This study investigates family planning activity in 308 Nigerian women attending an antenatal clinic. Family planning awareness was present in 234 women (76%) and practice occurred in 168 (54.5%). Proposal to practice family planning occurred in 66 of 137 women who had never used contraception while 69 (22.4%) had no intention to practice family planning.
J. I. B. Adinma; B. O. Nwosu
Objectives: To describe annual trends in syphilis seroprevalence and to identify risk factors of syphilis among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.Methods: Women were recruited between January 1995 and July 1998 in three antenatal clinics where counselling and HIV testing services had been established in the context of a trial evaluating a short course of zidovudine to
I Sombie?; N Meda; M Cartoux; S Tiendre?be?ogo; A Ouangre?; S Yaro; O Ky-Zerbo; B Dao; P Van de Perre; L Mandelbrot; F Dabis
Background & objectives: Detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN). This study was conducted to measure the presence of allosensitization to blood group antibodies in the antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and to observe the proportion of minor blood group antibodies to assess the benefit of screening for the same. Methods: All antenatal women registered in the hospital between January 2008 and January 2009, were screened for irregular antibodies using a commercial 3-cell antibody screening panel. Antibody identification was performed on samples found positive using a commercial 11 cell-panel. Results: Screening was performed on 5347 women, 339 (6.34%) of whom were Rh negative. Allosensitization was found in 79 women (1.48%; confidence interval 1.17 -1.84). In 29 of these 79 (37%) women the allo-antibodies could not be identified. In the remaining 50 women, 54 antibodies were characterized. A total of 40 clinically significant antibody specificities were identified among 36 women, of whom four were Rh(D) positive. Allosensitization with clinically significant antibodies was found in 9.43 per cent (confidence interval 6.55-13.06) Rh(D) negative and in 0.08 per cent (confidence interval.02-0.2) Rh(D) positive women. Anti D was the most frequent antibody found in 8.85 per cent Rh(D) negative women. The remaining clinically significant antibodies identified included anti-C, c, E, Jka, Jkb, M and S. In Rh(D) negative women, anti-D and antibodies of the Rh system contributed 83.3 and 94.4 per cent of clinically significant antibodies. However, in Rh(D) positive women, non-Rh antibodies comprised three out of four clinically significant antibodies. Interpretation & conclusions: The presence of alloimmunization in our study corroborated with data reported from India. The most frequent antibody was anti-D. However, a significant fraction was non-D. Alloimmunization among Rh(D) positive women though low as compared to Rh(D) negative women, included clinically significant antibodies, and most of these were non Rh.
Varghese, Jophy; Chacko, Mary P.; Rajaiah, Molly; Daniel, Dolly
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Tanga, Tanzania. Retrospective data on syphilis and HIV status during 2008-2010 were collected from antenatal clinic (ANC) records. Prospective data were collected from HIV-infected (n = 105) and HIV-uninfected pregnant women (n = 100) attending ANCs between April 2009 and August 2010. Syphilis prevalence showed a declining trend (3.1%, 1.4% and 1.3%), while HIV prevalence was stable (6.1%, 6.4% and 5.4%) during 2008-2010. HIV-infected women had significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis (18.8% versus 5.0%; P < 0.003) and candidiasis (16.5% versus 2.0%; P < 0.001) while the higher rate of gonorrhoea (3.5% versus 0%; P = 0.095) was not statistically significant when compared with HIV-uninfected women. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence of chlamydial infection (0% versus 3.0%; P = 0.156) or syphilis (2.4% versus 3.0%; P = 1) between HIV-infected and uninfected women. Other STIs were common in both HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women. PMID:22648885
Chiduo, M; Theilgaard, Z P; Bakari, V; Mtatifikolo, F; Bygbjerg, I; Flanholc, L; Gerstoft, J; Christiansen, C B; Lemnge, M; Katzenstein, T L
OVER a three-month period, 687 new mothers from one Health District were asked whether they were offered antenatal classes, whether they attended, and if not, the reasons why they did not at tend. Information was also collected for each woman on her obstetric history, age, marital status, home town and husband's occupation. Seventy-two per cent said that they were offered
Elizabeth R. Perkins
This paper describes smoking and drinking patterns during pregnancy amongst a cohort of 2266 women who enrolled at a London antenatal clinic 1982-1983. Only 12% of mothers were non-drinkers before pregnancy, but 44% abstained in the first trimester, 38% in the second and 50% in the third. Before pregnancy 20% of mothers were drinking more than the recommended 10 units of alcohol per week. This dropped to 6% during pregnancy. Mean consumption at each of the three stages of pregnancy was highest amongst those mothers who were the heaviest drinkers before pregnancy. The heaviest pre-pregnancy drinkers were also the least likely to abstain at any point in pregnancy. Of those mothers who were drinking less than 10 units of alcohol per week before pregnancy, 3% increased during pregnancy. Wine was the most popular beverage choice but heavier drinkers were more likely to drink beers and spirits in addition. Before pregnancy 29% of mothers smoked. This dropped to 23% in pregnancy. Consumption levels fell amongst those who continued smoking. The heaviest pre-pregnancy smokers were the most likely to reduce but the least likely to stop. Smoking was positively associated with the level of both pre-pregnancy and pregnancy drinking. The most commonly cited reasons for changes in drinking and smoking habits in pregnancy were concern for the child, concern for self or concern for both. Feeling sick or ill was a more commonly stated reason for reduction of drinking than smoking. Social pressures were important in reducing smoking, but the mass media were quoted as a more important influence in reducing drinking. Mothers who drank more than 10 units of alcohol per week during pregnancy were more likely to be older, of higher social status and primiparous. In contrast those who smoked in pregnancy were more likely to be younger, of lower social status and multiparous. This has important implications for planning antenatal health education. PMID:2785805
Waterson, E J; Murray-Lyon, I M
OBJECTIVE—To examine the value of universal antenatal screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among an inner London population, with regard to prevalence, uptake, and acceptability of testing, and identification of new cases.?DESIGN—Serum analysis for antibodies against HCV in pregnant women following informed consent ("opt out" policy). Samples positive for HCV antibodies were tested for the presence of HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction. Information on hepatitis C was provided for all women. Acceptability of antenatal HCV testing and identification of risk factors for infection were assessed through the use of questionnaires randomly distributed among a cohort of 300 pregnant women.?SETTING—Antenatal clinics at St Mary's Hospital, London, serving a multiethnic population.?SUBJECTS—A total of 4825 pregnant women booking for antenatal care between November 1997 and April 1999.?RESULTS—The overall prevalence of anti-HCV was 0.8% and HCV viraemia was 0.6%. Ninety eight per cent of samples (n=4729) were tested; 0.2% of women had a false positive result. In 207 women who completed a questionnaire regarding our testing policy, 84% made a positive decision to be tested for anti-HCV and 92% said that HCV testing should be offered to all pregnant women. The majority (22/32—69%) of HCV infected women were newly diagnosed and although HCV positive women were significantly more likely to have a history of drug abuse, most (16/22—73%) new cases had no identified risk factors for HCV infection at booking.?CONCLUSION—The prevalence of anti-HCV in an inner London multiethnic antenatal population is high (0.8%). Routine screening for HCV is acceptable to pregnant women. The majority of women diagnosed during their current pregnancy would not have been identified as HCV infected by epidemiological risk factors at the time of booking.???Keywords: hepatitis C; pregnancy; transmission; screening
Ward, C; Tudor-Williams, G; Cotzias, T; Hargreaves, S; Regan, L; Foster, G
HIV infection and anaemia are major public-health problems in Africa and are important factors associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in south- eastern Nigeria. To achieve this, a cross-sectional survey was conducted during July 2005-June 2006
C. J. Uneke; D. D. Duhlinska; E. B. Igbinedion
OBJECTIVETo examine the value of universal antenatal screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among an inner London population, with regard to prevalence, uptake, and acceptability of testing, and identification of new cases.DESIGNSerum analysis for antibodies against HCV in pregnant women following informed consent (“opt out” policy). Samples positive for HCV antibodies were tested for the presence of HCV RNA
C Ward; G Tudor-Williams; T Cotzias; S Hargreaves; L Regan; G R Foster
A prospective study on the use of oral herbal medicine was conducted on 214 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in urban and rural Tanga district, which is well-known for traditional healers. There is a perception that traditional healers are very respected locally, and should be cooperated with. However herb effects range from therapeutic to dangerous. The overall prevalence rate of use of herbal medicine was 42%. The prevalence in urban and rural areas was 43.3% and 40.2% respectively. The highest use rate was towards the end of the 1st trimester and during labor, for a total of 87.7%. Of the users, 54% did so to relieve pregnancy-associated symptoms, while the rest used it as a consequence of beliefs, possibly superstitious, circumstantial constraints, and combinations of these. Significant differences were found between women delivering at home (55% used herbal medicine) and in a modern health facility (38.8%), P=0.038, between Moslems (44.4%) and Christians (32.2%), P=0.22, and among tribes. It seems that oral herbal medicines are commonly used in pregnancies and childbirth in Tanga, as well as in other areas, Bagamoyo being an example. Fear of the health facility eivironment as being a place for dying is an interesting factor. A form of Koranic medicine known as Kombe, which included the use of Quranic inscriptions, was used widely. It is recommended that immediate and long-term outcomes of herb-tested pregnancies be evaluated. Phytochemical, toxicological, and pharmacological studies are necessary to enable health workers to warn against inappropriate and dangerous usage. PMID:4054028
Mbura, J S; Mgaya, H N; Heggenhougen, H K
A declining prevalence of HIV among young women has been reported by the public sector implementing prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes, sentinel surveillance sites and research institutions in India. However, there are no reports evaluating such trends from the private healthcare sector. This study is a retrospective analysis of data collected by PRAYAS as a part of the PMTCT
Vinay Kulkarni; Smita Joshi; Nikhil Gupte; Ritu Parchure; Shrinivas Darak; Sanjeevani Kulkarni
Aim This study was conducted to determine the knowledge and practice of pregnant women attending specialist antenatal clinics\\u000a (ANCs) concerning malaria, ITN (insecticide-treated net) utilization and antimalarial treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods The study recruited 225 women who voluntarily presented at ANCs in Jimma town, Ethiopia. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results A great majority (98.2%; 221\\/225) of the respondents were aware of malaria.
Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi; Bishaw Deboch; Yilkal Tafere
Background: Malaria is a public health problem globally especially in the Sub-Saharan Africa and among the under five children and pregnant women and is associated with a lot of maternal and foetal complications. Objective: The study was on the effect of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy on the prevalence of malaria in pregnancy and the outcome of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to women admitted in Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital labour ward, Ado-Ekiti. About 4,200 women participated in the study and the inclusion criteria were women who were booked in the hospital, attended at least four antenatal clinic visits, and consented to the study while the exclusion criteria were those who didn't book in the hospital and failed to give their consent. Results: The study revealed that about 75% of the pregnant women studied had access to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria. Among the women attending the antenatal clinic that received sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), about 78% of them took two doses of SP. The prevalence of clinical malaria was statistically higher in women who did not receive intermittent preventive treatment with SP during pregnancy (44.7% vs. 31.3%, P = 0.0001) and among women who had one dose of the drug instead of two doses (40.0% vs. 28.7%, P = 0.0001). There was no statistical significant difference in the mean age in years (31.53 ± 5.238 vs. 31.07 ± 4.751, P = 0.09 and the gestational age at delivery (38.76 ± 1.784 vs. 38.85 ± 1.459, P = 0.122) between the women who did not receive SP and those who had it. There was a statistical significant difference in the outcome of pregnancy among women who had Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) and those who did not viz.-a-viz. in the duration of labor (8.6 ± 1.491 vs. 8.7 ± 1.634, P = 0.011) and the birth weight of the babies (3.138 ± 0.402 vs. 3.263 ± 0.398, P = 0.0001). Conclusion: SP is an effective malarial prophylaxis in pregnancy.
Peter, Aduloju Olusola
AimsMost of the 3.6 million annual neonatal deaths occur at home in low-income countries and are preventable. Optimal newborn care practices can reduce neonatal mortality, but uptake globally remains low. Antenatal clinic (ANC) may provide a vehicle for communicating behaviour change to increase coverage of these practices. We aim to determine whether full ANC attendance is associated with positive newborn
H J Blencowe; J Schellenberg
|Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)|
Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.
Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first antenatal care visit and identifies factors influencing early and late attendance. Methods The study was conducted in the Ulanga and Kilombero rural Demographic Surveillance area in south-eastern Tanzania in 2008. Qualitative exploratory studies informed the design of a structured questionnaire. A total of 440 women who attended antenatal care participated in exit interviews. Socio-demographic, social, perception- and service related factors were analysed for associations with timing of antenatal care initiation using regression analysis. Results The majority of pregnant women initiated antenatal care attendance with an average of 5 gestational months. Belonging to the Sukuma ethnic group compared to other ethnic groups such as the Pogoro, Mhehe, Mgindo and others, perceived poor quality of care, late recognition of pregnancy and not being supported by the husband or partner were identified as factors associated with a later antenatal care enrolment (p < 0.05). Primiparity and previous experience of a miscarriage or stillbirth were associated with an earlier antenatal care attendance (p < 0.05). Adolescent pregnant women started antenatal care no later than adult pregnant women despite being more likely to be single. Conclusions Factors including poor quality of care, lack of awareness about the health benefit of antenatal care, late recognition of pregnancy, and social and economic factors may influence timing of antenatal care. Community-based interventions are needed that involve men, and need to be combined with interventions that target improving the quality, content and outreach of antenatal care services to enhance early antenatal care enrolment among pregnant women.
BACKGROUND: Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives
Christiana R Titaley; Cynthia L Hunter; Peter Heywood; Michael J Dibley
Background Most pertinent studies of inadequate antenatal care concentrate on the risk profile of women booking late or not booking at all to antenatal care. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of pregnancies when free and easily accessible antenatal care has been either totally lacking or low in number of visits. Methods This is a hospital register based cohort study of pregnancies treated in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland, in 1989 – 2001. Pregnancy outcomes of women having low numbers (1–5) of antenatal care visits (n = 207) and no antenatal care visits (n = 270) were compared with women having 6–18 antenatal visits (n = 23137). Main outcome measures were: Low birth weight, fetal death, neonatal death. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were controlled for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratios, OR: s) in multiple logistic regression models. Results Of the analyzed pregnant population, 1.0% had no antenatal care visits and 0.77% had 1–5 visits. Under- or non-attendance associated with social and health behavioral risk factors: unmarried status, lower educational level, young maternal age, smoking and alcohol use. Chorio-amnionitis or placental abruptions were more common complications of pregnancies of women avoiding antenatal care, and pregnancy outcome was impaired. After logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding, there were significantly more low birth weight infants in under- and non-attenders (OR:s with 95% CI:s: 9.18 (6.65–12.68) and 5.46 (3.90–7.65), respectively) more fetal deaths (OR:s 12.05 (5.95–24.40) and 5.19 (2.04–13.22), respectively) and more neonatal deaths (OR:s 10.03 (3.85–26.13) and 8.66 (3.59–20.86), respectively). Conclusion Even when birth takes place in hospital, non- or under-attendance at antenatal care carries a substantially elevated risk of severe adverse pregnancy outcome. Underlying adverse health behavior and possible abuse indicate close surveillance of the newborn.
