and pregnant women. This study assesses the knowledge, attitudes and practices of these groups in relation to malaria control with emphasis on IPTp services. Methods The study was conducted in February 2004, in Korogwe District, Tanzania. It involved in-depth interviews with the district medical officer (DMO), district hospital medical officer in charge and relevant health service staff at two peripheral dispensaries, and separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with district Council Health Management Team members at district level and pregnant women at dispensary and community levels. Results Knowledge of malaria risks during pregnancy was high among pregnant women although some women did not associate coma and convulsions with malaria. Contacting traditional healers and self-medication with local herbs for malaria management was reported to be common. Pregnant women and ANC staff were generally aware of SP as the drug recommended for IPTp, albeit some nurses and the majority of pregnant women expressed concern about the use of SP during pregnancy. Some pregnant women testified that sometimes ANC staff allow the women to swallow SP tablets at home which gives a room for some women to throw away SP tablets after leaving the clinic. The DMO was sceptical about health workers' compliance with the direct observed therapy in administering SP for IPTp due to a shortage of clean water and cups at ANC clinics. Intensified sensitization of pregnant women about the benefits of IPTp was suggested by the study participants as an important approach for improving IPTp compliance. Conclusion The successful implementation of the IPTp strategy in Tanzania depends on the proper planning of, and support to, the training of health staff and sustained sensitization of pregnant women at health facility and community levels about the benefits of IPTp for the women and their unborn babies. PMID:16033639

  2. Status of HIV infection among the pregnant women attending in outpatient department.

    PubMed

    Khanam, N N; Hussain, M A; Ferdous, J; Kulsum, S U; Alam, H; Chakma, B; Zabin, F

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been spreading rapidly in the developing countries and vertical transmission also taking place. This study has been done to find out the prevalence of HIV infection among the pregnant women, so that necessity of routine screening test can be identified. It is a cross sectional study. Five hundred two pregnant women were included. Three ml venous blood was taken and then HIV screening test was done by ELISA method. All reactive tests were confirmed by Western blot antibody testing. The positive cases were followed up and necessary treatment was given. Delivery was conducted in this hospital. Baby's blood was tested to see vertical transmission after 18 months. Most of the subject were educated housewife, mean age was 25 years. Six (6%) husband was overseas service holder, 12% were smoker and 1.6% had drug addiction. Eight (8%) subject had previous history of blood transfusion and 49% subject or her husband had history of surgery or got parental therapy. 2% subject gave the history of familial disharmony and 2% had multiple sex partners. HIV infection was found in 2 patients (0.4%). Both of them got infection from their husband. One husband was over seas service holder and another one was injecting drug user. For the prevention of spread, reduction of vertical transmission and providing early management to the positive patient all pregnant women should be screened for HIV routinely. PMID:21240164

  3. Health-service utilization by pregnant women in the greater Mafikeng-Mmabatho district.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, C F; Greeff, M

    2004-03-01

    Since the implementation of free maternity services in South Africa from 1994, more maternity services were provided (SA, 1994: 73). These services are however inaccessible to many pregnant women in the rural areas, leading to sub-optimal antenatal health service utilization. Another problem that emerged, is deterioration in antenatal health service rendering throughout the country, as well as a lack of guidelines for the mobilization of pregnant women in order to promote optimal antenatal health service utilization (ANHSU) in the North West Province. The mentioned problems were the reasons for undertaking this research. The aims formulated for this research were: To determine the composition of the infrastructure of the antenatal health services and the efficacy of the antenatal health-service rendering in the greater Mafikeng-Mmabatho District; To undertake a survey of the ANHSU by pregnant women attending the mentioned services; To explore and describe the perceptions of these pregnant women regarding ANHSU; To formulate recommendations for antenatal health service providers working in the greater Mafikeng-Mmabatho District for the mobilization of pregnant women to promote optimal ANHSU. A qualitative survey design was followed within the context of the greater Mafikeng-Mmabatho District in the North West Province. Data-collection was managed through completion of structured questionnaires by chief professional nurses and puerperal women and by holding semi-structured interviews with puerperal women who were selected using non-probable, voluntary and purposive sampling. The findings that emerged were, that the composition of the infrastructure of the majority antenatal health services in the greater Mafikeng-Mmabatho District were insufficiently equipped indicating the provision of ineffective antenatal health service rendering. Pregnant women were utilizing the antenatal health services sub-optimally and the exploration and description of their ANHSU, revealed factors promoting and preventing utilization. Recommendations have been formulated for nursing education, nursing research and nursing practice with specific reference to the formulation of guidelines for antenatal health service providers to promote optimal ANHSU by pregnant women. PMID:15168627

  4. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    PubMed Central

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not significantly better than a single intervention in initiating or increasing BF duration. However, in one trial a combined BF education significantly reduced nipple pain and trauma. One study compared different combinations of interventions. There was a marginally significant increase in exclusive BF at six months in women receiving a booklet plus video plus lactation consultation (LC) compared with the booklet plus video only. Two studies compared multiple methods of BF education versus routine care. The combination of BF booklet plus video plus LC was significantly better than routine care for exclusive BF at three months. Authors’ conclusions Because there were significant methodological limitations and the observed effect sizes were small, it is not appropriate to recommend any antenatal BF education. There is an urgent need to conduct RCTs study with adequate power to evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education. PMID:22071830

  5. Repeated courses of antenatal corticosteroids: Are there effects on the infant’s auditory brainstem responses?

    PubMed Central

    Church, Michael W.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Mele, Lisa M.; Johnson, Francee; Dudley, Donald J.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Moawad, Atef H.; O’Sullivan, Mary J.; Miodovnik, Menachem

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the effects of repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatments on the neonatal auditory brainstem response (ABR), a sensitive measure of neonatal brain maturity and auditory function. To achieve this, we performed and blindly evaluated neonatal ABRs on a subset of infants delivering within a multicenter randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing single versus repeated courses of antenatal corticosteroid treatments for women at 23–31 weeks gestation who remained at increased risk for preterm birth. The women were randomly assigned to either the single or the repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatment group. Women in the repeated antenatal corticosteroid group received weekly antenatal corticosteroid treatments until 34 weeks gestation or until they reached a study-determined limited number of courses, whereas women in the single antenatal corticosteroid group received an initial course of corticosteroid followed by weekly placebo injections. We performed ABR testing on their infants prior to discharge. The latencies of waves I, III and V and the peak-to-trough amplitudes of waves I and V were compared between those in the single (n=27) and repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatment (n=24) groups. The majority of repeated antenatal corticosteroid infants (20 of 24) were exposed to ≥4 antenatal corticosteroid treatments. Even though gestational age was similar between our subset of single and repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatment groups, infant birth weight and length and head circumference were significantly smaller in the repeated antenatal corticosteroid group (p<0.05). Despite these differences in birth sizes, there were no significant group differences in the ABR wave latencies or amplitudes. We concluded that our repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatments, in comparison to a single treatment, did not significantly benefit or harm the neonatal ABR despite significant effects on birth size. PMID:20553856

  6. Individual-level predictors for HIV testing among antenatal attendees in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Thierman, Sara; Chi, Benjamin H; Levy, Jens W; Sinkala, Moses; Goldenberg, Robert L; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2006-07-01

    Despite the availability of antiretroviral prophylaxis, roughly one-fifth of public-sector antenatal patients decline HIV testing in Lusaka, Zambia. We administered a survey to determine individual-level predictors of HIV testing. Of 1064 antenatal attendees approached after pretest counseling, 1060 (>99%) participated. Of these, 686 (65%) agreed to HIV testing. On bivariate analysis controlling for clinic of attendance, women younger than 20 years old (adjusted RR [ARR] = 1.14), unmarried (ARR = 1.14), pregnant for the first time (ARR = 1.14), with lower educational attainment (ARR = 1.15), and with lower income (ARR = 1.14) were all more likely to undergo testing. When HIV risk was considered, women with low self-perceived risk were most likely to undergo HIV testing. As risk perception increased, likelihood for testing decreased (P for trend < 0.001). Although not statistically predictive, we identified prevalent community beliefs that may act as barriers to testing. Because individual-level characteristics were only weakly predictive of HIV testing, future work should concentrate on community-level factors. PMID:16845236

  7. Augmentation and reduction mammaplasty: demographic and obstetric differences in women attending a National Health Service clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Birtchnell, S.; Lacey, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Women presenting for breast augmentation and breast reduction to a National Health Service plastic surgery/psychiatry liaison clinic appear to differ beyond the anatomical. Those requesting breast reduction tend to be younger, unmarried and not to have been pregnant and may be uncomfortable with adult sexuality. Those requesting breast augmentation are presenting for surgery in their mid-thirties although many have always had small breasts. This is at a time of fading attractiveness, marital difficulties and a sense of failure as a woman. We report a strikingly poor obstetric history in this group. PMID:3249702

  8. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program [1]. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Conclusion Risk factor profiles for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress differ but are interrelated. Antenatal depression was the strongest predictor of postnatal depression, and in turn postnatal depression was the strongest predictor for parenting stress. These results provide clinical direction suggesting that early identification and treatment of perinatal depression is important. PMID:18412979

  9. Reduced Levels of Plasma Kisspeptin During the Antenatal Booking Visit Are Associated With Increased Risk of Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, C. N.; Abbara, A.; Izzi-Engbeaya, C.; Comninos, A. N.; Harvey, R. A.; Gonzalez Maffe, J.; Sarang, Z.; Ganiyu-Dada, Z.; Padilha, A. I.; Dhanjal, M.; Williamson, C.; Regan, L.; Ghatei, M. A.; Bloom, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Kisspeptin is a recently identified hormone encoded by the KISS1 gene, playing a critical role in human reproduction. Plasma kisspeptin levels rise dramatically during normal pregnancy due to placental synthesis, which implicates it as a potential tool for assessing risks of pregnancy complications. No previous prospective study has investigated the association between plasma kisspeptin and risk of miscarriage. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether a single plasma kisspeptin or serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) measurement in asymptomatic women attending their booking antenatal visit is associated with miscarriage. Design: This was a prospective cohort study. Setting: The study was conducted at a tertiary obstetric center. Participants: A total of 993 asymptomatic pregnant women with a gestation of 6 weeks or longer attending routine antenatal booking visit were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012. Main Outcome Measures: Plasma kisspeptin and serum hCG were measured during the antenatal booking visit. Pregnancy outcome was recorded prospectively. Results: Plasma kisspeptin correlated with gestation (r2 = 0.57; P < .0001). Gestational age-corrected (multiples of median) plasma kisspeptin was 60.4% lower (P < .001), and multiples of median-hCG was 36.1% lower (P < .001) in women later diagnosed with miscarriage compared with women without miscarriage. Increased plasma kisspeptin was associated with reduced miscarriage risk, even after adjusting for age, body mass index, gestational age, smoking, and blood pressure [odds ratio 0.13 (95% confidence interval 0.08–0.22), P = .0001]. Kisspeptin had a higher diagnostic performance for miscarriage than hCG (receiver-operator characteristic-area under the curve 0.899 ± 0.025 plasma kisspeptin; 0.775 ± 0.040, serum hCG, P < .01 vs plasma kisspeptin). Conclusion: Our data suggest for the first time that a single plasma kisspeptin measurement taken during the antenatal booking visit provides a potential novel marker for identifying asymptomatic pregnant women at a gestation of 6 weeks or greater at increased risk of miscarriage. PMID:25127195

  10. Fear of Violent Consequences and Condom Use among Women Attending a STD Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Mona; Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with risk for HIV infection. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that fear of violent consequences when negotiating condom use mediated the relation between IPV and condom use. Participants (n = 478) were recruited between March 1, 2004 and June 30, 2006 from a public clinic that treats sexually transmitted diseases in upstate New York as part of a randomized controlled trial. They completed an audio, computer-assisted, self-administered questionnaire with items on risky sexual behavior, intimate relationships, and related covariates and confounding variables. Seventeen percent of the sample reported IPV in the past 3 months. Recent IPV was associated with fear of violent consequences to requests for condom use, and such fear was associated with inconsistent condom use. Women who reported IPV also reported greater difficulties in negotiating safer sex behaviors with their abusers. So fear of violent consequences appeared to hinder their ability to protect themselves against HIV infection. The results were consistent with fear of violent consequences mediating the relationship between IPV and condom use. Health care providers involved in HIV prevention and sexual risk reduction interventions need to address IPV and, more specifically, fear of IPV when negotiating safer sex as part of their services for providing more comprehensive care to the women they serve. PMID:24215273

  11. Antenatal information sources for maternal and infant diet.

    PubMed

    Newby, Ruth; Brodribb, Wendy; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W

    2015-07-01

    This report describes information sources accessed by pregnant women around antenatal and early infant diet. Australian women in their first pregnancy (n = 277) responded to questionnaires online and on paper between June 2010 and March 2011 as part of the Feeding Queensland Babies Study. Antenatal information sources are reported for maternal diet, breastfeeding and formula-feeding. Pregnant women sought and encountered information for their own and their infants' diet from many sources. Health care professionals provided antenatal dietary information for 80% of respondents and infant feeding advice for 69%. Relatives or friends were the respondents' largest reported information source for infant feeding, reported by 78%. Information on artificial baby milk was accessed on television by 77% and on the internet by 52% of respondents. Health care professionals should proactively support clients' informational needs and address encountered nutrition misinformation. Further research is necessary to establish the nature and accuracy of dietary information in the mass media. PMID:26285323

  12. Antenatal Depression: A Rationale for Studying Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Shivakumar, Geetha; Brandon, Anna R.; Snell, Peter G.; Santiago-Muoz, Patricia; Johnson, Neysa L.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Freeman, Marlene P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in pregnancy, or antenatal depression poses unique treatment challenges and has serious consequences for mothers, unborn babies, and families when untreated. This review presents current knowledge on exercise during pregnancy, antidepressant effects of exercise, and the rationale for the specific study of exercise for antenatal depression. Method A systematic literature review was performed using English language articles published in Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1985 to January 2010. Results There is a broad literature supporting the antidepressant effects of exercise, but a paucity of studies specifically for antenatal depression. A small number of observational studies have reported that regular physical activities improve self-esteem and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. To date, there have not been randomized controlled studies of exercise for the treatment of MDD in pregnant women. Conclusions Systematic studies are needed to assess exercise as a treatment alternative for MDD during pregnancy. In consideration of the benefits of exercise for the mother and baby, and the burden of depression, studies are needed to determine the role of exercise for pregnant women with depression. PMID:21394856

  13. Antenatal Depression in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Amar D.; Chandahalli, Asha S.; Phatak, Akshay S.; Rangaiah, Nagarathnamma; Kuthandahalli, Shashikala M.; Nagendra, Prasad N.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Antenatal depression is not easily visible, though the prevalence is high. The idea of conducting this study was conceived from this fact. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of antenatal depression and identify the risk factors, for early diagnosis and intervention. Settings and Design: The study conducted in a Tertiary Care Hospital was prospective and cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: Pregnant women between 18 and 40 years of age were studied. The sample size comprised 318 women. They were assessed using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score, Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders, Life Event Stress Scale (LESS), and Life Distress Inventory (LDI). Statistical Analysis Used: The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 15 software was used to measure percentages, mean, correlation, and P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Prevalence of antenatal depression in the study was 12.3%. Correlation of the sociodemographic factors, obstetric factors, LDI, and LESS with EPDS scores showed statistical significance for unplanned pregnancy, distress associated with relationships, physical health, financial situation, social life, presence of personality disorder, being a homemaker, and higher educational status. Conclusion: The study showed a high prevalence rate of depression and identified risk factors. PMID:27011399

  14. Antenatal Care in Nepal: A Socioecological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Maleku, Arati; Pillai, Vijayan K

    2016-04-01

    Globally, millions of women die during pregnancy and childbirth due to preventable causes. In Nepal, although significant improvements have been made in the availability of routine antenatal care (ANC), the need for effective initiatives still persists. Using the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data, we examine the relationship between ecological and socioeconomic variations on the effect of ANC services between three distinct ecological zones in Nepal. We make a case for the consideration of socioecological niches in designing effective policies and programs to achieve positive maternal health outcomes. Most importantly, we demonstrate how sociocultural perspective can be one alternative for examining the cultural and contextual effects on women's health, contributing to the methodological literature on women's health. Since geography and culture are components of human ecology and form the larger socioecological system, we highlight the importance of these contextual effects on women's health in general, and the conditions under which women from diverse backgrounds may experience similar health issues. PMID:25412263

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Angelica E; Pinto, Valdir M; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15-24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7-10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR=4.70 (95% CI: 1.63-13.56, p=0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR=5.15 (95% CI: 1.15-23.25, p=0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil. PMID:25181400

  16. Disparities in HIV Screening among Pregnant Women – El Salvador, 2011

    PubMed Central

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Nieto Gómez, Ana I.; Dubón Abrego, María A.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide an accurate estimate of antenatal HIV screening and its determinants among pregnant women in El Salvador and help local authorities make informed decisions for targeted interventions around mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Methods A total sample of 4,730 women aged 15-49 years were interviewed from a random sample of 3,625 households. We collected data on antenatal care services, including HIV screening, during last pregnancy through a pre-established questionnaire. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to examine the association between HIV screening and sociodemographic and health care-related factors. Results A total of 2,929 women were included in this analysis. About 98% of participants reported receiving antenatal care, but only 83% of these reported being screened for HIV. Screening was lower in geographic areas with higher HIV incidence and ranged from 69.1% among women who were not seen by a physician during antenatal care, to 93.7% among those who attended or completed college. Odds for screening varied also by age, employment status, household economic expenditure, possession of health care coverage, health care settings, and number of antenatal care visits. Conclusions We found disparities in HIV screening during antenatal care at the environmental, social, demographic, and structural levels despite a high uptake of antenatal care in El Salvador. Our findings should urge health authorities to tailor and enhance current strategies implemented to eliminate MTCT and reduce inequities and HIV morbidity among women in El Salvador. PMID:24349356

  17. Factors influencing attendance in a structured physical activity program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in an urban setting: a mixed methods process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women experience higher rates of obesity, chronic disease, and are less active than non-Indigenous Australian women. Lifestyle programs designed to increase physical activity and encourage healthy eating are needed to ameliorate this disparity. The aim of this study was to identify participants’ perceived barriers and enablers to attend group exercise classes as part of a 12-week fitness program. Methods To understand the factors that influence attendance, a mixed method process evaluation was undertaken in which a quantitative measure of attendance in the group exercise classes was used to identify cases for further qualitative investigation. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women aged 18 to 64 years were recruited to a research trial of a fitness program. The 12-week program included two 60-minute group exercise classes per week, and four nutrition education workshops. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at program completion. Participants were stratified by attendance, and interviews from the highest and lowest 25 percentiles analysed. Rigour was strengthened through use of multiple data analysts, member checking and prolonged engagement in the field. Results Analyses of the post-program interviews revealed that participants enrolled in the program primarily for the perceived health benefits and all (with one exception) found the program met their needs and expectations. The atmosphere of classes was positive and comfortable and they reported developing good relationships with their fellow participants and program staff. Low attendees described more barriers to attendance, such as illness and competing work and family obligations, and were more likely to report logistical issues, such as inconvenient venue or class times. Conclusions Attendance to the ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women’s Fitness Program’ was primarily influenced by the participant’s personal health, logistics and competing obligations. Low attendees reported more barriers during the 12-week period and identified fewer enabling factors than high attendees. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000224022 PMID:23347750

  18. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases (144/641); of these, 70.8% (102/144) were balanced and 29.2% (42/144) unbalanced. In 78.6% of cases (504/641) with chromosomal abnormalities, whether mosaic or pure, the couple opted to terminate pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS Antenatal cytogenetic testing has helped reduce chromosomal abnormalities, mainly in Havana, and has provided reassurance of chromosomally normal children for couples at high genetic risk. The percentage of continuing pregnancies after a diagnosis of major chromosomal abnormality has been low, supporting evidence of broad population acceptance of abortion as an option when severe genetic abnormalities are present. PMID:25208117

  19. Towards the participation of traditional birth attendants in primary health care in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Sindiga, I

    1995-07-01

    This study of 80 traditional birth attendants from Homa Bay District sought their knowledge, functions, and participation in maternal-child health care and family planning. The TBAs were all women with a median age of 50 years. They formed a significant feature of the Luo medical landscape offering a wide range of antenatal, perinatal and postnatal services. The TBAs could become part of the official health care providers offering services, making early diagnoses of difficult pregnancy cases and providing appropriate referrals to health facilities. However, their vocation requires to be enhanced and certain practices such as the use of herbal medicines rationalized through training and research. PMID:7498031

  20. Fetal and maternal outcomes in Indo-Asian compared to caucasian women with diabetes in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dunne, F P; Brydon, P A; Proffitt, M; Smith, T; Gee, H; Holder, R L

    2000-12-01

    Maternal and fetal complications are increased when pregnancy is complicated by diabetes, and this may be further influenced by racial and cultural differences. We examined fetal and maternal outcomes in Indo-Asian and Caucasian women attending the same antenatal diabetes service to see if there were any differences. Women with diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2 and gestationally-acquired disease) complicating pregnancy, registered at the combined diabetes/antenatal clinic of this University teaching hospital over the period 1990-1998 were included. Fetal outcomes examined were miscarriage <24 weeks, stillbirths, neonatal deaths up to 28 days of life, perinatal mortality, congenital malformations and size for gestational age. Maternal outcomes examined were rates of caesarean section and vaginal deliveries, and number of pre-term deliveries <37 completed weeks of gestation. Outcomes for Indo-Asian and Caucasian women were similar, with a take-home baby rate of 96% and 92%, respectively. There was no perinatal mortality in Indo-Asian women, who were more likely to have a vaginal delivery and less likely to have a baby large for gestational age. Pregnancies complicated by type 2 diabetes in both groups pose the greatest threat to a successful pregnancy outcome. Indo-Asian and Caucasian women attending the same antenatal diabetes service have comparable outcomes. Attendance for pre-pregnancy care needs to be encouraged to combat the high early pregnancy loss and congenital malformation rate identified, particularly in those with type 2 disease, irrespective of ethnicity. PMID:11110588

  1. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III), Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1) learning and memory, (2) visual scanning, planning and attention, (3) executive function, (4) visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5) general intellectual ability Results No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester) had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4). Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy) had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1). All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1) learning and memory, (2) visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3) executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation. Conclusion Children raised by former substance abusing mothers scored worse on the neuropsychological screening than children who had substance abusing mothers and mostly were raised in foster homes. This indicates that it is important to focus on the environment in cases where help and support are provided to presently or formerly addicted women raising children. PMID:20646314

  2. Church Attendance as a Predictor of Number of Sexual Health Topics Discussed Among High-Risk HIV-Negative Black Women.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that sexual health communication is associated with safer sex practices. In this study, we examined the relationship between church attendance and sexual health topics discussed with both friends and sexual partners among a sample of urban Black women. Participants were 434 HIV-negative Black women who were at high risk for contracting HIV through heterosexual sex. They were recruited from Baltimore, Maryland using a network-based sampling approach. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviews. Fifty-four percent of the participants attended church once a month or more (regular attendees). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that regular church attendance among high-risk HIV-negative Black women was a significant predictor of the number of sexual health topics discussed with both friends (AOR = 1.85, p = .003) and sexual partners (AOR = 1.68, p = .014). Future efforts to reduce HIV incidence among high-risk Black women may benefit from partnerships with churches that equip faith leaders and congregants with the tools to discuss sexual health topics with both their sexual partners and friends. PMID:25966802

  3. Effects of antenatal testing laws on infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Fung, Winnie; Robles, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Even though syphilis can be prevented effectively and treated inexpensively, it has remained a global public health problem. Untreated congenital syphilis results in neonatal death, stillbirth, preterm birth, or congenital deformities. Many developing countries have recently instituted syphilis prevention programs in antenatal care, but there has not been a systematic study of the effects of such programs. This paper is the first to study antenatal testing laws initiated in the U.S. in 1938-1947 which mandated physicians and other persons permitted by law to attend to a pregnant woman to test her for syphilis. We use the variation in the timing of state antenatal testing laws to estimate the laws' effect on neonatal mortality rates and deaths due to preterm birth. Using 1931-1947 Vital Statistics data, we find that these laws decreased neonatal mortality rates of nonwhites by 3.15 per 1000 live births (a 8.6% reduction) while having no discernible impact on whites. The laws contributed to an 18% narrowing of the white-nonwhite neonatal mortality gap by 1947. Using 1950 U.S. Census data, we find that mandatory antenatal testing led to a 7% increase in the cohort size of nonwhite poor, which is consistent with the neonatal mortality results. We find universal antenatal testing to be very cost-effective, with an estimated $7600 cost (in 2013 dollars) per life-year saved. PMID:26766426

  4. Awareness of critical danger signs of pregnancy and delivery, preparations for delivery, and utilization of skilled birth attendants in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Doctor, Henry V; Findley, Sally E; Cometto, Giorgio; Afenyadu, Godwin Y

    2013-02-01

    Maternal mortality in northern Nigeria is among the highest in the world. To understand better the pathways through which the socio-demographic environment affects awareness of obstetric danger signs (i.e., potential problems associated with pregnancy), preparations for delivery, and skilled birth attendance, we conducted a survey of 5,083 women with recent pregnancies in three northern Nigerian states. Only 25% attended antenatal care (ANC), and 91% of all births took place at home. Less than one-third knew three or more danger signs of pregnancy or labor and delivery. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with knowledge of danger signs, but not with knowledge of life-threatening, critical danger signs. Antenatal care visits did not increase knowledge of critical danger signs, but they were associated with skilled birth attendance. Knowledge of critical pregnancy danger signs also was associated with skilled birth attendance. Improving the quality and coverage of ANC will ensure greater awareness of the critical danger signs. Future research is needed to identify creative and innovative ways to strengthen strategies for educating pregnant women about danger signs and in facilitating uptake of delivery services. PMID:23377725

  5. Alternative versus standard packages of antenatal care for low-risk pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dowswell, Therese; Carroli, Guillermo; Duley, Lelia; Gates, Simon; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Khan-Neelofur, Dina; Piaggio, Gilda GP

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of visits for antenatal (prenatal) care developed without evidence of how many visits are necessary. The content of each visit also needs evaluation. Objectives To compare the effects of antenatal care programmes with reduced visits for low-risk women with standard care. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (April 2010), reference lists of articles and contacted researchers in the field. Selection criteria Randomised trials comparing a reduced number of antenatal visits, with or without goal-oriented care, with standard care. Data collection and analysis Two authors assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. Main results We included seven trials (more than 60,000 women): four in high-income countries with individual randomisation; three in low- and middle-income countries with cluster randomisation (clinics as the unit of randomisation). The number of visits for standard care varied, with fewer visits in low- and middle- income country trials. In studies in high-income countries, women in the reduced visits groups, on average, attended between 8.2 and 12 times. In low- and middle- income country trials, many women in the reduced visits group attended on fewer than five occasions, although in these trials the content as well as the number of visits was changed, so as to be more ‘goal oriented’. Perinatal mortality was increased for those randomised to reduced visits rather than standard care, and this difference was borderline for statistical significance (five trials; risk ratio (RR) 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00 to 1.31). In the subgroup analysis, for high-income countries the number of deaths was small (32/5108), and there was no clear difference between the groups (2 trials; RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.45 to 1.80); for low- and middle-income countries perinatal mortality was significantly higher in the reduced visits group (3 trials RR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.32). Reduced visits were associated with a reduction in admission to neonatal intensive care that was borderline for significance (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.02). There were no clear differences between the groups for the other reported clinical outcomes. Women in all settings were less satisfied with the reduced visits schedule and perceived the gap between visits as too long. Reduced visits may be associated with lower costs. Authors’ conclusions In settings with limited resources where the number of visits is already low, reduced visits programmes of antenatal care are associated with an increase in perinatal mortality compared to standard care, although admission to neonatal intensive care may be reduced. Women prefer the standard visits schedule. Where the standard number of visits is low, visits should not be reduced without close monitoring of fetal and neonatal outcome. PMID:20927721

  6. Delay in Seeking Care for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Young Men and Women Attending a Public STD Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Angela M.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Clark, Duncan B.; Cook, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Delay in seeking care for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has adverse consequences for both the individual and population. We sought to identify factors associated with delay in seeking care for STDs. Methods: Subjects included 300 young men and women (aged 15-24) attending an urban STD clinic for a new STD-related problem due to symptoms or referral for an STD screening. Subjects completed a structured interview that evaluated STD history, attitudes and beliefs about STDs, depression, substance use, and other factors possibly associated with delay. Delay was defined as waiting > 7 days to seek and obtain care for STDs. Results: Nearly one-third of participants delayed seeking care for > 7 days. Significant predictors for delay included self-referral for symptoms as the reason for visit (OR 5.3, 95% CI: 2.58 – 10.98), and the beliefs “my partner would blame me if I had an STD” (OR 2.44, 95% CI: 1.30 – 4.60) and “it’s hard to find time to get checked for STDs” (OR 3.62, 95% CI: 1.95 – 6.69), after adjusting for age, race, sex, and other factors. Agreeing with the statement “would use a STD test at home if one were available” was associated with a decrease in delay (OR 0.24, 95% CI: 0.09 – 0.60). Conclusions: Many young persons delay seeking care for STDs for a number of reasons. Strategies to improve STD care-seeking include encouragement of symptomatic persons to seek medical care more rapidly, reduction of social stigmas, and improved access to testing options. PMID:24078858

  7. Unhappiness with the Fetal Gender is associated with Depression in Adult Pregnant Women Attending Prenatal Care in a Public Hospital in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been scantily studied in Mexican women. We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression in adult pregnant women attending a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study design, we assessed depression in 270 adult pregnant women attended for prenatal care in a public hospital using a validated Mexican version of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale in pregnancy and further confirmation by a psychiatric evaluation using the DSM-IV criteria for depression. Prevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Of the 270 pregnant women studied, 101 (37.4%) had EPDS scores equal to or higher than nine. Depression was confirmed in 56 (20.7%) women. Of them, 42 suffered from minor depression and 14 from major depression. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the women showed that depression was associated with depression before pregnancy (OR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.20-9.40; P=0.02), anxiety during pregnancy (OR = 9.38; 95% CI: 1.87-46.96; P=0.006), smoking (OR = 25.05; 95% CI: 1.77-353.07; P=0.01), unhappy with the fetal sex (OR = 8.53; 95% CI: 2.46-29.48; P<0.001), and unintended pregnancy (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.07-7.86; P=0.03). Results indicate that about one fifth of the pregnant women studied had confirmed depression. This is the first report of an association of prenatal depression with unhappiness with the fetal sex. Factors associated with prenatal depression found in this study may help for the optimal design of preventive measures against prenatal depression. PMID:27127452

  8. The use of antenatal services in health centres of Fès, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Couillet, M; Serhier, Z; Tachfouti, N; Elrhazi, K; Nejjari, C; Perez, F

    2007-10-01

    Morocco has reported important achievements in coverage for mother and child healthcare services. Nevertheless, client-use and quality of antenatal care (ANC) services need to be improved. The aim was to identify factors related to the use of ANC services through a cross-sectional survey among women attending an urban maternity hospital in Fès. We describe quality of ANC services assessed in six health centres through pre-established national checklists. Of 240 women interviewed in postnatal wards, 23% had not undertaken any ANC consultation during their last pregnancy. The main characteristics of women not using ANC services were being multiparous (OR: 2.7; CI: 1.5 - 4, 8) and having no formal schooling (OR: 3.7; CI: 2.2 - 6.4). These women stated three main reasons: (1) did not find it necessary (46.9%); (2) health centre too far away (14%); (3) dissatisfied about the quality of care (12%). Evaluation of the quality of care showed a shortage of personnel and basic supplies and malfunctions were identified at various levels. In the region of Fès, there is a need to strengthen ANC and overall maternal health activities through community mobilisation and information and education. We recommend that the WHO ANC protocol (less ANC visits with emphasis on quality) be pilot tested in Morocco. PMID:17999294

  9. Understanding delayed access to antenatal care: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote timely antenatal care for all women. PMID:24935100

  10. "Don't know" and accuracy of breast cancer risk perceptions among Appalachian women attending a mobile mammography program: implications for educational interventions and patient empowerment.