Raatikainen, Kaisa; Heiskanen, Nonna; Heinonen, Seppo
This study assessed the level of knowledge and misconceptions about HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention among women. Using a semi-structured pretested questionnaire we obtained relevant data from 420 respondents in five randomly selected antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Gwagwalada Area Council (GAC) of Abuja, Nigeria. Knowledge about the existence of HIV/AIDS was high (92.8%). Only 52.1% knew the cause of AIDS and 58.6% were aware that AIDS had no cure. About twenty percent of respondents believed that breast-milk could not transmit HIV and 27.9% were unaware that condom protects against HIV. Only 33.3% were aware that HIV infected persons may look and feel healthy. Mothers with at least secondary level education had significantly higher knowledge scores on HIV/AIDS transmission (X2 = 14.8, p = 0.01) than less educated mothers and less educated mothers were more likely to relate HIV infection to past misdeeds (X2 = 13.6, p = 0.01). Significant misconception concerning HIV transmission existed in the study population. More community outreach programmes to intensify HIV education and counseling in GAC is required. PMID:24069740
Otokpa, Aboh O; Lawoyin, Taiwo O; Asuzu, Michael C
Objective: to explore and describe women's experiences of antenatal care.Design: semi-structured interviews, dialogical interviews and non-participant observation in two phases both during and after pregnancy were analysed according to Colaizzi's phenomenological method.Setting: four maternity clinics in one rural and one urban primary health care centre and one outpatient maternity clinic at a central hospital in Finland.Participants: in the first phase
Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi) with varying levels of ANC attendance. Methods Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. Results Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care – checking the foetus’ position or monitoring its progress – motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women’s timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures – in spite of policies of free ANC – combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. Conclusion In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that ‘supply’ side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation.
Pell, Christopher; Menaca, Arantza; Were, Florence; Afrah, Nana A.; Chatio, Samuel; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Hamel, Mary J.; Hodgson, Abraham; Tagbor, Harry; Kalilani, Linda; Ouma, Peter; Pool, Robert
The aim of the study was to investigate factors influencing the parturient woman's decision to accept or decline the HIV antibody test in the antenatal clinic. Eighty-eight women attending an antenatal clinic, in a central London hospital, for an appointment at 28-32 weeks of pregnancy were given a structured face to face interview. Results indicated that 36% (n = 32) had elected to be tested. Reasons for declining included assumption of no risk, being in a stable relationship, not wanting to think about HIV when pregnant and not wanting to know if HIV positive. Reasons for accepting included fears for health of the baby and fears for own health. 52% (n = 46) had discussed the test with their partner, most of whom had agreed with the woman's decision or left the decision to her. Only 31% of the women were aware they had been automatically tested for syphilis. Knowledge about vertical transmission was poor. Anxiety levels of those tested and those not tested were not significantly different nor did either group differ over time. The groups did not differ on demographic variables, transmission knowledge or perceived likelihood of infection. Most women elected not to be tested and reasons around the decision are very individualistic and varied. HIV testing does not appear to cause anxiety when it is offered on a voluntary basis. Knowledge of routine testing and of vertical transmission is poor and should be the focus of health education intervention. PMID:7849116
Meadows, J; Catalan, J
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) must be provided during antenatal care (ANC) visits for malaria prevention during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the level of ANC attendance and its relationship with IPTp-SP and bed net coverage in Gabonese pregnant women. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey performed in 2011 in sentinel sites for malaria: two ANC units (Melen and Owendo) and one delivery unit (CHL). A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect the following data: age, parity, history of the current pregnancy including gestational age at the interview, number of ANC visits already performed, date of first visit, use of malaria preventive measure and details on IPTp-SP administration. Results During the study, 1030 women were interviewed, 735 at their ANC visit and 295 at the delivery. Their median age was 24[20–29] years and 21.0% were primigravidae. More than 70.0% attended their first ANC visit during the second trimester. Among the 442 women who were at the end of their pregnancy, 71.5% had a correct attendance, at least four ANC visits, most frequently women with no education and older women; IPTp-SP was offered to 84.1% of them and 57.4% received at least two doses. The number of SP doses was correlated to the number of ANC visits. Bed net coverage was 59.0%, not associated with ANC attendance. Among the women with correct ANC attendance, only 49.5% had a complete IPTp-SP course associated with bed net use during pregnancy. In the site where SP administration was supervised, 80% had four ANC visits and 97.4% received a full 2-dose course of IPTp-SP. Conclusions Despite a high level of correct ANC attendance in Gabon, the goal of 80% of women with 2-dose IPTp-SP during pregnancy is not achieved. Evaluations, training of health workers, as well as surveys from other areas of the country are needed to further measure the implementation and the impact of these strategies.
Ultrasound scanning is firmly embedded in antenatal maternity care around the world. This paper reports on a qualitative study carried out in 2003 of 30 Syrian women’s perceptions and experiences of routine ultrasound in pregnancy. It was part of a larger study of the experiences of pregnancy and childbirth of 500 women from Damascus and its suburbs who had recently given birth to healthy newborns. The women had had multiple scans during pregnancy and accepted its use uncritically nearly all the time. The scans gave them reassurance that the baby was healthy, the pregnancy was progressing well and allowed them to learn the sex of the baby. The women also reacted positively to the antenatal educational messages that were conveyed using scans. However, we found the excessive use of this technology worrying. We believe private doctors, who attend 80% of pregnant women, use ultrasound primarily to attract women to their clinics and increase their income. We recommend that maternity care in Syria should be better regulated; that women and their doctors should be made aware of the essential components of antenatal care; that national guidelines for antenatal care should be developed and that Syrian women should be empowered to ask questions about pregnancy and childbirth and the care they receive.
Bashour, Hyam; Hafez, Raghda; Abdulsalam, Asmaa
BACKGROUND: To describe malaria knowledge, attitudes toward malaria and bed net use, levels of ownership and use of bed nets, and factors associated with ownership and use among pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Kinshasa, DRC. METHODS: Women attending their first ANC visit at one maternity in Kinshasa were recruited to take part in a study
Audrey Pettifor; Eboni Taylor; David Nku; Sandra Duvall; Martine Tabala; Steve Meshnick; Frieda Behets
Ultrasound scanning is firmly embedded in antenatal maternity care around the world. This paper reports on a qualitative study carried out in 2003 of 30 Syrian women's perceptions and experiences of routine ultrasound in pregnancy. It was part of a larger study of the experiences of pregnancy and childbirth of 500 women from Damascus and its suburbs who had recently given birth to healthy newborns. The women had had multiple scans during pregnancy and accepted its use uncritically nearly all the time. The scans gave them reassurance that the baby was healthy, the pregnancy was progressing well and allowed them to learn the sex of the baby. The women also reacted positively to the antenatal educational messages that were conveyed using scans. However, we found the excessive use of this technology worrying. We believe private doctors, who attend 80% of pregnant women, use ultrasound primarily to attract women to their clinics and increase their income. We recommend that maternity care in Syria should be better regulated; that women and their doctors should be made aware of the essential components of antenatal care; that notional guidelines for antenatol care should be developed and that Syrian women should be empowered to ask questions about pregnancy and childbirth and the care they receive. PMID:16035608
Bashour, Hyam; Hafez, Raghda; Abdulsalam, Asmaa
Background The Indonesia Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) of 420/100.00 live births remains among the highest in East Asia while coverage of births assisted by skilled providers is still low. Traditional beliefs have been a key factor associated with the choice between midwives or traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the low number of antenatal care visits in rural West Sumatra. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 16 women from rural West Java to describe their perception regarding issues related to traditional beliefs. Focus group discussions provided data for the content analysis. Results The majority of the 16 women interviewed was from Village Dago, West Java and had only an elementary school education. Their ages ranged from 19 to 40 years. Most were multiparous housewives with an income of IDR 918.750 per month, which was lower than the monthly income in West Java (IDR. 1.172.060). Emerging from the focus group discussion were four main themes regarding their pregnancy and traditional beliefs: 1) pregnancy was a normal cycle in women’s life (pregnancy is a natural phenomena, not a sickness; no recognition of danger signs during pregnancy and death of baby or mother during pregnancy was brought about by God’s will); 2) women followed the traditional beliefs (positive motivation to follow the traditional beliefs and fear of not following the traditional beliefs); 3) relying on TBA called paraji rather than midwife (parajis are kind, tolerant and patient and have more experience than midwives; more accessibility than midwives and encouragement of natural birth) and 4) midwives are more secure than paraji; (they use a medical standard of care). Conclusions Women’s beliefs grounded in religion and tradition permeated the village culture making it difficult to counter their long held health practices with practices based on recent advances in health care. Use of TBA in this village was still dominant and women believed that following traditional beliefs led to a healthy pregnancy therefore, they also followed all relatives’ suggestions. Understanding the complexities of local culture is the first step to improving women’s awareness of how to preserve their pregnancy and prevent complications.
A hospital based study included 600 mothers who delivered at Kasturba Hospital Sevagram during 1996–97, to assess their knowledge\\u000a and attitude regarding breastfeeding. The mothers were attending antenatal clinics of a Baby Friendly Hospital (BFH). The\\u000a obstetric staff was trained regarding the practices following which mothers admitted to the hospital were interviewed within\\u000a 24 hours of the delivery. Mothers were
Pushpa Chaturvedi; Nandkumar Banait
Background Mothers who attend antenatal care late miss the opportunity of early detection of HIV and STDs, malaria and anaemia prophylaxis, health education and treatment or prevention of complications. Whereas many women in Mulago hospital make their first antenatal care visit after 20 weeks of gestation, the reasons for coming late are not documented. The objectives were to determine the gestation age at which pregnant women make their first antenatal care visit and the reasons for late coming. Method The study was conducted in June 2012 among women with a gestation age of more than 20 weeks on their first antenatal care visit. We collected data on gestation age (from weeks of amenorrhea or based on ultrasound scan) and reasons for coming late. Results Four hundred women participated in the study. Their mean age was 25.2 years with a standard deviation of 5.2 years. The majority of the participants were Catholics (n?=?126, 31.5%), they lived in a distance of greater than five kilometers from the hospital (n?=?201, 50.3%) and had attained secondary education (n?=?220, 55.0%). The mean of their weeks of amenorrhea was 27.9 (± 4.6) weeks. The results showed that 291 (72.7%) of the study participants did not know the right gestation age at which a pregnant woman should start attending antenatal care. One hundred and ten (27.5%) agreed that they did not have money for transport to bring them to the hospital while 37 (9.3%) thought that they had to pay for the antenatal care services. Two hundred thirteen (53.3%) reported that they did not have any problem with their current pregnancy and so they saw no reason to come early for antenatal care, even though some of these knew the right gestation age at which they should make their first antenatal care visit. Conclusion Pregnant women who come late for antenatal care in Mulago hospital, Uganda are not well-informed about the right gestation age at which they should make their first antenatal care visit and/or of the importance of early attendance at antenatal care.
Neonatal deaths account for almost two-thirds of infant mortality worldwide; most deaths are preventable. Two-thirds of neonatal deaths occur during the first week of life, usually at home. While previous Egyptian studies have identified provider practices contributing to maternal mortality, none has focused on neonatal care. A survey of reported practices of birth attendants was administered. Chi-square tests were used for measuring the statistical significance of inter-regional differences. In total, 217 recently-delivered mothers in rural areas of three governorates were interviewed about antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care they received. This study identified antenatal advice of birth attendants to mothers about neonatal care and routine intrapartum and postpartum practices. While mothers usually received antenatal care from physicians, traditional birth attendants (dayas) conducted most deliveries. Advice was rare, except for breastfeeding. Routine practices included hand-washing by attendants, sterile cord-cutting, prompt wrapping of newborns, and postnatal home visits. Suboptimal practices included lack of disinfection of delivery instruments, unhygienic cord care, lack of weighing of newborns, and lack of administration of eye prophylaxis or vitamin K. One-third of complicated deliveries occurred at home, commonly attended by relatives, and the umbilical cord was frequently pulled to hasten delivery of the placenta. In facilities, mothers reported frequent use of forceps, and asphyxiated neonates were often hung upside-down during resuscitation. Consequently, high rates of birth injuries were reported. Priority areas for behaviour change and future research to improve neonatal health outcomes were identified, specific to type of provider (physician, nurse, or daya) and regional variations in practices.
Darmstadt, Gary L.; Hussein, Mohamed Hassan; Winch, Peter J.; Haws, Rachel A.; Gipson, Reginald; Santosham, Mathuram
BackgroundGenerally Rh-negative patients need to be transfused with Rh-negative red blood cells. For pregnant women carrying Rh-positive fetus, the antenatal anti-D detection and Rh immunoglobulin prophylaxis are required worldwide. In East Asia, a RhD variant, termed “Asia type” DEL, was found in approximately 30% of apparent Rh-negative individuals. The antigenic and molecular properties of the DEL were previously defined. Few
Chao-Peng Shao; Hua Xu; Qun Xu; Guo-Dong Sun; Jian-Ping Li; Bo-Wei Zhang; Xiao-Hua Liang; Zhong Liu; Ying Zhou; Dan Li; Nai-Bao Zhuang
BACKGROUND: The Tanzanian government recommends women who attend antenatal care (ANC) clinics to accept receiving intermittent preventive treatment against malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at subsidized prices. Little emphasis has been paid to investigate the ability of pregnant women to access and effectively utilize these services. OBJECTIVES: To describe the experience and perceptions of pregnant
Godfrey M Mubyazi; Paul Bloch; Pascal Magnussen; Øystein E Olsen; Jens Byskov; Kristian S Hansen; Ib C Bygbjerg
Purpose Depression, anxiety, and poor sleep are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between negative emotion and retinal microvascular changes among adults, yet no study has been done in pregnant women so far. This study aims to examine the association of antenatal mental health and retinal vascular caliber among Asian pregnant women. Methods Nine hundred and fifty two Asian pregnant women aged 18 to 46 years were included in this study, who were recruited from two Singapore cohort studies, the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study and the In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) study conducted from 2009 onwards. A total of 835 Asian pregnant women underwent retinal photography at 26 weeks follow up, of whom 800 had gradable photographs. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. Results In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, ethnicity, household income, pregnancy outcome history, means of conception, hypertension history, diabetes history, cigarette smoking history, mean arterial blood pressure, body mass index, and spherical equivalent, each standard deviation (SD) increase in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (4.49 scores) and in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (2.90 scores) was associated with a 0.80 ?m (P = 0.03) and a 1.22 ?m (P = 0.01) widening in retinal arteriolar caliber, respectively. Conclusions Our study demonstrates relationships of antenatal depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality with retinal arteriolar widening in pregnant women. Translational Relevance We speculate that this might possibly indicate an effect of antenatal depression and poor sleep on the microcirculation during pregnancy.
Li, Ling-Jun; Ikram, M. Kamran; Broekman, Leutscher; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui; Chen, Helen; Gooley, Joshua J.; Soh, Shu-E; Gluckman, Peter; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei
This paper presents a study analysing 100 cases of contraceptive failure and an equal number of controls in Nairobi. The study population included all the patients who attended the antenatal clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, during a ten-week study period and who had conceived while on a contraceptive method. The controls were patients who were carrying a planned pregnancy. The objective of the study was to determine the sociodemographic patterns, level of counselling and attitudes of patients who presented to antenatal clinic after contraceptive failure and to formulate recommendation on how to manage these patients. User failure was more common than method failure. High parity and a high number of living children were associated with increased risk of contraceptive failure (OR 3.7 and 4.6, respectively). Other factors found to be associated with increased risk of contraceptive failure were: inadequate counselling at contraceptive initiation (OR 4.0), poor knowledge of different contraceptive methods (OR 1.9), short duration of contraceptive use (OR 3.3), and non-compliance, with 40% of the cases having been non-compliant. Thirty per cent of the patients who had contraceptive failure were unhappy about the pregnancy. This paper finds that better counselling on contraceptive use and compliance would reduce contraceptive failure and diminish the negative programme effects of failed contraception. Counselling would also enhance acceptance of the pregnancy and minimise the chances of negative psychological sequelae. PMID:9487430
Obwaka, W; Ruminjo, J K; Ndavi, P N; Sekadde-Kigondu, C
Background Male partner attendance of skilled Antenatal Care (ANC) is beneficial to improving maternal outcomes. This study investigated the level, perceived benefits and factors associated with male partner attendance of skilled ANC in a peri-urban community recovering from two decades of civil conflict. Methods This cross-sectional survey used multi-stage sampling in 12 villages of Omoro county to select 331 married male respondents aged 18 years or more, whose female spouses had childbirth within 24 months prior to the survey. A structured questionnaire elicited responses about male partner attendance of ANC during pregnancy at a public health facility as the main outcome variable. Analysis used Generalized Linear Model (GLM) in Stata version 10.0 to obtain Prevalence Risk Ratios (PRR) for association between the binary outcome and independent factors. All factors significant at p < 0.15 and potential confounders were included in the multivariable model. Results Overall, 65.4% (95%CI; 60.3, 70.5) male partners attended at least one skilled ANC visit. Mean age was 31.9 years [SD 8.2]. Perceived benefits of attending ANC were: HIV screening (74.5%), monitoring foetal growth (34%) and identifying complications during pregnancy (18.9%). Factors independently associated with higher ANC attendance were: knowledge of 3 or more ANC services (adj.PRR 2.77; 95%CI 2.24, 3.42), obtaining health information from facility health workers (adj.PRR 1.14; 95%CI 1.01, 1.29) and if spouse had skilled attendance at last childbirth (adj.PRR 1.31; 95%CI 1.04-1.64). However, factors for low attendance were: male partners intending their spouse to carry another pregnancy (adj.PRR 0.83; 95%CI 0.71, 0.97) and living more than 5 Km from a health facility (adj.PRR 0.83, 95%CI 0.70, 0.98). Conclusions Men who were knowledgeable of ANC services, obtained health information from a health worker and whose spouses utilised skilled delivery at last pregnancy were more likely to accompany their spouses at ANC, unlike those who wanted to have more children and lived more than 5 km from the health facility. These findings suggest that empowering male partners with knowledge about ANC services may increase their ANC participation and in turn increase skilled delivery. This strategy may improve maternal health care in post conflict and resource-limited settings.