    PubMed

    LeMasters, Traci; Madhavan, Suresh; Atkins, Elvonna; Vyas, Ami; Remick, Scot; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Risk perceptions are motivating factors for engaging in preventive health behaviors. Yet, almost one third of women attending a mobile mammography program targeted to rural and medically underserved Appalachian women respond "don't know" to their perceived 5-year risk of breast cancer. This study used cross-sectional data from women aged >40 years participating in Bonnie's Bus Mammography Screening and Preventive Care Survey from 2009 to 2011 to identify factors associated with "don't know" responses and accuracy of perceived risk according to constructs of the health belief model and sociodemographic characteristics. Women who responded "don't know" were more likely to be less educated, of lower income, insured by Medicaid, and less knowledgeable about breast cancer. Conversely, women who accurately perceived their risk were more likely to be of higher education, more knowledgeable about breast cancer, and have a family history of breast cancer. However, women with a high objective 5-year risk of breast cancer and older age at childbirth or were nulliparous were less likely to accurately perceive their risk. These findings suggest that women who indicate "don't know" responses and hold inaccurate risk perceptions are a population vulnerable to health disparities and may benefit from educational interventions focused on improving breast cancer knowledge and perceptions to empower them to take an active role in their preventive health and make informed decisions based on their individual level of risk. PMID:24563177

  11. Is Male Involvement in ANC and PMTCT Associated with Increased Facility-Based Obstetric Delivery in Pregnant Women?

    PubMed

    Kashitala, Joshua; Nyambe, Namakau; Mwalo, Stuart; Musamba, Josephine; Chishinga, Nathaniel; Kasonde, Prisca; Lilja, Anna M; Mwiche, Angel; Welsh, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Ensuring that pregnant women are delivering in a health facility and are attended to by skilled birth attendants is critical to reducing maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. This study sought to determine the associations between male involvement in antenatal care (ANC) services and pregnant women delivering at health facilities and being attended to by skilled birth attendants as well as attending postnatal care. This was a retrospective cohort study using secondary analysis of program data. We reviewed health records of all pregnant women who attended antenatal services irrespective of HIV status between March and December 2012 in 10 health facilities in three provinces of Zambia. An extraction questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and clinical information from registers used in services for maternal neonatal child health as well as delivery. Using logistic regression, we calculated the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the association between (1) male involvement and delivery at a health facility by a skilled birth attendant and (2) male involvement and women's attendance at postnatal services. We found that more women who had been accompanied by their male partner during ANC delivered at a health facility than those who had not been accompanied (88/220 = 40% vs. 543/1787 = 30.4%, respectively; OR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.15-2.04). Also, we noted that a greater proportion of the women who returned for postnatal visits had been accompanied by their partner at ANC visits, compared to those women who came to ANC without their partner (106/220 = 48.2% vs. 661/1787 = 37.0%, respectively; OR 1.58, 95% CI: 1.20-2.10). Male involvement seems to be a key factor in women's health-seeking behaviours and could have a positive impact on maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. PMID:26506664

  12. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge among pregnant and postpartum women attended in public health units in Niterói, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Millar, Patricia Riddell; Moura, Fernanda Loureiro de; Bastos, Otílio Machado Pereira; Mattos, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia de; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Leles, Daniela; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2014-01-01

    The present study conducted a toxoplasmosis-related knowledge level survey with 400 pregnant and puerperal women attended in public health units in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Only 111 (27.8%) women claimed to know about the disease. Most of them (n = 289; 72.2%) had never heard about toxoplasmosis nor knew how to prevent the infection by Toxoplasma gondii. A significant difference (p = 0.013) regarding the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG was observed between women who claimed to know about the disease and those who had never heard about it. These results highlight the importance of a systematic serological screening process for toxoplasmosis, as well as the importance of primary prevention by accurate information during prenatal care, an important Public Health action to be implemented. PMID:25229225

  13. TOXOPLASMOSIS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE AMONG PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN ATTENDED IN PUBLIC HEALTH UNITS IN NITERÓI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Patricia Riddell; de Moura, Fernanda Loureiro; Bastos, Otílio Machado Pereira; de Mattos, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Leles, Daniela; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2014-01-01

    The present study conducted a toxoplasmosis-related knowledge level survey with 400 pregnant and puerperal women attended in public health units in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Only 111 (27.8%) women claimed to know about the disease. Most of them (n = 289; 72.2%) had never heard about toxoplasmosis nor knew how to prevent the infection by Toxoplasma gondii. A significant difference (p = 0.013) regarding the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG was observed between women who claimed to know about the disease and those who had never heard about it. These results highlight the importance of a systematic serological screening process for toxoplasmosis, as well as the importance of primary prevention by accurate information during prenatal care, an important Public Health action to be implemented. PMID:25229225

  14. The Association Between Health Insurance Coverage and Skilled Birth Attendance in Ghana: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shane M; Singh, Kavita

    2016-03-01

    Objectives Skilled birth attendance (SBA) is a key health intervention used by roughly two-thirds of women in Ghana. The National Health Insurance Scheme provided by the Government of Ghana is widely expected to improve maternal health outcomes by removing financial barriers to health services. In this paper, we examine if indeed health insurance is able to improve SBA, a key maternal outcome. Methods We use data from the 2011 Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey implemented by the Ghana Statistical Services with support from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). We use a multivariate logistic model controlling for a number of enabling and predisposing factors and past experience with the health system to examine the effect of health insurance on skilled birth attendance. The sample is 2528 women. Results Our results show that women with health insurance are 47 % more likely to use SBA than women without health insurance. Results also underscore that women with repetitive contact with the health system (such as antenatal care) are more likely to have a skilled delivery (OR 3.00, p value 0.000). We also find that higher parity, rural and poor women are much less likely to use SBA. Conclusions Health insurance may indeed be a useful mechanism to improve coverage of SBA, though many barriers to delivery care still exist for women. Further work to understand the effect of health insurance on other maternal outcomes is also warranted. PMID:26525559

  15. The Views of Student-Teachers Attending a Turkish University on Discrimination Related to the Education of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murat, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to highlight how Turkish students perceive important issues such as discrimination against women, violence that surfaced as a result of discrimination, alienation, inequality between men and women and isolation of women from work life. A total of 50 students participated in the study. Individual interviews were conducted.

  16. Travelling Careers: Overseas Migration Patterns in the Professional Lives of Women Attending Girton and Newnham before 1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce; Jacobs, Andrea; Kisby, Fiona; Loader, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the migration patterns of women who studied at Girton and Newnham prior to 1939 through whom dissemination of knowledge and values flowed from Cambridge overseas. It also considers organisations that fostered women's mobility in empire, particularly the Colonial Intelligence League for Educated Women and the International…

  17. The Views of Student-Teachers Attending a Turkish University on Discrimination Related to the Education of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murat, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to highlight how Turkish students perceive important issues such as discrimination against women, violence that surfaced as a result of discrimination, alienation, inequality between men and women and isolation of women from work life. A total of 50 students participated in the study. Individual interviews were conducted.…

  18. Clinical audit of antenatal service provision in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osungbade, Kayode Omoniyi; Shaahu, Vivian N; Uchendu, Obioma C

    2011-05-01

    We audited records of 365 pregnant women whose mean age was 25.6 ± 5.6 years. Their mean gestational age at booking was 29.3 ± 2.7 weeks; their mean number of antenatal visits was 4.2 ± 2.3. Weight, blood pressure, and urine were checked on 97.3%, 95.1%, and 86.3% of the women respectively. Hemoglobin estimation was done on 19.2% of women; 34.8% received two doses of tetanus toxoid. Malaria prophylaxis and iron and folate supplements were provided to 263 (72.1%) and 293 (80.3%), respectively. Late booking was common, and antenatal service was inadequately equipped. Early booking and full implementation of preventive treatments are recommended. Support for detection of anaemia and immunization service is desirable. PMID:21476162

  19. Comparison of Perinatal Data of Immigrant Women of Turkish Origin and German Women – Results of a Prospective Study in Berlin

    PubMed Central

    David, M.; Borde, T.; Brenne, S.; Ramsauer, B.; Henrich, W.; Breckenkamp, J.; Razum, O.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to compare obstetrical process indicators and outcomes for German women with women of Turkish origin residing in Germany. Do women of Turkish origin attend antenatal examinations as frequently as non-immigrant women? Are high-risk pregnancies and anemia more common among immigrant women? Are the rates for epidural analgesia (PDA) and combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSE) during delivery the same for immigrant women compared to German women? Are there identifiable differences in the mode of delivery and in perinatal outcomes? Patient Population/Methods: Data were obtained from 3 maternity clinics in Berlin for the period 2011 to 2012. The questionnaires covered socio-demographic factors and information on prenatal care as well as immigration/acculturation. The data obtained from these questionnaires was supplemented by information obtained from the official maternal record of prenatal and natal care (Mutterpass) and perinatal data recorded by the clinic. Results: The response rate was 89.6 %; the data of 1277 women of Turkish origin who had immigrated to Germany or whose family had immigrated and of 2991 non-immigrant women in Germany were included in the study. Regression analysis showed no statistically significant difference in the number of antenatal examinations between immigrant and non-immigrant women. Women of Turkish origin born in Germany had a significantly higher risk of postpartum anemia. PDA/CSE rate, arterial umbilical cord pH and 5-minute Apgar scores did not differ. The incidence of cesarean sections (elective and secondary) was significantly lower in the population of immigrant women of Turkish origin. Conclusion: Outcomes for most perinatal parameters were comparable for immigrant and non-immigrant women. These results indicate that the achieved standards of antenatal care and medical care during pregnancy are similar for Turkish immigrant women compared to non-immigrant women in maternity clinics in Berlin. The higher rates of anemia among immigrant women should be targeted by preventive measures. PMID:25089056

  20. Rubella vaccination programme in Malaysia: analysis of a seroprevalence study in an antenatal clinic.

    PubMed

    Sekawi, Z; Muizatul, W M N; Marlyn, M; Jamil, M A Y; Ilina, I

    2005-08-01

    In many developed countries, the incidence of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is considered to be negligible due to the availability of an effective vaccine. However, in Malaysia, several CRS cases are seen every year. This casts doubt on the effectiveness of the rubella vaccination programme. Very few seroprevalence studies were done over the years, making it difficult to discuss the effectiveness of the vaccination programme. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a local teaching hospital. The hospital database on rubella immunity was assessed retrospectively from August 2001 to June 2002. A cross-sectional study of interviewed method as well as determination of rubella immunity by laboratory tests were carried out in July 2002. A total of 414 women were included, of whom 134 women were interviewed. The rubella immunity status was 92.3%. Based on this figure, rubella vaccination programme in Malaysia is a success despite the presence of CRS cases. Malaysia must ensure rubella vaccine coverage among target groups is high in order to minimise CRS cases. PMID:16379190

  1. What information do parents want from the antenatal consultation?

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Wendy H; Sauve, Reg

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore whether the information content, process and social interaction of the antenatal consultation satisfies the informational needs of women admitted to hospital in preterm and threatened preterm labour. METHODS Fifty women with pregnancies of gestational ages of between 25 and 32 weeks were admitted to a tertiary care perinatal referral centre and provided with an antenatal consultation about the medical risks and treatments relative to their potentially premature infant. Within 48 h following the consultation, patients were asked to respond to a questionnaire to assess their recall of the information provided, their information expectations and their anxiety level. RESULTS The majority of respondents (92%) thought that the antenatal consultation increased their knowledge and understanding of what might happen if their infant was born preterm. Although the mean state anxiety score was high, 78% agreed that the consultation relieved some of their worry and anxiety about their baby. In rank order, respondents wanted information about chances of survival, likely medical problems and the risk for disability, followed by medical treatments and breastfeeding. They consistently recalled receiving information about chances of survival, likely medical problems and medical treatments. CONCLUSION Following the antenatal consultation, respondents were generally satisfied with the information provided but remained highly anxious. Recall of the discussion about disability was inconsistent. They reported needing an opportunity to express their feelings, and to talk about their baby and their anticipated interaction with their baby. Recognizing these aspects can help to improve physician-patient communication. PMID:19030358

  2. Rural Indonesia women’s traditional beliefs about antenatal care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Indonesia Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) of 420/100.00 live births remains among the highest in East Asia while coverage of births assisted by skilled providers is still low. Traditional beliefs have been a key factor associated with the choice between midwives or traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the low number of antenatal care visits in rural West Sumatra. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 16 women from rural West Java to describe their perception regarding issues related to traditional beliefs. Focus group discussions provided data for the content analysis. Results The majority of the 16 women interviewed was from Village Dago, West Java and had only an elementary school education. Their ages ranged from 19 to 40 years. Most were multiparous housewives with an income of IDR 918.750 per month, which was lower than the monthly income in West Java (IDR. 1.172.060). Emerging from the focus group discussion were four main themes regarding their pregnancy and traditional beliefs: 1) pregnancy was a normal cycle in women’s life (pregnancy is a natural phenomena, not a sickness; no recognition of danger signs during pregnancy and death of baby or mother during pregnancy was brought about by God’s will); 2) women followed the traditional beliefs (positive motivation to follow the traditional beliefs and fear of not following the traditional beliefs); 3) relying on TBA called paraji rather than midwife (parajis are kind, tolerant and patient and have more experience than midwives; more accessibility than midwives and encouragement of natural birth) and 4) midwives are more secure than paraji; (they use a medical standard of care). Conclusions Women’s beliefs grounded in religion and tradition permeated the village culture making it difficult to counter their long held health practices with practices based on recent advances in health care. Use of TBA in this village was still dominant and women believed that following traditional beliefs led to a healthy pregnancy therefore, they also followed all relatives’ suggestions. Understanding the complexities of local culture is the first step to improving women’s awareness of how to preserve their pregnancy and prevent complications. PMID:23106915

  3. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L M; Reid, A J; Midmer, D K; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involutional," "child abuse," "child neglect," "domestic violence," "family," "marital adjustment," "family health," "newborn health," "child health," "physical illness," "social support," "psychosocial risk," "prediction," "risk factors," "obstetrics" and "prenatal care." Further articles were identified from bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 370 articles identified through the search, 118 were included for review. Studies were included if they examined the association between psychosocial risk factors and the outcomes of interest. Articles were excluded if they were reviews of poor quality or they had one or more of the following features: insufficient description of the sample, a high attrition rate, a lack of standardized outcome measures, outcomes other than the ones of interest or results that had already been reported in a previous study. DATA EXTRACTION: The strength of evidence of each study was evaluated. On the basis of the evidence, each risk factor was assigned a rating of the strength of its association with each of the postpartum outcomes. The ratings were class A (good evidence of association), class B (fair evidence) and class C (no clear evidence). Of the 129 antenatal psychosocial risk factors studied, 15 were found to have a class A association with at least one of the postpartum outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Child abuse and abuse of the mother by her partner were most strongly correlated (class A evidence) with a history of lack of social support, recent life stressors, psychiatric disturbance in the mother and an unwanted pregnancy. Child abuse was also strongly associated with a history of childhood violence in the mother or her partner, previous child abuse by the mother's partner, a poor relationship between the mother and her parents, low self-esteem in the mother and lack of attendance at prenatal classes. Postpartum abuse of the mother was also associated with a history of abuse of the mother, prenatal care not started until the third trimester and alcohol or drug abuse by the mother or her partner (class A evidence). Child abuse had a fair (class B) association with poor marital adjustment or satisfaction, current or past abuse of the mother and alcohol or drug abuse by the mother or her partner. There was class B evidence supporting an association between abuse of the mother and poor marital adjustment, traditional sex-role expectations, a history of childhood violence in the mother or her partner and low self-esteem in the mother. Postpartum depression was most strongly associated with poor marital adjustment, recent life stressors, antepartum depression (class A evidence), but was also associated with lack of social support, abuse of the mother and a history of psychiatric disorder in the mother (class B evidence). Marital dysfunction was associated with poor marital adjustment before the birth and traditional sex-role expectations (class A evidence), and physical illness was correlated with recent life stressors (class B evidence). CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial risk factors during the antenatal period may herald postpartum morbidity. Research is required to determine whether detection of these risk factors may lead to interventions that improve postpartum family outcomes. PMID:8634957

  4. The prevalence of lower genital tract infections among ante-natal care (ANC) clinic patients in two central hospitals, Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Thammalangsy, Sivixay; Sihavong, Amphoy; Phouthavane, Traykhouane; Sayabounthavong, Khanthanouvieng; Puapermpoonsiri, Supaporn; Kitayaporn, Dwip; Gallwey, John; Rowe, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    This study of lower genital tract infections in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Vientiane, Lao PDR is a response to the reported rapid increase in the number of HIV infections in neighboring countries, and is a recognition of the important role of reproductive tract infections in facilitating HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study determines the prevalence of lower genital tract infections among 500 antenatal attendees (gestational age < or = 20 weeks) attending two hospitals serving urban areas in Vientiane, between September 2001 and March 2002. Most participants were housewives (64.4%) and government workers (16.0%). Their husbands were mainly government officers (31.4%), laborers or farmers (30.2%), and businessmen (12.4%). Sixty-four percent reported a past history of "any vaginal complaints" with 44.2% having sought treatment. Candida spp had the highest prevalence of all infections (27.0%), followed by bacterial vaginosis (14.4% by Amsel's criteria and 22.0% by Nugent's score), C. trachomatis (10.2% by nucleic acid hybridization and 9.6% by PCR), T. vaginalis (1.8%), and N. gonorrhoeae (0.8%), but no syphilis serological markers. Taken in conjunction with other surveillance data from the same period, this study indicates an opportunity to prevent epidemic spread into the community of both sexually transmitted disease and HIV by appropriate preventative programed activities, including treatment services targeted at higher risk community groups. PMID:16771234

  5. The prevalence of lymphoedema in women who attended an information and exercise class to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related upper limb lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, E; Purushotham, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer-related upper limb lymphoedema (BCRL) affects approximately 20 % of women undergoing axillary intervention. Women who attended a "reducing your risk of lymphoedema" class, including exercise instruction, anecdotally reported positive BCRL outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine BCRL outcomes and perceived benefit for attendees at a "reducing your risk of lymphoedema" class between 2000 and 2005. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two parts: (1) self-report questionnaire regarding lymphoedema status and benefit received from class and exercise programme; (2) clinical evaluation and objective measurement to confirm BCRL. 46 women completed questionnaires; 40 continued to clinical evaluation and objective measurement. BCRL prevalence defined as ≥10 % excess limb volume was only 5 %, although clinician judgement identified 23 % with arm lymphoedema and 8 % with lymphoedema limited to the hand. Clinician judgement correlated highly with patient self-report (Kappa = 0.833, p = 0.000). All women found the class beneficial, reporting increased confidence to return to normal life and a wide range of activities/exercise. We conclude that prevalence of BCRL should be determined by both clinical judgement and objective measurement to avoid underestimation. The benefit of group education with a lymphoedema expert and of exercise instruction should be further explored, and the potential for exercise to reduce BCRL prevalence should be examined. PMID:26759760

  6. Positivity and incidence of human papillomavirus in women attending gynecological department of a major comprehensive hospital in Kunming, China 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huachun; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Guiqian; Tu, Yuanquan; Meng, Xiaojun; Liu, Tieniu; Ping, Zhuxian; Fan, Xin; Gao, Yuhong

    2016-04-01

    HPV DNA testing is receiving increasing popularity in cervical cancer screening. There is a lack of universal guidelines on HPV testing. Our study aimed to assess age-specific and year-on-year trend of HPV positivity and incidence and HPV retesting among 26,457 individual women attending the gynecological department at the First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province (FPHY) who had an HPV testing between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2014. HPV 16, HPV 52, and cp8304 ranked among top 5 with regard to positivity in each year and overall incidence. The positivity of various HPV types peaked among women aged 15-19 years, then sharply decreased with age, stabilized among women aged 25-49 years and then surged again among women aged 50 years and older. The positivity of high-risk (HR) HPV types, including HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 56 and 58, were on the rise during the time period (P < 0.05 for all). HR HPV types tended to be more likely to persist than LR HPV types (P < 0.05). Additionally, the incidence rate for any HR HPV type was also significantly higher than that for any LR HPV type (42.8 vs. 12.6 per 100 person-years, P < 0.001). The majority (57.3-77.5%) of women detected with HR HPV types did not retest within 12 months. Clinical guidelines on HPV DNA testing are needed and education, and counseling about HPV infection and its implications for women detected with HPV at clinical settings, are warranted. J. Med. Virol. 88:703-711, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26363107

  7. Implementation of evidence-based antenatal care in Mozambique: a cluster randomized controlled trial: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) reduces maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality directly through the detection and treatment of pregnancy-related illnesses, and indirectly through the detection of women at increased risk of delivery complications. The potential benefits of quality antenatal care services are most significant in low-resource countries where morbidity and mortality levels among women of reproductive age and neonates are higher. WHO developed an ANC model that recommended the delivery of services scientifically proven to improve maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of an intervention designed to increase the use of the package of evidence-based services included in the WHO ANC model in Mozambique. The primary hypothesis is that the intervention will increase the use of evidence-based practices during ANC visits in comparison to the standard dissemination channels currently used in the country. Methods This is a demonstration project to be developed through a facility-based cluster randomized controlled trial with a stepped wedge design. The intervention was tailored, based on formative research findings, to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. The intervention includes four components: the provision of kits with all necessary medicines and laboratory supplies for ANC (medical and non-medical equipment), a storage system, a tracking system, and training sessions for health care providers. Ten clinics were selected and will start receiving the intervention in a random order. Outcomes will be computed at each time point when a new clinic starts the intervention. The primary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending the first ANC visit, and secondary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending second and higher ANC visits as well as the attitude of midwives in relation to adopting the practices. This demonstration project is pragmatic in orientation and will be conducted under routine conditions. Discussion There is an urgent need for effective and sustainable scaling-up approaches of health interventions in low-resource countries. This can only be accomplished by the engagement of the country’s health stakeholders at all levels. This project aims to achieve improvement in the quality of antenatal care in Mozambique through the implementation of a multifaceted intervention on three levels: policy, organizational and health care delivery levels. The implementation of the trial will probably require a change in accountability and behaviour of health care providers and we expect this change in ‘habits’ will contribute to obtaining reliable health indicators, not only related to research issues, but also to health care outcomes derived from the new health care model. At policy level, the results of this study may suggest a need for revision of the supply chain management system. Given that supply chain management is a major challenge for many low-resource countries, we envisage that important lessons on how to improve the supply chain in Mozambique and other similar settings, will be drawn from this study. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry database. Identification number: PACTR201306000550192. PMID:24886392

  8. [Voluntary abortion and domestic violence among women attended at a public maternity hospital of Salvador-BA].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Gesteira, Solange Maria Dos Anjos; Lopes, Regina Lúcia Mendonça; Santos Mota, Rosana; Pérez, Bárbara Angélica Gómez; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative study in order to study domestic violence in women with induced abortion. Interviews were conducted with 147 women hospitalized for induced abortion in a public maternity hospital in Salvador, Bahia. The subjects are characterized by mostly women, black, poorly educated, economically dependent on spouses, experienced psychological abuse, physical and sexual abuse committed by their spouses. Almost half of the women were victims of domestic violence during the current pregnancy, and that was the reason for inducing abortion for 67% of them. The study reveals an association between experience of domestic violence and induced abortion. As mental health consequences, they developed symptoms of post trauma stress disorder. It is necessary that the health professionals consider the cues to identify domestic violence as a health problem associated with induced abortion, which requires a transformation on the training model, including domestic violence as a health issue. PMID:22664597

  9. Poor glycemic control in younger women attending Malaysian public primary care clinics: findings from adults diabetes control and management registry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women of reproductive age are a group of particular concern as diabetes may affect their pregnancy outcome as well as long-term morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the clinical profiles and glycemic control of reproductive and non-reproductive age women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in primary care settings, and to determine the associated factors of poor glycemic control in the reproductive age group women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using cases reported by public primary care clinics to the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry from 1st January to 31st December 2009. All Malaysian women aged 18 years old and above and diagnosed with T2D for at least 1 year were included in the analysis. The target for glycemic control (HbA1c < 6.5%) is in accordance to the recommended national guidelines. Both univariate and multivariate approaches of logistic regression were applied to determine whether reproductive age women have an association with poor glycemic control. Results Data from a total of 30,427 women were analyzed and 21.8% (6,622) were of reproductive age. There were 12.5% of reproductive age women and 18.0% of non-reproductive age women that achieved glycemic control. Reproductive age group women were associated with poorer glycemic control (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.8). The risk factors associated with poor glycemic control in the reproductive age women were being of Malay and Indian race, longer duration of diabetes, patients on anti-diabetic agents, and those who had not achieved the target total cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion Women with T2D have poor glycemic control, but being of reproductive age was associated with even poorer control. Health care providers need to pay more attention to this group of patients especially for those with risk factors. More aggressive therapeutic strategies to improve their cardiometabolic control and pregnancy outcome are warranted. PMID:24325794

  10. Family Structure Types and Adequate Utilization of Antenatal Care in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Features of the health care delivery system may not be the only expounding factors of adequate utilization of antenatal care among women. Other social factors such as the family structure and its environment contribute toward pregnant women's utilization of antenatal care. An understanding of how women in different family structure types and social groups use basic maternal health services is important toward developing and implementing maternal health care policy in the post-Millennium Development Goal era, especially in the sub-Saharan Africa where maternal mortality still remains high. PMID:27214674

  11. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus among women attending prenatal services in Apia, Samoa.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, E A; Koro, Semo; Tabrizi, S; Kaldor, J; Poumerol, G; Chen, S; O'Leary, M; Garland, S M

    2004-02-01

    There is no routine prenatal screening for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in pregnancy in Samoa. Testing for chlamydial infection is not available. To gather information on pregnant women, a prevalence survey was conducted in Apia, Samoa, utilizing two prenatal hospital clinics. Pregnant (n=427) women were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and for syphilis (n=441) by rapid plasmid reagin (RPR) and HIV (n=441) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results were: chlamydia 30.9% (132); trichomoniasis 20.8%; gonorrhoea 3.3%; syphilis 0.5%; and HIV 0%. Overall 42.7% had at least 1 STD. Young women aged <25 years were three times more likely to have a STD than older women (odds ratio=3.0, 95% confidence intervals 2.0, 4.5). The lack of inexpensive, reliable field diagnostics remain a barrier to sustainable STD control programmes for pregnant women living in developing countries. PMID:15006074

  12. Effect of removing user fees on attendance for curative and preventive primary health care services in rural South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, D.; Gouws, E.; Sach, M.; Karim, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    User fees are used to recover costs and discourage unnecessary attendance at primary care clinics in many developing countries. In South Africa, user fees for children aged under 6 years and pregnant women were removed in 1994, and in 1997 all user fees at all primary health care clinics were abolished. The intention of these policy changes was to improve access to health services for previously disadvantaged communities. We investigated the impact of these changes on clinic attendance patterns in Hlabisa health district. Average quarterly new registrations and total attendances for preventive services (antenatal care, immunization, growth monitoring) and curative services (treatment of ailments) at a mobile primary health care unit were studied from 1992 to 1998. Regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether trends were statistically significant. There was a sustained increase in new registrations (P = 0.0001) and total attendances (P = 0.0001) for curative services, and a fall in new registrations (P = 0.01) and total attendances for immunization and growth monitoring (P = 0.0002) over the study period. The upturn in demand for curative services started at the time of the first policy change. The decreases in antenatal registrations (P = 0.07) and attendances (P = 0.09) were not statistically significant. The number of new registrations for immunization and growth monitoring increased following the first policy change but declined thereafter. We found no evidence that the second policy change influenced underlying trends. The removal of user fees improved access to curative services but this may have happened at the expense of some preventive services. Governments should remain vigilant about the effects of new health policies in order to ensure that objectives are being met. PMID:11477970

  13. Stigma and Attitudes towards Antenatal Depression and Antidepressant Use during Pregnancy in Healthcare Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawley, Laura; Einarson, Adrienne; Bowen, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Depression in pregnancy or antenatal depression (AD) occurs in approximately one in five women, with potentially deleterious effects to the mother and fetus. People are encouraged to get treatment for depression; however, pregnant women can experience stigma when they reach out for help with depression. Research indicates that healthcare…

  14. The risks of partner violence following HIV status disclosure, and health service responses: narratives of women attending reproductive health services in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Colombini, Manuela; James, Courtney; Ndwiga, Charity; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction For many women living with HIV (WLWH), the disclosure of positive status can lead to either an extension of former violence or new conflict specifically associated with HIV status disclosure. This study aims to explore the following about WLWH: 1. the women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) risks following disclosure to their partners; 2. an analysis of the women's views on the role of health providers in preventing and addressing IPV, especially following HIV disclosure. Methods Thirty qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively selected WLWH attending clinics in Kenya. Data were coded using NVivo 9 and analyzed thematically. Results Nearly one third of the respondents reported experiencing physical and/or emotional violence inflicted by their partners following the sero-disclosure, suggesting that HIV status disclosure can be a period of heightened risk for partner stigma and abuse, and financial withdrawal, and thus should be handled with caution. Sero-concordance was protective for emotional and verbal abuse once the partner knew his positive status, or knew the woman knew his status. Our results show acceptance of the role of the health services in helping prevent and reduce anticipated fear of partner stigma and violence as barriers to HIV disclosure. Some of the approaches suggested by our respondents included couple counselling, separate counselling sessions for men, and facilitated disclosure. The women's narratives illustrate the importance of integrating discussions on risks for partner violence and fear of disclosure into HIV counselling and testing, helping women develop communication skills in how to disclose their status, and reducing fear about marital separation and break-up. Women in our study also confirmed the key role of preventive health services in reducing blame for HIV transmission and raising awareness on HIV as a chronic disease. However, several women reported receiving no counselling on safe disclosure of HIV status. Conclusion Integration of partner violence identification and care into sexual, reproductive and HIV services for WLWH could be a way forward. The health sector can play a preventive role by sensitizing providers to the potential risks for partner violence following disclosure and ensuring that the women's decision to disclose is fully informed and voluntary. PMID:27037140

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  16. Prevalence and vertical transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among pregnant Latin American women attending 2 maternity clinics in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, José; Coll, Oriol; Juncosa, Teresa; Vergés, Mireia; del Pino, Marta; Fumado, Victoria; Bosch, Jordi; Posada, Elizabeth J; Hernandez, Sara; Fisa, Roser; Boguña, Josep Maria; Gállego, Montserrat; Sanz, Sergi; Portús, Montserrat; Gascón, Joaquim

    2009-06-15

    We performed a prospective screening for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 1350 Latin American pregnant women and their offspring in Barcelona, Spain. The rate of seroprevalence was 3.4%, and 7.3% of the newborns were infected. Routine screening and management programs in maternity wards may be warranted. PMID:19438393

  17. Factors influencing the use of antenatal care in rural West Sumatra, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Every year, nearly half a million women and girls needlessly die as a result of complications during pregnancy, childbirth or the 6 weeks following delivery. Almost all (99%) of these deaths occur in developing countries. The study aim was to describe the factors related to low visits for antenatal care (ANC) services among pregnant women in Indonesia. Method A total of 145 of 200 married women of reproductive age who were pregnant or had experienced birth responded to the questionnaire about their ANC visits. We developed a questionnaire containing 35 items and four sections. Section one and two included the women's socio demographics, section three about basic knowledge of pregnancy and section four contained two subsections about preferences about midwives and preferences about Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA) and the second subsections were traditional beliefs. Data were collected using a convenience sampling strategy during July and August 2010, from 10 villages in the Tanjung Emas. Multiple regression analysis was used for preference for types of providers. Results Three-quarter of respondents (77.9%) received ANC more than four times. The other 22.1% received ANC less than four times. 59.4% received ANC visits during pregnancy, which was statistically significant compared to multiparous (p = 0.001). Women who were encouraged by their family to receive ANC had statistically significant higher traditional belief scores compared to those who encouraged themselves (p = 0.003). Preference for TBAs was most strongly affected by traditional beliefs (p < 0.001). On the contrary, preference for midwives was negatively correlated with traditional beliefs (p < 0.001). Conclusions Parity was the factor influencing women's receiving less than the recommended four ANC visits during pregnancy. Women who were encouraged by their family to get ANC services had higher traditional beliefs score than women who encouraged themselves. Moreover, traditional beliefs followed by lower income families had the greater influence over preferring TBAs, with the opposite trend for preferring midwives. Increased attention needs to be given to the women; it also very important for exploring women's perceptions about health services that they received. PMID:22353252

  18. Correlates of abortions and condom use among high risk women attending an std clinic in st Petersburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many women in Russia rely on abortion as a primary birth control method. Although refusal to use contraceptives, including condoms, may undermine public health efforts to decrease HIV sexual risk behaviors, few studies have investigated the risk factors associated with abortion among women at high risk for HIV. This study sought to identify the correlates of abortions and of lack of condom use among high risk STD clinic patients in St Petersburg Russia. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data collected between 2009 and 2010 from women who had casual or multiple sexual partners in the previous three months was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the independent correlates of abortion(s) and no condom use in the prior three months. Independent variables included socio-demographics, at risk drinking per alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT-C) criteria, having sex after drinking alcohol, having a sexual partner who injects illicit drugs, and parity. Results Of 87 participants, 45% had an abortion in their lifetime and 26% did not use condoms in the prior three months. Abortion was independently associated with low income (OR, 3.33, 95%CI, 1.13-9.78) and at risk drinking (OR, 3.52, 95%CI, 1.24-10.05). Lack of condom use was independently associated with being more likely to have sex after drinking (OR, 3.37, 95%CI, 1.10-10.28) and parity (OR, 3.69, 95%CI, 1.25-10.89). Conclusions Programs to increase contraceptive use including condom use among women at high risk for STD/HIV in Russia are needed. Programs to reduce sexual HIV risk and abortion rates must address alcohol misuse and target women with limited income. PMID:21992690

  19. From research to practice: the example of antenatal care in Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Winiyakul, Narong; Chongsomchai, Chompilas; Chaisiri, Kamron

    2004-01-01

    The rationale for providing antenatal care is to screen predominantly healthy pregnant women to detect early signs of, or risk factors for, abnormal conditions or diseases and to follow this detection with effective and timely intervention. The recommended antenatal care programme in most developing countries is often the same as the programmes used in developed countries. However, in developing countries there is wide variation in the proportion of women who receive antenatal care. The WHO randomized trial of antenatal care and the WHO systematic review indicated that a model of care that provided fewer antenatal visits could be introduced into clinical practice without causing adverse consequences to the woman or the fetus. This new model of antenatal care is being implemented in Thailand. Action has been required at all levels of the health-care system, from consumers through to health professionals, the Ministry of Public Health and international organizations. The Thai experience is a good example of moving research findings into practice, and it should be replicated elsewhere to effectively manage other health problems. PMID:15643795

  20. National health insurance, social influence and antenatal care use in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The study explores the importance of social influence and the availability of health insurance on maternal care utilization in Ghana through the use of antenatal care services. A number of studies have found that access to health insurance plays a critical role in women’s decision to utilize antenatal care services. However, little is known about the role that social forces play in this decision. This study uses village-level data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to investigate the effects of health insurance and social influences on the intensity of antenatal care utilization by Ghanaian women. Using GIS information at the village level, we employ a spatial lag regression model in this study. Results indicate that, controlling for a host of socioeconomic and geographical factors, women who have health insurance appear to use more antenatal services than women who do not. In addition, the intensity of antenatal visits appears to be spatially correlated among the survey villages, implying that there may be some social influences that affect a woman’s decision to utilize antenatal care. A reason for this may be that women who benefit from antenatal care through positive pregnancy outcomes may pass this information along to their peers who also increase their use of these services in response. Traditional/Cultural leaders as “gate-keepers” may be useful in the dissemination of maternal health care information. Public health officials may also explore the possibility of disseminating information relating to maternal care services via the mass media. PMID:23919511

  1. A descriptive study of alcohol-dependent women attending Alcoholics Anonymous, a regional council on alcoholism and an alcohol treatment unit.

    PubMed

    Smith, L N

    1992-11-01

    A total of 86 women, attending three different agencies, were interviewed on their help-seeking behaviours for problem drinking. Each agency represented a different type of help available in the community. Self-help was represented by Alcoholics Anonymous; the non-statutory sector by a regional council on alcoholism's offices; and the statutory sector by an alcohol treatment unit's out-patient department. Differences between the groups in terms of demography and drinking history are explored in this paper. It was found that the regional council group resembled the female problem drinkers in other alcohol treatment agencies in terms of alcohol dependency, pattern of alcohol consumption and drinking styles, but differed in age and abstinence behaviour. PMID:1292440

  2. A Pilot Test of the Everyday Stressors Index–Spanish Version in a Sample of Hispanic Women Attending Prenatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, María L.; Ashford, Kristin; Linares, Ana M.; Hall, Lynne A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prenatal and postpartum psychosocial stress are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hispanic women experience higher levels of stress during pregnancy. This pilot study assessed the psychometric characteristics of the Everyday Stressors Index-Spanish (ESI-S) version. Methods Secondary analysis in a convenience sample, n = 51 women. Results The ESI-S showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .86). Two factors accounted for 40% of the item variance. The greatest sources of stress were “having too many responsibilities” and “not enough money for basics”. Higher levels of stressors were associated with older age, living without a partner, and working part or full time. The ESI-S was positively correlated with measures of perinatal depression. Conclusions Findings support the reliability and validity of the newly translated ESI-S. PMID:26673774

  3. Factors affecting the compliance of the antenatal hepatitis B screening programme in Italy.

    PubMed

    Stroffolini, Tommaso; Bianco, Elvira; Szklo, Andrè; Bernacchia, Rossana; Bove, Crescenzo; Colucci, Mario; Cristina Coppola, Rosa; D'Argenio, Paolo; Lopalco, Pierluigi; Parlato, Antonino; Ragni, Pietro; Simonetti, Andrea; Zotti, Carla; Mele, Alfonso

    2003-03-01

    The effectiveness in the prevention of perinatally transmitted HBV infection was assessed in 11858 pregnant women consecutively recruited in public and private hospitals in six Italian regions during a 2 months period in 2001. Of them 10881 (91.8%) attended HBsAg antenatal screening. The overall HBsAg prevalence was 1.7% (CI 95%: 1.4-1.9); it was 1.4% (CI 95%: 1.2-1.7) in pregnant women born in Italy but 5.9% (CI 95%: 4.1-8.1) in those born in Asia, Africa, central and south America, and eastern Europe. Results of multiple logistic regression analysis indicate that birth in foreign countries (OR 2.0; CI 95%: 1.3-3.0), family size with more than 4 members in the household (OR 3.5; CI 95%:2.7-4.6), and birth in a private hospital (OR 1.9; CI 95%: 1.3-2.8) were all independent predictors of lack of adherence to HBsAg screening. Out of the 182 new-borns of HBsAg positive mothers 172 (95.0%) were given active plus passive immunisation; this figure was 100% in new-borns of foreign mothers. These findings evidence a good effectiveness in the prevention of perinatally transmitted HBV in Italy. More efforts should be addressed to improve the effectiveness of the programme among foreign pregnant women who have high rate of HBsAg and more likely escape HBsAg screening than Italian pregnant women. PMID:12559805

  4. Associations of maternal and paternal antenatal mood with offspring anxiety disorder at age 18 years

    PubMed Central

    Capron, Lauren E.; Glover, Vivette; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Evans, Jonathan; O’Connor, Thomas G.; Stein, Alan; Murphy, Susannah E.; Ramchandani, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal antenatal depression and anxiety are associated with increased risk of childhood behavioural and emotional problems in offspring; it remains unclear to what extent this is due to a maternal biological impact on foetal development. Here, we compare associations between maternal and paternal antenatal depression and anxiety with offspring anxiety disorders, thus controlling for some genetic and shared environmental factors. Methods We used data from the ALSPAC population cohort including measures of antenatal parental depression and anxiety. At 18 years, offspring completed the CIS-R interview, yielding diagnoses for anxiety disorders. Results were adjusted for confounding variables including parental postnatal depression and anxiety. Results Children of women with antenatal depression (18 weeks gestation), had an increased risk of anxiety disorders at 18 years of age (11.1% vs. 6.2%; adj. OR 1.75 (1.19, 2.58); p=0.01). Children of women with antenatal anxiety had increased risk of co-morbid anxiety and depression (adj. OR 1.39 (1.06, 1.82); p=0.02). No such associations were found with paternal antenatal depression or anxiety. Limitations There was a high attrition rate from the original cohort to the CIS-R completion at 18 years postpartum. Parental mood was only assessed together at one time point during the antenatal period. Conclusions The differences in the association between maternal and paternal mood during pregnancy and child outcomes supports the hypothesis that foetal programming may account, at least in part, for this association. We highlight the potential opportunity for preventative intervention by optimising antenatal mental health. PMID:26301478

  5. Multiplex Immunoassay of Lower Genital Tract Mucosal Fluid from Women Attending an Urban STD Clinic Shows Broadly Increased IL1ß and Lactoferrin

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Gregory T.; Kendrick, Sabrina R.; Chen, Hua Y.; Thomas, Tin T.; Bahk, Mieoak; Balderas, Robert; Ghosh, Santosh; Weinberg, Aaron; Landay, Alan L.

    2011-01-01

    Background More than one million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occur each day. The immune responses and inflammation induced by STDs and other frequent non-STD microbial colonizations (i.e. Candida and bacterial vaginosis) can have serious pathologic consequences in women including adverse pregnancy outcomes, infertility and increased susceptibility to infection by other pathogens. Understanding the types of immune mediators that are elicited in the lower genital tract by these infections/colonizations can give important insights into the innate and adaptive immune pathways that are activated and lead to strategies for preventing pathologic effects. Methodology/Principal Findings 32 immune mediators were measured by multiplexed immunoassays to assess the immune environment of the lower genital tract mucosa in 84 women attending an urban STD clinic. IL-3, IL-1ß, VEGF, angiogenin, IL-8, ß2Defensin and ß3Defensin were detected in all subjects, Interferon-α was detected in none, while the remaining mediators were detected in 40% to 93% of subjects. Angiogenin, VEGF, FGF, IL-9, IL-7, lymphotoxin-α and IL-3 had not been previously reported in genital mucosal fluid from women. Strong correlations were observed between levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6, between chemokines IP-10 and MIG and between myeloperoxidase, IL-8 and G-CSF. Samples from women with any STD/colonization had significantly higher levels of IL-8, IL-3, IL-7, IL-1ß, lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase. IL-1ß and lactoferrin were significantly increased in gonorrhea, Chlamydia, cervicitis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis. Conclusions/Significance These studies show that mucosal fluid in general appears to be an environment that is rich in immune mediators. Importantly, IL-1ß and lactoferrin are biomarkers for STDs/colonizations providing insights into immune responses and pathogenesis at this mucosal site. PMID:21572958

  6. The prevalence of urogenital micro-organisms detected by a multiplex PCR-reverse line blot assay in women attending three sexual health clinics in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    McKechnie, Michelle L; Hillman, Richard J; Jones, Rachel; Lowe, Penelope C; Couldwell, Deborah L; Davies, Stephen C; King, Fiona; Kong, Fanrong; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2011-07-01

    This study used a previously described multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) assay to assess the prevalence and distribution of 14 urogenital pathogens or putative pathogens, namely Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and human adenovirus. First-voided urine specimens and endocervical and self-collected vaginal swabs from each of 216 women attending three sexual health clinics in Sydney, Australia, were tested and the results were compared with those of reference methods for each organism. One hundred and sixty-eight women (77.7?%) had at least one and 105 (48.6?%) had more than one target organism, most commonly G. vaginalis and Ureaplasma spp. The prevalence of each of the four known sexually transmissible pathogens was <5?%. Of the 216 women, 111 (51.4?%) reported at least one symptom consistent with genital or urethral infection, including discharge, pain or discomfort. Only G. vaginalis was detected more frequently in women with symptoms (P?=?0.05). The specificity of the mPCR/RLB assay compared with that of the reference methods for each organism and for all specimen types was 100?%. The mean sensitivities of the mPCR/RLB assay compared with those of the reference methods for self-collected vaginal swabs, cervical swabs and first-voided urine specimens for all organisms were 99.3, 98.1 and 84.6?%, respectively; however, these differences were not significant. There were no differences in sensitivities between specimen types for C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis and H. influenzae, although all were found infrequently. Overall, the mPCR/RLB platform was found to be an accurate testing platform in a sexual health clinic setting. PMID:21415210

  7. Miscarriage Among Flight Attendants

    PubMed Central

    Grajewski, Barbara; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Lawson, Christina C.; Hein, Misty J.; Waters, Martha A.; Anderson, Jeri L.; MacDonald, Leslie A.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Cassinelli, Rick T.; Luo, Lian

    2015-01-01

    Background Cosmic radiation and circadian disruption are potential reproductive hazards for flight attendants. Methods Flight attendants from 3 US airlines in 3 cities were interviewed for pregnancy histories and lifestyle, medical, and occupational covariates. We assessed cosmic radiation and circadian disruption from company records of 2 million individual flights. Using Cox regression models, we compared respondents (1) by levels of flight exposures and (2) to teachers from the same cities, to evaluate whether these exposures were associated with miscarriage. Results Of 2654 women interviewed (2273 flight attendants and 381 teachers), 958 pregnancies among 764 women met study criteria. A hypothetical pregnant flight attendant with median firsttrimester exposures flew 130 hours in 53 flight segments, crossed 34 time zones, and flew 15 hours during her home-base sleep hours (10 pm–8 am), incurring 0.13 mGy absorbed dose (0.36 mSv effective dose) of cosmic radiation. About 2% of flight attendant pregnancies were likely exposed to a solar particle event, but doses varied widely. Analyses suggested that cosmic radiation exposure of 0.1 mGy or more may be associated with increased risk of miscarriage in weeks 9–13 (odds ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 0.95–3.2]). Risk of a first-trimester miscarriage with 15 hours or more of flying during home-base sleep hours was increased (1.5 [1.1–2.2]), as was risk with high physical job demands (2.5 [1.5–4.2]). Miscarriage risk was not increased among flight attendants compared with teachers. Conclusions Miscarriage was associated with flight attendant work during sleep hours and high physical job demands and may be associated with cosmic radiation exposure. PMID:25563432

  8. Antenatal screening for haemoglobinopathies in primary care: a whole system participatory action research project

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Paul; Oni, Lola; Alli, Mabel; St Hilaire, Judith; Smith, Alma; Leavey, Conan; Banarsee, Ricky

    2005-01-01

    Background The usual system for antenatal screening for haemoglobinopathies permits termination only late in the second trimester of pregnancy. Aim To evaluate a system where pregnant women are screened in general practice, and to develop a model of care pathway or whole system research able to bring into view unexpected effects of health service innovation. Design of study A whole system participatory action research approach was used. Six purposefully chosen general practices screened women who attended with a new pregnancy. Data of gestational age of screening were compared with two control groups. Qualitative data were gathered through workshops, interviews and feedback to the project steering group. At facilitated annual workshops participants from all parts of the care pathway produced a consensus about the meaning of the data as a whole. Setting Six general practices in north London. Method A whole system participatory action research approach allowed stakeholders from throughout the care pathway to pilot the innovation and reflect on the meaning and significance of quantitative and qualitative data. Results The gestational age of screening in general practice was 4.1 weeks earlier (95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.41 to 4.68) than in hospital clinics (P<0.001), and 2.9 weeks earlier (95% CI = 2.07 to 3.65) than in community midwife clinics (P<0.001). However, only 35% of pregnant women in the study were screened in the practices. Changes required throughout the whole care pathway make wider implementation more difficult than at first realised. The cost within general practice is greater than initially appreciated owing to a perceived need to provide counselling about other issues at the same time. Practitioners considered that other ways of early screening should be explored, including preconceptual screening. The research approach was able to bring into view unexpected effects of the innovation, but health workers were unfamiliar with the participatory processes. Conclusion Antenatal screening for haemoglobinopathies in general practice lowers the gestational age at which an at-risk pregnancy can be identified. However, widespread implementation of such screening may be too difficult. PMID:15970065

  9. In-vitro fertilization, gamete donation and surrogacy: perceptions of women attending an infertility clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bello, Folasade A; Akinajo, Opeyemi R; Olayemi, Oladapo

    2014-06-01

    Infertility affects 20% of couples in Nigeria. Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) offered in Nigeria include in-vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete donation and surrogacy. This cross-sectional questionnaire study aimed at assessing the acceptability of ART to women seeking infertility treatment at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Of the 307 respondents, 58.3% were aware of IVF and 59.3% would accept it as treatment; 35.2% would accept donor eggs and 24.7% would accept donor sperms-a smaller proportion anticipated acceptability by their husbands. Thirty five percent were aware of surrogacy, 37.8% would accept it as treatment; most preferring a stranger as a surrogate. Most felt surrogates should not be paid. Acceptance of ART was associated with older age, longer duration of infertility, previous failed treatment and women without other children. As chances of successful pregnancy are improved in younger individuals, counselling towards overcome barriers to accepting gamete donation and surrogacy should be instituted early. PMID:25022149

  10. Comparison of the BPLab® sphygmomanometer for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with mercury sphygmomanometry in pregnant women: validation study according to the British Hypertension Society protocol

    PubMed Central

    Dorogova, Inna V; Panina, Elena S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the automated BPLab® sphygmomanometer for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in pregnant women according to Part II of the 1993 British Hypertension Society protocol. Pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic were randomly asked to participate (n=30). The BPLab sphygmomanometer was tested on pregnant women in this study and achieved A/A ratings according to the BHS protocol when compared with the “gold” standard of mercury sphygmomanometry. The device can therefore be recommended for use in pregnancy. PMID:25926739

  11. A prefilled injection device for outreach tetanus immunization by Bolivian traditional birth attendants.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, R; Halkyer, P; Gil, F; Nelson, C; Kristensen, D

    1998-07-01

    This study evaluated the performance, acceptability, and appropriateness of a new, single-use, prefilled injection device called UniJect for an outreach immunization application. Between April and June 1995, UniJect devices were used by 36 traditional birth attendants to administer tetanus toxoid injections to 2,240 pregnant women during routine, antenatal home visits in the Northern, Ichilos, and Warnes Districts of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Because tetanus toxoid is relatively heat stable, the traditional birth attendants were able to keep the tetanus toxoid-filled UniJect devices in their homes for up to one month without refrigeration. The devices were stored, transported, and disposed of in an outreach carrier designed to reduce the risks of improper handling and disposal. Data were collected from injection recipients, traditional birth attendants, and supervisors via observation, questionnaires, and post-study interviews. The performance of the UniJect device and its acceptability among all groups was very high. The traditional birth attendants used UniJect properly and safely; there were no reports or observations of device misuse, reuse, or needle-stick. Advantages cited included the fact that the device required no assembly, offered assured sterility, and reduced vaccine wastage sometimes associated with multi-dose vials. The ability to store and transport the vaccine-filled devices without ice also greatly simplified logistics. PMID:9734224

  12. Diagnosis by AMPLICOR PCR of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in urine samples from women and men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, T C; Welsh, L; Lentz, A; Crotchfelt, K; Zenilman, J; Newhall, J; Gaydos, C

    1996-01-01

    Screening of urine specimens from men for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by a commercial PCR assay (AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test; Roche Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Branchburg, N.J.) is a sensitive and specific noninvasive diagnostic assay. Since screening of women for C. trachomatis infection with the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test has been limited to use with endocervical swab specimens, we conducted an evaluation of the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test for the detection of C. trachomatis using female urine samples and compared the results of those obtained by in vitro culture and PCR of endocervical swab specimens. For 713 men we compared the performance of AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test with urine specimens with that of culture of urethral specimens. For specimens that were PCR positive and culture negative, two additional tests were used to resolve the discrepancies: direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) of sediment from a spun endocervical specimen culture vial and major outer membrane protein-based PCR of the sediment from the endocervical specimen culture vial. Of 525 urine specimens from females, 67 (12.8%) were PCR positive, and 41 (7.8%) endocervical specimens from the 525 women were culture positive. After resolution of the discrepancies, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 93.3%, whereas the sensitivity of endocervical swab specimen culture was 67.3%. Of 468 female endocervical swab specimens, 47 (10.0%) had a positive PCR result and 33 (7.0%) were culture positive. The resolved sensitivity of the endocervical swab specimen PCR was 86%. Of 415 matched female urine and endocervical swab specimens, there were 49 confirmed infections; 30 (61.2%) specimens were positive by culture of the endocervical swab specimen, 40 (81.6%) were positive by confirmed endocervical swab specimen PCR, 43 (87.8%) were positive by confirmed urine PCR, and all 49 (100%) were positive by either endocervical swab specimen PCR or urine PCR. For men, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 88%, and the sensitivity of culture was only 50.7%. These results indicate that urine PCR is highly sensitive for the detection of C. trachomatis in both women and men and provides a noninvasive technique for routine screening for chlamydial infection. PMID:8735088

  13. Global Estimates of Syphilis in Pregnancy and Associated Adverse Outcomes: Analysis of Multinational Antenatal Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lori; Kamb, Mary; Hawkes, Sarah; Gomez, Gabriela; Say, Lale; Seuc, Armando; Broutet, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization initiative to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of syphilis aims for ≥90% of pregnant women to be tested for syphilis and ≥90% to receive treatment by 2015. We calculated global and regional estimates of syphilis in pregnancy and associated adverse outcomes for 2008, as well as antenatal care (ANC) coverage for women with syphilis. Methods and Findings Estimates were based upon a health service delivery model. National syphilis seropositivity data from 97 of 193 countries and ANC coverage from 147 countries were obtained from World Health Organization databases. Proportions of adverse outcomes and effectiveness of screening and treatment were from published literature. Regional estimates of ANC syphilis testing and treatment were examined through sensitivity analysis. In 2008, approximately 1.36 million (range: 1.16 to 1.56 million) pregnant women globally were estimated to have probable active syphilis; of these, 80% had attended ANC. Globally, 520,905 (best case: 425,847; worst case: 615,963) adverse outcomes were estimated to be caused by maternal syphilis, including approximately 212,327 (174,938; 249,716) stillbirths (>28 wk) or early fetal deaths (22 to 28 wk), 91,764 (76,141; 107,397) neonatal deaths, 65,267 (56,929; 73,605) preterm or low birth weight infants, and 151,547 (117,848; 185,245) infected newborns. Approximately 66% of adverse outcomes occurred in ANC attendees who were not tested or were not treated for syphilis. In 2008, based on the middle case scenario, clinical services likely averted 26% of all adverse outcomes. Limitations include missing syphilis seropositivity data for many countries in Europe, the Mediterranean, and North America, and use of estimates for the proportion of syphilis that was “probable active,” and for testing and treatment coverage. Conclusions Syphilis continues to affect large numbers of pregnant women, causing substantial perinatal morbidity and mortality that could be prevented by early testing and treatment. In this analysis, most adverse outcomes occurred among women who attended ANC but were not tested or treated for syphilis, highlighting the need to improve the quality of ANC as well as ANC coverage. In addition, improved ANC data on syphilis testing coverage, positivity, and treatment are needed. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23468598

  14. High prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2 and other sexually transmitted infections among women attending two sexual health clinics in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Månsson, F; Camara, C; Biai, A; Monteiro, M; da Silva, Z J; Dias, F; Alves, A; Andersson, S; Fenyö, E M; Norrgren, H; Unemo, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to examine the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2 and 10 other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and to explore the relationship between HIV and those STIs in women attending two sexual health clinics in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. In all, 711 women with urogenital problems were included. Clinical examination was performed and HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1, HTLV-2 and syphilis were diagnosed by serology. Trichomonas vaginalis was examined using wet mount microscopy. Cervical samples (and swabs from visible ulcers, if present) were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Haemophilus ducreyi, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2, and culture diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1 and HIV-2 (dual infection) was 9.5%, 1.8% and 1.1%, respectively. The prevalence of HTLV-1 was 2.8%, HTLV-2 0%, HSV-1 1.4%, HSV-2 7.7%, T. vaginalis 20.4%, syphilis 1.0%, N. gonorrhoeae 1.3%, H. ducreyi 2.7%, M. genitalium 7.7% and C. trachomatis 12.6%. HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infection was significantly associated with active HSV-2 and HIV-1 was significantly associated with M. genitalium infection. In conclusion, HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence was higher compared with previous studies of pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau. The prevalence of co-infection of HIV and other STIs is high. National evidence-based guidelines for the management of STIs in Guinea-Bissau are essential. PMID:21097735

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; Land, Jolande A.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Morré, Servaas A.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This “proof of principle” study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia antibodies are detectable in easier to obtain, noninvasive, vaginal mucosa samples and relate to current or past infection. Methods. We compared outcomes of Chlamydia IgG and IgA antibody tests in serum and vaginal mucosal swabs in (a) 77 women attending a fertility clinic, of whom 25 tested positive for serum-IgG and (b) 107 women visiting an STI centre, including 30 Chlamydia PCR-positive subjects. Results. In the STI clinic, active Chlamydia infections were linked to serum-IgG and serum-IgA (P < 0.001) and mucosa-IgA (P < 0.001), but not mucosa-IgG. In the fertility clinic, mucosa-IgG had stronger correlations with serum-IgG (P = 0.02) than mucosa-IgA (P = 0.06). Women with tubal pathology or Chlamydia history more commonly had serum-IgG and mucosa-IgA (both P < 0.001), whereas this link was weaker for mucosa-IgG (P = 0.03). Conclusion. Chlamydia IgG and IgA are detectable in vaginal mucosal material. Serum-IgG had stronger associations with current or past infections. Mucosa-IgA also showed associations with (past) infection and complications. IgA presence in vaginal mucosa warrants further epidemiological studies. PMID:24757446

  16. Perceptions of pregnant teenagers with regard to the antenatal care clinic environment.

    PubMed

    James, Sindiwe; Rall, Nadine; Strümpher, Juanita

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy in teenagers seems to be a challenge that might contribute to a struggle to fulfil the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals directly related to women's reproductive health and neonatal care. The challenge becomes worse as midwives and nurses find it difficult to fully supervise all these pregnancies, because teenagers stay away or default from clinic attendance. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions of pregnant teenagers of the antenatal care (ANC) clinic environment and to recommend guidelines to midwifery operational managers for strategies to create teenager-friendly ANC clinic environments. The study applied a qualitative research design with explorative, descriptive and contextual research approaches. The ethical principles that guided this study were respect for the person, beneficence and justice. Semi-structured interviews utilising a predetermined interview schedule with a central open-ended question to address the study objectives were used. Data were collected from pregnant teenagers attending ANC clinics in Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality. Participants were unanimous in that they perceived the clinic environment as causing discomfort to them. Different reasons attributed to this experience were related to their young age. The age difference between themselves and other women attending the clinic made participants perceive themselves as inferior and as being treated as such at the clinic. They found this embarrassing and recommended having their own waiting area and additional midwives at the clinic so that they would not be subjected to humiliating scrutiny and disapproval from older pregnant women. Pregnant teenagers' recall of their experiences of the ANC clinic environment suggests that they perceive themselves as not being adequately cared for, as judged, and as forced to be in an environment that is insensitive to their needs. As a result some of their peers stayed away from the clinic and at times they contemplated the same action. A well-managed ANC clinic environment which has midwives who are empowered with the necessary skills in terms of dealing with the needs of youth has been requested by the pregnant teenagers. PMID:23327773

  17. Rate of Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendant and the Influencing Factors in an Urban Myanmar Population.