In the UK in October 1992, Mrs S was forced to have a caesarean section despite her objections to such a procedure on religious grounds. The case once again called into question the obligations of women to the unborn, and also whether one person can be forced to undergo a medical procedure for the benefit of someone else. Re S, like the case of Angela Carder, is often discussed in terms of the conflict between maternal and fetal rights. This paper looks instead at our obligations to save life in general-whether or not we are pregnant- and at the obligations of mothers to their children-whether they are born or unborn. Drawing on Judith Jarvis Thomson's distinction, it argues that minimal decency informs the duties which are owed to strangers, but that parents can be expected to behave as Good Samaritans towards their children. Finally, it is argued that even if mothers are ethically obliged to consent to caesarean sections which will save the lives of their babies, this does not necessarily mean that others are at liberty, or even obliged, to proceed with such operations without their consent.
Objectives Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India. Methods and Findings The District Level Household Survey (2007–08) was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%–72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice. Conclusion A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver appropriate and recommended advice to all clients, irrespective of their socioeconomic status.
Singh, Abhishek; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ram, Faujdar; Ogollah, Reuben
A range of psychosocial, medical, and demographic variables may influence pregnant women's psychological status. However the association between coping strategies, anxiety, worries, and depression during pregnancy is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies, antenatal anxiety, pregnancy worries, and depressive symptomatology after controlling for the effects of background variables. The study sample consisted of 163 pregnant women, with gestational age ranging from 11 to 26 weeks, attending antenatal screening at a Greek public hospital. Coping strategies were measured with Brief COPE, pregnancy worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X version), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the univariate analysis, low annual income, unemployment, conception after an IVF treatment, and a previous history of miscarriage were associated with anxiety, depression, and worries. Additionally, almost all coping strategies (denial, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use, acceptance, positive reframing, active coping, and seeking emotional support) were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression. Linear regression analysis showed that only previous history of miscarriage, conception after IVF, as well as denial, behavioral disengagement and acceptance coping strategies were significantly related to anxiety, worries and depressive symptomatology. The risk factors found in this study could help clinicians target anxiety and depression screening to high-risk populations of pregnant women. Provision of adequate training for obstetricians and midwives in the detection and management of anxiety and depression among pregnant women should help to decrease the psychological burden during pregnancy. PMID:23558945
Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Lykeridou, Katerina
Background Almost 50% of women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) don't receive adequate antenatal care. Women's views can offer important insights into this problem. Qualitative studies exploring inadequate use of antenatal services have been undertaken in a range of countries, but the findings are not easily transferable. We aimed to inform the development of future antenatal care programmes through a synthesis of findings in all relevant qualitative studies. Methods and Findings Using a predetermined search strategy, we identified robust qualitative studies reporting on the views and experiences of women in LMICs who received inadequate antenatal care. We used meta-ethnographic techniques to generate themes and a line-of-argument synthesis. We derived policy-relevant hypotheses from the findings. We included 21 papers representing the views of more than 1,230 women from 15 countries. Three key themes were identified: “pregnancy as socially risky and physiologically healthy”, “resource use and survival in conditions of extreme poverty”, and “not getting it right the first time”. The line-of-argument synthesis describes a dissonance between programme design and cultural contexts that may restrict access and discourage return visits. We hypothesize that centralised, risk-focused antenatal care programmes may be at odds with the resources, beliefs, and experiences of pregnant women who underuse antenatal services. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there may be a misalignment between current antenatal care provision and the social and cultural context of some women in LMICs. Antenatal care provision that is theoretically and contextually at odds with local contextual beliefs and experiences is likely to be underused, especially when attendance generates increased personal risks of lost family resources or physical danger during travel, when the promised care is not delivered because of resource constraints, and when women experience covert or overt abuse in care settings. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Finlayson, Kenneth; Downe, Soo
Background Malaria remains one of the largest public health problems facing the developing world. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are an effective intervention against malaria. ITN delivery through routine health services, such as antenatal care (ANC) and childhood vaccination (EPI), is a promising channel of delivery to reach individuals with the highest risk (pregnant women and children under five years old). Decisions on whether to deliver ITNs through both channels depends upon the reach of each of these systems, whether these are independent and the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of each. Predictors of women attending ANC and EPI separately have been studied, but the predictors of those who attend neither service have not been identified. Methods Data from Chad, Mali and Niger demographic and health surveys (DHS) were analyzed to determine risk factors for attending neither service. A conceptual framework for preventative health care-seeking behaviour was created to illustrate the hierarchical relationships between the potential risk factors. The independence of attending both ANC and EPI was investigated. A multivariate model of predictors for non-attendance was developed using logistic regression. Results ANC and EPI attendance were found to be strongly associated in all three countries. However, 47% of mothers in Chad, 12% in Mali and 36% in Niger did not attend either ANC or EPI. Region, mother's education and partner's education were predictors of non-attendance in all three countries. Wealth index, ethnicity, and occupation were associated with non-attendance in Mali and Niger. Other predictors included religion, healthcare autonomy, household size and number of children under five. Conclusions Attendance of ANC and EPI are not independent and therefore the majority of pregnant women in these countries will have the opportunity to receive ITNs through both services. Although attendance at ANC and EPI are not independent, delivery through both systems may still add incrementally to delivery through one alone. Therefore, there is potential to increase the proportion of women and children receiving ITNs by delivering through both of these channels. However, modelling is required to determine the level of attendance and incremental potential at which it's cost effective to deliver through both services.
The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in women attending the antenatal clinic at Goroka Hospital was 14%. 32% of those positive for HBsAg also had hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), indicative of an infectious state. The mean HBV DNA level in HBeAg-positive women was 1800 pg/ml. These results suggest that vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus may be of importance in Papua New Guinea. Tattooing is common in this population: 91% of women in the study had tattoos. Methods employed in tattooing are a potential health risk but in a community which is now exposed to hepatitis B virus early in life tattooing practices are not important in the transmission of hepatitis B infection. PMID:2346045
Spooner, V; Richens, J; Sanders, R
Of an unselected group of 159 women attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic 20% (32) had symptoms of urethritis. A positive correlation existed between the finding of more than 10 polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) per high-power field in the Gram-stained urethral smear and the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Conversely, these organisms were rarely isolated if
J E Wallin; S E Thompson; A Zaidi; K H Wong
Toxoplasmosis is a well-documented cause of bad obstetric history (BOH) and a major reason of congenitally-acquired infection. The study was conducted to determine the seropositivity of toxoplasmosis in women with BOH, attending the antenatal clinic of the Mamata General Hospital, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study subjects included 105 antenatal women with BOH and 105 antenatal women who had previous normal deliveries. A serological evaluation was carried out to determine the presence of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, using commercial diagnostic kits, by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The seropositivity for Toxoplasma was 49.52% in the study group compared to 12.38% in the control group. The difference in seropositivity was significant (p=0.00). The seroprevalence gradually increased with advancing age. Abortion (51.92%) was the commonest form of pregnancy wastage, followed by stillbirths (36.53%) and premature deliveries (7.69%). The seropositivity of toxoplasmosis was significantly higher in the study group than that in the control group, and the seropositivity played an important role in determining the foetal outcome. Considering the subclinical pattern of infection, routine serological test is recommended for all pregnant women for both IgG and IgM antibodies. PMID:22524124
Sarkar, Munmun Das; Anuradha, B; Sharma, Neelam; Roy, Rabindra Nath
Background Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri) antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Methods A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367) with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414) provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. Results The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy) rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Conclusions Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary services, and working in partnership with community-based providers. Combining multi-agency resources to increase continuity of carer, culturally responsive care, and capacity building, including creating opportunities for Indigenous employment, education, and training is desirable, but challenging. Empirical evidence from our Evaluation provided the leverage for a multi-agency agreement to progress this goal within our catchment area.
The relationship of depressive disorders with early parental losses and rearing experiences was studied among 120 pregnant women. They were diagnosed following the Research Diagnostic Criteria using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Loss experience was defined either as loss of a parent before the age of 16 by death, or separation for 12 months or longer. The perceived rearing experience was examined by administering the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). An onset of depressive disorders, antenatal depression, was observed among 19 (16%) women. Those women with antenatal depression were significantly more likely to have experienced bereavement of either of the parents (21%) than those women without it (5%). Discriminant function analysis revealed that two PBI scores, lower paternal care and higher maternal protection, were significant in predicting antenatal depression. Parental bereavement and 'affectionless control' (low care and overprotection) seem to be additive in predisposing to antenatal depression, though the small number of the samples render statistical analysis impracticable. PMID:8000470
Kitamura, T; Toda, M A; Shima, S; Sugawara, M
Objectives To explore sociodemographic determinants of perceived quality of antenatal care (ANC) at the primary care level. Methods A survey of 452 randomly selected pregnant women accessing antenatal care at the primary healthcare facilities in Sagamu\\u000a Local Government Area (LGA) of Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. The relationships between 13 sociodemographic characteristics\\u000a of women and their overall perception of the quality
Olufemi T. Oladapo; Modinat O. Osiberu
Summary The acceptability of routine psychosocial assessments to women and staff at an antenatal clinic of a public hospital in Sydney, Australia, was investigated. 104 English-speaking women had a telephone interview within a few days of the psychosocial assessment, and 65 of these women also participated in a telephone interview 5–8 weeks after the birth. 14 midwives who had administered
S. Matthey; T. White; J. Phillips; R. Taouk; T. T. Chee; B. Barnett
Little is known about the causal factors of antenatal depressive symptomatology in the Chinese population. A total of 1,527 pregnant women were recruited to investigate the predictors of antenatal depressive symptoms using a stress process model in a prospective longitudinal study. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Stryker Adjustment Checklist, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List were used. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that marital conflict, parent-in-law conflict, and social support predicted antenatal depressive symptoms. Psychiatric nurses can identify predictors to help initiate preventive intervention. PMID:21621734
Background Women with diabetes are sometimes advised to express breast milk antenatally to prepare for breastfeeding and to store colostrum for infant feeding in preventing or treating hypoglycaemia after the birth. The acceptability, risks and benefits of this practice have not been evaluated. This was aimed to investigate the pattern of antenatal breast expression uptake and its relationship with birth outcomes in women with diabetes. Methods This was part of a two year retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with diabetes (type 1, 2 and gestational diabetes) who gave birth during 2001–2003 in Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (n = 94). The information on the practice of antenatal breastfeeding expression and birth outcomes was collected via self-administered questionnaires and by examining maternity records. Results Thirty-seven percent of women (35/94) recalled that they were advised to express antenatally and 17% did (16/94). The mean gestational age at birth for women who hand-expressed was lower than that for those who did not (mean difference (MD) (95% confidence intervals (CI)): -1.2 (?2.4 to 0.04), p = 0.06). A higher proportion of babies from the antenatal expression group were admitted to special care baby units (SCBU) (MD (95% CI): 21% (?3.9 to 46.3). Conclusions Less than half the women who stated that they were advised to express, did so. There seems to be an indication that antenatal breast milk expression and lower gestational age at birth are associated. The trend of a higher rate of SCBU admission for babies from the breast milk expression group compared to those who did not express antenatally is of concern. An appropriately-powered randomised controlled trial is needed to determine the safety of this practice and its acceptability to women and health professionals before it can be recommended for implementation in practice.
Background Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of HBV in the general Cameroonian population or among antenatal attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, correlates and patterns of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yaounde-Cameroon. Methods This was a cross-sectional multicenter study carried out in a referral hospital and two secondary hospitals in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon. The study lasted 15 months (March 2011 to June 2012), and recruited 959 pregnant women. Patient recruitment was consecutive. The HBsAg was tested using the Monalisa HBsAg Ultra ELISA kit. Other hepatitis B markers were equally tested. We used the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 14.0 software to conduct a quantitative analysis of the derived data. Simple descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, and proportions were used to describe the data. We tested for association in categorical variables using the chi-squared (?2) test. The odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to summarise the strength of association between specific binary exposure and outcome variables. The level of statistical significance for the study was set at p?0.05. Results The prevalence of hepatitis B infection (HBsAg) among antenatal clinic attenders in our setting was 7.7%. Amongst these women, just 5.4% were previously aware of their HBsAg status. The rate of HBV infectivity was high, with 28% of HBsAg positive women having evidence of HBeAg in their plasma, and up to 45.8% of these women lacking antibodies against hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe). About 41% of the pregnant women had had previous contact with HBV as evidenced by the positive status for anti-HBc. Just 2.7% of the pregnant women had previously been vaccinated against HBV. The mean age for HBsAg positivity in our setting was 26.9 ±4.7 years, and the most affected age group was the 25 – 29 years age group. There was no statistically significant association between age or other socio-demographic risk factors and HBsAg status. Numerous risk factors for HBV acquisition exists in our settings, but amongst these, only a history of a contact with hepatitis B infection was found to be significantly associated with HBsAg positivity (OR 1.63, 95% C.I 1.15-2.30). Finally, the coinfection rate of HBV/HIV was 0.74%. Conclusion The prevalence of hepatitis B among pregnant women in Cameroon is high, and the pattern tends towards high infectivity and therefore increased risk of perinatal HBV transmission. These highlight the need to step up preventive efforts against hepatitis B infection and perinatal HBV transmission in our community.