    PubMed

    Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Soe, Malar; Charupoonphol, Phitaya; Srisorrachatr, Suwat

    2015-07-01

    A survey study aimed at identifying rates and predictive factors on utilization of skilled birth attendant (SBA) among pregnant women. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 200 Myanmar women aged 18 to 49 years in Kalay Township. Data were collected by interview questionnaire from March 1 to 15, 2012, and data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation, χ(2) test, and multiple logistic regression analysis. The utilization rate of SBA was 74%. Factors significantly predicting utilization of SBA (P < .05) were level of maternal and child health (MCH) knowledge, attitude toward SBA, and accessibility to MCH services. The women who had a moderate to good level of knowledge utilized SBA 2.7 times more than those who had a poor level of knowledge (odds ratio = 2.705, 95% confidence interval = 1.31-5.57). The women who had a positive attitude toward SBA utilized SBA 7.7 times more than those who had a negative attitude (odds ratio = 7.708, 95% confidence interval = 3.71-15.98). The women who had high accessibility to MCH services utilized SBA 1.4 times more than those who had low accessibility (odds ratio = 1.477, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-2.21). These factors were able to correctly predict utilization of SBA at 74.9%. MCH knowledge and information on utilization of SBA should be strengthened during every antenatal care visit to enhance positive attitude on utilization of SBA and to increase accessibility to MCH services by providing community antenatal care or home visits. PMID:25556218

  18. Estimating Gestational Age in Late Presenters to Antenatal Care in a Resource-Limited Setting on the Thai-Myanmar Border

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kerryn A.; Simpson, Julie A.; Thomas, Kyla H.; Rijken, Marcus J.; White, Lisa J.; Lu Moo Dwell, Saw; Paw, Moo Kho; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Nosten, François; Fowkes, Freya J. I.; McGready, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Estimating gestational age in resource-limited settings is prone to considerable inaccuracy because crown-rump length measured by ultrasound before 14 weeks gestation, the recommended method for estimating gestational age, is often unavailable. Judgements regarding provision of appropriate obstetric and neonatal care are dependent on accurate estimation of gestational age. We determined the accuracy of the Dubowitz Gestational Age Assessment, a population-specific symphysis-fundal height formula, and ultrasound biometry performed between 16 and 40 weeks gestation in estimating gestational age using pre-existing data from antenatal clinics of the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit on the Thai-Myanmar border, where malaria is endemic. Two cohorts of women who gave birth to live singletons were analysed: 1) 250 women who attended antenatal care between July 2001 and May 2006 and had both ultrasound crown-rump length (reference) and a Dubowitz Gestational Age Assessment; 2) 975 women attending antenatal care between April 2007 and October 2010 who had ultrasound crown-rump length, symphysis-fundal measurements, and an additional study ultrasound (biparietal diameter and head circumference) randomly scheduled between 16 and 40 weeks gestation. Mean difference in estimated newborn gestational age between methods and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were determined from linear mixed-effects models. The Dubowitz method and the symphysis-fundal height formula performed well in term newborns, but overestimated gestational age of preterms by 2.57 weeks (95% LOA: 0.49, 4.65) and 3.94 weeks (95% LOA: 2.50, 5.38), respectively. Biparietal diameter overestimated gestational age by 0.83 weeks (95% LOA: -0.93, 2.58). Head circumference underestimated gestational age by 0.39 weeks (95% LOA: -2.60, 1.82), especially if measured after 24 weeks gestation. The results of this study can be used to quantify biases associated with alternative methods for estimating gestational age in the absence of ultrasound crown-rump length to inform critical clinical judgements in this population, and as a point of reference elsewhere. PMID:26114295

  19. Evaluation of clinical performance of a novel urine-based HPV detection assay among women attending a colposcopy clinic

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Dunn, S. Terence; Robbins, David; Brown, David; Allen, Richard A.; Eby, Yolanda J.; Smith, Katie M.; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Zhang, Roy R.; Gold, Michael A.; Schiffman, Mark; Walker, Joan L.; Castle, Philip E.; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in urine offers a convenient approach for cervical cancer screening but has previously suffered from limited clinical sensitivity. Objectives We evaluated clinical performance of the prototype Trovagene HPV test, a novel polymerase chain reaction assay that targets the E1 region of the HPV genome and detects and amplifies short fragments of cell-free HPV DNA in urine. Study design We conducted a pilot study among seventy two women referred to colposcopy following abnormal screening. Participants provided a urine sample prior to clinician-collected cervical sampling and colposcopically-directed punch biopsy. Trovagene HPV test results on urine samples were compared with cervical and urine testing by Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (LA-HPV) for detection of histologically-confirmed cervical precancerous lesions. Results There was high concordance between urine samples tested by the Trovagene HPV test and corresponding cervical (87.5%) and urine (81.9%) samples tested by LA-HPV. The Trovagene HPV test had high sensitivity (92.3% for detecting CIN2/3, and 100% for CIN3), comparable to LA-HPV testing on cervical samples (96.0% and 100%, respectively), and higher than LA-HPV testing on urine samples (80.8% and 90.0%, respectively). In this referral population, the specificity of the Trovagene urine HPV test was non-significantly lower (29% f CIN2/3 and 25% for CIN3) than corresponding estimates of LA-HPV testing on cervical (36% and 28%, respectively) and urine (42% and 38%, respectively) samples. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that the Trovagene HPV test has high sensitivity for urine-based detection of cervical precancer and merits evaluation in larger studies. PMID:24881489

  20. Polyhydramnios, Transient Antenatal Bartter's Syndrome, and MAGED2 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Laghmani, Kamel; Beck, Bodo B; Yang, Sung-Sen; Seaayfan, Elie; Wenzel, Andrea; Reusch, Björn; Vitzthum, Helga; Priem, Dario; Demaretz, Sylvie; Bergmann, Klasien; Duin, Leonie K; Göbel, Heike; Mache, Christoph; Thiele, Holger; Bartram, Malte P; Dombret, Carlos; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Benzing, Thomas; Levtchenko, Elena; Seyberth, Hannsjörg W; Klaus, Günter; Yigit, Gökhan; Lin, Shih-Hua; Timmer, Albert; de Koning, Tom J; Scherjon, Sicco A; Schlingmann, Karl P; Bertrand, Mathieu J M; Rinschen, Markus M; de Backer, Olivier; Konrad, Martin; Kömhoff, Martin

    2016-05-12

    Background Three pregnancies with male offspring in one family were complicated by severe polyhydramnios and prematurity. One fetus died; the other two had transient massive salt-wasting and polyuria reminiscent of antenatal Bartter's syndrome. Methods To uncover the molecular cause of this possibly X-linked disease, we performed whole-exome sequencing of DNA from two members of the index family and targeted gene analysis of other members of this family and of six additional families with affected male fetuses. We also evaluated a series of women with idiopathic polyhydramnios who were pregnant with male fetuses. We performed immunohistochemical analysis, knockdown and overexpression experiments, and protein-protein interaction studies. Results We identified a mutation in MAGED2 in each of the 13 infants in our analysis who had transient antenatal Bartter's syndrome. MAGED2 encodes melanoma-associated antigen D2 (MAGE-D2) and maps to the X chromosome. We also identified two different MAGED2 mutations in two families with idiopathic polyhydramnios. Four patients died perinatally, and 11 survived. The initial presentation was more severe than in known types of antenatal Bartter's syndrome, as reflected by an earlier onset of polyhydramnios and labor. All symptoms disappeared spontaneously during follow-up in the infants who survived. We showed that MAGE-D2 affects the expression and function of the sodium chloride cotransporters NKCC2 and NCC (key components of salt reabsorption in the distal renal tubule), possibly through adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP signaling and a cytoplasmic heat-shock protein. Conclusions We found that MAGED2 mutations caused X-linked polyhydramnios with prematurity and a severe but transient form of antenatal Bartter's syndrome. MAGE-D2 is essential for fetal renal salt reabsorption, amniotic fluid homeostasis, and the maintenance of pregnancy. (Funded by the University of Groningen and others.). PMID:27120771

  1. The WHO antenatal care randomised controlled trial: rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Villar, J; Bakketeig, L; Donner, A; al-Mazrou, Y; Ba'aqeel, H; Belizán, J M; Carroli, G; Farnot, U; Lumbiganon, P; Piaggio, G; Berendes, H

    1998-10-01

    The World Health Organisation and collaborating institutions in developing countries are conducting a multicentre randomised controlled trial to evaluate a new antenatal care (ANC) programme, consisting of tests, clinical procedures and follow-up actions scientifically demonstrated to be effective in improving maternal and newborn outcomes. These activities are distributed, for practical reasons, over four visits during the course of pregnancy and are aimed at achieving predetermined goals. The study is taking place in four countries, Argentina, Cuba, Saudi Arabia and Thailand. Recruitment of study subjects started on 1 May 1996. All 53 ANC clinical units had been enrolled by December 1996. Clinics in each country were randomly allocated (cluster randomisation) to provide either the new programme or the traditional programme currently in use. Approximately 24,000 women presenting for ANC at these clinics over an average period of 18 months will have been recruited. As women attending the control clinics receive the 'best standard treatment' as currently offered in these clinics, individual informed consent is requested only from women attending the intervention clinics. Authorities of the corresponding health districts and all participating clinics have provided written institutional informed consent before randomisation. The primary outcome of the trial in relation to maternal conditions is the rate of a morbidity indicator index, defined as the presence of at least one of the following conditions for which ANC is relevant: (a) pre-eclampsia or eclampsia during pregnancy or within 24 h of delivery; (b) postpartum anaemia (haemoglobin < 90 g/L); or (c) severe urinary tract infection/pyelonephritis, defined as an episode requiring antibiotic treatment and/or hospitalisation. The primary fetal outcome is the rate of low birthweight (< 2500 g). Adverse maternal and fetal outcomes are expected for approximately 10% of the control group. Several maternal and perinatal secondary outcomes are also considered. A comprehensive cost-effectiveness analysis and women's and providers' satisfaction evaluation are performed concurrently with the trial. Health-care programmes should be rigorously evaluated by randomised controlled trials, which are feasible in developing countries and should be conducted before introducing new treatments or health interventions. PMID:9805722

  2. Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detections in Urine, Vulvar, and Cervical Samples from Women Attending a Colposcopy Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gravitt, Patti E.; Dunn, S. Terence; Brown, David; Allen, Richard A.; Eby, Yolanda J.; Smith, Katie; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Zhang, Roy R.; Gold, Michael A.; Schiffman, Mark; Walker, Joan L.; Castle, Philip E.; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    While urine-based sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) is being explored as a simple and noninvasive approach for cervical cancer screening, data comparing HPV genotyping in urine and those in cellular sampling of the cervix and vulva, and their correlation with rigorously confirmed cervical disease status, are sparse. We performed HPV genotyping on voided-urine and clinician-collected vulvar and cervical samples from 72 women undergoing colposcopy. Although urine-based HPV carcinogenic HPV detection was lower (58.3%) than cervical (73.6%) and vulvar (72.1%) detection (P = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively), the agreement of urine HPV with cervical and vulvar HPV was moderate (kappa = 0.55) and substantial (kappa = 0.62), respectively. Urine-based carcinogenic HPV detection had a clinical sensitivity of 80.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60.7 to 93.5) and a specificity of 53.3% (95% CI = 37.9 to 68.3) for diagnosing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3 (CIN2/3) on histology; 90.0% of CIN3 was positive for urine HPV. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity values for vulvar sampling were 92% (95% CI = 74 to 99) and 40.5% (95% CI = 25.6 to 56.7), and those for cervical sampling were 96.2% (95% CI = 80.4 to 99.9) and 40% (95% CI = 25.7 to 55.7), respectively. HPV16 was the most common carcinogenic genotype detectable in 25% of urine, 33.8% of vulvar, and 31.9% of cervical samples overall, with prevalence increasing with cervical disease grade, regardless of the sampling method. Stronger cervical HPV PCR signal strengths were associated with increased frequency of urine HPV detection. In summary, the relatively lower detection rates but comparable clinical performance of urine-based HPV sampling underscore the need for larger studies to evaluate urine-based sampling for cervical cancer screening, epidemiologic studies, and postvaccination HPV disease surveillance. PMID:24197879

  3. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Argentinean women attending two different hospitals prior to the implementation of the National vaccination program

    PubMed Central

    Chouhy, Diego; D’Andrea, Rubén Mamprín; Iglesias, Mercedes; Messina, Analía; Ivancovich, Juan J.; Cerda, Belen; Galimberti, Diana; Bottai, Hebe; Giri, Adriana A.

    2012-01-01

    Cervarix vaccine was included in the National Immunization Program of Argentina in 2011 but data about the local distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women exposed to the virus are scarce. This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence and type distribution of HPV infection in unvaccinated women attending routine gynaecological screening in two public hospitals located in Buenos Aires and Santa Fe, Argentina. Socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and co-factors information was obtained from all participants (Buenos Aires, n=429; Santa Fe, n=433). Cervicovaginal swabs were tested with an MY11/09 primer-based assay and with the CUT primer system targeting mucosal/cutaneous HPVs. Participants from Buenos Aires showed significantly higher rates of HPV infection (52.4% vs. 40.6%), of multiple infections (24.2% vs. 16.4%), and of low-risk (20.3% vs. 13.9%) and high-risk types (44.1% vs. 33.3%) than those from Santa Fe. HPV-66 (Buenos Aires: 17%) and HPV-16 (Santa Fe: 8.5%) were the most prevalent types. Novel HPV-66 putative subtype and variants were identified. Vaccine types 16 and 18 were frequent (Buenos Aires: 13.5%; Santa Fe F: 10.2%) but few participants had co-infections with both (Buenos Aires: 1.4%; Santa Fe: 0.2%). A common risk factor for HPV infection was having a new sexual partner in the last year (Buenos Aires: OR 2.53, p<0.001; Santa Fe: OR 1.85, p=0.04). This study provides valuable baseline data for future assessment of the impact of massive vaccination in Argentina and it underlines the use of additional HPV testing strategies, such as the CUT system, for surveillance and vaccinology. PMID:23296573

  4. Early infant male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention: knowledge and attitudes of women attending a rural hospital in Swaziland, Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Prudence; Kliner, Merav; Walley, John

    2014-01-01

    Swaziland has the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world at 26% of the adult population. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual sex by up to 60% and the Government of Swaziland has been promoting adult male circumcision. Infant circumcision commenced in 2013 so it is important to understand the knowledge and views of women as potential mothers, around infant circumcision for medical purposes to inform the development of the service. This study interviewed 14 women of reproductive age attending the outpatient department of Good Shepherd Mission Hospital (GSMH), a rural district hospital, on their knowledge of and attitudes to early infant male circumcision (EIMC). Participants were highly knowledgeable about the health benefits of medical circumcision, although knowledge of the comparative risks and benefits of EIMC to adult circumcision was poor. All participants would have a son circumcised; the preferred age varied from early infancy to adolescence. Complications and pain were the main barriers whilst religious and cultural reasons were mentioned both for and against circumcision. A variety of family members are important in the decision to circumcise a young boy. Acceptability of medical circumcision was high in this study, but concerns about safety, pain, autonomy and cultural factors reduce the acceptability of infant circumcision more specifically. It will be important to provide accurate, culturally sensitive information about infant circumcision to mothers, fathers and grandparents using existing hospital and community services provided at GSMH and throughout Swaziland. Where possible services for MMC should be available to males of all ages so that families and young men may choose the most favourable age for circumcision. PMID:24957082

  5. Early infant male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention: knowledge and attitudes of women attending a rural hospital in Swaziland, Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Prudence; Kliner, Merav; Walley, John

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Swaziland has the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world at 26% of the adult population. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual sex by up to 60% and the Government of Swaziland has been promoting adult male circumcision. Infant circumcision commenced in 2013 so it is important to understand the knowledge and views of women as potential mothers, around infant circumcision for medical purposes to inform the development of the service. This study interviewed 14 women of reproductive age attending the outpatient department of Good Shepherd Mission Hospital (GSMH), a rural district hospital, on their knowledge of and attitudes to early infant male circumcision (EIMC). Participants were highly knowledgeable about the health benefits of medical circumcision, although knowledge of the comparative risks and benefits of EIMC to adult circumcision was poor. All participants would have a son circumcised; the preferred age varied from early infancy to adolescence. Complications and pain were the main barriers whilst religious and cultural reasons were mentioned both for and against circumcision. A variety of family members are important in the decision to circumcise a young boy. Acceptability of medical circumcision was high in this study, but concerns about safety, pain, autonomy and cultural factors reduce the acceptability of infant circumcision more specifically. It will be important to provide accurate, culturally sensitive information about infant circumcision to mothers, fathers and grandparents using existing hospital and community services provided at GSMH and throughout Swaziland. Where possible services for MMC should be available to males of all ages so that families and young men may choose the most favourable age for circumcision. PMID:24957082

  6. The cause and consequence of domestic violence on pregnant women in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, N N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidate the impact of domestic violence on the health and pregnancy outcomes of women. Data were extracted from literature through the MEDLINE database for years 2000-2011. Domestic violence occurs in every society, irrespective of class, creed, religion and country. Women attending antenatal clinics in Delhi reported experience of 26.9% physical, 29% mental and 6.2% sexual abuse, irrespective of their age. The spouse was the perpetrator of abuse in 47% cases and his family members were responsible for 31%. Pregnant women were hit by their husbands on the back and abdomen, sometimes repeatedly, besides psychological abuse. Incidence of domestic violence was more when the male spouse was less educated or in the habit of consuming alcohol, opium or tobacco. Illiteracy, poverty, family status and uncaring attitude of community about spousal violence were the causes of domestic violence. Women having experience of violence were less likely to receive antenatal care or home visits by health workers and had a risk of perinatal and neonatal mortality of 2.59 and 2.37 times higher, respectively, than women having no violence during pregnancy. The survey indicated that 4.5% of abused women required hospitalisation and 3.8% needed medical care. Women's education, economic autonomy and empowerment may reduce the incidence of domestic violence among Indian women. PMID:23550851

  7. Detection of human papillomavirus in women attending Pap cervical screening camp at a peripheral hospital of North-Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sibnarayan; Agarwal, Manisha; Chatterjee, Soumya; Gogoi, Hemanta Kumar; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra

    2015-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) associated cervical cancer is the leading cause of deaths in India. However, cytological/HPV screening may result in early detection of cervical cancer, resulting in early treatment and reduced mortality. Although reports related to general population is available, data on HPV prevalence among women attending AFMS health care facilities is scarce. Cervical samples were collected for cytological staining by Pap test and molecular detection by PCR, genotyping by HPV specific primers and sequencing. Apart from finding of atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in one subject, no evidence of malignancy was observed. A high prevalence of HPV was found in this study group, which was intermediate between previous reports from general population and cervical cancer patients. All the subjects had infection of high risk HPV type16. HPV prevalence was found similar between different age groups. Although, none of the study subjects had malignant changes, but due to high prevalence of high risk HPV infection and other associated risk factors, these subjects might be at an elevated risk of developing cervical cancer. Regular follow-up of these patients who were detected HPV positive are required to screen for cervical malignancy. PMID:25859083

  8. Delay in termination of pregnancy among unmarried adolescents and young women attending a tertiary hospital abortion clinic in Trivandrum, Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sowmini C V

    2013-05-01

    Unwed pregnancy among adolescents is a disturbing event in Indian belief-systems, and very young motherhood limits girls' social, economic and educational prospects. Girls who seek abortions are always at higher risk for delay in care seeking; this paper looks at the reasons why. It reports the experiences of 34 unmarried adolescent girls and young women, aged 10-24 years, who obtained induced abortion from a tertiary care abortion clinic over a period of seven months in 2004. Ten were below 19 years of age, the rest were 20-24 years. Only eight of the 34 pregnancies were <12 weeks. The reasons for delay were fear of disclosure, lack of any support system and scarcity of resources. In 30 cases, the decision to terminate was made jointly with family members, especially the mother. Only half knew about contraception, of whom two used condoms. Only two of the partners accompanied the girl to the abortion clinic and another two offered some financial support. Because of the conflict between wanting to have sex and feeling guilty about it, these young people experienced terrible distress in the course of unwanted pregnancy. Comparing the adolescents who attended the clinic in 2004 with those we have seen in 2012-2013, the paper shows that as regards the essentials, much has remained the same. PMID:23684207

  9. The effects of antenatal depression and antidepressant treatment on placental gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Åkerud, Helena; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Kaihola, Helena; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-01-01

    The effects of antenatal depression and antidepressant treatment during pregnancy on both mother and child are vigorously studied, but the underlying biology for these effects is largely unknown. The placenta plays a crucial role in the growth and development of the fetus. We performed a gene expression study on the fetal side of the placenta to investigate gene expression patterns in mothers with antenatal depression and in mothers using antidepressant treatment during pregnancy. Placental samples from mothers with normal pregnancies, from mothers with antenatal depression, and from mothers using antidepressants were collected. We performed a pilot microarray study to investigate alterations in the gene expression and selected several genes from the microarray for biological validation with qPCR in a larger sample. In mothers with antenatal depression 108 genes were differentially expressed, whereas 109 genes were differentially expressed in those using antidepressants. Validation of the microarray revealed more robust gene expression differences in the seven genes picked for confirmation in antidepressant-treated women than in depressed women. Among the genes that were validated ROCK2 and C12orf39 were differentially expressed in both depressed and antidepressant-treated women, whereas ROCK1, GCC2, KTN1, and DNM1L were only differentially expressed in the antidepressant-treated women. In conclusion, antenatal depression and antidepressant exposure during pregnancy are associated with altered gene expression in the placenta. Findings on those genes picked for validation were more robust among antidepressant-treated women than in depressed women, possibly due to the fact that depression is a multifactorial condition with varying degrees of endocrine disruption. It remains to be established whether the alterations found in the gene expression of the placenta are found in the fetus as well. PMID:25628539

  10. Alcohol brief interventions in Scottish antenatal care: a qualitative study of midwives’ attitudes and practices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants exposed to alcohol in the womb are at increased risk of experiencing health problems. However, mixed messages about the consequences of prenatal alcohol consumption have resulted in inconsistent attitudes and practices amongst some healthcare practitioners. Screening and alcohol brief interventions (ABIs) can reduce risky drinking in various clinical settings. Recently, a program of screening and ABIs have been implemented in antenatal care settings in Scotland. However, current evidence suggests that midwives’ involvement in alcohol brief interventions activities is patchy. This study explored midwives’ attitudes and practices regarding alcohol screening and ABIs in order to understand why they are relatively underutilized in antenatal care settings compared to other clinical settings. Methods This was a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews with 15 midwives and a focus group with a further six midwifery team leaders (21 participants in total) in Scotland. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Midwives were positive about their involvement in the screening and ABI program. However, they were not completely convinced about the purpose and value of the screening and ABIs in antenatal care. In the midst of competing priorities, the program was seen as having a low priority in their workload. Midwives felt that the rapport between them and pregnant women was not sufficiently established at the first antenatal appointment to allow them to discuss alcohol issues appropriately. They reported that many women had already given up drinking or were drinking minimal amounts prior to the first antenatal appointment. Conclusions Midwives recognised the important role they could play in alcohol intervention activities in antenatal care. As the majority of women stop consuming alcohol in pregnancy, many will not need an ABI. Those who have not stopped are likely to need an ABI, but midwives were concerned that it was this group that they were most likely to alienate by discussing such concerns. Further consideration should be given to pre-pregnancy preventative measures as they are more likely to reduce alcohol-exposed pregnancies. PMID:24885346

  11. The Association of Ethnic Minority Density with Late Entry into Antenatal Care in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Posthumus, Anke G.; Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Denktaş, Semiha

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, non-Western ethnic minority women make their first antenatal visit later than native Dutch women. Timely entry into antenatal care is important as it provides the opportunity for prenatal screening and the detection of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study we explored whether women's timely entry is influenced by their neighborhood. Moreover, we assessed whether ethnic minority density (the proportion of ethnic minorities in a neighborhood) influences Western and non-Western ethnic minority women's chances of timely entry into care differently. We hypothesized that ethnic minority density has a protective effect against non-Western women's late entry into care. Data on time of entry into care and other individual-level characteristics were obtained from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry (2000-2008; 97% of all pregnancies). We derived neighborhood-level data from three other national databases. We included 1,137,741 pregnancies of women who started care under supervision of a community midwife in 3422 neighborhoods. Multi-level logistic regression was used to assess the associations of individual and neighborhood-level determinants with entry into antenatal care before and after 14 weeks of gestation. We found that neighborhood characteristics influence timely entry above and beyond individual characteristics. Ethnic minority density was associated with a higher risk of late entry into antenatal care. However, our analysis showed that for non-Western women, living in high ethnic minority density areas is less detrimental to their risk of late entry than for Western women. This means that a higher proportion of ethnic minority residents has a protective effect on non-Western women's chances of timely entry into care. Our results suggest that strategies to improve timely entry into care could seek to create change at the neighborhood level in order to target individuals likely of entering care too late. PMID:25856150

  12. Knowledge and performance of the Ethiopian health extension workers on antenatal and delivery care: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recognition of the critical shortage of human resources within health services, community health workers have been trained and deployed to provide primary health care in developing countries. However, very few studies have investigated whether these health workers can provide good quality of care. This study investigated the knowledge and performance of health extension workers (HEWs) on antenatal and delivery care. The study also explored the barriers and facilitators for HEWs in the provision of maternal health care. Methods In conducting this research, a cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 50 HEWs working in 39 health posts, covering a population of approximately 195,000 people, were interviewed. Descriptive statistics was used and a composite score of knowledge of HEWs was made and interpreted based on the Ethiopian education scoring system. Results Almost half of the respondents had at least 5 years of work experience as a HEW. More than half (27 (54%)) of the HEWs had poor knowledge on contents of antenatal care counseling, and the majority (44 (88%)) had poor knowledge on danger symptoms, danger signs, and complications in pregnancy. Health posts, which are the operational units for HEWs, did not have basic infrastructures like water supply, electricity, and waiting rooms for women in labor. On average within 6 months, a HEW assisted in 5.8 births. Only a few births (10%) were assisted at the health posts, the majority (82%) were assisted at home and only 20% of HEWs received professional assistance from a midwife. Conclusion Considering the poor knowledge of HEWs, poorly equipped health posts, and poor referral systems, it is difficult for HEWs to play a key role in improving health facility deliveries, skilled birth attendance, and on-time referral through early identification of danger signs. Hence, there is an urgent need to design appropriate strategies to improve the performance of HEWs by enhancing their knowledge and competencies, while creating appropriate working conditions. PMID:23171076