A postal survey of 31 European centres was conducted to document current practices regarding screening and management of\\u000a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected pregnant women and their children. Antenatal HCV prevalence was low. Universal antenatal\\u000a screening programmes were in place in ten centres, selective screening occurred in ten other centres, two did not specify\\u000a the type of policy, and there was
L. Pembrey; M.-L. Newell; P.-A. Tovo
Delivery assistance by skilled health personnel is a key progress indicator for Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims to reduce the worldwide maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. The role of socio-demographic factors in determining skilled attendance at delivery has been widely explored, but relatively little attention has been paid to the effect of gender power relations on delivery care. This analysis investigated whether women's status in the household, as measured by their experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), affected skilled attendance at most recent delivery among women in Kenya. Cross-sectional data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS). 975 ever-married women who had given birth in the past year and completed the KDHS domestic violence module were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between skilled attendance and IPV. In this sample, 46% reported having experienced any type of IPV, with 39% reporting physical violence, 21% emotional violence, and 13% sexual violence. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and number of antenatal visits, lifetime experience of emotional violence was found to decrease the odds of skilled attendance at most recent delivery by 40%, while lifetime experience of physical violence reduced the odds by 29%. Women's experience of IPV may influence receipt of skilled attendance during parturition, and should be addressed as national programs and their international partners align efforts to contribute to the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5. PMID:21688110
Goo, Leslie; Harlow, Siobán D
Toxoplasma gondii infection duri ng pregnanc y represents the ri sk for congenit al infection. Serological screening of pregnant women f or T. go ndii is not a routine antenatal ex amination in health centers in Zaria Nigeria. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence of anti- T. gondii IgG and I gM antibodies among pregnant women in
A. J. Randawa
The purpose of this study was to gain insight from views of Tanzanian men and women on couple voluntary counselling and testing (CVCT) for HIV at antenatal clinics (ANC) in Tanzania. Data collection was through focus group discussions with women aged 25–48 years (n=8), women 18–24 years (n=10), HIV counsellors (n=11), men aged 20–34 (n=8) and men aged 35–75 years
R. Mlay; H. Lugina; S. Becker
Objective To lay the basis for planning an improved malaria control programme in Bungoma District, Kenya. Methods By means of a cluster sample household survey an investigation was conducted into the home management of febrile children, the use of bednets, and attendance at antenatal clinics. Findings Female carers provided information on 314 recently febrile children under 5 years of age,
Mary J. Hamel; Amos Odhacha; Jacquelin M. Roberts; Michael S. Deming
In response to the concept that a good postpartum program should begin prenatally, this study was designed to determine whether the provision of expert contraceptive counseling during the antenatal period would have an impact on contraceptive uptake, patterns of contraceptive usage, and pregnancy rates during the first year after childbirth. Over 500 women attending antenatal clinics in each of three
K. B. Smith; Z. M. van der Spuy; L. Cheng; R. Elton; A. F. Glasier
Postnatal depression (PND) affects 10-15% of postnatal women worldwide, yet it is poorly recognized and managed. Among the psychological interventions, which are used to manage PND, cognitive-behavioural therapy was found to be effective and promising. In the past decade, research efforts have focused on developing effective antenatal interventions to prevent PND. Strong antenatal predictors such as antenatal depressive symptoms have been identified for targeted early intervention or prevention to help reduce the risk of developing depression after childbirth. However, the findings regarding effectiveness of antenatal preventive interventions have been inconsistent. Based on the reports of previous studies, a brief group antenatal intervention using cognitive-behavioural approach is necessary, particularly one with sensitivity for Chinese woman. This paper reports the details of a nurse-led cognitive-behavioural programme developed and tested in, and for use with a sample of Hong Kong pregnant women. The trial run showed that the programme was feasible to be implemented and well received by the participants. PMID:23425377
Leung, Sharron S K; Lee, Antoinette M; Chiang, Vico C L; Lam, S K; Kuen, Yung Wai; Wong, Daniel F K
Thromboembolic disease is a major contributor to maternal mortality in the United Kingdom . Since approximately 50% of events occur in the antenatal period, addressing the issue of postpartum thromboprophylaxis alone is unlikely to have a significant impact on the incidence of this condition. Women at particular risk of thromboembolic disease include those with a past history of a thromboembolic
Janet E. Brennand; Isobel D. Walker; Ian A. Greer
Background Women’s preferences for type of maternity caregiver and birth place have gained importance and have been documented in studies reported from the developed world. The purpose of our study was to identify Syrian women’s preferences for birth attendant and place of delivery. Methods Interviews with 500 women living in Damascus and its suburbs were conducted using a pretested structured questionnaire. Women were asked about their preferences for the birth attendant and place of delivery, and an open-ended question asked them to give an explanation for their preferences. We analyzed preferences and their determinants, and also agreement between actual and preferred place of delivery and birth attendant. Results Only a small minority of women (5–10%) had no preference. Most (65.8%) preferred to give birth at the hospital, and 60.4 percent preferred to be attended by doctors compared with midwives (21.2%). More than 85 percent of women preferred the obstetrician to be a female. The actual place of delivery and type of birth attendant did not match the preferred place of delivery and type of birth attendant. Women’s reasons for preferences were a perception of safety and competence, and communication style of caregiver. Conclusions Most women preferred to be delivered by female doctors at a hospital in this population sample in Syria. The findings suggest that proper understanding of women’s preferences is needed, and steps should be taken to enable women to make good choices. Policies about maternity education and services should take into account women’s preferences.
Bashour, Hyam; Abdulsalam, Asmaa
Objective Data are scarce regarding the sociodemographic predictors of antenatal and postpartum depression. This study investigated whether race/ethnicity, age, finances, and partnership status were associated with antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms. Setting 1662 participants in Project Viva, a US cohort study. Design Mothers indicated mid?pregnancy and six month postpartum depressive symptoms on the Edinburgh postpartum depression scale (EPDS). Associations of sociodemographic factors with odds of scoring >12 on the EPDS were estimated. Main results The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 9% at mid?pregnancy and 8% postpartum. Black and Hispanic mothers had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms compared with non?Hispanic white mothers. These associations were explained by lower income, financial hardship, and higher incidence of poor pregnancy outcome among minority women. Young maternal age was associated with greater risk of antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms, largely attributable to the prevalence of financial hardship, unwanted pregnancy, and lack of a partner. The strongest risk factor for antenatal depressive symptoms was a history of depression (OR?=?4.07; 95% CI 3.76, 4.40), and the strongest risk for postpartum depressive symptoms was depressive symptoms during pregnancy (6.78; 4.07, 11.31) or a history of depression before pregnancy (3.82; 2.31, 6.31). Conclusions Financial hardship and unwanted pregnancy are associated with antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms. Women with a history of depression and those with poor pregnancy outcomes are especially vulnerable to depressive symptoms during the childbearing year. Once these factors are taken in account, minority mothers have the same risk of antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms as white mothers.
Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Kleinman, Ken; Abrams, Allyson; Harlow, Bernard L; McLaughlin, Thomas J; Joffe, Hadine; Gillman, Matthew W
Background The use of antenatal care (ANC) varies between countries and in different settings within each country. Most previous studies of ANC in Vietnam have been cross-sectional, and conducted in rural areas before the year 2000. This study aims to compare the pattern and the adequacy of ANC used in rural and urban Vietnam following two cohorts of pregnant women. Methods A comparative study with two cohorts comprising totally 2132 pregnant women were followed in two health and demographic surveillance sites, one rural and one urban in Hanoi province, Vietnam. The women were quarterly interviewed using a structured questionnaire until delivery. The primary information obtained was the number and the content of ANC visits. Results Almost all women reported some use of ANC. The average number of visits was much lower in the rural setting (4.4) than in the urban (7.7). In the rural area, 77.2% of women had at least three visits and 69.1% attended ANC during the first trimester. The corresponding percentages for the urban women were 97.2% and 97.2%. Only 20.3% of the rural women compared to 81.1% of the urban women received all core ANC services. As a result, the adequate use of ANC was 5.2 times in the urban than in the rural setting (78.3% compared to 15.2%). Nearly all women received ultrasound examination during pregnancy with a mean value of 6.0 scans per woman in the urban area and 3.5 in the rural. Most rural women used ANC at commune health centres and private clinics while urban women mainly visited public hospitals. Expenditure related to ANC utilization for the urban women was 7.1 times that for the urban women. Conclusion The women in the rural area attended ANC later, had fewer visits and received much fewer services than urban women. The large disparity in ANC adequacy between the two settings suggests special attention for the ANC programme in rural areas focusing on its content. Revision and enforcement of the national guidelines to improve the behaviour and practice of both users and providers are necessary.
To identify key features of communication across antenatal (prenatal) care that are evaluated positively or negatively by\\u000a service users. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used to explore communication experiences of thirty pregnant\\u000a women from diverse social and ethnic backgrounds affiliated to a large London hospital. Data were analysed using thematic\\u000a analysis. Women reported a wide diversity of experiences. From
Rosalind Raine; Martin Cartwright; Yana Richens; Zuhura Mahamed; Debbie Smith
The goal of the study is to evaluate the risk factors having an impact on attendance at antenatal care services in Latvia\\u000a during the years of economic transition as well as the impact of those factors on mothers and newborns’ health. Based on Latvian\\u000a statistical data and published surveys, we analysed the possible impact of social and economic factors on
Dace Rezeberga; Gunta Lazdane; Gilbert G. G. Donders
Background Antenatal care is named as one of the four pillars initiatives of the Safe Motherhood Initiative. While many of routine antenatal care procedure have little effect on maternal mortality and morbidity, some of these have been ascertained as beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate coverage of antenatal care and identify factors associated with inadequacy of antenatal care in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out in Kassala, eastern Sudan during September-October 2009. Household surveys were conducted. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from women who had been pregnant within the last year, or pregnant more than 14 weeks. Results Out of 900 women investigated for antenatal care coverage, 811(90%) women had at least one visit. Only 11% of the investigated women had ? four antenatal visits, while 10.0% had not attended at all. Out of 811 women who attended at least one visit, 483 (59.6%), 303 (37.4%) and 25 (3.1%) women attended antenatal care in the first, second and third trimester, respectively. In logistic regression analyses, while maternal age and residence were not associated with inadequacy of antenatal care (<2 visits), high parity (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.1-3.5; P = 0.01) and husband education ? secondary level (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.3-4.2; P = 0.002) were associated with inadequacy of antenatal care. Conclusions Antenatal care showed a low coverage in Kassala, eastern Sudan. This low coverage was associated with high parity and low husband education.
To investigate the association between demo-socio-economic status, obstetric variables, family conflict, social support and\\u000a antenatal depressive symptoms among 1,609 Chinese women from four regional public hospitals during their second trimester\\u000a of pregnancy in Chengdu. The vulnerable factors of depressive symptoms were explored in terms of their demo-socio-economic,\\u000a obstetric, and Chinese family relational aspects, as well as in terms of social
Ying Lau; Lei Yin; Yuqiong Wang
The increasing demand for genetic assessment for familial breast cancer has necessitated the development of cancer genetics services. However, little is known about the factors motivating the client population likely to approach these services. A cross sectional questionnaire survey of 1000 women with a family history of breast cancer was conducted to identify self-reported reasons for attending a familial breast cancer clinic and possible differences in the characteristics of women who were attending for diverse reasons. Before attendance at clinic, 833 women completed a baseline questionnaire (83% response rate). Women who gave personal risk (n=188), awareness of a family history (n=120), risk to family members (n=84), reassurance (n=69), genetic testing (n=65), breast screening (n=46), or prevention (n=39) as their main reason for attending were compared on demographic and medical variables, and on psychological variables including general anxiety, cancer worry, perceived risk, and attitudes towards prophylactic surgery and genetic testing. Important differences in the psychological characteristics of these groups were found, which were unrelated to reported family history. In particular, women who primarily wanted genetic testing felt extremely vulnerable to developing breast cancer, were more likely to be considering prophylactic surgery, and perceived fewer limitations of testing. Those who primarily wanted reassurance were highly anxious about the disease. We recommend that cancer genetics services take into consideration the informational and psychological needs and concerns of their client group.???Keywords: familial breast cancer; familial breast cancer clinics; reasons for attending; psychological characteristics
Brain, K.; Gray, J.; Norman, P.; Parsons, E.; Clarke, A.; Rogers, C.; Mansel, R.; Harper, P.
This qualitative cross-sectional survey, undertaken in the antenatal booking clinics of a hospital in central London, explores pregnant women’s responses to routine HIV testing, examines their reasons for declining or accepting the test, and assesses how far their responses fulfil standard criteria for informed consent. Of the 32 women interviewed, only 10 participants were prepared for HIV testing at their
Paquita de Zulueta; Mary Boulton
The number of HIV-positive heterosexuals in the UK is increasing, with a resultant increase in the number of pregnant women who are HIV-positive. The benefits of diagnosing an HIV-positive woman antenatally are well established. The Department of Health of England issued guidelines recommending named voluntary antenatal testing, with a view to achieving a maternal diagnosis rate of 90% by December 2002. In Northern Ireland the policy was distributed in 2003. The screening programme in our hospital had an uptake rate of 98.7 %. Responses to a questionnaire to evaluate the process indicate that HIV testing was associated with low levels of anxiety and that patients were well satisfied with the counselling they received.
McCracken, G.; McGeagh, J.; Roberts, R.
Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in 242 women attending family planning clinics in Concepción, Chile was studied using the Nugent criteria. The syndrome was present in 33.1% of women. No statistical difference was found between the occurrence of bacterial vaginosis and the of oral contraceptives (31.9%) or intrauterine devices (33.1%). The sensitivity and specificity of the Nugent criteria compared with the
Erica Castro; Mariana Dominguez; Paola Navarrete; Gioconda Boggiano; Raúl Zemelman
The increasing demand for genetic assessment for familial breast cancer has necessitated the development of cancer genetics services. However, little is known about the factors motivating the client population likely to approach these services. A cross sectional questionnaire survey of 1000 women with a family history of breast cancer was conducted to identify self-reported reasons for attending a familial breast
Kate Brain; Jonathon Gray; Paul Norman; Evelyn Parsons; Angus Clarke; Cerilan Rogers; Robert Mansel; Peter Harper
OBJECTIVE: To examine ethnic, relationship, health, and mental health factors for a cohort of women with HIV infection attending an inner London clinic. DESIGN AND METHODS: Structured schedules were utilised to analyse ethnic group, family, and reproduction issues, mental and physical health for 100 women drawn consecutively from attenders at an inner London HIV clinic RESULTS: 51% of the women were non-ethnic minority groups and 49% were from ethnic groups. HIV testing was often as a result of symptoms or partner illness. One in five had disclosed their status to one person only or no one. Ethnic minority women were more likely to restrict disclosure. Forty seven per cent of the women had 100 children with more children reported in ethnic minority families; 28% of the children had been tested for HIV and five were confirmed HIV positive; 9% of children were born after HIV diagnosis. Nineteen women reported one or more termination of pregnancy, the majority before HIV diagnosis. Three quarters had a partner of whom 56 knew the partner's status. Women with HIV positive partners were more likely to have children. Women kept in ignorance of partner status were more likely to be ethnic minority women. Thirty two per cent had an AIDS diagnosis, diagnosed mostly in the UK. Medical and counselling service uptake was high. Gynaecological problems were common (49% had one or more problem) and 34% had at least one hospital admission. A wide range of counselling issues were recorded, with variations over time. Suicidal issues were relevant for 13% of women (69% ideation, 31% attempts). Significant life events were noted for many women with allied coping demands. CONCLUSIONS: There are a wide range of issues for women with HIV and systematic differences between ethnic and non-ethnic women and those with or without children.