  13. Reaching out: caring for women prisoners in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Sadie

    2015-01-01

    Incarcerated women are a vulnerable group with complex needs in pregnancy, birth and early parenting; and this is further complicated with a drug and/or alcohol addiction. Prior to the establishment of an antenatal outreach clinic in a Western Australian prison for women, pregnant inmates received fragmented antenatal care. Some of the women did not disclose drug and alcohol issues for fear of involvement of child protection services, and some refused to be transported for care to maternity hospitals for antenatal appointments. This is the first antenatal care clinic for pregnant women to be established within a prison population in Western Australia. PMID:26310090

  14. Health insurance for the poor decreases access to HIV testing in antenatal care: evidence of an unintended effect of health insurance reform in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ettenger, Allison; Bärnighausen, Till; Castro, Arachu

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV was added to standard antenatal care (ANC) in 2000 for Colombians enrolled in the two national health insurance schemes, the ‘subsidized regime’ (covering poor citizens) and the ‘contributory regime’ (covering salaried citizens with incomes above the poverty threshold), which jointly covered 80% of the total Colombian population as of 2007. This article examines integration of HIV testing in ANC through the relationship between ordering an HIV test with the type of health insurance, including lack of health insurance, using data from the nationally representative 2005 Colombia Demographic and Health Survey. Overall, health-care providers ordered an HIV test for only 35% of the women attending ANC. We regressed the order of an HIV test during ANC on health systems characteristics (type of insurance and type of ANC provider), women’s characteristics (age, wealth, educational attainment, month of pregnancy at first antenatal visit, HIV knowledge, urban vs. rural residence and sub-region of residence) and children’s characteristics (birth order and birth year). Women enrolled in the subsidized regime were significantly less likely to be offered and receive an HIV test in ANC than women without any health insurance (adjusted odds ratio = 0.820, P < 0.001), when controlling for the other independent variables. Wealth, urban residence, birth year of the child and the type of health-care provider seen during the ANC visit were significantly associated with providers ordering an HIV test for a woman (all P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that enrolment in the subsidized regime reduced access to HIV testing in ANC. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms through which the potential effect of health insurance coverage on HIV testing in ANC occurs and to examine whether enrolment in the subsidized regime has affected access to other essential health services. PMID:23598426

  15. Antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms are differentially associated with early childhood weight and adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Ertel, Karen A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Antenatal depression is associated with small for gestational age, but few studies have examined associations with weight during childhood. Similarly few studies address whether antenatal and postpartum depression differentially affect child weight. Among 838 mother-child dyads in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study, we examined relationships of antenatal and postpartum depression with child weight and adiposity. We assessed maternal depression at mid-pregnancy and 6 months postpartum with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (score >13 indicating probable depression). We assessed child outcomes at age 3 years: body mass index (BMI) z-score, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), sum of subscapular (SS) and triceps (TR) skinfold thickness (SS+TR) for overall adiposity, and SS:TR ratio for central adiposity. Sixty-nine (8.2%) women experienced antenatal depression and 59 (7.0%) postpartum depression. Mean (SD) outcomes at age 3 were: BMI z-score, 0.45 (1.01); SS+TR, 16.72 (4.03) mm; SS:TR, 0.64 (0.15). In multivariable models, antenatal depression was associated with lower child BMI z-score (-0.24 [95% confidence interval: -0.49, 0.00]), but higher SS:TR (0.05 [0.01, 0.09]). There was no evidence of a dose-response relation between antenatal depression and these outcomes. Postpartum depression was associated with higher SS+TR (1.14 [0.11, 2.18]). In conclusion, whereas antenatal depression was associated with smaller size and central adiposity at age 3 years, postpartum depression was associated with higher overall adiposity. PMID:20415775

  16. Wealth and antenatal care use: implications for maternal health care utilisation in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of wealth on maternal health care utilization in Ghana via its effect on Antenatal care use. Antenatal care serves as the initial point of contact of expectant mothers to maternal health care providers before delivery. The study is pivoted on the introduction of the free maternal health care policy in April 2005 in Ghana with the aim of reducing the financial barrier to the use of maternal health care services, to help reduce the high rate of maternal deaths. Prior to the introduction of the policy, studies found wealth to have a positive and significant influence on the use of Antenatal care. It is thus expected that with the policy, wealth should not influence the use of maternal health care significantly. Using secondary data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey, the results have revealed that wealth still has a significant influence on adequate use of Antenatal care. Education, age, number of living children, transportation and health insurance are other factors that were found to influence the use of Antenatal care in Ghana. There also exist considerable variations in the use of Antenatal care in the geographical regions and between the rural and urban dwellers. It is recommended that to improve the use of Antenatal care and hence maternal health care utilization, some means of support is provided especially to women within the lowest wealth quintiles, like the provision and availability of recommended medication at the health center; secondly, women should be encouraged to pursue education to at least the secondary level since this improves their use of maternal health services. Policy should also target mothers who have had the experience of child birth on the need to use adequate Antenatal care for each pregnancy, since these mothers tend to use less antenatal care for subsequent pregnancies. The regional disparities found may be due to inaccessibility and unavailability of health facilities and services in the rural areas and in some of the regions. The government and other service providers (NGOs, religious institutions and private providers) may endeavor to improve on the distribution of health facilities, human resources, good roads and necessary infrastructure among other things in order to facilitate easy access to health care providers especially for the rural dwellers. PMID:22866869

  17. Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among pregnant women in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aboyeji, A P; Nwabuisi, C

    2003-11-01

    In a cross-sectional study, 230 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, Nigeria from January 2000 to December 2000 were screened randomly to determine the prevalence of common STDs among them, using conventional methods. One hundred and fourteen (49.4%) of the subjects harboured various agents including Candida spp. (37.8%), Trichomonas vaginalis (4.7%), Gardnerella vaginalis (3.9%), syphilis (1.7%) and Neisseria gonorrhea (1.3%). Risk factors associated with significant infection were young age and level of education. The importance of routine STD screening in pregnancy especially among the young and illiterate is advocated. It is recommended that routine screening for STDs should be incorporated into antenatal care. PMID:14617466

  18. Optimism and other psychosocial influences on antenatal depression: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Evans, Emily C; Bullock, Linda F C

    2012-09-01

    Antenatal depression is a debilitating experience for many women with significant personal and familial sequelae. Low-income pregnant women living in rural settings are especially vulnerable because of isolation, decreased resources, and stressful living environments. This systematic review summarizes what is known about antenatal depression and synthesizes the evidence regarding the role psychosocial variables could play in the development of safe, effective, and culturally-acceptable non-pharmacological interventions. Searches of the CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, and ERIC databases, as well as the Cochrane Library, were conducted in September 2010 to identify articles relevant to our topic of study. Psychosocial variables have a significant association with antenatal depression. Optimism has been shown to be inversely correlated with depression, and directly correlated with improved birth outcomes. Optimism is a potentially modifiable variable that could be used to design antenatal prevention and treatment programs. As depression continues to increase in prevalence, and treatment options for pregnant women remain limited, effective interventions must be developed that address the psychosocial variables examined in this review. PMID:22762538

  19. Antenatal magnesium sulfate: Neuro-protection for preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Oddie, S; Tuffnell, D J; McGuire, W

    2015-11-01

    The neuro-protective effect of antenatal magnesium sulfate on very preterm infants has been demonstrated in good-quality randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses. Magnesium administered prior to preterm delivery crosses over to the foetal circulation and acts via several pathways to reduce perinatal neuronal damage. Meta-analysis of the trial data indicates that antenatal magnesium sulfate reduces the risk of cerebral palsy by one-third, and results in one fewer case in every 50 women treated. Treatment is associated with discomfort and flushing in some women, but maternal side-effects are mostly transient and manageable. Magnesium sulfate has also been found to be without any serious adverse consequences in newborn infants. Consensus recommendations and guidelines have been developed and implemented internationally, and endorsed by the UK Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. However, magnesium sulfate for neuro-protection of very preterm infants has not yet become established widely in UK practice. Paediatricians, neonatologists and advocacy groups for preterm infants and their families could contribute to raising awareness and engage in dissemination activities and implementation initiatives to develop local protocols for adoption of this safe, effective and cost-effective intervention to reduce the burden of cerebral palsy in children born very preterm. PMID:25896966

  20. Barriers to antenatal syphilis screening in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bocoum, Fadima Yaya; Kouanda, Seni; Zarowsky, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite advances in treatment and management, syphilis remains a major public health problem in Burkina Faso. Syphilis in pregnancy poses major health risks for the mother and the fetus and also increases the risk for HIV transmission. Despite its potential benefits, antenatal syphilis screening is often poorly implemented in many sub-Saharan African countries. The purpose of the study is to identify and understand barriers affecting health system performance for syphilis screening among pregnant women in Burkina Faso. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews and observations in the Kaya health district, Burkina Faso. Participants were purposively selected to capture a range of perspectives across different actors with different roles and responsibilities. Seventy-five interviews were conducted with health providers, district managers, facility managers, traditional healers, pregnant women, community health workers, and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) managers. Interviews were transcribed and organized into codes and categories using NVivo software. Results Participants identified multiple barriers at health providers and community levels. Key barriers at provider level included fragmentation of services, poor communication, low motivation for prescription, and low awareness of syphilis burden. Cost of testing, distance to laboratory and lack of knowledge about syphilis were identified as barriers at community level. Conclusion The study highlights barriers such as distance, cost of testing, and knowledge about syphilis. The introduction of point of care testing for syphilis could be an entry point for improving coverage of antenatal syphilis screening. PMID:24624245

  1. Patient awareness and acceptability of antenatal perineal massage.

    PubMed

    Ismail, S I M F; Emery, S J

    2013-11-01

    Antenatal perineal massage is recommended to reduce perineal trauma at the time of delivery. The practice has been shown to be acceptable to pregnant women taking part in research studies. The aim of this study was to establish its acceptability to pregnant women in day-to-day clinical practice, as well as their awareness of its technique. An anonymous self-construct questionnaire was given to mothers after their first delivery. A total of 113 questionnaires were returned over a 4-month period. With regard to acceptability, 61.4% of respondents indicated that the practice was acceptable, only 25.7% felt the practice was embarrassing and 56.7% were happy for their husband/partner to perform it for them. With respect to awareness, 37.2% of the respondents had heard about the practice, 9.7% knew it should be practised from 34 weeks onwards, 11.5% knew it should be maintained for 5-10 min and 30.1% knew it ought to be performed daily. This showed first time mothers' awareness of antenatal perineal massage to be low, despite the idea being acceptable to them, which calls for action to improve awareness and provide more instruction and encouragement to take up the practice. PMID:24219726

  2. Sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zenebe, Yohannes; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-01-01

    Viral hepatitis during pregnancy is associated with high risk of maternal complications and has become a leading cause of fetal death. So the main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C viral infections among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic in Bahir Dar health institutions, Ethiopia. This was institutional based cross-sectional study that included 318 pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic in Bahir Dar health institutions from January 2013 to June 2013. Appropriate data was gathered from study participants. Sero-prevalence of hepatitis C virus was determined by detecting immunoglobulin of HCV using ELISA kit. Data was entered and analyzed with SPSS version 16 statistical software. The overall prevalence of hepatitis C virus among pregnant women was 0.6%. None of the expected risk factors had significant outcome. In conclusion, prevalence of the Hepatitis C virus among pregnant women attending in Bahir Dar health institutions was low and expected variables were not statistically significant. PMID:26327995

  3. Determinants of institutional delivery among women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the factors that influence institutional delivery among women in Bangladesh extracting data from 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. We employed both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses in this study. Findings revealed that, only 14.7% of the women went for institutional delivery and 28.8% births were delivered by trained birth attendance. The multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded quantitatively important and reliable estimates of facility delivery. The likelihood of institutional delivery was significantly higher for first-order pregnancy, couples' higher education, the richest, higher autonomy, TV ownership, non-Muslims, who received antenatal care services, pregnancy complications, and urban residents. Government should ensure quality of care, easy accessibility, and availability of all facilities free of cost in the public medical institutions. Women should be informed regarding the long-term benefit of institutional delivery through information, education, and communication program. PMID:23666835

  4. Antenatal Magnesium Sulfate, Necrotizing Enterocolitis, and Death among Neonates < 28 Weeks Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Kamyar, Manijeh; Clark, Erin A. S.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Varner, Michael W.; Manuck, Tracy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine the relationship between antenatal magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and neonatal death and/or severe necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) among infants < 28 weeks. Methods Secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized trial of antenatal MgSO4 versus placebo administered to women to prevent death and cerebral palsy. Neonates < 28 weeks were included. The primary outcome was neonatal death before NICU discharge, and/or severe NEC (Bell criteria stage II/III). Neonates with and without death/severe NEC were compared. Results A total of 697 neonates met the criteria. Out of which 150 (21.5%) died and/or were diagnosed with severe NEC. Antenatal MgSO4 exposure was not associated with death/severe NEC in infants < 28 weeks. In a subgroup analysis of neonates < 26 weeks, treatment group assignment to antenatal MgSO4 was associated with an increased odds of death/severe NEC (adjusted odds ratio: 1.90, 95% confidence interval: 1.12–3.22, p = 0.017). Conclusions Among neonates < 26 weeks, antenatal MgSO4 was associated with death and severe NEC. Further prospective study in larger populations is needed. PMID:27054046

  5. Antenatal depression and hematocrit levels as predictors of postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Maes, Michael

    2016-04-30

    The aim of this study is to delineate the risk factors of antenatal depression and its consequences, including postnatal depression, and to examine whether the hematocrit (Hct) is associated with maternal depression. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Kennerley and Gath Maternity Blues Assessment Scale (KGB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) were assessed at the end of term (T1) and 2-3 days (T2) and 4-6 weeks (T3) after delivery in 126 women with and without antenatal depression. The Hct was measured at T1. Antenatal depression was significantly predicted by lifetime depression and premenstrual syndrome and less education. Antenatal depression was not associated with obstetric or neonatal outcomes. Antenatal depression symptoms strongly predict depression and anxiety symptoms at T2 and T3. The EPDS, KGB, STAI and BDI, but not the HAMD, scores, were significantly lower at T3 than before. The incidence of depression significantly decreased from T1 (23.8%) to T2 (7.8%) and T3 (5.3%). T1 Hct values significantly predicted the T3 postnatal EPDS, STAI, KGB and BDI scores. Delivery significantly improves depression and anxiety symptoms. Increased Hct in the third trimester is a biomarker of postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms. PMID:27086235

  6. Models of antenatal care to reduce and prevent preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez Turienzo, Cristina; Sandall, Jane; Peacock, Janet L

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of models of antenatal care designed to prevent and reduce preterm birth (PTB) in pregnant women. Methods We conducted a search of seven electronic databases and reference lists of retrieved studies to identify trials from inception up to July 2014 where pregnant women, regardless of risk factors for pregnancy complications, were randomly allocated to receive an alternative model of antenatal care or routine care. We pooled risks of PTB to determine the effect of alternative care models in all pregnant women. We also assessed secondary maternal and infant outcomes, women's satisfaction and economic outcomes. Results 15 trials involving 22 437 women were included. Pregnant women in alternative care models were less likely to experience PTB (risk ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.96). The subgroup of women randomised to midwife-led continuity models of antenatal care were less likely to experience PTB (0.78, 0.66 to 0.91) but there was no significant difference between this group and women allocated to specialised care (0.92, 0.76 to 1.12) (interaction test for subgroup differences p=0.20). Overall low-risk women in alternative care models were less likely to have PTB (0.74, 0.59 to 0.93), but this effect was not significantly different from that in mixed-risk populations (0.91, 0.79 to 1.05) (subgroup p=0.13). Conclusions Alternative models of antenatal care for all pregnant women are effective in reducing PTB compared with routine care, but no firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the relative benefits of the two models. Future research should evaluate the impact of antenatal care models which include more recent interventions and predictive tests, and which also offer continuity of care by midwives throughout pregnancy. PROSPERO registration number CRD42014007116. PMID:26758257

  7. Women’s views and experiences of antenatal care in Iraq: a Q methodology study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding women’s experiences and perspectives of antenatal care services is particularly critical for enhancing effectiveness of services delivery and addressing women’s needs and expectations. As part of a comprehensive assessment of the maternity care services in Iraq, this study aimed to explore the views and experiences of antenatal care in a sample of women. Methods This explorative study was conducted in Erbil governorate, Iraq. Data were collected using Q methodology, a technique for eliciting subjective views and identifying shared patterns among individuals. A sample of 38 women of different educational and socioeconomic statuses were invited to sort a set of 39 statements reflecting different aspects of the available antenatal care services and issues related to their last pregnancies into a distribution on a scale of nine from “disagree most” to “agree most”. By-person factor analysis was used to derive latent views through centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation of factors. Results Analysis of the participants’ Q sorts resulted in identifying four distinct views and experiences of pregnancy and antenatal care services: (i) public maternity services second best: preference for, and ability to afford, private care, (ii) dissatisfaction with public maternity services: poor information sharing and lack of health promotion, (iii) satisfaction with public maternity service but information gaps perceived and (iv) public maternity services second best: preference for private care but unaffordable. The typical characterizations that were associated with each view were highlighted. Conclusions This study revealed different patterns of views and experiences of women of pregnancy and antenatal care services and recognized the particular issues related to each pattern. Different patterns and types of problems and concerns related mainly to inadequate provision of information and poor interpersonal communication, poor utilization of public services and a general preference to use private services were identified in the different groups of women. PMID:24450437

  8. Seroprevalance of Rubella in Women with Bad Obstetric History

    PubMed Central

    Ramana, B.V.; Reddy, B. Kailasanatha; Murty, D.S.; Vasudevanaidu, K.H.

    2013-01-01

    Rubella is a common cause of rash and fever during childhood. However, its public health importance relates to the teratogenic effects of primary rubella infection occurring in pregnant women, which can lead to fetal death with spontaneous abortion or to congenital defects in surviving infants. Most of the cases are asymptomatic and difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds. Detection of specific IgM antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique is a useful method for diagnosis. The present study was conducted on 180 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Government Maternity Hospital, Tirupati. All the serum samples were tested for Rubella-specific IgM antibodies. A seropositivity of 12.67% was observed among cases with bad obstetric history and 6.67% in normal pregnant women. Within the test group, high sero-positivity (13.33%) was observed in women with repeated abortions followed by in cases of intrauterine death (12.73%). The results indicate high prevalence of rubella in our population. All antenatal cases should be routinely screened for rubella, so that early diagnosis will help in proper management and fetal outcome. PMID:24479042

  9. Assessing the Effects of Participant Preference and Demographics in the Usage of Web-based Survey Questionnaires by Women Attending Screening Mammography in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased usage of Internet applications has allowed for the collection of patient reported outcomes (PROs) and other health data through Web-based communication and questionnaires. While these Web platforms allow for increased speed and scope of communication delivery, there are certain limitations associated with this technology, as survey mode preferences vary across demographic groups. Objective To investigate the impact of demographic factors and participant preferences on the use of a Web-based questionnaire in comparison with more traditional methods (mail and phone) for women participating in screening mammography in British Columbia, Canada. Methods A sample of women attending the Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia (SMPBC) participated in a breast cancer risk assessment project. The study questionnaire was administered through one of three modes (ie, telephone, mail, or website platform). Survey mode preferences and actual methods of response were analyzed for participants recruited from Victoria General Hospital. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the association of demographic factors (ie, age, education level, and ethnicity) with certain survey response types. Results A total of 1192 women successfully completed the study questionnaire at Victoria General Hospital. Mail was stated as the most preferred survey mode (509/1192, 42.70%), followed by website platform (422/1192, 35.40%), and telephone (147/1192, 12.33%). Over 80% (955/1192) of participants completed the questionnaire in the mode previously specified as their most preferred; mail was the most common method of response (688/1192, 57.72%). Mail was also the most preferred type of questionnaire response method when participants responded in a mode other than their original preference. The average age of participants who responded via the Web-based platform (age 52.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 52.1-53.7) was significantly lower than those who used mail and telephone methods (age 55.9, 95% CI 55.2-56.5; P<.001); each decade of increased age was associated with a 0.97-fold decrease in the odds of using the website platform (P<.001). Web-based participation was more likely for those who completed higher levels of education; each interval increase leading to a 1.83 increase in the odds of website platform usage (P<.001). Ethnicity was not shown to play a role in participant preference for the website platform (P=.96). Conclusions It is beneficial to consider participant survey mode preference when planning to collect PROs and other patient health data. Younger participants and those of higher education level were more likely to use the website platform questionnaire; Web-based participation failed to vary across ethnic group. Because mail questionnaires were still the most preferred survey mode, it will be important to employ strategies, such as user-friendly design and Web-based support, to ensure that the patient feedback being collected is representative of the population being served. PMID:27005707

  10. Community mobilisation and health management committee strengthening to increase birth attendance by trained health workers in rural Makwanpur, Nepal: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Birth attendance by trained health workers is low in rural Nepal. Local participation in improving health services and increased interaction between health systems and communities may stimulate demand for health services. Significant increases in birth attendance by trained health workers may be affected through community mobilisation by local women's groups and health management committee strengthening. We will test the effect of community mobilisation through women's groups, and health management committee strengthening, on institutional deliveries and home deliveries attended by trained health workers in Makwanpur District. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial involving 43 village development committee clusters. 21 clusters will receive the intervention and 22 clusters will serve as control areas. In intervention areas, Female Community Health Volunteers are supported in convening monthly women's groups. The groups work through an action research cycle in which they consider barriers to institutional delivery, plan and implement strategies to address these barriers with their communities, and evaluate their progress. Health management committees participate in three-day workshops that use appreciative inquiry methods to explore and plan ways to improve maternal and newborn health services. Follow-up meetings are conducted every three months to review progress. Primary outcomes are institutional deliveries and home deliveries conducted by trained health workers. Secondary outcome measures include uptake of antenatal and postnatal care, neonatal mortality and stillbirth rates, and maternal morbidity. Trial registration number ISRCTN99834806 PMID:21595902

  11. Effectiveness of primary level antenatal care in decreasing anemia at term in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Massawe, S N; Urassa, E N; Nyström, L; Lindmark, G

    1999-08-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of primary level antenatal care in decreasing anemia among pregnant women in Tanzania. The sample included 1045 women screened for anemia and followed-up to late pregnancy. Extra interventions at the study clinic included retraining of staff, group and individual counseling of women, and community health education in the area. Results showed a significant overall increase in median Hb from 10.1 g/dl at booking to 10.6 g/dl in late pregnancy. Prevalence of anemia was reduced from 60% at booking to 47% at both clinics, with a 57% reduction in the proportion having severe anemia. Severely anemic women increased their median Hb by 3.2 g/dl during antenatal care. This study concludes that ensuring an adequate supply of drugs seems to be the most important activity to achieve safe hemoglobin levels in pregnant women, but even an active antenatal program has a limited effect when anemia is highly prevalent and booking is late. PMID:10422902

  12. Gender-based Violence Among Pregnant Women of Syangja District, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Samjhana; Acharya, Jeevan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to determine prevalence of gender-based violence among pregnant women attending an antenatal care (ANC) clinic. Methods Between September 2014 and December 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 pregnant women attending the antenatal ward of the Primary Healthcare Centre (PHC) of Syangja district, Nepal. The data were collected using semistructure questionnaires with face-to-face interviews. SPSS software (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA) was used for analysis the data. Results The prevalence rate of gender-based violence was found to be 91.1% (184). Most of the respondents (87%) faced economic violence followed by psychological (53.8%), sexual (41.8%), and physical (4.3%) violence. Women experienced: (1) psychological violence with most complaining of angry looks followed by jealousy or anger while talking with other men, insults using abusive language and neglect; (2) economic violence with most complaining of financial hardship, denial of basic needs and an insistence on knowing where respondents were and restricting them to parents' home or friends/relatives' houses (jealousy); (3) physical violence by slapping, pushing, shaking, or throwing something at her, twisting arm or pulling hair, and punching and kicking; and (4) sexual violence by physically forcing her to have sexual intercourse without consent, and hurting or causing injury to private parts. Most (100%) of the perpetrators were found to be husbands and mothers-in-law (10.7%) who violated them rarely. Conclusion The prevalence of gender-based violence (GBV) among pregnant women attending the ANC clinic was greater in the Syangja district of Nepal. Women's empowerment, economic autonomy, sensitization, informal or formal training regarding GBV for men and women, and the need for large-scale population-based surveys are the major recommendations of this study. PMID:27169008

  13. Impact on Infants’ Cognitive Development of Antenatal Exposure to Iron Deficiency Disorder and Common Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and common mental disorders (CMD) on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. Methods A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12–20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb <11 g/dL and serum ferritin <15 ng/mL. CMD symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam validation. Infant cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Ed. Path analyses were performed to determine the direct and indirect, partly or fully mediated, causal effects of the antenatal exposures. Results A total of 497 pregnant women were recruited, of those 378 women provided complete data which were included in the analyses. Statistically significant direct adverse effects of persistent antenatal IDA (estimated difference of −11.62 points; 95% CI −23.01 to −0.22) and antenatal CMD (−4.80 points; 95% CI: −9.40 to −0.20) on infant Bayley cognitive scores at six months were found. Higher birthweight, household wealth, and self-rated sufficient supply of breastmilk were associated with higher cognitive scores. Maternal age >30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants’ Bayley cognitive scores. Conclusions These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries. PMID:24086390

  14. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depression and Anxiety on Children’s Early Cognitive Development: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ibanez, Gladys; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Rondet, Claire; Peyre, Hugo; Forhan, Anne; Kaminski, Monique; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown that depression or anxiety occur in 10–20% of pregnant women. These disorders are often undertreated and may affect mothers and children’s health. This study investigates the relation between antenatal maternal depression, anxiety and children’s early cognitive development among 1380 two-year-old children and 1227 three-year-old children. Methods In the French EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study, language ability was assessed with the Communicative Development Inventory at 2 years of age and overall development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at 3 years of age. Multiple regressions and structural equation modeling were used to examine links between depression, anxiety during pregnancy and child cognitive development. Results We found strong significant associations between maternal antenatal anxiety and poorer children’s cognitive development at 2 and 3 years. Antenatal maternal depression was not associated with child development, except when antenatal maternal anxiety was also present. Both postnatal maternal depression and parental stimulation appeared to play mediating roles in the relation between antenatal maternal anxiety and children’s cognitive development. At 3 years, parental stimulation mediated 13.2% of the effect of antenatal maternal anxiety while postnatal maternal depression mediated 26.5%. Discussion The partial nature of these effects suggests that other mediators may play a role. Implications for theory and research on child development are discussed. PMID:26317609

  15. The effect of a behaviour change intervention on the diets and physical activity levels of women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres: results from a complex public health intervention

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Janis; Jarman, Megan; Lawrence, Wendy; Black, Christina; Davies, Jenny; Tinati, Tannaze; Begum, Rufia; Mortimore, Andrew; Robinson, Sian; Margetts, Barrie; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary; Inskip, Hazel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The UK government's response to the obesity epidemic calls for action in communities to improve people's health behaviour. This study evaluated the effects of a community intervention on dietary quality and levels of physical activity of women from disadvantaged backgrounds. Design Non-randomised controlled evaluation of a complex public health intervention. Participants 527 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres (SSCC) in Southampton (intervention) and 495 women attending SSCCs in Gosport and Havant (control). Intervention Training SSCC staff in behaviour change skills that would empower women to change their health behaviours. Outcomes Main outcomes dietary quality and physical activity. Intermediate outcomes self-efficacy and sense of control. Results 1-year post-training, intervention staff used skills to support behaviour change significantly more than control staff. There were statistically significant reductions of 0.1 SD in the dietary quality of all women between baseline and follow-up and reductions in self-efficacy and sense of control. The decline in self-efficacy and control was significantly smaller in women in the intervention group than in women in the control group (adjusted differences in self-efficacy and control, respectively, 0.26 (95% CI 0.001 to 0.50) and 0.35 (0.05 to 0.65)). A lower decline in control was associated with higher levels of exposure in women in the intervention group. There was a statistically significant improvement in physical activity in the intervention group, with 22.9% of women reporting the highest level of physical activity compared with 12.4% at baseline, and a smaller improvement in the control group. The difference in change in physical activity level between the groups was not statistically significant (adjusted difference 1.02 (0.74 to 1.41)). Conclusions While the intervention did not improve women's diets and physical activity levels, it had a protective effect on intermediate factors—control and self-efficacy—suggesting that a more prolonged exposure to the intervention might improve health behaviour. Further evaluation in a more controlled setting is justified. PMID:25031194

  16. Who attends family planning clinics?

    PubMed

    Chick, P; Nixon, J

    1984-08-01

    Data were obtained from 1,810 consecutive women who attended a central metropolitan (Brisbane) Family Planning Clinic during a 5 week period in 1982. Young women in particular formed the major client group with 32% being under 20 years of age. The client population was skewed towards women of upper socioeconomic status (SES). There was no SES disproportion in the use of oral contraceptives or IUD's. However, diaphragm use occurred disproportionately in women of upper SES groups; postcoital contraception was sought by and limited to, women of SES classes A and B only. The clinic satisfied a need for women with a history of failed or absent contraception and 15% had already had a termination of pregnancy by the time they first presented at the clinic. PMID:6596088

  17. Antenatal corticosteroids trial in preterm births to increase neonatal survival in developing countries: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality, responsible for 28% of neonatal deaths overall. The administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk of preterm birth is a powerful perinatal intervention to reduce neonatal mortality in resource rich environments. The effect of antenatal steroids to reduce mortality and morbidity among preterm infants in hospital settings in developed countries with high utilization is well established, yet they are not routinely used in developing countries. The impact of increasing antenatal steroid use in hospital or community settings with low utilization rates and high infant mortality among premature infants due to lack of specialized services has not been well researched. There is currently no clear evidence about the safety of antenatal corticosteroid use for community-level births. Methods We hypothesize that a multi country, two-arm, parallel cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a multifaceted intervention to increase the use of antenatal corticosteroids, including components to improve the identification of pregnancies at high risk of preterm birth and providing and facilitating the appropriate use of steroids, will reduce neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm newborns, compared with the standard delivery of care in selected populations of six countries. 102 clusters in Argentina, Guatemala, Kenya, India, Pakistan, and Zambia will be randomized, and around 60,000 women and newborns will be enrolled. Kits containing vials of dexamethasone, syringes, gloves, and instructions for administration will be distributed. Improving the identification of women at high risk of preterm birth will be done by (1) diffusing recommendations for antenatal corticosteroids use to health providers, (2) training health providers on identification of women at high risk of preterm birth, (3) providing reminders to health providers on the use of the kits, and (4) using a color-coded tape to measure uterine height to estimate gestational age in women with unknown gestational age. In both intervention and control clusters, health providers will be trained in essential newborn care for low birth weight babies. The primary outcome is neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm infants. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01084096 PMID:22992312

  18. Antenatal haemoglobinopathy screening in Australia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi Ling; Kidson-Gerber, Giselle

    2016-04-01

    Haemoglobinopathy screening should be performed in women with microcytic indices, women from high risk ethnic populations and those with unexplained anaemia. Early testing of women and their partners expedites appropriate management prior to and during pregnancy. Haemoglobinopathy screening is a multistep process beginning with a full blood count, ferritin assay, screening tests for haemoglobinopathies (ie, haemoglobin electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis) and assessment of clinical risk. Iron deficiency may obscure the diagnosis of β-thalassaemia trait. If possible, haemoglobinopathy testing should be performed when the woman is iron-replete. Genetic testing can be offered on the basis of the combined risk of the couple; but turnaround times are lengthy at present, hence the emphasis on early pregnancy or pre-conception screening. Screening processes vary between states and local health districts; a uniform approach to screening and genetic testing with a national registry to record results would improve management of this growing problem. PMID:27031395

  19. Profiles and experiences of women undergoing genital fistula repair: Findings from five countries

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Evelyn; Vera, Frajzyngier; Ruminjo, Joseph; Asiimwe, Frank; Barry, Thierno Hamidou; Bello, Abubakar; Danladi, Dantani; Ganda, Sanda Oumarou; Idris, Sa'ad; Inoussa, Maman; Kanoma, Bashir; Lynch, Maura; Mussell, Felicity; Podder, Dulal Chandra; Wali, Abba; Mielke, Erin; Barone, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents data from 1354 women from five countries who participated in a prospective cohort study conducted between 2007 and 2010. Women undergoing surgery for fistula repair were interviewed at the time of admission, discharge, and at a 3-month follow-up visit. While women's experiences differed across countries, a similar picture emerges across countries: women married young, most were married at the time of admission, had little education, and for many, the fistula occurred after the first pregnancy. Median age at the time of fistula occurrence was 20.0 years (interquartile range 17.3–26.8). Half of the women attended some antenatal care (ANC); among those who attended ANC, less than 50% recalled being told about signs of pregnancy complications. At follow-up, most women (even those who were not dry) reported improvements in many aspects of social life, however, reported improvements varied by repair outcome. Prevention and treatment programmes need to recognise the supportive role that husbands, partners, and families play as women prepare for safe delivery. Effective treatment and support programmes are needed for women who remain incontinent after surgery. PMID:23947903

  20. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Ntaganira, Joseph; Muula, Adamson S; Masaisa, Florence; Dusabeyezu, Fidens; Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%), slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%), kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%), throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%), and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%). HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]). Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29]), having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers), and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be made available. PMID:18847476

  1. Effectiveness of Antenatal Clinics to Deliver Intermittent Preventive Treatment and Insecticide Treated Nets for the Control of Malaria in Pregnancy in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jenny; Dellicour, Stephanie; Bruce, Jane; Ouma, Peter; Smedley, James; Otieno, Peter; Ombock, Maurice; Kariuki, Simon; Desai, Meghna; Hamel, Mary J.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria in pregnancy can have devastating consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the WHO prevention strategy for sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent-preventive-treatment (IPTp) with two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and insecticide-treated-nets (ITNs) in pregnancy is low. We analysed household survey data to evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal clinics (ANC) to deliver IPTp and ITNs to pregnant women in Nyando district, Kenya. Methods We assessed the systems effectiveness of ANC to deliver IPTp and ITNs to pregnant women and the impact on low birthweight (LBW). Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of receipt of IPTp and ITN use during pregnancy. Results Among 89% of recently pregnant women who attended ANC at least once between 4–9 months gestation, 59% reported receiving one dose of SP and 90% attended ANC again, of whom 57% received a second dose, resulting in a cumulative effectiveness for IPTp of 27%, most of whom used an ITN (96%). Overall ITN use was 89%, and ANC the main source (76%). Women were less likely to receive IPTp if they had low malaria knowledge (0.26, 95% CI 0.08–0.83), had a child who had died (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14–0.95), or if they first attended ANC late (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.06–0.67). Women who experienced side effects to SP (OR 0.18, CI 0.03–0.90) or had low malaria knowledge (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.11–5.43) were less likely to receive IPTp by directly observed therapy. Ineffective delivery of IPTp reduced its potential impact by 231 LBW cases averted (95% CI 64–359) per 10,000 pregnant women. Conclusion IPTp presents greater challenges to deliver through ANC than ITNs in this setting. The reduction in public health impact on LBW resulting from ineffective delivery of IPTp is estimated to be substantial. Urgent efforts are required to improve service delivery of this important intervention. PMID:23798997

  2. Validation of the multi-dimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) and the relationship between social support, intimate partner violence and antenatal depression in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lack of social support is an important risk factor for antenatal depression and anxiety in low- and middle-income countries. We translated, adapted and validated the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) in order to study the relationship between perceived social support, intimate partner violence and antenatal depression in Malawi. Methods The MSPSS was translated and adapted into Chichewa and Chiyao. Five hundred and eighty-three women attending an antenatal clinic were administered the MSPSS, depression screening measures, and a risk factor questionnaire including questions about intimate partner violence. A sub-sample of participants (n = 196) were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to diagnose major depressive episode. Validity of the MSPSS was evaluated by assessment of internal consistency, factor structure, and correlation with Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) score and major depressive episode. We investigated associations between perception of support from different sources (significant other, family, and friends) and major depressive episode, and whether intimate partner violence was a moderator of these associations. Results In both Chichewa and Chiyao, the MSPSS had high internal consistency for the full scale and significant other, family, and friends subscales. MSPSS full scale and subscale scores were inversely associated with SRQ score and major depression diagnosis. Using principal components analysis, the MSPSS had the expected 3-factor structure in analysis of the whole sample. On confirmatory factor analysis, goodness–of-fit indices were better for a 3-factor model than for a 2-factor model, and met standard criteria when correlation between items was allowed. Lack of support from a significant other was the only MSPSS subscale that showed a significant association with depression on multivariate analysis, and this association was moderated by experience of intimate partner violence. Conclusions The MSPSS is a valid measure of perceived social support in Malawi. Lack of support by a significant other is associated with depression in pregnant women who have experienced intimate partner violence in this setting. PMID:24938124

  3. Is routine antenatal venereal disease research laboratory test still justified? Nigerian experience

    PubMed Central

    Nwosu, Betrand O; Eleje, George U; Obi-Nwosu, Amaka L; Ahiarakwem, Ita F; Akujobi, Comfort N; Egwuatu, Chukwudi C; Onyiuke, Chukwudumebi O C

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the seroreactivity of pregnant women to syphilis in order to justify the need for routine antenatal syphilis screening. Methods A multicenter retrospective analysis of routine antenatal venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test results between 1 September 2010 and 31 August 2012 at three specialist care hospitals in south-east Nigeria was done. A reactive VDRL result is subjected for confirmation using Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay test. Analysis was by Epi Info 2008 version 3.5.1 and Stata/IC version 10. Results Adequate records were available regarding 2,156 patients and were thus reviewed. The mean age of the women was 27.4 years (±3.34), and mean gestational age was 26.4 weeks (±6.36). Only 15 cases (0.70%) were seropositive to VDRL. Confirmatory T. pallidum hemagglutination assay was positive in 4 of the 15 cases, giving an overall prevalence of 0.19% and a false-positive rate of 73.3%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of syphilis in relation to maternal age and parity (P>0.05). Conclusion While the prevalence of syphilis is extremely low in the antenatal care population at the three specialist care hospitals in south-east Nigeria, false-positive rate is high and prevalence did not significantly vary with maternal age or parity. Because syphilis is still a serious but preventable and curable disease, screening with VDRL alone, without confirmatory tests may not be justified. Because of the increase in the demand for evidence-based medicine and litigation encountered in medical practice, we may advocate that confirmatory test for syphilis is introduced in routine antenatal testing to reduce the problem of false positives. The government should increase the health budget that will include free routine antenatal testing including the T. pallidum hemagglutination assay. PMID:25610000

  4. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing on self-collected specimens: perceptions among HIV positive women attending rural and urban clinics in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mahomed, Kay; Evans, Denise; Sauls, Celeste; Richter, Karin; Smith, Jennifer; Firnhaber, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cervical cancer is treatable if detected timeously, yet only 20% of South African women have ever been for a Pap smear in their lifetime due to limited access to screening, transport or child care responsibilities. Objective To evaluate the acceptability of self-collection for cervical cancer screening. We aimed to identify which self-collection device women prefer and if they would consider using them for routine cervical cancer screening. Methods HIV-positive women (>18 years) from urban and rural HIV clinics were interviewed following an education session on HIV, human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Participants were shown three self-collection devices; (i) an Evalyn cervical brush, (ii) a Delphilavager and (iii) a tampon-like plastic wand before completing a short questionnaire. Results A total of 106 women from the urban (n = 52) and rural (n = 54) clinic were interviewed. Overall 51% of women preferred the cervical brush, while fewer women preferred the tampon-like plastic wand (31%) or lavage sampler (18%). More than 75% of women from the rural site preferred the cervical brush, compared to 22% from the urban site (p < 0.001). Women from the urban clinic preferred the tampon-like plastic wand (45%) and then the lavage sampler (33%), as compared to women from the rural clinic (19% and 4%, respectively). Conclusion Women from urban or rural settings had different preferences for the various self-collection devices. Patient self-collection with HPV testing may be an acceptable way to improve coverage to cervical cancer screening in high risk HIV-seropositive women. PMID:25396015

  5. Use of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth in Latin America: providers knowledge, attitudes and practices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal corticosteroids administered to women at risk of preterm birth is an intervention which has been proved to reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, and neonatal mortality. There is a significant gap in the literature regarding the prevalence of the use of antenatal corticosteroids in Latin American countries and the attitudes and opinions of providers regarding this practice. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers regarding the use of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk of preterm birth in Latin America. Methods This was a multicenter, prospective, descriptive study conducted in maternity hospitals in Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay. Physicians and midwives who provide prenatal care or intrapartum care for women delivering in the selected hospitals were approached using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used. Results The percentage of use of ACT in threatened preterm labour (TPL) reported by providers varies from 70% in Mexico to 97% in Ecuador. However, 60% to 20% of the providers mentioned that they would not use this medication in women at risk and would limit its use when there was a threatened preterm labour. In only one country recommended regimens of antenatal corticosteroids are followed by around 90% of providers whereas in the other three countries recommended regimens are followed by only 21%, 61%, 69% of providers. Around 40% of providers mentioned that they would administer a new dose of corticosteroids again, regardless the patient already receiving an entire regimen. Between 11% and 35% of providers, according to the countries, mentioned that they do not have adequate information on the correct use of this medication. Conclusions This study shows that the use of this intervention could be improved by increasing the knowledge of Latin American providers on its indications, benefits, and regimens. PMID:23360713

  6. Revalidation of the Malay Version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) Among Malay Postpartum Women Attending the Bakar Bata Health Center in Alor Setar, Kedah, North West Of Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Wan Mohd. Rushidi Wan; Awang, Amir; Mohamed, Mahmood Nazar

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To reevaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale among a sample of postpartum Malay women attending the Bakar Bata Health Center in Alor Setar, Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia. Materials and methods: 64 women between 4 to 12 weeks postpartum were recruited for there validation study. They were given questionnaires on socio-demography, the 21-item Malay version of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the 10-item Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). All the participants were later interviewed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). All diagnoses were made based on the Tenth Edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) Results: 9 women (14.1%) were diagnosed to have significant depression (7 mild depressive episodes and 2 moderate depressive episodes according to ICD-10). EPDS was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha =0.86) and split half reliability (Spearman split half coefficient = 0.83). The instrument also showed satisfactory discriminant and concurrent validity as evidenced by the statistically significant difference in EPDS scores between the depressed group and their non-depressed counterparts (Mann Whitney U test: 2 tailed p value < 0.01) and good correlations between the instrument and both the Malay version of BDI-II and the HRDS-17 (Spearman rank correlation coefficients of 0.78 and 0.88 respectively). At the 11/12 cut-off score the sensitivity of the EPDS is 100%, with a specificity of 98.18%, positive predictive value of 90%, negative predictive value of 100 % and misclassification rate of 1.56%. Conclusion: This study confirmed the reliability and validity of the Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in identifying postpartum depression among recently delivered Malay women attending the Bata Bata Health Center in Alor Setar, Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:23386800

  7. Preconception counselling resource for women with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Aisling; McCance, David; Alderdice, Fiona; Harper, Roy; Holmes, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Women with diabetes need to plan for pregnancy if they are to reduce their risk of poor pregnancy outcome. While care providers have focused on setting up specialist pre-pregnancy planning clinics to help women prepare for pregnancy, the majority of women do not attend, entering pregnancy unprepared. A major barrier to accessing this care, and a consequence of poor preconception counselling, is a lack of knowledge as to the need to plan and the reasons why. This project addressed an urgent need to raise awareness of the importance of planning for pregnancy among women with diabetes and among the healthcare professionals (HCPs) caring for them. Focus groups with the target groups informed the development of a preconception counselling resource for women with diabetes. Originally produced as a DVD (Diabetes UK funding), this resource has been embedded in routine care in Northern Ireland (NI) since 2010. A subsequent service evaluation of pregnancy planning indicators undertaken across all five antenatal-metabolic clinics in NI indicated that women who viewed the resource were better prepared for pregnancy. In order to increase the positive impact of the resource and to ensure longer term sustainability the DVD was converted to a website, http://www.womenwithdiabetes.net (Public Health Agency NI funding). The evaluation also highlighted that women with type 2 diabetes were a hard to reach group. As these women are often cared for outside of specialist clinics, it is pertinent that all HCPs caring for women with diabetes are aware of the importance of preconception counselling. Funding also supported the development of an e-learning continuing professional development (CPD) resource within the website. The e-learning resource has since been embedded into existing CPD programmes and is an important tool to ensure that all HCPs caring for women with diabetes are empowered to provide preconception counselling at every opportunity. PMID:26734381

  8. Quantity, not Frequency, of Alcohol Use Moderates the Association between Multiple Sexual Partners and Trichomonas Vaginalis among Women Attending an Urban STD Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Kate B.; Urban, Marguerite A.; Carey, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate alcohol use, sexual risk behavior, and trichomoniasis in a sample of low-income, largely minority women patients at a publicly-funded STD clinic in the United States. Methods Baseline data, collected as part of a clinical trial, were used. Patients (688 women, 46% of the overall sample) completed an audio-computer assisted self-interview that included questions about their alcohol use and sexual behaviors. Trichomoniasis was determined from vaginal swab specimens obtained during a standard clinical exam. Results Women (n = 580; 18 to 56 years of age; 64% Black) who reported that they had consumed alcohol at least once in the past year were included in the analyses. Of the 580 women, 157 women were diagnosed with a STD and 80 tested positive for trichomoniasis. Trichomoniasis was associated with having multiple sexual partners (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.17) but not with the number or proportion of unprotected sex events (Ps >.05) in the past 3 months. Quantity of alcohol use (drinks per drinking day, drinks per week, and peak consumption) moderated the association between number of sexual partners and trichomoniasis. Conclusions Number of sexual partners predicted the probability of trichomoniasis when women reported drinking larger quantities of alcohol. Because having multiple sexual partners increases the risk for STD transmission, interventions designed for at-risk women should address the quantity of alcohol consumed as well as partner reduction to reduce risk for trichomoniasis. PMID:23580608

  9. “It's better for me to drink, at least the stress is going away”: Perspectives on alcohol use during pregnancy among South African women attending drinking establishments

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Melissa H.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Choi, Karmel W.; Velloza, Jennifer; Kalichman, Seth C.; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    The Western Cape of South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) globally. Reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority for this region, but insight into the experiences of women who drink during pregnancy is lacking. Convenience sampling in alcohol-serving venues was used to identify women who were currently pregnant (n=12) or recently post-partum (n=12) and reported drinking during the pregnancy period. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between April and August 2013. Interviews explored drinking narratives, with textual data analyzed for themes related to factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy. All but one woman reported her pregnancy as unplanned. The majority sustained or increased drinking after pregnancy recognition, with patterns typically including multiple days of binge drinking per week. Analysis of the textual data revealed five primary factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy: 1) women used alcohol as a strategy to cope with stressors and negative emotions, including those associated with pregnancy; 2) women drank as a way to retain social connection, often during a difficult period of life transition; 3) social norms in women's peer groups supported drinking during pregnancy; 4) women lacked attachment to the pregnancy or were resistant to motherhood; and 5) women were driven physiologically by alcohol addiction. Our data suggest that alcohol-serving settings are important sites to identify and target women at risk of drinking during pregnancy. Intervention approaches to reduce alcohol use during pregnancy should include counseling and contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies, mental health and coping interventions targeting pregnant women, peer-based interventions to change norms around perinatal drinking, and treatment for alcohol dependence during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that innovative interventions that go beyond the boundaries of the health care system are urgently needed to address FASD in this region. PMID:24997441

  10. "It's better for me to drink, at least the stress is going away": perspectives on alcohol use during pregnancy among South African women attending drinking establishments.

    PubMed

    Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Choi, Karmel W; Velloza, Jennifer; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2014-09-01

    The Western Cape of South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) globally. Reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority for this region, but insight into the experiences of women who drink during pregnancy is lacking. Convenience sampling in alcohol-serving venues was used to identify women who were currently pregnant (n = 12) or recently post-partum (n = 12) and reported drinking during the pregnancy period. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between April and August 2013. Interviews explored drinking narratives, with textual data analyzed for themes related to factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy. All but one woman reported her pregnancy as unplanned. The majority sustained or increased drinking after pregnancy recognition, with patterns typically including multiple days of binge drinking per week. Analysis of the textual data revealed five primary factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy: 1) women used alcohol as a strategy to cope with stressors and negative emotions, including those associated with pregnancy; 2) women drank as a way to retain social connection, often during a difficult period of life transition; 3) social norms in women's peer groups supported drinking during pregnancy; 4) women lacked attachment to the pregnancy or were resistant to motherhood; and 5) women were driven physiologically by alcohol addiction. Our data suggest that alcohol-serving settings are important sites to identify and target women at risk of drinking during pregnancy. Intervention approaches to reduce alcohol use during pregnancy should include counseling and contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies, mental health and coping interventions targeting pregnant women, peer-based interventions to change norms around perinatal drinking, and treatment for alcohol dependence during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that innovative interventions that go beyond the boundaries of the health care system are urgently needed to address FASD in this region. PMID:24997441

  11. Fetal lead exposure: antenatal factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ernhart, C.B.; Wolf, A.W.; Sokol, R.J.; Brittenham, G.M.; Erhard, P.

    1985-10-01

    It was hypothesized that maternal blood lead level at delivery and cord blood lead level of the neonate would be affected by maternal use of alcohol, history of alcohol abuse, and smoking. The possibility that iron status, as reflected in maternal serum ferritin, would be related to lead level was also explored. The maternal history of alcohol abuse was unrelated to lead level in 208 samples of maternal blood and 178 samples of cord blood. However, alcohol use during pregnancy was related in a dose-response fashion to maternal and to cord blood lead level. This effect was significant with and without control of maternal smoking. The effect of maternal smoking and serum thiocyanate on maternal and cord blood lead level were also highly significant with and without control of the maternal drinking variable. Serum ferritin was marginally related to lead level for white women and for black infants, but tests of the dichotomized maternal ferritin variable did not yield a significant linkage with maternal or cord blood lead level. The results further support recommendations that women abstain from alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in pregnancy.

  12. Antenatal genetic testing and the right to remain in ignorance.

    PubMed

    Bennett, R

    2001-09-01

    As knowledge increases about the human genome, prenatal genetic testing will become cheaper, safer and more comprehensive. It is likely that there will be a great deal of support for making prenatal testing for a wide range of genetic disorders a routine part of antenatal care. Such routine testing is necessarily coercive in nature and does not involve the same standard of consent as is required in other health care settings. This paper asks whether this level of coercion is ethically justifiable in this case, or whether pregnant women have a right to remain in ignorance of the genetic make-up of the fetus they are carrying. While information gained by genetic testing may be useful for pregnant women when making decisions about their pregnancy, it does not prevent harm to future children. It is argued that as this kind of testing provides information in the interests of the pregnant women and not in the interests of any future child, the same standards of consent that are normally required for genetic testing should be required in this instance. PMID:11808680

  13. Antenatal and postnatal depression: A public health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Saurabh R.; Shrivastava, Prateek S.; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Depression is widely prevalent among women in the child-bearing age, especially during the antenatal and postnatal period. Globally, post-partum depression has been reported in almost 10% to 20% of mothers, and it can start from the moment of birth, or may result from depression evolving continuously since pregnancy. The presence of depression among women has gained a lot of attention not only because of the rising incidence or worldwide distribution, but also because of the serious negative impact on personal, family and child developmental outcomes. Realizing the importance of maternal depression on different aspects-personal, child, and familial life, there is a crucial need to design a comprehensive public health policy (including a mental health strategy), to ensure that universal psychosocial assessment in perinatal women is undertaken within the primary health care system. To conclude, depression during pregnancy and in the postnatal period is a serious public health issue, which essentially requires continuous health sector support to eventually benefit not only the woman, but also the family, the community, and health care professionals. PMID:25552868

  14. Antenatal and postnatal depression: A public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Saurabh R; Shrivastava, Prateek S; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Depression is widely prevalent among women in the child-bearing age, especially during the antenatal and postnatal period. Globally, post-partum depression has been reported in almost 10% to 20% of mothers, and it can start from the moment of birth, or may result from depression evolving continuously since pregnancy. The presence of depression among women has gained a lot of attention not only because of the rising incidence or worldwide distribution, but also because of the serious negative impact on personal, family and child developmental outcomes. Realizing the importance of maternal depression on different aspects-personal, child, and familial life, there is a crucial need to design a comprehensive public health policy (including a mental health strategy), to ensure that universal psychosocial assessment in perinatal women is undertaken within the primary health care system. To conclude, depression during pregnancy and in the postnatal period is a serious public health issue, which essentially requires continuous health sector support to eventually benefit not only the woman, but also the family, the community, and health care professionals. PMID:25552868

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Psycho-Education Intervention by Midwives in Reducing Childbirth Fear in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Toohill, Jocelyn; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Buist, Anne; Turkstra, Erika; Ryding, Elsa-Lena

    2014-01-01

    Background Childbirth fear is associated with increased obstetric interventions and poor emotional and psychological health for women. The purpose of this study is to test an antenatal psycho-education intervention by midwives in reducing women's childbirth fear. Methods Women (n = 1,410) attending three hospitals in South East Queensland, Australia, were recruited into the BELIEF trial. Participants reporting high fear were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 170) or control (n = 169) groups. All women received a decision-aid booklet on childbirth choices. The telephone counseling intervention was offered at 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. The control group received usual care offered by public maternity services. Primary outcome was reduction in childbirth fear (WDEQ-A) from second trimester to 36 weeks’ gestation. Secondary outcomes were improved childbirth self-efficacy, and reduced decisional conflict and depressive symptoms. Demographic, obstetric & psychometric measures were administered at recruitment, and 36 weeks of pregnancy. Results There were significant differences between groups on postintervention scores for fear of birth (p < 0.001) and childbirth self-efficacy (p = 0.002). Decisional conflict and depressive symptoms reduced but were not significant. Conclusion Psycho-education by trained midwives was effective in reducing high childbirth fear levels and increasing childbirth confidence in pregnant women. Improving antenatal emotional well-being may have wider positive social and maternity care implications for optimal childbirth experiences. PMID:25303111

  16. Accountability: Attendance Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Roosevelt

    1974-01-01

    Presents statistics on 1,552 students whose absenteeism was considered chronic by attendance teachers and indicates the degree of success achieved by attendance officers through efforts aimed at improving student attendance. Tables indicate percentage of absence before attendance officer contact, percentage of increase after contact, days salvaged…

  17. Prevalence of syphilis among antenatal clinic attendees in Karachi: Imperative to begin universal screening in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shah, SA; Kristensen, S; Memon, MA; Usman, G; Ghazi, A; John, R; Sathiakumar, N; Vermund, SH

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Sexually transmitted infections are thought by some to be rare in socially conservative Muslim countries. Little is known about prevalence of syphilis in Pakistani women from the general population. We determined syphilis prevalence in a multi-center cross-sectional study of low risk pregnant women in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We administered a structured questionnaire and obtained a blood sample for syphilis serology (rapid plasma reagin test with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay confirmation) from all women giving informed consent over six weeks in 2007. Results The prevalence of confirmed syphilis was less than one percent (0.9%; 95%CI: 0.4, 1.8) in a sample size of 800 women recruited from three urban sites (≈1% refusal rate). Women who lived in an area where male drug use is prevalent (Ibrahim Hyderi Hospital) had 1% (1.5%) higher prevalence rates than women from the other two sites 0.5%. Conclusions We documented higher-than-expected syphilis seroprevalence rates in a low risk population of antenatal clinic attendees in Pakistan. Bridge populations for syphilis may include drug users, who are usually married, and Hijras or their clients. Hijras are transgender and/or transvestite men who may provide sex for money to men. In accordance with our results, the national policy for syphilis control in Pakistan should be modified to include universal syphilis screening in antenatal clinics with subsequent partner notification. PMID:22356034

  18. Exploring risk of experiencing intimate partner violence after HIV infection: a qualitative study among women with HIV attending postnatal services in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Mulrenan, Claire; Colombini, Manuela; Kikuvi, Joshua; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore risks of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) after HIV infection among women with HIV in a postnatal care setting in Swaziland. Design A qualitative semistructured in-depth interview study, using thematic analysis with deductive and inductive coding, of IPV experiences after HIV infection extracted from service-integration interview transcripts. Setting Swaziland. Participants 19 women with HIV, aged 18–44, were purposively sampled for an in-depth interview about their experiences of services, HIV and IPV from a quantitative postnatal cohort participating in an evaluation of HIV and reproductive health services integration in Swaziland. Results Results indicated that women were at risk of experiencing IPV after HIV infection, with 9 of 19 disclosing experiences of physical violence and/or coercive control post-HIV. IPV was initiated through two key pathways: (1) acute interpersonal triggers (eg, status disclosure, mother-to-child transmission of HIV) and (2) chronic normative tensions (eg, fertility intentions, initiating contraceptives). Conclusions The results highlight a need to mitigate the risk of IPV for women with HIV in shorter and longer terms in Swaziland. While broader changes are needed to resolve gender disparities, practical steps can be institutionalised within health facilities to reduce, or avoid increasing, IPV pathways for women with HIV. These might include mutual disclosure between partners, greater engagement of Swazi males with HIV services, and promoting positive masculinities that support and protect women. Trial registration number NCT01694862. PMID:25976760

  19. A survey of folic acid use in primigravid women.

    PubMed

    Wilton, Diane C; Foureur, Maralyn J

    2010-06-01

    A convenience sample of 320 consecutive primigravid women attending the antenatal clinic of a large Sydney tertiary referral hospital were invited to take part in a survey of folic acid use in pregnancy. The aim of the survey was to determine the number of primigravid women who commenced taking folic acid supplementation at least 1 month prior to conception. In addition the survey sought information on women's source of knowledge about the need for folic acid in pregnancy and whether their pregnancy was planned or unplanned. 295 women qualified to be included in the survey. While 88.1% of women took folic acid at some time prior to and/or during the first trimester, only 23.4% were found to have taken folic acid at least 1 month prior to conception. Of women with a planned birth only 34.5% commenced folic acid prior to conception. This survey adds further weight to the decision of the Australian Government to mandate for fortification of bread-making flour with folic acid, due to commence in September 2009. However, even with folic acid fortified food, health professionals need to continue to advise women to take supplements prior to conception and for at least 12 weeks into their pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects. PMID:19828392