Sherr, L; Barnes, J; Elford, J; Olaitan, A; Miller, R; Johnson, M
To investigate the association between demo-socio-economic status, obstetric variables, family conflict, social support and antenatal depressive symptoms among 1,609 Chinese women from four regional public hospitals during their second trimester of pregnancy in Chengdu. The vulnerable factors of depressive symptoms were explored in terms of their demo-socio-economic, obstetric, and Chinese family relational aspects, as well as in terms of social support. The women were identified as having depressive symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Marital conflict and parent-in-law conflict were assessed using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Stryker Adjustment Checklist, respectively. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List was used to measure the functional aspects of the perceived availability of social support. The prevalence rates of antenatal mild to severe and severe depressive symptoms were 35.9 and 7.3%, respectively. The logistic regression analysis revealed that participants who had been married for a shorter time, had a single source of financial support, a poor marital and mother-in-law relationship, and who lacked social support were more likely to have mild to severe depressive symptoms (P<0.05). Participants who were younger, who had lived in Chengdu for a shorter period of time, had a shorter duration of marriage, solo financial support, poor marital relationship, and poor social support were more likely to have severe depressive symptoms (P<0.05). The findings provide important information for prenatal screening, public health and social policies to help in the reduction of antenatal depressive symptoms among the Chengdu population. PMID:20957512
Lau, Ying; Yin, Lei; Wang, Yuqiong
Assessed condom use, barriers to condom use, oral contraceptive use, partnership status and STD history in 457 15-30 year-old women attending four family planning clinics. Subjects were classified into three condom use groups: Non Users (37%); Current Users (33%); and Past Users (30%). Factor analysis revealed five barriers to condom use: Partner's Perception, Peer's Perception, PleasureAntimacy, Communication, and Low Perceived
Mark J. Detzer; Sally J. Wendt; Laura J Solomon; Ellen Dorsch; Berta M. Geller; Jay Friedman; Hanna Hauser; Brian S. Flynn; Anne L. Dorwaldt
Should obstetricians see women with normal pregnancies? A multicentre randomised controlled trial of routine antenatal care by general practitioners and midwives compared with shared care led by obstetricians
AbstractObjective: To compare routine antenatal care provided by general practitioners and midwives with obstetrician led shared care.Design: Multicentre randomised controlled trial.Setting: 51 general practices linked to nine Scottish maternity hospitals.Subjects: 1765 women at low risk of antenatal complications.Intervention: Routine antenatal care by general practitioners and midwives according to a care plan and protocols for managing complications.Main outcome measures: Comparisons of
J S Tucker; M H Hall; P W Howie; M E Reid; R S Barbour; C du V Florey; G M McIlwaine
This study evaluated the prevalence of gestational nightblindness among postpartum women seen at the University Maternal Hospital of the Federal University in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and the association of this symptom with a biochemical indicator (serum retinol levels) and sociodemographic, anthro- pometric and antenatal care variables. In total, 262 postpartum women, who did not receive vitamin A supplementation during
Cláudia Saunders; Maria do Carmo Leal; Mirian Martins Gomes; Luciana Ferreira Campos; Bianca Amaral; Ana Paula Pereira; Thiapó de Lima; Rejane Andréa Ramalho
Background Improving utilization of antenatal care is a critical strategy for achieving China’s Millennium Development Goal of decreasing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). While overall utilization has increased recently in China, an urban vs. rural disparity in access remains. Here we aim to assess utilization of antenatal care in rural-to-urban migrant women and identify its risk and protective factors. Methods Migrant women who had been living in Shanghai for more than six months, delivered in one of the two study hospitals between August 2009 and February 2010, and provided written consent were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results Of 767 women, 90.1% (691) made at least one antenatal care visit, while 49.7% (381) had adequately utilized antenatal care (i.e., made five or more antenatal care visits). Only 19.7% of women visited an antenatal care center during the first trimester (12 weeks). Women between the ages of 25 and 30 and women older than 30 were more likely than younger women to have adequately utilized antenatal care (AOR=2.2 and 1.9, 95%CI=1.4-3.5 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). Women whose husbands held Shanghai residency status (AOR=4.9, 95%CI=2.2-10.9) or who had more than 10 years of education (AOR=1.8, 95%CI=1.2-2.9), previously experienced a miscarriage or abortion (AOR=2.2, 95%CI=1.3-3.8), had higher household income (AOR=1.6, 95%CI=1.0-2.5) were more likely to have adequately utilized antenatal care. Women from high-income households were also more likely to receive antenatal care during the first 12 weeks (AOR=3.5, 95%CI=1.7-5.5). Conclusions Many migrant women in Shanghai did not receive adequate antenatal care and initiated antenatal care later than the optimal first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Poor antenatal care utilization was associated with low socioeconomic status, education, and certain demographic factors. Tailored health education for both migrant women and their husbands should be strengthened to improve maternal health. Financing supports should be provided to improve the utilization of antenatal care.
The antenatal care debate has focused on the frequency of antenatal care, its content, continuity, quality, organization, effectiveness and impact on morbidity and mortality. Established antenatal care schedules have been called into question. Randomized controlled trials comparing reduced schedules with routine antenatal care have shown similar or better outcomes for the reduced protocols. Furthermore, midwives, with or without physicians, can provide continuous maternity care comparable to obstetrician-led care. Some women disliked the new protocol, but a reduced protocol of high quality provided by competent midwives is cost-effective, spares scarce physicians and ensures women's satisfaction. It is recommended globally. PMID:15332747
Baldo, M H
Ukraine has one of the highest levels of HIV prevalence in Europe. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) is routine during antenatal care (ANC) in Ukraine, with nearly all pregnant women receiving HIV testing. National policies state that testing is voluntary, with consent and confidentiality protections, but little is known about actual testing implementation and adherence to these policies. A qualitative study was conducted to explore women's and providers' experiences of HIV testing during ANC, with a focus on consent, counseling, and confidentiality. In-depth interviews were conducted at two urban women's clinics and one semi-urban women's clinic in Donetsk, one of the most HIV-affected regions in Ukraine. Interviews targeted HIV-positive and HIV-negative women recently tested during ANC, as well as health providers involved in administering HIV tests during ANC. Interview analysis revealed gaps between policies and practices, as well as differences in perceptions of aspects of PITC between women and providers. Notable findings included: wide variation in informed consent procedures; providers reporting feeling unequipped to provide adequate counseling; and post-testing practices that may jeopardize patient confidentiality, particularly in the semi-urban site. These findings suggest the need for additional training and support, especially outside major cities, to ensure that HIV testing practices during ANC adhere to Ukrainian policy and global principles regarding PITC. PMID:23317036
Tripathi, Vandana; King, Elizabeth J; Finnerty, Erin; Koshovska-Kostenko, Nataliia; Skipalska, Halyna
Depression during pregnancy is a significant public health problem because of its negative effects on the health of both mother and infant. Data on its prevalence and determinants are lacking in Bangladesh. To estimate the prevalence of depression during pregnancy and to identify potential contributory factors among rural Bangladeshi women, a community-based study was conducted during 2005 in Matlab sub-district, a rural area of eastern Bangladesh. Three hundred and sixty-one pregnant women were identified through an existing health and demographic surveillance system covering a population of 110,000 people. The women were interviewed at home at 34-35 weeks of pregnancy. Information on risk factors was collected through structured questionnaires, with the Bangla version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS-B) used to measure their psychological status. Both univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were applied using the SPSS 15.0 statistical software. The prevalence of depression at 34-35 weeks pregnancy was 33% (95% CI, 27.6-37.5). After adjustment in a multivariate logistic regression model, a history of being beaten by her husband either during or before the current pregnancy had the highest association with depression followed by having an unhelpful or unsupportive mother-in-law or husband, and family preference for a male child. Of the antenatally depressed women, 17 (14%) admitted to thoughts of self-harm during the pregnancy. This paper further explores the reasons why women have considered some form of self-harm during pregnancy. Depression during pregnancy is common among Bangladeshi women, with about a third being affected. The study highlights the need to allocate resources and develop strategies to address depression in pregnancy. PMID:19468825
Gausia, Kaniz; Fisher, Colleen; Ali, Mohammed; Oosthuizen, Jacques
OBJECTIVE--To describe the epidemiology of endometriosis in women attending family planning clinics with special reference to contraceptive methods. DESIGN--Non-randomised cohort study with follow up of subjects for up to 23 years. Disease was measured by first hospital admission rates since endometriosis can be diagnosed with accuracy only at laparotomy or laparoscopy. SETTING--17 family planning centres in England and Scotland. SUBJECTS--17,032 married white women aged 25-39 years at entry during 1968-74 who were taking oral contraceptives or using an intrauterine device or diaphragm. About 99% of the women approached agreed to participate and annual loss to follow up was about 0.3%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Diagnosis of endometriosis, age, parity, and history of contraceptive use. RESULTS--Endometriosis was significantly related to age, peaking at ages 40-44 (chi 2 for heterogeneity = 30.9, p < 0.001). Endometriosis was not linked to duration of taking oral contraceptives. Nevertheless, the risk of endometriosis was low in women currently taking oral contraceptives (relative risk 0.4; 95% confidence interval 0.2 to 0.7), but higher in women who had formerly taken them (1.8; 1.0 to 3.1 in women who had stopped 25-48 months previously) compared with women who had never taken the pill. A similar pattern was seen for use of intrauterine devices (relative risk 0.4 (0.2 to 0.7) in current users and 1.4 (0.4 to 3.2) in users 49-72 months previously compared with never users). No association was found between endometriosis and use of the diaphragm. CONCLUSIONS--Oral contraceptives seem to temporarily suppress endometriosis. Endometriosis may be diagnosed late in women using intrauterine devices as pain and bleeding occur with both.
Vessey, M P; Villard-Mackintosh, L; Painter, R
This paper provides an empirical analysis of attendance to Division I women’s collegiate basketball programs from 2000-2009. The evidence suggests that women’s basketball attendance is sensitive to many of the same variables known to influence attendance to men’s collegiate basketball, including current and recent team quality, recent post-season success, and school characteristics. We further investigate whether college football is a
Craig A. Depken II; Courtney Williams; Dennis P. Wilson
Since 2000, the Israeli Public Health Services have established eight Maternal-and-Child-Health (MCH) stations in unrecognised Bedouin-Arab villages in South Israel in order to reduce barriers to healthcare.The goals of this pilot study were: (1) to explore the new MCH stations' impact on antenatal care (ANC) accessibility; and (2) to compare access to ANC between women from villages with MCH stations
Nora Gottlieb; Ilana Belmaker; Natalya Bilenko; Nadav Davidovitch
Little is known about how an expecting woman’s view of pregnancy, the child, and motherhood relates to antenatal and postpartum\\u000a depressive symptomatology. In this study, we investigated the influence of the maternal orientations, as described by Raphael-Leff\\u000a (Psychological processes of childbearing. The Anna Freud Centre, London, 2005), on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in pregnant and postpartum women. Four hundred
Johan C. H. van Bussel; Bernard Spitz; Koen Demyttenaere
Summary Routine psychosocial assessment was introduced at an Australian public hospital’s antenatal clinic in 2001. After modification, this assessment consists of 12 questions together with the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS). Data are reported for responses to these questions from over 2,000 English-speaking women presenting to the clinic in a 12-month period. These 12 questions and the EDS were categorised into
S. Matthey; J. Phillips; T. White; P. Glossop; U. Hopper; P. Panasetis; A. Petridis; M. Larkin; B. Barnett
SummaryThis was a hospital-based cross-sectional study of 224 randomly selected antenatal women receiving care at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. The study aimed to seek the attitude and preferences of respondents about social support during childbirth and also identify variables that may influence their decisions. Seventy-five per cent of respondents desired companionship in labour. Approximately 86% preferred their husband as companion while 7% and 5% wanted their mother and siblings as support person respectively. Reasons for their desire for social support were emotional (80.2%), spiritual (17.9%), errands (8.6%) and physical activity (6.8%). Socio-demographic variables found to be statistically significant on logistic regression analysis for the desire of a companion in labour were nulliparity (OR 3.57, 95% CI 1.49-8.52), professionals (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.22-7.94) and women of other ethnic groups besides Yoruba (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.02-8.26), which is the predominant ethnic group in the study area. Only those with post-secondary education were found to want their husbands as doula (OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.08-8.11). More than half of the respondents wanted information about labour prior to their experience. It is important that Nigerian women are allowed the benefit of social support during childbirth, particularly as there is a lack of one-to-one nursing care and other critical services, including epidural analgesia in labour, at many of the health care facilities in Nigeria. Men could play a pivotal role in the process of introducing support in labour so as to improve the outcome for both the mother and her newborn. PMID:17988429
Morhason-Bello, I O; Olayemi, O; Ojengbede, O A; Adedokun, B O; Okuyemi, O O; Orji, B
Background? Patient autonomy in antenatal screening is a high priority for policy developers in many countries. Objective? This paper presents women's understandings of how health professionals should facilitate informed screening choices with an emphasis on their understandings of autonomy and advice. Design, setting and participants? The study was carried out in 2009 in the UK, using a qualitative approach. Ninety-eight participants of African, British White, Caribbean, Chinese and Pakistani origin had semi-structured interviews, which were analysed using framework analysis. Results? Four themes were identified during the analysis: 'Meanings of advice in antenatal screening: the advice continuum', 'Recognition of the role of health professionals in decision making', 'Understandings of advice in the context of autonomous decision making' and 'Reasons given for wanting advice'. Women said they valued advice from health professionals to make decisions about antenatal screening, but their understandings of 'advice' ranged from information giving only to direction about screening choices. Conclusion? Many women wanted health professionals to support the process of making informed choices by engaging in discussion and did not see advice as incompatible with making autonomous choices. However, some women wanted direction about whether to have a screening test or not, something which policy and guidelines explicitly prohibit. This may cause an ethical dilemma for health professionals who are required to both support women's preference for care and adhere to a policy of non-directiveness. Further clarification is needed on how health professionals should support the process of making informed choices when women ask for clear direction on screening choices. PMID:22512856
Ahmed, Shenaz; Bryant, Louise D; Tizro, Zahra; Shickle, Darren
This study examines variations in ante-natal care (ANC) and family planning in Krakor, Pursat, Cambodia between 1996 and 1998. Population-based survey interviews were conducted with a total of 291 women in 1996 and 211 women in 1998. An intervention strategy designed to enhance the skills and roles of Health Centre staff, Village Health Volunteers (VHVs) and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs)
Barbara Main; Tony Lower; Ross James; Ian Rouse
This study explored how friendships made at antenatal classes preserve new mothers’ well-being, postnatally. Eight women from the United Kingdom who had attended antenatal classes in the third trimester were interviewed following the birth of their first baby. Transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Findings suggest that friendships made at antenatal classes are not only unique but also support women’s mental health and enhance self-efficacy because the women give and gain reassurance that their babies are developing normally. Such friendships may reduce demands on overstretched social and health-care services. Childbirth educators, midwives, and nurses can be encouraged to capitalize on the opportunity provided by antenatal classes to facilitate the formation of friendships that can help mothers to find “a new equilibrium.”
Nolan, Mary L.; Mason, Victoria; Snow, Sarah; Messenger, Wendy; Catling, Jonathon; Upton, Penney
This qualitative cross-sectional survey, undertaken in the antenatal booking clinics of a hospital in central London, explores pregnant women's responses to routine HIV testing, examines their reasons for declining or accepting the test, and assesses how far their responses fulfil standard criteria for informed consent. Of the 32 women interviewed, only 10 participants were prepared for HIV testing at their booking interview. None of the women viewed themselves as being particularly at risk for HIV infection. The minority (n = 6) of the participants who declined testing differed from those who accepted, by interpreting test acceptance as risky behaviour, privileging the negative outcomes of HIV positivity and expressing an inability to cope with these, should they occur. Troublingly, only a minority of women (n = 9) had a broad understanding of the rationale for the test, and none fulfilled the standard criteria for informed consent. This study suggests that, although routine screening combined with professional recommendation may be successful in increasing uptake, this may be at the cost of eroding informed consent. Protecting third parties (notably fetuses) from a preventable disease may outweigh the moral duty of respecting autonomy, enshrined in Western bioethical tradition. Nevertheless, such a policy should be made transparent, debated in the public domain and negotiated with women seeking antenatal care. PMID:17526682
de Zulueta, Paquita; Boulton, Mary
Objective: to compare a woman-centered antenatal breast-feeding programme based on concepts of peer and husband\\/partner support with a control group, who received antenatal breast-feeding education led by a midwife childbirth educator.Design: longitudinal, quasi-experimental study.Setting: a large private hospital in Sydney.Participants: a convenience sample of 179 primiparous women who attended childbirth education classes were recruited. One hundred and fifty-four participants remained
Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women’s perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA) services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. Methods A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1) statistical software. Results Almost half (48.8%) of the respondents were in the age group 26–35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6%) of the respondents had been pregnant 2–4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: “taking normal delivery” (56.7%), “providing antenatal services” (16.5%), “performing caesarean section” (13.0%), “providing family planning services” (8.2%), and “performing gynaecological surgeries” (5.6%). About 6/10 (61.0%) respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7%) respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%), normal delivery (36.1%), “special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits” (1.9%), “concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong” (15.1%), and family planning services (1.9%). Reasons for using TBA services were: “TBA services are cheaper” (50.9%), “TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment” (34.0%), “TBA services are closer to my house than hospital services” (13.2%), “TBAs provide more compassionate care than orthodox health workers” (43.4%), and “TBA service is the only maternity service that I know” (1.9%). Approximately 8/10 (79.2%) of the users (past or current) opined that TBA services are effective but could be improved with some form of training (78.3%). More than three-quarters (77.1%) opposed the banning of TBA services. Almost 7/10 (74.8%) users were satisfied with TBA services. Conclusion Study findings revealed a positive perception and use of TBA services by the respondents. This underlines the necessity for TBAs’ knowledge and skills to be improved within permissible standards through sustained partnership between TBAs and health systems. It is hoped that such partnership will foster a healthy collaboration between providers of orthodox and traditional maternity services that will translate into improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes in relevant settings.
Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Akintujoye, IA
Objective: to examine the effects of footwear on balance in a sample of older women attending a day hospital. Design: this was a crossover trial with a quasi-randomised allocation. Setting: assessments took place in the geriatric day hospital. Subjects: a cohort of 100 older women aged 60 years and over attending a day hospital. Methods: demographic data and a brief
N. FRANCES HORGAN; F IONA CREHAN; E MMA BARTLETT; F IONA KEOGAN; A. M. O'Grady; A LLAN R. MOORE; C. F. Donegan; M ARTINA CURRAN
Objective: Magnesium level is known to decline during pregnancy. A suggested role for magnesium deficiency in conditions like pre-eclampsia and pre-term birth has prompted studies with conflicting evidence. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypomagnesemia in pregnancy, while the secondary objectives attempted to define maternal and fetal outcome due to hypomagnesemia. Subjects and Methods: A pilot study was performed to determine the mean serum magnesium level for the population of female patients attending the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The result of the pregnant population in the pilot study was used as a reference for hypomagnesemia in this study. Thereafter, a prospective cohort study of antenatal women recruited in the second trimester and followed-up till delivery and 1 week post-partum was done. Serum magnesium estimates were done with samples collected at recruitment and delivery. The magnesium levels determined at recruitment were used to divide the subjects into two groups of hypomagnesemic and normomagnesemic patients. Their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were used to generate a database for analysis. Results: The prevalence of magnesium deficiency was 16.25%. Hypomagnesemia was significantly correlated with the occurrence of pre-eclampsia ( P = 0.011), leg cramps ( P = 0.000) and pre-term birth ( P = 0.030). A logistic regression analysis showed that hypomagnesemia had an Odds ratio of 22 for pre-eclampsia. There was no maternal mortality or early neonatal death. Conclusion: Pre-eclampsia and pre-term birth are associated with hypomagnesemia in pregnancy; hence, magnesium supplementation or magnesium-rich diet consisting of green leafy vegetables, soy milk and legumes may improve outcome. PMID:23974737
Enaruna, N O; Ande, Aba; Okpere, E E
This study explored how friendships made at antenatal classes preserve new mothers' well-being, postnatally. Eight women from the United Kingdom who had attended antenatal classes in the third trimester were interviewed following the birth of their first baby. Transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Findings suggest that friendships made at antenatal classes are not only unique but also support women's mental health and enhance self-efficacy because the women give and gain reassurance that their babies are developing normally. Such friendships may reduce demands on overstretched social and health-care services. Childbirth educators, midwives, and nurses can be encouraged to capitalize on the opportunity provided by antenatal classes to facilitate the formation of friendships that can help mothers to find "a new equilibrium." PMID:23730129
Nolan, Mary L; Mason, Victoria; Snow, Sarah; Messenger, Wendy; Catling, Jonathon; Upton, Penney
Antenatal screening has become standard practice in many countries. However, not all pregnant women choose to be tested. In the UK, the incidence of some birth defects is found to be higher in babies of Asian women than in those of women from other ethnic groups, while there is some evidence suggesting that ethnic minorities, especially Asian women, are less likely to undergo antenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis, the reasons for which are unclear. This study aims to identify and describe the literature on issues around antenatal screening and prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders among women of Asian descent in western countries. The Medline, CINAHL, ASSIA and PsycInfo databases were searched for the period of 1995 and 2010. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria and were therefore reviewed. In general, Asian women were found to hold favourable attitudes towards testing. However, they reported a poorer understanding of testing than white women and not being offered a test, and were less able to make informed choices. Asian women in the UK and Australia were found to be less likely than their white counterparts to have undergone prenatal diagnosis, while such differences were not found in the USA and Canada. The equity of access to quality antenatal care, alongside comprehensive well thought out antenatal screening programmes, can be assured if strategies are in place which actively involve all ethnic groups and take account of social and cultural appropriateness for the population served. An understanding of broad factors that inform women's decision-making on test uptake would help health professionals provide women and their families with more culturally sensitive information and support that they may additionally need to make more informed choices. PMID:22067008
Background Infant mortality has shown a steady decline in recent years but a marked socioeconomic gradient persists. Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving pregnancy outcomes, but the effectiveness of specific antenatal care programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in socioeconomically disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted a systematic review, focusing on evidence from high income countries, to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative models of organising or delivering antenatal care to disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women vs. standard antenatal care. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO, HMIC, CENTRAL, DARE, MIDIRS and a number of online resources to identify relevant randomised and observational studies. We assessed effects on infant mortality and its major medical causes (preterm birth, congenital anomalies and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)) Results We identified 36 distinct eligible studies covering a wide range of interventions, including group antenatal care, clinic-based augmented care, teenage clinics, prenatal substance abuse programmes, home visiting programmes, maternal care coordination and nutritional programmes. Fifteen studies had adequate internal validity: of these, only one was considered to demonstrate a beneficial effect on an outcome of interest. Six interventions were considered 'promising'. Conclusions There was insufficient evidence of adequate quality to recommend routine implementation of any of the programmes as a means of reducing infant mortality in disadvantaged/vulnerable women. Several interventions merit further more rigorous evaluation.
OBJECTIVE: to explore experiences with nutrition-related information during routine antenatal care among women of different ethnical backgrounds. DESIGN: individual interviews with seventeen participants were conducted twice during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis were inspired by an interpretative phenomenological approach. SETTING: participants were purposively recruited at eight Mother and Child Health Centres in the area of Oslo, Norway, where they received antenatal care. PARTICIPANTS: participants had either immigrant backgrounds from African and Asian countries (n=12) or were ethnic Norwegian (n=5). Participants were pregnant with their first child and had a pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index above 25kg/m(2). FINDINGS: participants experienced that they were provided with little nutrition-related information in antenatal care. The information was perceived as presented in very general terms and focused on food safety. Weight management and the long-term prevention of diet-related chronic diseases had hardly been discussed. Participants with immigrant backgrounds appeared to be confused about information given by the midwife which was incongruent with their original food culture. The participants were actively seeking for nutrition-related information and had to navigate between various sources of information. CONCLUSIONS: the midwife is considered a trustworthy source of nutrition-related information. Therefore, antenatal care may have considerable potential to promote a healthy diet to pregnant women. Findings suggest that nutrition communication in antenatal care should be more tailored towards women's dietary habits and cultural background, nutritional knowledge as well as level of nutrition literacy. PMID:23481338
M Garnweidner, Lisa; Sverre Pettersen, Kjell; Mosdøl, Annhild
Objective. To assess the contents of antenatal care and to relate the findings to the adequacy of maternal health care. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Public secondary health-care facilities. Participants. Pregnant women. Interventions. Three hundred and ninety consecutive pregnant women attending 12 selected secondary health facilities were recruited proportionate to the client load recorded for each facility during the year preceding
KAYODE OSUNGBADE; SAMUEL OGINNI; ADERONKE OLUMIDE
ABSTRACT. Outside traditional risk-oriented public health campaigns, few sexuality education opportunities exist for adult women, particularly those in partnered relationships, that address issues related to sexual desire and pleasure. Data were collected from 677 women attending in-home sex toy parties to assess whether they sought sexuality-related information at a recent party they attended. Participants reported asking 765 questions at parties.
Kristen N. Jozkowski; Vanessa Schick; Debby Herbenick; Michael Reece
Objective The objective of these analyses was to explore maternal antnatal decisions about baby walker use, factors associated with these decisions and the relationship between antenatal plans to use a walker and postnatal walker use.Design Cross sectional study.Setting Mothers-to-be (n = 1174) participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial of an educational package to reduce walker use in 64 general
Rachel Illingworth; Denise Kendrick; Jacqueline Collier; Amanda Woods; Kim Wattse; Michael Dewey; Chih-Mei Chen
Educated Black women are often wrongly viewed as a homogeneous group, obscuring important differences of social class. Black women of different social classes do not face the same route to college. Both race and class operate within urban settings to either create or limit the options and strategies available to Blacks for attaining educational…
|This article examines issues relating to widening participation in postgraduate study programmes in Greece. It focuses on a group of mature women and examines their experiences from attending a novel postgraduate e-learning programme at the University of the Aegean. It presents findings from a study, which looked into mature women's decision to…
Vryonides, Marios; Vitsilakis, Chryssi
Objective: To characterize smoking behaviors of caregivers whose children attend a large urban pediatric primary care center.Design: Descriptive survey. Women (n = 479) classified as smokers completed a questionnaire including demographics, smoking habits, measures of addiction, social reinforcers for smoking, attitudes and knowledge, other health and safety habits, and the pediatrician's role in smoking cessation counseling.Results: Of 1421 women surveyed,
Judith Groner; Karen Ahijevych; Lindsey Grossman; Leslie Rich
Objectives To determine exposure to violence by a partner or spouse among women attending general practice and its association with respondents' demographic and personal characteristics; frequency of inquiry about violence by general practitioners; and women's views on routine questioning about domestic violence by general practitioners. Design Cross sectional, self administered, anonymous survey. Setting 22 volunteer Irish general practices. Participants 1871
Fiona Bradley; Mary Smith; Jean Long; Tom O'Dowd
Contaxt: Every year in India 6000 to 8000 children are born with thalassaemia major. The birth of such a child produces considerable physical and economic strain on the affected child, its family and the community at large. Thus, the emphasis must shift from the treatment to the prevention of such births in the future. Aims: To find out the prevalence of the Beta Thalassaemia trait among the pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinics in a Primary Health Centre, by using the NESTROF test; to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the study subjects, to find out the pregnancies which were ‘at risk’ of delivering babies with Thalassaemia major and to find out the ‘awareness’ of the pregnant women regarding Thalassaemia. Material and Methods: This exploratory study was conducted in a PHC which was attached to the Department of Community Medicine of a medical college which was situated in Bangalore, India, for a period of 3 months. All the pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic and the husbands of the NESTROF positive women were included in the study. The details regarding the sociodemographic characteristics of the women were collected on a structured proforma and the NESTROF test was performed. Results: Out of the 210 pregnant women who were tested, 18 (8.5%) were thalassaemia carriers. 12 (66.6%) of them were between 20 – 25 years of age. 5 (27.7%) were born out of 2nd degree consanguineous marriages. 7 (38.8%) had a history of abortions, among which 6 (33.3%) were in the 1st trimesters of their pregnancies. Out of the 18 positive women, 9 (50%) had turned up with their husbands. All of the husbands were negative for the Thalassaemia carrier status. Thus, there was no pregnancy which was at a risk of delivering babies with thalassaemia major. None (100%) of the pregnant women were aware of the disease, thalassaemia. Conclusions: The prevalence of the Beta Thalassaemia trait among the pregnant women was 8.5%.
Kulkarni, Praveen; Masthi, N R Ramesh; Niveditha, SR; Suvarna, R
A survey of 452 pregnant women accessing care at first level public health facilities in a local government area in southwest Nigeria was conducted to assess their perspectives on the quality of antenatal care received. Majority of the women expressed satisfaction with the level of expertise and basic technical competence of their careproviders. Less than 30% were pleased with the existing patients' referral mechanisms. At least two-thirds received as much information as desired in salient aspects of antenatal health information needs. Frequency of antenatal visits was "about the same as expected" for 93.6% of the women. The mean reported waiting time before antenatal consultation was 131.1 minutes although 106 (43.3 %) women expected to be attended within 30 minutes of arrival. Approximately two-thirds of women were unhappy about their involvement in decision-making with respect to birth planning and postpartum contraception. Compared to other elements of quality, women were least pleased with constellation of services especially sanitary facilities and number of skilled healthcare providers. On the whole, respondents expressed a high level of overall satisfaction (81.4%) with the care received. The survey indicates that antenatal women may generally express satisfaction with the quality of services despite some inconsistencies between received care and their expectations of the facilities. PMID:19435014
Oladapo, Olufemi T; Iyaniwura, Christianah A; Sule-Odu, Adewale O
OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women, in particular those whose behaviour or that of their partners put them at "low risk" of infection. DESIGN--Voluntary named or anonymous HIV testing of pregnant women during 21 months (November 1988 to July 1990). SUBJECTS AND SETTING--All women who planned to continue their pregnancy and attended clinics serving the antenatal populations of Edinburgh and Dundee. All women admitted for termination of pregnancy to gynaecology wards serving the pregnant populations of Dundee and outlying rural areas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Period prevalence of HIV antibody positivity. RESULTS--91% of antenatal clinic attenders and 97% of women having termination of pregnancy agreed to HIV testing on a named or anonymous basis. HIV period prevalences for antenatal clinic attenders and women having termination of pregnancy tested in Dundee were 0.13% and 0.85% respectively, and for antenatal clinic attenders tested in Edinburgh 0.26%. For those at "low risk" rates for antenatal clinic attenders and women having termination of pregnancy in Dundee were 0.11% and 0.13%, and for antenatal clinic attenders in Edinburgh 0.02%. In Dundee HIV prevalence among women having a termination of pregnancy (0.85%) was significantly greater than that among antenatal clinic attenders (0.13%). CONCLUSIONS--HIV infection is undoubtedly occurring among women at "low risk," and it is clear that a policy of selective testing of those at only "high risk" is inadequate for pregnant women living in areas of high prevalence such as Edinburgh and Dundee. Moreover, when studying pregnant populations in such areas there is the need to include those having a termination of pregnancy.
Goldberg, D. J.; MacKinnon, H.; Smith, R.; Patel, N. B.; Scrimgeour, J. B.; Inglis, J. M.; Peutherer, J. F.; Urquhart, G. E.; Emslie, J. A.; Covell, R. G.
How well do antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees represent the general population? A comparison of HIV prevalence from ANC sentinel surveillance sites with a population-based survey of women aged 15-49 in Cambodia
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HIV-1 prevalence among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees in Cambodia provided a reasonable estimate of HIV-1 prevalence among all women 15-49 years. Methods Antenatal clinic attendees in five HIV sentinel surveillance sites (five provinces) were selected by consecutive sampling (n = 1695). The population survey of females by household was carried
Vonthanak Saphonn; Leng Bun Hor; Sun Penh Ly; Samrith Chhuon; Tobi Saidelb; Roger Detelsc
This paper examines the role of living–learning (L\\/L) programs in undergraduate women’s plans to attend graduate school in\\u000a STEM fields. Using data from the 2004–2007 National Study of Living Learning Programs (NSLLP), the only existing multi-institutional,\\u000a longitudinal dataset examining L\\/L program outcomes, the findings show that women’s participation in women-only STEM-focused\\u000a L\\/L programs is positively associated with STEM graduate school
Katalin Szelényi; Karen Kurotsuchi Inkelas
This paper examines the association of women's social networks with the use of skilled birth attendants in uncomplicated pregnancy and childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh. The Network-Episode Model was applied to determine if network structure variables (density / kinship homogeneity / strength of ties) together with network content (endorsement for or against a particular type of birth attendant) explain the type of birth attendant used by women above and beyond the variance explained by women's individual attributes. Data were collected by interviewing a representative sample of 246 women, 18–45 years of age, using survey and social network methods between October and December 2008. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. Results suggest that the structural properties of networks did not add to explanatory value but instead network content or the perceived advice of network members add significantly to the explanation of variation in service use. Testing aggregate network variables at the individual level extends the ability of the individual profile matrix to explain outcomes. Community health education and mobilization interventions attempting to increase demand for skilled attendants need to reflect the centrality of kinship networks to women in Bangladesh and the likelihood of women to heed the advice of their network of advisors with regard to place of birth.