  20. Health insurance determines antenatal, delivery and postnatal care utilisation: evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Joyce L; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. Design A population-based cross-sectional study. Setting and participants We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana, which included 2987 women who provided information on maternal health insurance status. Primary outcomes Utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. Statistical analyses Multivariable logistic regression was applied to determine the independent association between maternal health insurance and utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. Results After adjusting for socioeconomic, demographic and obstetric factors, we observed that among insured women the likelihood of having antenatal care increased by 96% (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.52 to 2.52; p value<0.001) and of skilled delivery by 129% (OR 2.29; 95% CI 1.92 to 2.74; p value<0.001), while postnatal care among insured women increased by 61% (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.21; p value<0.01). Conclusions This study demonstrated that maternal health insurance status plays a significant role in the uptake of the maternal, neonatal and child health continuum of care service. PMID:26993621

  1. A Cohort Perspective on Gender Gaps in College Attendance and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flashman, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In the last 30 years, women experienced dramatic increases in college attendance and completion. Women now make up the majority of college attenders and completers, and their numbers continue to grow. Recent research shows that these gender differences are driven largely by changes among women in rates of college attendance. What is causing these…

  2. The relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience in antenatal mothers.

    PubMed

    Esa, Rashidah; Savithri, Vengadasalam; Humphris, Gerry; Freeman, Ruth

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience among antenatal mothers attending Maternal and Child Health clinics in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a consecutive sample of 407 antenatal mothers in Seremban, Malaysia. The questionnaire consisted of participants' demographic profile and the Dental Fear Survey. The D(3cv)MFS was employed as the outcome measure and was assessed by a single examiner (intraclass correlation = 0.98). A structural equation model was designed to inspect the relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience. The mean Dental Fear Survey score for all participants was 35.1 [95% confidence interval (34.0, 36.3)]. The mean D(3cv)MFS score was 10.8 [95% confidence interval (9.5, 12.1)]. Participants from low socio-economic status groups had significantly higher D(3cv)MFS counts than those from high socio-economic status groups. The path model with dental anxiety and socio-economic status as predictors of D(3cv)MFS showed satisfactory fit. The correlation between dental anxiety and dental decay experience was 0.30 (standardized estimate), indicating a positive association. Socio-economic status was also statistically significantly associated with the D(3cv)MFS count (beta = 0.19). This study presented robust evidence for the significant relationship between dental anxiety and dental decay experience in antenatal mothers. PMID:20156266

  3. Traumatic stress and the mediating role of alcohol use on HIV-related sexual risk behavior: Results from a longitudinal cohort of South African women who attend alcohol-serving venues

    PubMed Central

    Abler, Laurie; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2014-01-01

    Background In South Africa, alcohol contributes to the HIV epidemic, in part, by influencing sexual behaviors. For some, high levels of alcohol consumption may be driven by previous traumatic experiences that result in traumatic stress. The purpose of this study was to quantify the longitudinal association between traumatic stress and unprotected sex among women who attend drinking venues and to assess whether this association was explained by mediation through alcohol use. Methods Data were collected in four waves over a year from a prospective cohort of 560 women who regularly attended alcohol-serving venues in a Cape Town township. Longitudinal mixed models examined: 1) the relationship between traumatic stress and counts of unprotected sex, and 2) whether alcohol use mediated the association between traumatic stress and unprotected sex. Results Most women reported elevated traumatic stress (80%) and hazardous alcohol use (88%) at least once during the study period. In models adjusted for covariates, traumatic stress was associated with unprotected sex (b=0.28, SE=0.06, t=4.82, p<.001). In addition, traumatic stress was associated with alcohol use (b=0.27, SE=0.02, t=14.25, p<.001), and was also associated with unprotected sex (b=0.20, SE=0.06, t=3.27, p<.01) while controlling for alcohol use (b=0.28, SE=0.07, t=4.25, p<.001). The test for the mediated effect established that alcohol use was a significant mediator, accounting for 27% of the total effect of traumatic stress on unprotected sex. Conclusions These results highlight the need to address traumatic stress among female venue patrons as an important precursor of HIV risk due to alcohol use. PMID:25394191

  4. Antenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis: current postnatal management.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Michael T; Merguerian, Paul A; Koyle, Martin

    2013-03-01

    The issue of antenatal hydronephrosis has become a routine component for the care of a pregnant woman despite limited evidence of a clinical benefit. The genitourinary tract represents the most commonly detected organ system with identified abnormalities, with antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH), being the most notable and common finding. ANH represents a spectrum, with most cases being a trivial and inconsequential finding on maternal fetal ultrasound. However, there is a correlation with increased grades of ANH being associated with increased severity of urinary tract pathology. Most patients can be managed expectantly with appropriate evaluation commenced postnatally based on severity of ANH and proper parental counseling and education. The purpose of this review was to assess current literature and guidelines pertaining to ANH and incorporate our practical interpretations of their significance. PMID:23325322

  5. Antenatal presentation of hereditary lymphedema type I.

    PubMed

    Boudon, E; Levy, Y; Abossolo, T; Cartault, Franois; Brouillard, P; Vikkula, M; Kieffer-Traversier, M; Ramful, D; Alessandri, J L

    2015-01-01

    Fetal edema can present as limited subcutaneous edema, fluid accumulation in body cavities or hydrops fetalis. Hydrops fetalis is the end stage of a variety of fetal/maternal disorders and nonimmune etiology represents more than 3/4 of cases. Lymphatic dysplasia may account for a subset of patients with nonimmune and "idiopathic" hydrops fetalis, fetal chylous ascites or chylothorax. We present two unrelated patients with antenatal features of hereditary lymphedema syndrome, in whom Milroy disease was diagnosed after birth. At least, 20 genes have been identified to cause primary lymphedema, with sometimes antenatal features. Hereditary lymphedema syndrome should be considered in cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis/fetal edema after ruling out the more common etiologies. PMID:25896638

  6. REPEATED COURSES OF ANTENATAL CORTICOSTEROIDS HAVE ADVERSE EFFECTS ON ASPECTS OF BRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN NATURALLY-DELIVERED BABOON INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Amy; Thomson, Merran; Winter, Vicki; Coalson, Jacqueline; Rees, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Repeated courses of antenatal steroids in women threatening preterm delivery have beneficial effects on lung maturation, but concern exists about the effects on the developing brain. We aimed to determine whether repeated courses of antenatal corticosteroids increased the risk of neuropathology compared to single courses or no treatment. Single course animals received antenatal steroids at 123dg (n=6). A second course was administered to the repeated course group at 137dg (n=7). Controls received no antenatal intervention (n=5). Baboons delivered naturally at term, after which necropsy was performed. Brains were assessed histologically for parameters of development and neuropathology. Body weights did not differ between the groups (p>0.05); neither did brain weight in relation to body weight. Density of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive (IR) astrocytes in white matter was increased in the single (p<0.05) and repeated course (p<0.01) groups compared to controls. Density of myelin-basic protein-IR oligodendrocytes was reduced in the repeated course animals compared to both controls and single course groups (p<0.05); olig2-IR, which labels all cells in the oligodendrocyte lineage, showed no difference between groups. Repeated courses of antenatal corticosteroids have effects on myelination in the developing non-human primate brain which should be taken into account when determining a dosing regimen. PMID:22436975

  7. Antenatally detected solid tumour of kidney

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Mandelia, Ankur; Gupta, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Congenital renal tumours are rare and usually benign. Polyhydramnios is the most common mode of presentation. Although most cases have been diagnosed postnatally, with advances in imaging technology, an increasing number of cases are being detected on antenatal scans. We describe a case of solid tumour of kidney detected in the second trimester of pregnancy and managed by surgery in the postnatal period. PMID:24526198

  8. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; Tijsseling, Deodata; Hessel, Ellen V S; de Vries, Willem B; Derks, Jan B; Visser, Gerard H A; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg) was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function. PMID:24465645

  9. Self-defining as sexually abused and adult sexual risk behavior: Results from a cross-sectional survey of women attending an STD clinic

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as having experienced CSA despite meeting objective criteria that CSA occurred. This study sought to determine whether individuals who met research criteria for CSA and who self-defined as sexually abused differed on traumagenic dynamics constructs and current sexual risk behavior from individuals who met research criteria for CSA and who did not self-define as sexually abused. Methods Participants were 481 women recruited from a publicly-funded STD clinic. Participants completed a computerized survey assessing childhood sexual experiences and adult sexual risk behavior. Results Of the total sample, 206 (43%) met research criteria for CSA. Of the women meeting research criteria for CSA, 142 (69%) self-defined as sexually abused. Women who met research criteria for CSA reported more traumatic sexualization, more trust of a partner, more powerlessness, less sexual guilt, more episodes of unprotected sex, more sex partners, and greater likelihood of sex trading, compared to women who did not meet research criteria for CSA. Among women meeting research criteria, those who self-defined as sexually abused did not differ from those who did not self-define on any of the traumagenic dynamics constructs or on current sexual risk behavior, controlling for CSA characteristics. Conclusions Individuals who were sexually abused as children by behavioral research criteria are at risk for engaging in sexual risk behavior as adults, regardless of whether or not they perceive the experience to be CSA. Future research is needed to understand how non-definers perceive these childhood sexual experiences. PMID:21620162

  10. Antenatal screening for Toxoplasma gondii infection at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almogren, Adel

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study investigates the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective study at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh from September 2009 to August 2010. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Laboratory data of 2176 pregnant women screened for Toxoplasma gondii in the antenatal care unit were assessed during the study period. The mean (SD) age of the women and the duration of pregnancy were 25 (7.3) years and 18 (7.7) weeks, respectively. Data were extracted for the presence or absence of anti-T gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies. RESULTS: Of 2176 sera tested, 1351 (62%) did not show any evidence of exposure to T gondii. The remaining 825 (38%) samples tested positive for anti-T gondii IgG antibodies, and none was found to have anti-T gondii IgM antibodies in the serum. These data reveal that a significantly high number of women in the antenatal care unit at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh had been exposed to T gondii. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women warrants multicenter community-based investigations for assessment of T gondii infection and identification of risk factors for transmission of toxoplasmosis in general, and particularly during pregnancy. PMID:22048499

  11. Antenatal Cognitive-behavioral Therapy for Prevention of Postpartum Depression: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jung Hye; Lee, Jeong Jae

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the prevention of postpartum depression (PPD) in "at risk" women. Materials and Methods We recruited 927 pregnant women in 6 obstetric and gynecology clinics and screened them using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Ninety-nine of the screened women who had significantly high scores in BDI (a score above 16) were selected for the study. They were contacted through by telephone, and 27 who had consented to participate in the study were interviewed via SCID-IV-I. Twenty-seven eligible women were randomly assigned to the CBT intervention (n = 15) and control condition (n = 12). All participants were required to complete written questionnaires, assessing demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, negative thoughts, dyadic communication satisfaction, and global marital satisfaction prior to treatment and approximately 1 month postpartum. The 15 women in the CBT condition received 9 bi-weekly 1-hour individual CBT sessions, targeting and modifying negative patterns of thinking and behaviors occurring in the context of the dyadic relationship. Results The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that there were significant differences in all postpartum measures between the 2 groups, indicating that our antenatal intervention with CBT was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and improving marital satisfaction, which lasted until the postpartum period. Conclusion Our pilot study has provided preliminary empirical evidence that antenatal CBT intervention can be an effective preventive treatment for PPD. Further study in this direction was suggested. PMID:18729297

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in pregnant women attending public sector tertiary care hospital in Hyderabad Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Seema; Dars, Saira; Ashfaq, Sanober; Ara Qazi, Roshan; Akhund, Sadaf

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Pakistan is among the countries having high prevalence of HCV infection in the population but there is dearth of proper epidemiological data regarding acquisition of HCV infection in the pregnant population. Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence of HCV antibodies in healthy pregnant women and to assess the potential risk factors for HCV infection in HCV positive subjects and in the control group. Methodology: This cross sectional and comparative study was conducted from 1st January to 31st December 2010 in the Department of Obstetrics/Gynaecology Unit–I, Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad. Sera were collected from all admitted pregnant women and tested for HCV anti bodies using Elisa kits (Abbott, USA). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical package. Results: The seroprevalence of HCV among pregnant population was found to be 4.7%. HCV positive women were more likely to have a history of blood transfusion (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.26- 3.12), History of therapeutic injection use (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.43-4.26), history of surgery (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.12-2.66) and history of sharing household products (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.14-2.87). Conclusion: HCV seropositive pregnant women were more likely to have a history of blood transfusion, therapeutic injection use, surgery and sharing household items. PMID:24353565

  13. Self-Defining as Sexually Abused and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Women Attending an STD Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as…

  14. Factor structure of the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) from infertile women attending the Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Shayan, Zahra; Pourmovahed, Zahra; Najafipour, Fatemeh; Abdoli, Ali Mohammad; Mohebpour, Fatemeh; Najafipour, Sedighe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, infertility problems have become a social concern, and are associated with multiple psychological and social problems. Also, it affects the interpersonal communication between the individual, familial, and social characteristics. Since women are exposed to stressors of physical, mental, social factors, and treatment of infertility, providing a psychometric screening tool is necessary for disorders of this group. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the factor structure of the general health questionnaire-28 to discover mental disorders in infertile women. Materials and Methods: In this study, 220 infertile women undergoing treatment of infertility were selected from the Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility with convenience sampling in 2011. After completing the general health questionnaire by the project manager, validity and, reliability of the questionnaire were calculated by confirmatory factor structure and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. Results: Four factors, including anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, depression, and physical symptoms were extracted from the factor structure. 50.12% of the total variance was explained by four factors. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was obtained 0.90. Conclusion: Analysis of the factor structure and reliability of General Health Questionnaire-28 showed that it is suitable as a screening instrument for assessing general health of infertile women.

  15. Attitude of pregnant women towards HIV testing in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. DITRAME Study Group (ANRS 049 Clinical Trial). Diminution de la Transmission Mère Enfant du VIH. Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cartoux, Michel; Msellati, Philippe; Meda, Nicolas; Welffens-Ekra, Christiane; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Leroy, Valériane; Van De Perre, Philippe; Dabis, François

    1998-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the attitude of pregnant women towards HIV testing in two cities of West Africa: Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods In the context of a clinical trial to prevent HIV vertical transmission, HIV counselling and testing was offered systematically to women attending antenatal clinics. Informed consent was obtained and test results were given anonymously. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with refusal for testing and failure to return for test results. Results A total of 9724 pregnant women were interviewed from January 1995 to September 1996. In Abidjan (n = 5766) and Bobo-Dioulasso (n = 3958), 78 and 92.4% of the women consented to HIV testing, respectively, and 58.4 and 81.8% of them returned for the test results disclosure, respectively. In the two sites, the counsellors themselves and high educational level of the women appeared to be related to refusal of the test, whereas last trimester gestation was associated with failure to return for test results. In Abidjan, foreigners and employees were more likely to refuse testing, and HIV-infected women were three times less likely to return for results than uninfected women. Conclusion Future implementation of interventions to reduce vertical transmission of HIV that require antenatal HIV testing and counselling will have to solve issue of acceptability of HIV testing by pregnant women. PMID:9863877

  16. Race/Ethnic Differences in Desired Body Mass Index and Dieting Practices Among Young Women Attending College in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Claudio R; Albright, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the sociocultural model, race/ethnicity is considered a major influence on factors associated with body image and body dissatisfaction, and eating disorders are often characterized as problems that are primarily limited to young White women from Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences that exist by race in desired body weight; the importance placed on those ideals; and dieting strategies among White, Asian American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, and other mixed-race young women in Hawai‘i. A total of 144 female college students 18–20 years of age were surveyed about body weight as well as eating and exercise habits. Results demonstrated that all the young women wanted to lose weight. However, there were no differences in desired body weight or desired weight change by race after controlling for body mass index suggesting that current weight rather than race/ethnicity is the predominant influence on weight-related concerns. Young White women placed the greatest level of importance on achieving a lower body weight, which corresponded with a greater likelihood to be attempting weight loss (dieting) and greater endorsement of behaviors consistent with weight loss compared to their counterparts. Findings imply that, for young women, race/ethnicity may not have as significant an impact on factors associated with body weight ideals as previously believed. Rather, differences in the value placed on achieving a desired body weight, as it relates to disordered eating, should be further explored among race/ethnic groups. PMID:21886291

  17. Race/ethnic differences in desired body mass index and dieting practices among young women attending college in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Schembre, Susan M; Nigg, Claudio R; Albright, Cheryl L

    2011-07-01

    In accordance with the sociocultural model, race/ethnicity is considered a major influence on factors associated with body image and body dissatisfaction, and eating disorders are often characterized as problems that are primarily limited to young White women from Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences that exist by race in desired body weight; the importance placed on those ideals; and dieting strategies among White, Asian American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, and other mixed-race young women in Hawai'i. A total of 144 female college students 18-20 years of age were surveyed about body weight as well as eating and exercise habits. Results demonstrated that all the young women wanted to lose weight. However, there were no differences in desired body weight or desired weight change by race after controlling for body mass index suggesting that current weight rather than race/ethnicity is the predominant influence on weight-related concerns. Young White women placed the greatest level of importance on achieving a lower body weight, which corresponded with a greater likelihood to be attempting weight loss (dieting) and greater endorsement of behaviors consistent with weight loss compared to their counterparts. Findings imply that, for young women, race/ethnicity may not have as significant an impact on factors associated with body weight ideals as previously believed. Rather, differences in the value placed on achieving a desired body weight, as it relates to disordered eating, should be further explored among race/ethnic groups. PMID:21886291

  18. Seizure occurrence, pregnancy outcome among women with active convulsive epilepsy: One year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Watila, Musa Mamman; Beida, Omeiza; Kwari, Shiktra; Nyandaiti, Na’awurti Williams; Nyandaiti, Yakub Wilberforce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy, seizure frequency and the outcome of pregnancy amongst a cohort of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) at two tertiary hospitals. Methods An observational cohort study conducted at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and State Specialist Hospital, Northeast Nigeria. Pregnant women attending antenatal care were screened for previous history of active convulsive epilepsy, and recruited consecutively according to a specified protocol. A standardized questionnaire was administered to record pregnancy history, nature of epilepsy and treatments received. They were followed-up during the course of the pregnancy based on the ANC schedule up to delivery. The outcome of pregnancies was recorded. Results A total of 7063 pregnant women were screened, of whom 103 (1.46%) subjects had at least a past history of seizure. Seventy-eight (1.10%) had a past history of seizure(s) from eclampsia and 23 (0.33%) pregnant subjects recruited were identified to have active convulsive epilepsy. The unadjusted prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy in pregnant women was found to be 3.33 per 1000 (95% CI: 2.1–4.8). Subjects who had a history of head injury and encephalitis were more likely to have seizures during pregnancy. (P = 0.013 and P = 0.041). Those who had recurrent seizures within the last six months before recruitment were more likely to have a negative pregnancy outcome (P = 0.043). Conclusion Our study found a prevalence of active epilepsy of 3.33 per 1000 among pregnant women, with about one percent having a past history of seizure from eclampsia. PMID:25799895

  19. Clinical and psychosocial correlates of antenatal depression: a review.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Shima, S; Sugawara, M; Toda, M A

    1996-01-01

    In contrast to the considerable research on postnatal depression, less attention has been paid to that occurring during pregnancy-antenatal depression (AD). However, recent investigations have studied depression among pregnant women not necessarily requiring psychiatric hospitalization but needing psychological support and help. A controlled study showed that the rate of AD was significantly higher than that of depression among non-pregnant women: the reported incidence varies between 4 and 29%. AD was found to be associated with: (1) obstetric factors (first pregnancy, first delivery, and past history of abortion); (2) early experience (loss of father); (3) personality (high neuroticism score); (4) attitudes towards the present pregnancy (perplexity of the husband); (5) accomodation factors (non-detached housing, and expected crowdedness after birth of the child, and (6) social support (low level of intimacy with the husband). Differential effects of these factors in the development of AD are to be studied in future research, particularly in conjunction with investigation of hormonal variables. PMID:8784941

  20. The Impact of Antenatal Testing for Advanced Maternal Age on Cesarean Delivery Rate at an Urban Institution

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Lisa D.; Srinivas, Sindhu K.; Paré, Emmanuel; Mehta-Lee, Shilpi S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Antenatal testing has been implemented for advanced maternal age (AMA) women given their increased stillbirth risk. Our objective was to evaluate cesarean delivery and induction rates after the start of antenatal testing at our institution. Study Design A retrospective cohort study of AMA women (≥ 40 years) who delivered at our institution was performed. Testing for AMA began in 2005. AMA women who delivered before (unexposed) and after (exposed) the implementation were compared. Our primary outcome was cesarean delivery and secondary outcome was induction. Chi-square compared categorical variables and multivariable logistic regression calculated odds ratio (OR) and controlled for confounders. Results A total of 276 women were included (147 unexposed and 129 exposed). The cesarean rate was higher in the exposed group (53 vs. 39%, OR 1.76 [1.09–2.84]). The increased risk of cesarean remained after adjusting for race, previous cesarean, multiple gestations, and parity (adjusted OR 1.85 [1.05–3.28]). When excluding those with previous cesareans, the risk of primary cesarean was not significant (OR 1.57 [0.89–2.76]). The induction rate was not different (38 vs. 33%, p = 0.4). Conclusions While overall cesareans increased, there was no difference in primary cesarean and induction rates for AMA women after implementation of antenatal testing for AMA. PMID:24858316

  1. Protein supplementation and dietary behaviours of resistance trained men and women attending commercial gyms: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is anecdotally recognized that commercial gym users assume supplements in order to improve performance or health. However, dietary behaviours of people and athletes attending commercial gyms have been poorly studied. The exact amount and frequency of dietary supplements consumption are still needed to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to understand the quantity and quality of food intake, as well as dietary supplementation in people attending commercial gyms. Secondly to compare the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire was administered to 561 subjects, 207 from the city centre (CC) and 354 from the suburbs (SB) of Palermo, Italy. Frequency of protein supplements use and association with dietary behaviours were investigated. Subsequently, the frequency distribution was used for demographic assessment. Results Frequency of protein consumption was similar in both groups (30% for CC and 28.8% for SB). Males show greater consumption percentages than females (30.5% in males and 6.9% in females). Milk and chicken are the most frequently consumed foods. Data show that non-supplement users (NSU) consume significantly more snacks and bakery products than supplement users (SU) (P < 0.001). While, SU consume significantly higher quantities of vegetables, nuts, fresh fish, eggs and canned tuna (P < 0.001). SU consume less low protein food and higher protein foods than NSU. No differences were found between CC and SB. Conclusions Protein consumption among commercial gym users is 30% for the CC and 28.8% for the SB. Significant differences were found between CC and SB females, underlining an interesting discrepancy, indicating to dietary supplement industries regarding regional implications. Subjects that use protein supplements also consume larger quantities of high protein food compared to NSU. NSU also eat higher proportions of unhealthy food compared to SU. PMID:24976800

  2. The risk of prematurity and small-for-gestational-age birth in Mexico City: the effects of working conditions and antenatal leave.

    PubMed Central

    Cerón-Mireles, P; Harlow, S D; Sánchez-Carrillo, C I

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of working conditions, occupational stress, and antenatal leave on risk of small-for-gestational age and premature births in Mexico City. METHODS: Over a 3-month period, 2663 (96.2%) of 2767 women who gave birth at three major hospitals and worked at least 3 months during pregnancy were interviewed shortly after delivery. After the exclusion of multiple gestations and birth defects, 261 (10.0%) small-for-gestational-age and 288 (11.0%) preterm births were identified. RESULTS: For small-for-gestational-age births, working more than 50 hours a week (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59), standing more than 7 hours a day (OR = 1.40), and no antenatal leave (OR = 1.55) were associated with an increased risk. Women with no antenatal leave were also much more likely to give birth prematurely (OR = 3.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, arduous working conditions and lack of antenatal leave benefits were found to increase the risk of poor birth outcome in Mexican women. Enforcement of existing antenatal leave laws and provision of comparable benefits for the uninsured may reduce the incidence of small-for-gestational-age births and prematurity. PMID:8659657

  3. Antenatal Syphilis Screening Using Point-of-Care Testing in Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuznik, Andreas; Lamorde, Mohammed; Nyabigambo, Agnes; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes for the infant. Most syphilis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where coverage of antenatal screening for syphilis is inadequate. Recently introduced point-of-care syphilis tests have high accuracy and demonstrate potential to increase coverage of antenatal screening. However, country-specific cost-effectiveness data for these tests are limited. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of antenatal syphilis screening for 43 countries in SSA and estimate the impact of universal screening on stillbirths, neonatal deaths, congenital syphilis, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Methods and Findings The decision analytic model reflected the perspective of the national health care system and was based on the sensitivity (86%) and specificity (99%) reported for the immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test. Clinical outcomes of infants born to syphilis-infected mothers on the end points of stillbirth, neonatal death, and congenital syphilis were obtained from published sources. Treatment was assumed to consist of three injections of benzathine penicillin. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis, annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, per capita gross national income, and estimated hourly nurse wages. In all 43 sub-Saharan African countries analyzed, syphilis screening is highly cost-effective, with an average cost/DALY averted of US$11 (range: US$2–US$48). Screening remains highly cost-effective even if the average prevalence falls from the current rate of 3.1% (range: 0.6%–14.0%) to 0.038% (range: 0.002%–0.113%). Universal antenatal screening of pregnant women in clinics may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by up to 64,000, neonatal deaths by up to 25,000, and annual incidence of congenital syphilis by up to 32,000, and avert up to 2.6 million DALYs at an estimated annual direct medical cost of US$20.8 million. Conclusions Use of ICS tests for antenatal syphilis screening is highly cost-effective in SSA. Substantial reduction in DALYs can be achieved at a relatively modest budget impact. In SSA, antenatal programs should expand access to syphilis screening using the ICS test. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24223524

  4. Impact of Introducing Routine Antenatal Ultrasound Services on Reproductive Health Indicators in Mpigi District, Central Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kawooya, Michael G; Nathan, Robert O; Swanson, Jonathan; Swanson, David L; Namulema, Edith; Ankunda, Racheal; Kirumira, Fred; Ddungu-Matovu, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The preponderance of global maternal and neonatal deaths occurs in low-resource countries. The risk factors that lead to these deaths are often detectable with ultrasound (US) and potentially preventable. We assessed the impact of performing US scanning during antenatal care (ANC) on reproductive health service utilization in a rural Ugandan district. This pragmatic comparative study was conducted in 2 constituencies of Mpigi district in Uganda. In the 5 intervention sites located in the Mawokota North constituency, facility midwives were trained in limited obstetric US scanning. They were equipped with solar-powered portable US machines and redeployed to offer US scanning as an integral component of ANC. The 5 control sites in the Mawokota South constituency offered the same ANC services without US scanning. We compared the difference in the first and fourth ANC attendance, facility deliveries, and referral of obstetric complications in the intervention and the control sites before and after the introduction of US. There was a 32% increase in the first ANC attendance at the intervention sites compared with 7.4% in the controls sites (P < 0.001). In the intervention sites, the fourth antenatal attendance increased by 147% compared with 0.6% decline in the control sites (P < 0.001). Referrals of high-risk pregnancies increased by 40.7% in the intervention sites compared with 25% in the control site. The number of births at the interventional sites increased by 34.1% compared with 29.5% in the control sites. Integration of limited obstetric US into routine ANC visits is associated with an increase in ANC attendance. PMID:26656991

  5. The incidence of PALB2 c.3113G>A in women with a strong family history of breast and ovarian cancer attending familial cancer centres in Australia.

    PubMed

    Teo, Zhi L; Sawyer, Sarah D; James, Paul A; Mitchell, Gillian; Trainer, Alison H; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Shackleton, Kylie; Cicciarelli, Linda; Southey, Melissa C

    2013-12-01

    The familial aggregation of breast cancer has been well-described with approximately 25% of breast cancers attributable to inherited mutations in currently known breast cancer susceptibility genes. PALB2 c.3113G>A (p.Trp1038*) is a protein-truncating mutation which has been associated with high estimated risk of breast cancer in Australian women (91%; 95% CI = 44-100) to age 70 years. This study screened for PALB2 c.3113G>A in germline DNA representing 871 unrelated individuals from "high-risk" breast and/or ovarian cancer families evaluated in the setting of a Familial Cancer Centre in Australia. The PALB2 c.3113G>A mutation was identified in eight of 871 probands (0.92%) from these families. Median age of diagnosis was 42 years. Five of these eight women had contra-lateral breast cancers. Available data suggests that PALB2 c.3113G>A is a rare mutation with estimated breast cancer risks similar in magnitude to that associated with BRCA2 mutations. Although the proportion of high-risk women carrying this PALB2 mutation is low, research efforts should continue in order to effect its translation into clinical genetic testing practice. PMID:23471749

  6. Motivations for Movie Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bruce A.

    A study investigated audience motives for movie attendance. Subjects were 493 college students, who indicated on an eight-point scale the extent to which a series of 70 reasons for movie going matched their own reasons for movie attendance. Three frequency of attendance groups were identified: infrequent--once in two to six months;…

  7. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of a rapid immunochromatographic test and the rapid plasma reagin test for antenatal syphilis screening in Mozambique.

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Pablo J.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Brentlinger, Paula E.; Blanco, Ana J.; Floriano, Florencia; Sairosse, Josefa; Gloyd, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Programmes to control syphilis in developing countries are hampered by a lack of laboratory services, delayed diagnosis, and doubts about current screening methods. We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of an immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test and the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test with the combined gold standard (RPR, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay and direct immunofluorescence stain done at a reference laboratory) for the detection of syphilis in pregnancy. METHODS: We included test results from 4789 women attending their first antenatal visit at one of six health facilities in Sofala Province, central Mozambique. We compared diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) of ICS and RPR done at the health facilities and ICS performed at the reference laboratory. We also made subgroup comparisons by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria status. FINDINGS: For active syphilis, the sensitivity of the ICS was 95.3% at the reference laboratory, and 84.1% at the health facility. The sensitivity of the RPR at the health facility was 70.7%. Specificity and positive and negative predictive values showed a similar pattern. The ICS outperformed RPR in all comparisons (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic accuracy of the ICS compared favourably with that of the gold standard. The use of the ICS in Mozambique and similar settings may improve the diagnosis of syphilis in health facilities, both with and without laboratories. PMID:16501726

  8. Nutrition, mental health and violence: from pregnancy to postpartum Cohort of women attending primary care units in Southern Brazil - ECCAGE study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Woman's nutritional status, before and during pregnancy, is a strong determinant of health outcomes in the mother and newborn. Gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention increases risk of overweight or obesity in the future and they depend on the pregestational nutritional status and on food consumption and eating behavior during pregnancy. Eating behavior during pregnancy may be the cause or consequence of mood changes during pregnancy, especially depression, which increases likelihood of postpartum depression. In Brazil, a study carried out in the immediate postpartum period found that one in three women experienced some type of violence during pregnancy. Violence and depression are strongly associated and both exposures during pregnancy are associated with increased maternal stress and subsequent harm to the infant. The main objectives of this study are: to identify food intake and eating behaviors patterns; to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders and the experience of violence during and after pregnancy; and to estimate the association between these exposures and infant's health and development. Methods/Design This is a cohort study of 780 pregnant women receiving care in 18 primary care units in two cities in Southern Brazil. Pregnant women were first evaluated between the 16th and 36th week of pregnancy at a prenatal visit. Follow-up included immediate postpartum assessment and around the fifth month postpartum. Information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, living circumstances, food intake, eating behaviors, mental health and exposure to violence, and on infant's development and anthropometrics measurements. Discussion This project will bring relevant information for a better understanding of the relationship between exposures during pregnancy and how they might affect child development, which can be useful for a better planning of health actions aiming to enhance available resources in primary health care. PMID:20807429

  9. Antenatal Ultrasound and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grether, Judith K.; Li, Sherian Xu; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Croen, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated antenatal ultrasound (U/S) exposure as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), comparing affected singleton children and control children born 1995-1999 and enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente health care system. Among children with ASD (n = 362) and controls (n = 393), 13% had no antenatal exposure to U/S examinations;…

  10. [Effect of ladasten on antenatal and postnatal development].

    PubMed

    Bugaeva, L I; Denisova, T D; Spasov, A A

    2012-01-01

    Positive effects of ladasten on both antenatal and postnatal development have been established in experiments on pregnant female rats. Under the action of this drug, the number of resorption events decreases and process of antenatal development of fetuses is activated. In the postnatal period, increased weight gain and accelerated physical development has been observed in the progeny of rats treated with ladasten. PMID:22702107

  11. Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site, Nepal: 2012 follow-up survey and use of skilled birth attendants

    PubMed Central

    Choulagai, Bishnu P.; Aryal, Umesh Raj; Shrestha, Binjwala; Vaidya, Abhinav; Onta, Sharad; Petzold, Max; Krettek, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Estimates of disease burden in Nepal are based on cross-sectional studies that provide inadequate epidemiological information to support public health decisions. This study compares the health and demographic indicators at the end of 2012 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) with the baseline conducted at the end of 2010. We also report on the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and associated factors in the JD-HDSS at the follow-up point. Design We used a structured questionnaire to survey 3,505 households in the JD-HDSS, Bhaktapur, Nepal. To investigate the use of SBAs, we interviewed 434 women who had delivered a baby within the prior 2 years. We compared demographic and health indicators at baseline and follow-up and assessed the association of SBA services with background variables. Results Due to rising in-migration, the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS increased (13,669 and 2,712 in 2010 vs. 16,918 and 3,505 in 2012). Self-reported morbidity decreased (11.1% vs. 7.1%, respectively), whereas accidents and injuries increased (2.9% vs. 6.5% of overall morbidity, respectively). At follow-up, the proportion of institutional delivery (93.1%) exceeded the national average (36%). Women who accessed antenatal care and used transport (e.g. bus, taxi, motorcycle) to reach a health facility were more likely to access institutional delivery. Conclusions High in-migration increased the total population and number of households in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban area where most health indicators exceed the national average. Major morbidity conditions (respiratory diseases, fever, gastrointestinal problems, and bone and joint problems) remain unchanged. Further investigation of reasons for increased proportion of accidents and injuries are recommended for their timely prevention. More than 90% of our respondents received adequate antenatal care and used institutional delivery, but only 13.2% accessed adequate postnatal care. Availability of transport and use of antenatal care was associated positively with institutional delivery. PMID:26700175

  12. Acceptance and Utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Insecticide-Treated Nets among Pregnant Women in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeola, Aderonke A.; Okwilagwe, Eugenia A.

    2015-01-01

    The study is an investigation of the acceptance and utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar), the drug of choice for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy, and Insecticide-Treated Nets among pregnant women who access different health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pregnant women (582) attending government primary healthcare antenatal clinics and 50 attending faith clinics purposively selected responded to structured instruments that were analysed using percentages, t-test correlation, and multiple regression. Acceptance and utilisation of RBM tools were higher in government clinics than faith clinics and in rural areas. Pregnant women in government clinics, 60.8% and 66.8%, and faith clinics, 18% and 38.0%, utilised Roll Back Malaria tools, significant at t(630) = 5.81, p ≤ 0.05, and t(630) = 3.99, p ≤ 0.05, respectively. Pregnant women in rural locations who accessed government clinics utilised Roll Back Malaria tools more than those in urban areas, t(580) = −641, p ≤ 0.05. Number of pregnancies, educational qualification of the pregnant women, and marital status significantly and consistently influenced acceptance and utilisation of these tools. To ensure that set targets are met, the utilization of RBM tools among the two categories of pregnant women can be improved by increasing the supply of the tools and ensuring that treatment is free. PMID:26839732

  13. Hypnosis Antenatal Training for Childbirth (HATCh): a randomised controlled trial [NCT00282204

    PubMed Central

    Cyna, Allan M; Andrew, Marion I; Robinson, Jeffrey S; Crowther, Caroline A; Baghurst, Peter; Turnbull, Deborah; Wicks, Graham; Whittle, Celia

    2006-01-01

    Background Although medical interventions play an important role in preserving lives and maternal comfort they have become increasingly routine in normal childbirth. This may increase the risk of associated complications and a less satisfactory birth experience. Antenatal hypnosis is associated with a reduced need for pharmacological interventions during childbirth. This trial seeks to determine the efficacy or otherwise of antenatal group hypnosis preparation for childbirth in late pregnancy. Methods/design A single centre, randomised controlled trial using a 3 arm parallel group design in the largest tertiary maternity unit in South Australia. Group 1 participants receive antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth administered by a qualified hypnotherapist with the use of an audio compact disc on hypnosis for re-enforcement; Group 2 consists of antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth using an audio compact disc on hypnosis administered by a nurse with no training in hypnotherapy; Group 3 participants continue with their usual preparation for childbirth with no additional intervention. Women > 34 and < 39 weeks gestation, planning a vaginal birth, not in active labour, with a singleton, viable fetus of vertex presentation, are eligible to participate. Allocation concealment is achieved using telephone randomisation. Participants assigned to hypnosis groups commence hypnosis training as near as possible to 37 weeks gestation. Treatment allocations are concealed from treating obstetricians, anaesthetists, midwives and those personnel collecting and analysing data. Our sample size of 135 women/group gives the study 80% power to detect a clinically relevant fall of 20% in the number of women requiring pharmacological analgesia – the primary endpoint. We estimate that approximately 5–10% of women will deliver prior to receiving their allocated intervention. We plan to recruit 150 women/group and perform sequential interim analyses when 150 and 300 participants have been recruited. All participant data will be analysed, by a researcher blinded to treatment allocation, according to the "Intention to treat" principle with comprehensive pre-planned cost- benefit and subgroup analyses. Discussion If effective, hypnosis would be a simple, inexpensive way to improve the childbirth experience, reduce complications associated with pharmacological interventions, yield cost savings in maternity care, and this trial will provide evidence to guide clinical practice. PMID:16515709

  14. Audit of Childbirth Emergency Referrals by Trained Traditional Birth Attendants in Enugu, Southeast, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, II; Arinze-Onyia, SU; Ohayi, SAR; Onyekpa, JI; Ugwu, EO

    2015-01-01

    Background: The essence of training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) is to attend to women in uncomplicated labor and to refer them immediately to hospitals when complications develop. Aim: The aim was to audit childbirth emergency referrals by trained TBAs to a specialist hospital in Enugu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of 205 childbirth emergencies referred to Semino Hospital and Maternity (SHM), Enugu by trained TBAs from August 1, 2011 to January 31, 2014. Data analysis was descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. Results: Most of the patients (185/205, 90.2%) were married and (100/205, 48.8%) had earlier booked for antenatal care in formal health facilities. There were obstetric danger signs or previous bad obstetric histories (pregnancies with unfavorable outcome) in 110 (110/205, 53.7%) women on admission at SHM. One hundred and fifteen (115/205, 56.1%) women walked into the hospital by themselves while 50 (50/205, 24.39%) could not walk. The fetal heart sounds were normal in 94 (94/205, 45.6%), abnormal in 65 (65/205, 31.8%) and absent in 42 (42/205, 20.4%) of the women on admission. Five healthy babies were delivered by the TBAs before referring their mothers. Delays of more than 12 h had occurred in 155 (155/205, 76.6%) of the women before referrals. Prolonged labor (100/205, 48.8%), obstructed labor (40/205, 19.5%), attempted vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery (40/205, 19.5%) and malpresentation (30/205, 14.6%) were the common indications for referrals. The maternal mortality and perinatal mortality ratios were 610/100,000 live births and 228/1000 total births respectively. Conclusion: Delays at TBA centers are common before referral and most patients are referred in poor clinical state. Further training and re-training of the TBAs with more emphasis on recognition of obstetric danger signs and bad obstetric histories may help in screening high-risk patients for prompt referral to hospitals before complications develop. PMID:26229721

  15. Between life and death: exploring the sociocultural context of antenatal mental distress in rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Rob; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Alem, Atalay; Prince, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The high prevalence of antenatal common mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa compared to high-income countries is poorly understood. This qualitative study explored the sociocultural context of antenatal mental distress in a rural Ethiopian community. Five focus group discussions and 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively sampled community stakeholders. Inductive analysis was used to develop final themes. Worry about forthcoming delivery and fears for the woman’s survival were prominent concerns of all participants, but only rarely perceived to be pathological in intensity. Sociocultural practices such as continuing physical labour, dietary restriction, prayer and rituals to protect against supernatural attack were geared towards safe delivery and managing vulnerability. Despite strong cultural norms to celebrate pregnancy, participants emphasised that many pregnancies were unwanted and an additional burden on top of pre-existing economic and marital difficulties. Short birth interval and pregnancy out of wedlock were both seen as shameful and potent sources of mental distress. The notion that pregnancy in traditional societies is uniformly a time of joy and happiness is misplaced. Although antenatal mental distress may be self-limiting for many women, in those with enduring life difficulties, including poverty and abusive relationships, poor maternal mental health may persist. PMID:20148274

  16. Between life and death: exploring the sociocultural context of antenatal mental distress in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Charlotte; Whitley, Rob; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Alem, Atalay; Prince, Martin

    2010-10-01

    The high prevalence of antenatal common mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa compared to high-income countries is poorly understood. This qualitative study explored the sociocultural context of antenatal mental distress in a rural Ethiopian community. Five focus group discussions and 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively sampled community stakeholders. Inductive analysis was used to develop final themes. Worry about forthcoming delivery and fears for the woman's survival were prominent concerns of all participants, but only rarely perceived to be pathological in intensity. Sociocultural practices such as continuing physical labour, dietary restriction, prayer and rituals to protect against supernatural attack were geared towards safe delivery and managing vulnerability. Despite strong cultural norms to celebrate pregnancy, participants emphasised that many pregnancies were unwanted and an additional burden on top of pre-existing economic and marital difficulties. Short birth interval and pregnancy out of wedlock were both seen as shameful and potent sources of mental distress. The notion that pregnancy in traditional societies is uniformly a time of joy and happiness is misplaced. Although antenatal mental distress may be self-limiting for many women, in those with enduring life difficulties, including poverty and abusive relationships, poor maternal mental health may persist. PMID:20148274

  17. CENTERING PREGANCY- AFRICA: A PILOT OF GROUP ANTENATAL CARE TO ADDRESS MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Crystal L.; Abrams, Elizabeth T.; Klima, Carrie; Kaponda, Chrissie P.N.; Leshabari, Sebalda C.; Vonderheid, Susan C.; Kamaga, Martha; Norr, Kathleen F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe health worker shortages and resource limitations negatively affect quality of antenatal care (ANC) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Group ANC, specifically CenteringPregnancy (CP), may offer an innovative approach to enable midwives to offer higher quality ANC. Objective Our overarching goal was to prepare to conduct a clinical trial of CenteringPregnancy – Africa (CP-Africa) in Malawi and Tanzania. In Phase 1, our goal was to determine the acceptability of CP as model for ANC in both countries. In Phase 2, our objective was to develop CP-Africa session content consistent with the Essential Elements of CP model and with national standards in both Malawi and Tanzania. In Phase 3, our objective was to pilot CP-Africa in Malawi to determine whether sessions could be conducted with fidelity to the Centering process. Setting Phase 1 and 2 took place in Malawi and Tanzania. Phase 3, the piloting of two sessions of CP-Africa, occurred at two sites in Malawi: a district hospital and a small clinic. Design We used an Action Research approach to promote partnerships among university researchers, the Centering Healthcare Institute, healthcare administrators, health professionals and women attending ANC to develop CP-Africa session content and pilot this model of group ANC. Participants For Phases 1 and 2, members of the Ministries of Health, health professionals and pregnant women in Malawi and Tanzania were introduced to and interviewed about CP. In Phase 2, we finalized CP-Africa content and trained thirteen health professionals in the Centering Healthcare model. In Phase 3, we conducted a small pilot with 24 pregnant women (12 at each site). Measurements and Findings Participants enthusiastically embraced CP-Africa as an acceptable model of ANC healthcare delivery. The CP-Africa content met both CP and national standards. The pilot established that the CP model could be implemented with process fidelity to the 13 Essential Elements. Several implementation challenges and strategies to address these challenges were identified. Key Conclusions Preliminary data suggest that CP-Africa is feasible in resource-constrained, low-literacy, high-HIV settings in sub-Saharan Africa. By improving the quality of ANC delivery, midwives have an opportunity to make a contribution towards Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targeting improvements in child, maternal and HIV-related health outcomes (MDGs 4, 5 and 6). A clinical trial is needed to establish efficacy. Implications for Practice CP-Africa also has the potential to reduce job-related stress and enhance job satisfaction for midwives in low income countries. If CP can be transferred with fidelity to process in sub-Saharan Africa and retain similar results to those reported in clinical trials, it has the potential to benefit pregnant women and their infants and could make a positive contribution to MGDs 4, 5 and .6. PMID:23871278

  18. Antenatal psychosomatic programming to reduce postpartum depression risk and improve childbirth outcomes: a randomized controlled trial in Spain and France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression (PPD) and poor childbirth outcomes are associated with poverty; these variables should be addressed by an adapted approach. The aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of an antenatal programme based on a novel psychosomatic approach to pregnancy and delivery, regarding the risk of PPD and childbirth outcomes in disadvantaged women. Methods A multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial comparing a novel to standard antenatal programme. Primary outcome was depressive symptoms (using EPDS) and secondary outcome was preterm childbirth (fewer 37 weeks). The sample comprised 184 couples in which the women were identified to be at PPD risk by validated interview. The study was conducted in three public hospitals with comparable standards of perinatal care. Women were randomly distributed in to an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG), and evaluated twice: during pregnancy (T1) and four weeks post-partum (T2). At T2, the variables were compared using the chi square test. Data analysis was based on intention to treat. The novel programme used the Tourné psychosomatic approach focusing on body awareness sensations, construction of an individualized childbirth model, and attachment. The 10 group antenatal sessions each lasted two hours, with one telephone conversation between sessions. In the control group, the participants choose the standard model of antenatal education, i.e., 8 to 10 two-hour sessions focused on childbirth by obstetrical prophylaxis. Results A difference of 11.2% was noted in postpartum percentages of PPD risk (EPDS ≥ 12): 34.3% (24) in EG and 45.5% (27) in CG (p = 0.26). The number of depressive symptoms among EG women decreased at T2 (intragroup p = 0.01). Premature childbirth was four times less in EG women: three (4.4%) compared to 13 (22.4%) among CG women (p = 0.003). Birth weight was higher in EG women (p = 0.01). Conclusions The decrease of depressive symptoms in women was not conclusive. However, because birth weight was higher and the rate of preterm childbirth was lower in the EG, our results suggest that the psychosomatic approach may be more helpful to the target population than the standard antenatal programs. PMID:24422605

  19. Revised guidelines on management of antenatal hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Aditi; Bagga, Arvind; Krishna, Anurag; Bajpai, Minu; Srinivas, M; Uppal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Indira

    2013-02-01

    Widespread antenatal screening has resulted in increased detection of anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract. The present guidelines update the recommendations published in 2000. Antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) is transient and resolves by the third trimester in almost one-half cases. The presence of oligohydramnios and additional renal or extrarenal anomalies suggests significant pathology. All patients with ANH should undergo postnatal ultrasonography; the intensity of subsequent evaluation depends on anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the renal pelvis and/or Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) grading. Patients with postnatal APD exceeding 10 mm and/or SFU grade 3-4 should be screened for upper or lower urinary tract obstruction and vesicoureteric reflux. Infants with vesicoureteric reflux should receive antibiotic prophylaxis through the first year of life, and their parents counseled regarding the risk of urinary tract infections. The management of patients with pelviureteric junction or vesicoureteric junction obstruction depends on clinical features and results of sequential ultrasonography and radionuclide renography. Surgery is considered in patients with increasing renal pelvic APD and/or an obstructed renogram with differential renal function <35-40% or its subsequent decline. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of prenatal intervention, frequency of follow up investigations and indications for surgery in these patients. PMID:23474928

  20. Revised guidelines on management of antenatal hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, A.; Bagga, A.; Krishna, A; Bajpai, M.; Srinivas, M.; Uppal, R.; Agarwal, I.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread antenatal screening has resulted in increased detection of anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract. The present guidelines update the recommendations published in 2000. Antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) is transient and resolves by the third trimester in almost one-half cases. The presence of oligohydramnios and additional renal or extrarenal anomalies suggests significant pathology. All patients with ANH should undergo postnatal ultrasonography; the intensity of subsequent evaluation depends on anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the renal pelvis and/or Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) grading. Patients with postnatal APD exceeding 10 mm and/or SFU grade 3-4 should be screened for upper or lower urinary tract obstruction and vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). Infants with VUR should receive antibiotic prophylaxis through the first year of life, and their parents counseled regarding the risk of urinary tract infections. The management of patients with pelviureteric junction or vesicoureteric junction obstruction depends on clinical features and results of sequential ultrasonography and radionuclide renography. Surgery is considered in patients with increasing renal pelvic APD and/or an obstructed renogram with differential renal function <35-40% or its subsequent decline. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of prenatal intervention, frequency of follow-up investigations and indications for surgery in these patients. PMID:23716913

  1. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy in a group of Australian women

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Della A; Denning, Angela; Wills, Gemma; Bolger, Melissa; McCarthy, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a public tertiary maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Secondary aims were to explore why women took the herbal medicine, where they received advice, what form the supplements took and if they perceived the supplements to be helpful. Methods Consecutive pregnant women were approached in the antenatal clinic and the birth centre at around 36–38 weeks gestation. A questionnaire was developed and self-administered in English, as well as being translated into the four most common languages of women attending the hospital: Cantonese, Vietnamese, Turkish and Arabic. Back translation into English was undertaken by different professional translators to verify accuracy of both words and concepts. Data collected included demographic information, model of pregnancy care and herbal supplement use. Descriptive statistics were used initially, with stratified and regression analysis to compare sub-groups. Results Of 705 eligible women, 588 (83%) agreed to participate. Of these, 88 (15%) completed the questionnaire in a language other than English. Thirty-six percent of women took at least one herbal supplement during the current pregnancy. The most common supplements taken were raspberry leaf (14%), ginger (12%) and chamomile (11%). Women were more likely to take herbal supplements if they were older, tertiary educated, English speaking, non-smokers and primiparous. Conclusion Use of herbal supplements in pregnancy is likely to be relatively high and it is important to ascertain what supplements (if any) women are taking. Pregnancy care providers should be aware of the common herbal supplements used by women, and of the evidence regarding potential benefits or harm. PMID:16780602

  2. Impaired glucose metabolism in HIV-infected pregnant women: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Rebecca; Adler, Hugh; Jackson, Valerie; Lawless, Mairead; Byrne, Maria; Eogan, Maeve; Lambert, John S

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic complications, including diabetes mellitus, have been increasingly recognised in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, particularly protease inhibitors (PIs). Pregnancy is also a risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism, and previous studies have given conflicting results regarding the contribution of PIs to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant HIV-infected women. We conducted a retrospective review of all HIV-infected women attending a combined infectious disease and antenatal clinic between 2007 and 2013 who underwent a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 weeks. We grouped the patients based on whether their OGTT result was normal or abnormal, and compared the groups using standard parametric tests (t-test and Fisher's exact test). Of 263 women with HIV who attended the clinic, 142 (53.9%) attended for OGTT and were eligible for inclusion. The mean age was 31 years (SD 5.37), all women were of European or African origin and 33.7% had a body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) About 93.7% were on PI-based regimens. At delivery, the mean CD4 count was 526 cells/µL, and 13% of patients had a detectable viraemia. The prevalence of IGT was 2.8%, while the prevalence of GDM was 2.1%. Also, 71.4% (n = 5) of women with abnormal glucose metabolism were taking PIs versus 94.8% (n = 128) of normoglycaemic women (p = 0.06). We did not confirm an increased rate of GDM in HIV-infected women in our patient population and found no association between PI use and GDM. PMID:25999164

  3. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    PubMed Central

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina; Pedersen, Helle; Lönnberg, Stefan; Nygård, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25–69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup) or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr) HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC)2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1%) hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway. PMID:27073929

  4. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

    PubMed

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina; Pedersen, Helle; Lönnberg, Stefan; Nygård, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup) or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr) HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC)2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1%) hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway. PMID:27073929

  5. Inadequate Knowledge of Neonatal Danger Signs among Recently Delivered Women in Southwestern Rural Uganda: A Community Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Jacob; Odberg Pettersson, Karen; Asp, Gustav; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Agardh, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Background Early detection of neonatal illness is an important step towards improving newborn survival. Every year an estimated 3.07 million children die during their first month of life and about one-third of these deaths occur during the first 24 hours. Ninety-eight percent of all neonatal deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries like Uganda. Inadequate progress has been made globally to reduce the amount of neonatal deaths that would be required to meet Millennium Development Goal 4. Poor knowledge of newborn danger signs delays care seeking. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge of key newborn danger signs among mothers in southwestern Uganda. Methods Results from a community survey of 765 recently delivered women were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Six key danger signs were identified, and spontaneous responses were categorized, tabulated, and analyzed. Results Knowledge of at least one key danger sign was significantly associated with being birth prepared (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.3). Birth preparedness consisted of saving money, identifying transportation, identifying a skilled birth attendant and buying a delivery kit or materials. Overall, respondents had a poor knowledge of key newborn danger signs: 58.2% could identify one and 14.8% could identify two. We found no association between women attending the recommended number of antenatal care visits and their knowledge of danger signs (adjusted OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8–1.4), or between women using a skilled birth attendant at delivery and their knowledge of danger signs (adjusted OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9–1.7). Conclusions Our findings indicate the need to enhance education of mothers in antenatal care as well as those discharged from health facilities after delivery. Further promotion of birth preparedness is encouraged as part of the continuum of maternal care. PMID:24824364

  6. Antenatal Atazanavir: A Retrospective Analysis of Pregnancies Exposed to Atazanavir

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Miriam; Bradshaw, Daniel; Perry, Melissa; Chan, Sum Yee; Dhairyawan, Rageshri; Byrne, Laura; Smith, Katherine; Zhou, Judith; Short, Charlotte Eve; Naftalin, Claire; Offodile, Ngozi; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Roedling, Sherie; Shah, Rimi; Brook, Gary; Poulton, Mary; Rodgers, Mette; Sarner, Liat; Noble, Heather; Hay, Philip; Anderson, Jane; Natha, Macky; Hawkins, David; Taylor, Graham; de Ruiter, Annemiek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. There are few data regarding the tolerability, safety, or efficacy of antenatal atazanavir. We report our clinical experience of atazanavir use in pregnancy. Methods. A retrospective medical records review of atazanavir-exposed pregnancies in 12 London centres between 2004 and 2010. Results. There were 145 pregnancies in 135 women: 89 conceived whilst taking atazanavir-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), “preconception” atazanavir exposure; 27 started atazanavir-based cART as “first-line” during the pregnancy; and 29 “switched” to an atazanavir-based regimen from another cART regimen during pregnancy. Gastrointestinal intolerance requiring atazanavir cessation occurred in five pregnancies. Self-limiting, new-onset transaminitis was most common in first-line use, occurring in 11.0%. Atazanavir was commenced in five switch pregnancies in the presence of transaminitis, two of which discontinued atazanavir with persistent transaminitis. HIV-VL < 50 copies/mL was achieved in 89.3% preconception, 56.5% first-line, and 72.0% switch exposures. Singleton preterm delivery (<37 weeks) occurred in 11.7% preconception, 9.1% first-line, and 7.7% switch exposures. Four infants required phototherapy. There was one mother-to-child transmission in a poorly adherent woman. Conclusions. These data suggest that atazanavir is well tolerated and can be safely prescribed as a component of combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy. PMID:25328370

  7. Interpretations of informed choice in antenatal screening: a cross-cultural, Q-methodology study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shenaz; Bryant, Louise D; Tizro, Zahra; Shickle, Darren

    2012-04-01

    Informed choice is internationally recognised and accepted as an important aspect of ethical healthcare. In the U.K., NHS antenatal screening policies state that their primary aim is to facilitate reproductive informed choices. These policies, implemented within a multiethnic population, are largely guided by the ethical principle of autonomy. This study was carried out in 2009 in the U.K. and used Q-methodology to explore diversity in the value attached to autonomous informed choice in antenatal screening for genetic disorders and similarities and differences in this value in women from different ethnic origins. Ninety-eight participants of African, British White, Caribbean, Chinese and Pakistani origin completed a 41-statement Q-sort in English, French, Mandarin or Urdu. Q-Factor analysis produced five statistically independent viewpoints of the value of informed choice: choice as an individual right; choice informed by religious values; choice as a shared responsibility; choice advised by health professionals; and choice within the family context. The findings show that women hold a variety of views on the nature of informed choice, and that, contradictory to policies of autonomous informed choice, many women seek and value the advice of health professionals. The findings have implications for the role of health professionals in facilitating informed choice, quality of care and equity of access. PMID:22326381

  8. Early intervention for increased antenatal anxiety associated with foetal development risk.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, Rebecca; Teixeira, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    Evidence is growing, documenting the adverse effect of prolonged heightened states of maternal anxiety on the developing foetus. Recent Government recommendations require a shift toward early identification and intervention for 'at risk' mothers. Following the successful development of the postnatal mental health and attachment care pathway in North Somerset in 2006, a new pilot was undertaken to create an antenatal pathway to embrace these recommendations. Midwives were given a tool to identify women with high levels of anxiety, a menu of suitable options for specialist referral, and basic Mental Health training. Current services and potential additions were assessed to inform future planning. The tool was found effective in highlighting 'at risk' women, and midwives recommended changes in implementation. Midwives reported increased confidence in addressing maternal anxiety following training and receipt of a clear pathway. A higher number of women requiring intervention were identified than anticipated, and a geographic inequity of service identified. A pilot extension will address these issues and develop formal handover to health visitors by linking the antenatal and postnatal pathways. PMID:26601435

  9. "The More the Better" Paradox of Antenatal Ultrasound Examinations in Low-Risk Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chiossi, Giuseppe; Palomba, Stefano; Balduzzi, Sara; Costantine, Maged M; Falbo, Angela I; La Sala, Giovanni B

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate whether different antenatal care models could account for differences in operative delivery rates and adverse neonatal outcomes among low-risk pregnant women, and to identify independent variables associated with delivery modes and adverse neonatal outcomes. Study design Retrospective cohort from a single center of singleton, term, live births between January 2012 and June 2014. Rates of cesarean deliveries, operative vaginal deliveries, and neonatal morbidities were analyzed among women followed by private obstetrician-gynecologists versus national health system providers (certified nurse midwifes supervised by obstetrician-gynecologists), and adjusted for potential confounders. Results Among the 2,831 women in our cohort, obstetric and neonatal outcomes were independent of obstetric providers. After we controlled for confounders, private patients having more than f