Edmonds, Joyce K.; Hruschka, Daniel; Bernard, H. Russell; Sibley, Lynn
Background In 2001, the WHO Antenatal Care Trial (WHOACT) concluded that an antenatal care package of evidence-based screening, therapeutic interventions and education across four antenatal visits for low-risk women was not inferior to standard antenatal care and may reduce cost. However, an updated Cochrane review in 2010 identified an increased risk of perinatal mortality of borderline statistical significance in three cluster-randomized trials (including the WHOACT) in developing countries. We conducted a secondary analysis of the WHOACT data to determine the relationship between the reduced visits, goal-oriented antenatal care package and perinatal mortality. Methods Exploratory analyses were conducted to assess the effect of baseline risk and timing of perinatal death. Women were stratified by baseline risk to assess differences between intervention and control groups. We used linear modeling and Poisson regression to determine the relative risk of fetal death, neonatal death and perinatal mortality by gestational age. Results 12,568 women attended the 27 intervention clinics and 11,958 women attended the 26 control clinics. 6,160 women were high risk and 18,365 women were low risk. There were 161 fetal deaths (1.4%) in the intervention group compared to 119 fetal deaths in the control group (1.1%) with an increased overall adjusted relative risk of fetal death (Adjusted RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.03, 1.58). This was attributable to an increased relative risk of fetal death between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation (Adjusted RR 2.24; 95% CI 1.42, 3.53) which was statistically significant for high and low risk groups. Conclusion It is plausible the increased risk of fetal death between 32 and 36 weeks gestation could be due to reduced number of visits, however heterogeneity in study populations or differences in quality of care and timing of visits could also be playing a role. Monitoring maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes when implementing antenatal care protocols is essential. Implementing reduced visit antenatal care packages demands careful monitoring of maternal and perinatal outcomes, especially fetal death.
Cervical cancer is recognized as tobacco-related malignancy. HPV vaccination and introducing screening protocols were found as the best way to decrease cervical cancer related mortality. Besides the cytological screening programs of the uterine cervix smear, nowadays co-factors of carcinogenesis are taken into consideration, also. The aim of our study was to analyse data included in questionnaire of 310 women who underwent cytological examination wi thin cervical cancer screening program in our Department in 2011. There were no differences found between studied groups on rate of oral contraceptive or hormonal therapy use, as well as age and tobacco smoking. However, taking into account education and smoking, there was a significant correlation observed. Patients with higher education level smoked less often. The special attention should be paid to promote smoking cessation in the group of women who finished education on elementary level. PMID:23421059
Walentowicz-Sad?ecka, Ma?gorzata; Sad?ecki, Pawe?; Marsza?ek, Andrzej; Grabiec, Marek
This Web site provides annotated links to high quality academic resources useful for the study of women in early modern Europe and the Americas. Specific focus is on periods between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries; however, links also include some medieval and nineteenth century resources. Selected by members of the Arts and Humanities Team of the University of Maryland Libraries, materials range from bibliographic databases to full-text resources, images, and sound recordings. Viewers may search the database by keyword or browse by title, subject, reference type, time period, language, or geographic area. Although most of the resource links are free, some require a license for access.
Objective: To study the incidence of domestic violence in pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a local teaching hospital. Study design: All pregnant women attending their first antenatal clinic in Tsan Yuk Hospital between 11th August and 3rd November, 1998 were interviewed by a designated research nurse (Y.Y.J.L.) using a standard questionnaire (Abuse Assessment Screen) to detect the incidence
W. C. Leung; T. W. Leung; Y. Y. J. Lam; P. C. Ho
The effectiveness in the prevention of perinatally transmitted HBV infection was assessed in 11858 pregnant women consecutively recruited in public and private hospitals in six Italian regions during a 2 months period in 2001. Of them 10881 (91.8%) attended HBsAg antenatal screening. The overall HBsAg prevalence was 1.7% (CI 95%: 1.4–1.9); it was 1.4% (CI 95%: 1.2–1.7) in pregnant women
Tommaso Stroffolini; Elvira Bianco; Andrè Szklo; Rossana Bernacchia; Crescenzo Bove; Mario Colucci; Rosa Cristina Coppola; Pierluigi Lopalco; Antonino Parlato; Pietro Ragni; Andrea Simonetti; Carla Zotti; Alfonso Mele
Grounded in a model of service utilization, this study conceptualizes attendance of African-American women at an HIV prevention intervention as associated with influences across three ecological domains--individual, service (program), and social network. First, the texts of responses to semistructured, open-ended elicitation interviews were…
Pinto, R. M.; McKay, M. M.
|Grounded in a model of service utilization, this study conceptualizes attendance of African-American women at an HIV prevention intervention as associated with influences across three ecological domains--individual, service (program), and social network. First, the texts of responses to semistructured, open-ended elicitation interviews were…
Pinto, R. M.; McKay, M. M.
Objective: To develop a screening strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis in private gynecology practices. Study design: Forty-six gynecologists in the greater Paris area systematically screened all consecutive female attenders during one week. Endocervical swabs were tested by enzyme immunoassay, and, if positive, was further confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody test. Results: Overall (out of 1893 women tested), the chlamydia prevalence was
J. Warszawski; L. Meyer; P. Weber
This study focused on patterns of communication between midwives and pregnant women and their implications for information, choice and control as now advocated in UK government policy. An earlier casenote audit evaluation of a new organisation of maternity care where midwives carry a personal caseload indicated no difference in quality standards of midwifery care from conventional care, yet women using
Increased incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer (IBC) after introduction of organized screening has prompted debate about overdiagnosis. The aim was to examine the excess in incidence of DCIS and IBC during the screening period and the deficit after women left the program, and thereby to estimate the proportion of overdiagnosis. Women invited to the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program were analyzed for DCIS or IBC during the period 1995-2009. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated for attended vs. never attended women. The IRRs were adjusted by Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method and applied to a set of reference rates and a reference population to estimate the proportion of overdiagnosis during the women's lifespan after the age of 50 years. A total of 702,131 women were invited to the program. An excess of DCIS and IBC was observed among women who attended screening during the screening period; prevalently invited women aged 50-51 years had a MH IRR of 1.86 (95% CI 1.65-2.09) and subsequently invited women aged 52-69 years had a MH IRR of 1.56 (95% CI 1.45-1.68). In women aged 70-79 years, a deficit of 30% (MH IRR 0.70, 95% CI 0.62-0.80) was observed 1-10 years after they left the screening program. The estimated proportion of overdiagnosis varied from 10 to 20% depending on outcome and whether the women were invited or actually screened. The results highlight the need for individual data with longitudinal screening history and long-term follow-up as a basis for estimating overdiagnosis. PMID:23355313
Falk, Ragnhild Sørum; Hofvind, Solveig; Skaane, Per; Haldorsen, Tor
Increased incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer (IBC) after introduction of organized screening has prompted debate about overdiagnosis. The aim was to examine the excess in incidence of DCIS and IBC during the screening period and the deficit after women left the program, and thereby to estimate the proportion of overdiagnosis. Women invited to the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program were analyzed for DCIS or IBC during the period 1995–2009. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated for attended vs. never attended women. The IRRs were adjusted by Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method and applied to a set of reference rates and a reference population to estimate the proportion of overdiagnosis during the women's lifespan after the age of 50 years. A total of 702,131 women were invited to the program. An excess of DCIS and IBC was observed among women who attended screening during the screening period; prevalently invited women aged 50–51 years had a MH IRR of 1.86 (95% CI 1.65–2.09) and subsequently invited women aged 52–69 years had a MH IRR of 1.56 (95% CI 1.45–1.68). In women aged 70–79 years, a deficit of 30% (MH IRR 0.70, 95% CI 0.62–0.80) was observed 1–10 years after they left the screening program. The estimated proportion of overdiagnosis varied from 10 to 20% depending on outcome and whether the women were invited or actually screened. The results highlight the need for individual data with longitudinal screening history and long-term follow-up as a basis for estimating overdiagnosis.
Falk, Ragnhild S?rum; Hofvind, Solveig; Skaane, Per; Haldorsen, Tor
BACKGROUND: To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Uganda improved the antenatal care package by including a strong commitment to increase distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and introduction of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP) as a national policy in 2000. This study assessed uptake of both ITNs and IPTp-SP
Mpungu S Kiwuwa; Patrobas Mufubenga
BackgroundTo estimate the effectiveness of routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis for preventing sensitisation in pregnant Rhesus negative women, and to explore whether this depends on the treatment regimen adopted.MethodsTen studies identified in a previous systematic literature search were included. Potential sources of bias were systematically identified using bias checklists, and their impact and uncertainty were quantified using expert opinion. Study results
Rebecca M. Turner; Myfanwy Lloyd-Jones; Dilly O. C. Anumba; Gordon C. S. Smith; David J. Spiegelhalter; Hazel Squires; John W. Stevens; Michael J. Sweeting; Stanislaw J. Urbaniak; Robert Webster; Simon G. Thompson
Antenatal education is a crucial component of antenatal care, yet practice and research demonstrate that women and men now seek far more than the traditional approach of a birth and parenting program attended in the final weeks of pregnancy. Indeed, women and men participating in this study recommended a range of strategies to be provided during the childbearing year, comparable to a “menu in a restaurant.” Their strategies included three program types: “Hearing Detail and Asking Questions,” “Learning and Discussing,” and “Sharing and Supporting Each Other.” The characteristics of each type of program are identified in this article. The actual learning methods the study participants recommended to be incorporated into the programs were “Time to Catch Up and Focus,” “Seeing and Hearing the Real Experience,” “Practicing,” and “Discovering.”
Svensson, Jane; Barclay, Lesley; Cooke, Margaret
Objective To study the predictive value of antenatal maternal mental representations about the child for mother–infant interaction at\\u000a three months after birth.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Probands A total of 73 pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination during the third trimester, who agreed to return with\\u000a their baby for the interaction study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Antenatally a questionnaire for assessing maternal representations about the child was given to
Leonhard Thun-Hohenstein; Christa Wienerroither; Mynda Schreuer; Gunda Seim; Heinrich Wienerroither
SUMMARY The study was carried out in symptomatic and asymptomatic women attending peripheral health centres to determine the laboratory prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI), reproductive tract infection (RTI) and HIV. A total of 4090 women in four study groups were subjected to general and speculum examination and screened for aetiological agents of RTI/STI by standard laboratory techniques. The main complaint was vaginal discharge, singly (11·2%) or along with other symptoms (49·0%). Prevalence of RTI/STI/HIV infection was 36·8%. Agents of RTIs were harboured by 24·3% and that of STIs by 12·5%. HIV seroprevalence was very low (0·1%). HSV-2 represented the commonest aetiological agent of STIs, suggesting the necessity of including anti-HSV treatment in the national syndromic management guidelines. The present study highlights the importance of routine RTI/STI screening of antenatal mothers to avoid adverse consequences to the unborn child, and periodic surveys to detect the infection pattern in symptomatic and asymptomatic women, in order to control HIV infection.
RAY, K.; BALA, M.; BHATTACHARYA, M.; MURALIDHAR, S.; KUMARI, M.; SALHAN, S.
Purpose To examine reactions to the CDC revised recommendations for HIV testing by women attending community health clinics. Methods Thirty women attending three community clinics completed semi-structured individual interviews containing three questions about the recommendations. Thematic content analysis of responses was conducted. Findings All agreed with the recommendation for universal testing. Most viewed opt-out screening as an acceptable approach to HIV testing. Many emphasized the importance of provision of explicit verbal informed consent. The majority strongly opposed the elimination of the requirement for pre-test prevention counseling and spontaneously talked about the ongoing importance of post-test counseling. Conclusions There was strong support for universal testing of all persons 13-64 years old, but scant support for the elimination of pre-test prevention counseling. In general, respondents believed that verbal informed consent for testing as well as provision of HIV-related information before and after testing were crucial.
Burrage, Joe W.; Zimet, Gregory D.; Cox, Dena S.; Cox, Anthony D.; Mays, Rose M.; Fife, Rose S.; Fife, Kenneth H.
Background Sexual practices as an important aspect of reproductive health have many physical and psychological effects on people's lives, there is limited evidence on such practices and their pattern among Iranian women. Hence we aimed to determine different types of sexual practices among 19–45 year old married Iranian women. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 married women, aged 19–45 years, attending Taleghani Public Health Center for annual gynecologic examination during November 2008 to May 2009 using convenient sampling. The participants were enquired about their experience regarding different types of sex, as well as their views and feelings about such practices, using an anonymous questionnaire. Results The mean age of the participants was 34 years. All had ever experienced vaginal sex and 50.9% reported ever experience of other types of sex (non-vaginal), as well. Due to some stigma attached to non-vaginal sexual practices among women in Iran, the feelings of women with regard to different sexual practices were also examined in this paper. Conclusion This study showed that non-vaginal sex among women is considerable and because of less favourable views of women towards such practices, it seems that these practices might have psychologically impacts on women's life. Hence, counseling and educational programs designed for married men and women can include some factual information about different types of sex.
Hashemi, Somayeh; Seddigh, Sedighe; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Khansari, Seyed Mehdi Hasanzadeh; Khodakarami, Nahid
The study examines both the attitudes towards the role of women in society and the psychological masculinity\\/femininity manifested by a small group of Cuban-American college women. In Miami, 31 such women completed the Attitudes Towards Women Scale and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Overall, the means for this group corresponded with the established American norms. The authors thought that age, number
Oliva M. Espin; Beth Warner
A high proportion of maternal deaths are caused by abortion, especially induced abortion. This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of illegally-induced abortion prior to admittance and its associated risk factors in 8 maternity hospitals in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran, during 2003-04. In confidential interviews with 417 women who attended the hospitals with abortion, 50 (12.0%) reported that it was
F. Majlessi; A. R. Forooshani; M. Shariat
This study assessed hepatitis B prevalence among pregnant women attending health care facilities in rural Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected from 480 participants. HBsAg was positive in 0.4% of subjects, anti-HBc was positive in 21.5% and anti-HBs was positive in 8.5% of subjects. HBsAg was more prevalent among the older age group. Hepatitis B has a low prevalence among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. Existing hepatitis B vaccination schedule in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) to vaccinate the children in rural Bangladesh is appropriate. PMID:22299410
Shamsuzzaman, Md; Singhasivanon, P; Kaewkungwal, J; Lawpoolsri, S; Tangkijvanich, P; Gibbons, Robert V; Rahman, M; Alamgir, A S M; Mahtab, M A
This article describes a six-month State Government funded project conducted at a regional Victorian hospital. The aim of the project was to develop and introduce an antenatal risk assessment program to identify and manage psychosocially ‘at risk’ women and families. The results of the project indicate that the evidence-based assessment developed was acceptable to both expectant women and midwives. When
Lizette Willinck; Robyn Schubert
Outside traditional risk-oriented public health campaigns, few sexuality education opportunities exist for adult women, particularly those in partnered relationships, that address issues related to sexual desire and pleasure. Data were collected from 677 women attending in-home sex toy parties to assess whether they sought sexuality-related information at a recent party they attended. Participants reported asking 765 questions at parties. The
Kristen N. Jozkowski; Vanessa Schick; Debby Herbenick; Michael Reece
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to characterize African-American women attending a community clinic who report frequent douching (douching > or = 2 times per week). METHODS: A consecutive sample of 115 black women attending a community clinic were interviewed face-to-face about their douching practices. Logistic regression was used to control for age and compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Of the 115 women interviewed, 93% (107) had douched sometime during their lifetime; 16% (18) reported douching > or = 2 times per week. Frequent douchers compared with women who douche < 2 times per month were more likely to report douching after sex [89% (n=16) vs. 49% (n=32), odds ratio (OR): 5.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 26.2] or after discharge [89% (n=1 6) vs. 58% (n=38), OR: 8.11, 95% CI: 1.64, 40.1], and self-report a history of gonorrhea [28% (n=5) vs. 8% (n=5), OR: 4.87, 95% CI: 1.07, 22.2]. CONCLUSION: Further research should be done to understand the use of douching as an STD/HIV prevention method and the association between sexual risk behaviors and douching practices.
Smith, Lisa V.; Rudy, Ellen T.; Ivie, Sylvia D.; Lee, Donzella; Visscher, Barbara; Kerndt, Peter
The frequency of spontaneous genital arousal (GA) and persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) in women is unknown. The aim of this study was to conduct an anonymous survey to assess the frequency and nature of spontaneous GA and PGAD in women attending a walk-in sexual health clinic in London. Female patients completed a questionnaire, which included demographic information, medical, psychiatric and gynaecology history, the hospital anxiety and depression scale, and a somatization scale. Patients were then asked to complete three questions regarding spontaneous and persistent GA. Any patient with one or more symptoms then answered questions about the distress, intensity and duration of sensations. Ninety-six subjects participated. The mean age was 28.97 years. Thirty-two women (33.3%) answered 'yes' to at least one question regarding spontaneous or persistent GA and six women (6.3%) women answered 'yes' to all three questions. Only one subject fulfilled all five diagnostic criteria for PGAD. In conclusion, women report a high rate of spontaneous GA in the absence of desire or excitement. This has not been well described previously. A small proportion of women report multiple features of spontaneous and persistent GA, with chronicity over years, but without distress in most cases. Larger studies are needed. PMID:19625580
Garvey, L J; West, C; Latch, N; Leiblum, S; Goldmeier, D
The rapid scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and use of single dose Nevirapine (SD NVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) have raised fears about the emergence of resistance to the first line antiretroviral drug regimens. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of primary drug resistance (PDR) in a cohort of young (<25 yrs) HAART-naïve
Mqondisi Tshabalala; Justen Manasa; Lynn S. Zijenah; Simbarashe Rusakaniko; Gerard Kadzirange; Mary Mucheche; Seble Kassaye; Elizabeth Johnston; David Katzenstein
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence against women is common. The prevalence appears to be higher in north America than Europe. However, not all surveys have differentiated the experience of forced sex by a current or former partner. Few women are thought to report these experiences to their general practitioner (GP). AIM: To measure the prevalence of rape, sexual assault, and forced sexual intercourse by a partner among women attending general practices, to test the association between these experiences of sexual violence and demographic factors, and to assess the acceptability to women of screening for sexual violence by GPs. DESIGN OF STUDY: Cross-sectional survey. METHOD: A self-administered questionnaire survey of 1207 women aged over 15 years was carried out in 13 general practices in Hackney, east London. RESULTS: Eight per cent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.2 to 9.6) of women have experienced rape, 9% (95% CI = 7.0 to 10.6) another type of sexual assault, and 16% (95% CI = 13.6 to 18.1) forced sex by a partner in adulthood: 24% (95% CI = 21.2 to 26.5) have experienced one or more of these types of sexual violence. Experiences of sexual violence demonstrated high levels of lifetime co-occurrence. Women forced to have sex by partners experienced the most severe forms of domestic violence. One in five women would object to routine questioning about being raped and/or sexually assaulted, and one in nine about being forced to have sex by a partner. CONCLUSION: Experiences of sexual violence are common in the lives of adult women in east London, and they represent a significant public health problem. Those women who have one experience appear to be at risk of being victims again. A substantial minority object to routine questions about sexual violence.
Coid, Jeremy; Petruckevitch, Ann; Chung, Wai-Shan; Richardson, Jo; Moorey, Stirling; Cotter, Sarah; Feder, Gene S
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a causative factor for cervical cancer. Early detection of high risk HPV types might help to identify women at high risk of cervical cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the HPV prevalence and distribution in cervical smears in a sample of Greek women attending a gynecological outpatient clinic and to explore the determinants of the infection. Methods A total of 225 women were studied. All women underwent a regular gynecological control. 35 HPV types were studied; 6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 66, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85 and 89. Also, basic demographic information, sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behavior were recorded. Results HPV was detected in 22.7% of the study population. The percentage of the newly diagnosed women with HPV infection was 17.3%. HPV-16 was the most common type detected (5.3%) followed by HPV-53 (4.9%). 66.2% of the study participants had a Pap test during the last year without any abnormalities. HPV infection was related positively with alcohol consumption (OR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.04-4.63, P = 0.04) and number of sexual partners (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.44-3.25, P < 0.001), and negatively with age (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99, P = 0.03), and monthly income (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.44-0.89, P = 0.01). Conclusion The prevalence of HPV in women attending an outpatient clinic is high. Number of sexual partners and alcohol consumption were the most significant risk factors for HPV infection, followed by young age and lower income.
Since 1998, serum folate levels have increased nationally after mandatory fortification of cereal grain products with folic acid. Whether serum folate levels have increased among all women has not been well-studied. Identifying characteristics of women with lower serum folate levels would also be helpful in designing educational campaigns. Data for this report were collected during January 2000-January 2001. During 2000, blood samples were collected from 1,059 women aged 18-45 years who attended six family planning clinics in Georgia and analyzed for serum folate levels. This sample included women aged 18-25 years (60%), black women (41%), and women who had a high school education or less (49%). The median serum folate level (8.9 ng/mL) among this population was lower than the median of women of childbearing age (13.0 ng/mL) who participated in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In logistic regression analysis, women who were black (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.48, 3.96), who smoked (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.26, 3.43), or who used Depo-Provera contraceptive injection (manufactured by Pharmacia Corporation, Peapack, New Jersey) (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.15, 4.62) were more likely to be ranked in the lowest quartile (< or = 62 ng/mL) of serum folate concentrations when compared with the highest quartile (> 12.4 ng/mL). Women who consumed cereal regularly (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.62) or folic acid supplements (OR = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.09, 0.30) were the least likely to be in the lowest serum folate quartile. This study indicates that certain women are at greater risk for having lower serum folate levels, including women who are black, smokers, Depo-Provera users, and those less likely to eat cereal regularly or to take folic acid supplements. In Georgia, these data are useful in defining target populations (e.g., black women and smokers) for folic acid education campaigns because public health officials can develop contextually appropriate messages and outreach approaches for targeting women for folic acid interventions. Ongoing surveillance of serum folate status among women can guide future intervention efforts. PMID:12353509
Than, Lara C; Watkins, Margaret; Daniel, Katherine Lyon
OBJECTIVE: the objective of the study was to compare the differences in psychological well-being and quality of life during pregnancy and post partum of obese physically active women and obese physically inactive women enroled in a weight gain restriction programme. We also wanted to explore whether physical activity influences weight change or health status during pregnancy. DESIGN: a prospective intervention study. SETTING: antenatal care clinic. PARTICIPANTS: a total of 74 obese pregnant women in a physically active group and 79 obese women in a physically inactive group. MEASUREMENTS: the women kept diaries of their physical activity during pregnancy and answered the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Medical Study Short-Form Health Survey in gestational weeks 15 and 35 and 11 weeks post partum. Physical activity was measured in metabolic equivalents. FINDINGS: the physically active women experienced fewer depressive symptoms and estimated an improved quality of life during their pregnancies as measured by physical functioning, bodily pain, social functioning, role limitations due to emotional problems and general mental health as compared with the physically inactive women. There were no differences between the groups in gestational weight gain or weight change from early pregnancy to post partum or in prevalence of complications. KEY CONCLUSIONS: physical activity among obese pregnant women provides better psychological well-being and improved quality of life, but does not prevent weight change. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: staff at Antenatal Care Clinics that face obese pregnant women, should encourage and emphasise the benefits of being physically active throughout pregnancy. PMID:23419967
Claesson, Ing-Marie; Klein, Sofia; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Josefsson, Ann
Background Breast cancer is a major threat to Taiwanese women's health. Despite the controversy surrounding the effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE) in reducing mortality, BSE is still advocated by some health departments. The aim of the study is to provide information about how women decide to practice BSE and their experiences through the training process. Sixty-six women aged 27-50 were recruited. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using small group and individual in-depth interviews to collect data, and using thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques for data analysis. Results It was found that a sense of self-security became an important motivator for entering BSE training. The satisfaction in obtaining a sense of self-security emerged as the central theme. Furthermore, a ladder motivation model was developed to explain the participants' motivations for entering BSE training. The patterns of motivation include opportunity taking, clarifying confusion, maintaining health, and illness monitoring, which were connected with the risk perception for breast cancer. Conclusions We recognize that the way women decide to attend BSE training is influenced by personal and social factors. Understanding the different risk assessments women rely on in making their health decisions is essential. This study will assist researchers and health professionals to gain a better understanding of alternative ways to deal with breast health, and not to be limited by the recommendations of the health authorities.
Background Disparities in perinatal health care occur worldwide. If the UN Millennium Development Goals in maternal and child health are to be met, this needs to be addressed. This study was conducted to facilitate our understanding of the changing use of maternity care services in a semi-urban community in Entebbe Uganda and to examine the range of antenatal and delivery services received in health care facilities and at home. Methods We conducted a retrospective community survey among women using structured questionnaires to describe the use of antenatal services and delivery care. Results In total 413 women reported on their most recent pregnancy. Antenatal care attendance was high with 96% attending once, and 69% the recommended four times. Blood pressure monitoring (95%) and tetanus vaccination (91%) were the services most frequently reported and HIV testing (47%), haematinics (58%) and presumptive treatment for malaria (66%) least frequently. Hospital clinics significantly outperformed public clinics in the quality of antenatal service. A significant improvement in the reported quality of antenatal services received was observed by year (p < 0.001). Improvement in the range and consistency of services at Entebbe Hospital over time was associated with an increase in the numbers who sought care there (p = 0.038). Although 63% delivered their newborn at a local hospital, 11% still delivered at home with no skilled assistance and just under half of these women reported financial/transportation difficulties as the primary reason. Less educated, poorer mothers were more likely to have unskilled/no assistance. Simple newborn care practices were commonly neglected. Only 35% of newborns were breastfed within the first hour and delayed wrapping of newborn infants occurred after 27% of deliveries. Conclusion Although antenatal services were well utilised, the quality of services varied. Women were able and willing to travel to a facility providing a good service. Access to essential skilled birth attendants remains difficult especially for less educated, poorer women, commonly mediated by financial and transport difficulties and several simple post delivery practices were commonly neglected. These factors need to be addressed to ensure that high quality care reaches the most vulnerable women and infants.
Tann, Carolyn J; Kizza, Moses; Morison, Linda; Mabey, David; Muwanga, Moses; Grosskurth, Heiner; Elliott, Alison M
BACKGROUND: In Tanzania, more than 90% of all pregnant women attend antenatal care at least once and approximately 62% four times or more, yet less than five in ten receive skilled delivery care at available health units. We conducted a qualitative study in Ngorongoro district, Northern Tanzania, in order to gain an understanding of the health systems and socio-cultural factors
Moke Magoma; Jennifer Requejo; Simon Cousens; Veronique Filippi
Objective To determine the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus among pregnant women, to gauge the non-injecting, particularly sexual, risk of them being hepatitis C virus infected and to assess the potential impact of selective antenatal screening.Population Antenatal clinic attenders and women undergoing termination of pregnancy in 1997.Setting Ninewells Hospital, Dundee.Design Unlinked anonymous hepatitis C virus antibody testing of residual
D Goldberg; P. G McIntyre; R Smith; K Appleyard; J Dunlop; A Taylor; S Hutchinson
This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in women attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology clinics in Tehran, during May 2003 to October 2003. Women attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology clinics aged 15-42 were recruited by Sequential Random Sampling. Those who had not passed urine in the last hour were eligible. Informed consent was obtained and a questionnaire completed after being interviewed by a midwife. First void urine was collected and after DNA extraction from urine specimen, PCR tests were performed; urine DNA samples were tested by strand displacement amplification (SDA) for Chlamydia confirmation. 12.6% (133/1052) tested positive for Chlamydia by PCR. Of these PCR positive samples, 86 were available for re-testing by SDA and 67 were positive giving a correlation between the tests of 78%. This gave an overall true prevalence of 6.4% which is however, underestimated. No statistical differences were seen between patient age groups, details of personal and reproductive history and combined PCR and SDA positivity for C. trachomatis. A 12.6% prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis was found by PCR testing which is cost effective to screen and treat. Despite limitations in re-testing PCR-positive samples by SDA, a 78% correlation between tests confirms a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Non-invasive screening of women was therefore a success in this group of patients. As this was the first time that more sensitive molecular methods were used for detection of C. trachomatis, prevalence in such a big sample size, the results are considerable. However, we suggest further such testing. PMID:19093517
Chamani-Tabriz, Leili; Tehrani, Mahmood J; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi A; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza; Zeraati, Hojjat; Ghasemi, Jamileh; Asgari, Soheila; Kokab, Abasali; Eley, Adrian R
The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriage in Denmark is unknown, but expected to be low (0.1%). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of selective antenatal screening for HBV infection and the epidemiology of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among pregnant women. 4098 women were included in the study. Blood tests were examined for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) and anti-HCV. Case records were studied to evaluate whether patients at risk for HBV infection had been tested. Among the 4098 women, 18 10.4%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.3-0.71 were HBsAg positive. All had a risk factor for HBV infection. Only 13 (72%) were identified as HBsAg positive in the selective screening programme. 115 women (2.8%, 95% CI 2.3-3.4) were anti-HBc positive only. 95 (83%) were at risk for HBV. Only 72 of these (63%) were tested for HBsAg. The screening programme in this area of Denmark did not pick up one-third of pregnant women at risk of HBV. PMID:12953948
Jensen, Lise; Heilmann, Carsten; Smith, Else; Wantzin, Per; Peitersen, Birgit; Weber, Tom; Krogsgaard, Kim
Routine antenatal hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening and immunization of risk babies is very effective in preventing perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We studied 1,800 parturients attending a public hospital to assess the rationale for such vaccination in Bangladesh. In one in every 29 deliveries (63 of 1,800 or 3.5%), the mother was found to be HBsAg
M. A. KARIM RUMI; KOHINOOR BEGUM; M. SAWKAT HASSAN; S. M. MUNIR; M. GOLAM AZAM
A comparative study conducted in the Sudan illustrated both the potential of a nutrition education program for pregnant women and the many obstacles to creating more optimal maternal nutrition. Included in the study were 1200 women 18-34 years of age attending the Khartoum Province Model Clinic for a minimum of 5 prenatal visits. 83.3% were Muslims and 48.2% were illiterate. The 60 women who comprised the experimental group were exposed to individual nutrition counseling and home visits. Overall, 70% of subjects were anemic, 27% had malaria, and 18% were hookworm. The average weight gain during pregnancy was 4.5 kgs; 25.0% of controls and 20.0% of those in the experimental group gained 3.5-4.0 kgs, 18.3% of controls and 33.3% of experimental subjects gained 4.5-5.0 kgs, and 23.3% of controls and 30.0% of those in the experimental groups gained 5.5 kgs or more. 53.0% of controls and 61.7% of women exposed to nutrition education breastfed for at least 6 months, and 70% of women in the former group and 95% of those in the latter had enrolled their infants in an immunization program. A baseline nutrition questionnaire revealed widespread misinformation, especially a belief that pregnant women should reduce their food intake from 3 to 1-2 meals per day to prevent the fetus from growing too large and making labor difficult. Foods such as fermented sorghum products, fresh fish, and water melon were regarded as abortifacients and avoided, while hot pepper, sour milk, and cola sodas were considered nutritious. Consumption was self-reported to be poor for milk products by 25% of mothers, for meat by 16%, and for fruits and vegetables by 40% Although the educational intervention increased women's knowledge of basic nutrition, it had only a minimal effect on actual practice. This finding is assumed to reflect the widespread belief that men and their guests should be given preference in food allocation, poverty, and avoidance, on the basis of tradition, of many healthy foods. Since 72% of women reported ownership of a television, use if this medium is recommended for nutrition education. PMID:12319273
El Hiday, M M; Zumrawi, F Y
A high proportion of maternal deaths are caused by abortion, especially induced abortion. This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of illegally-induced abortion prior to admittance and its associated risk factors in 8 maternity hospitals in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran, during 2003-04. In confidential interviews with 417 women who attended the hospitals with abortion, 50 (12.0%) reported that it was illegally induced. These abortions had a significant correlation with fever, septic shock and septic abortion. Of all pregnancies, 35.0% were unwanted, and 27.1% of these were illegally-terminated by induced abortions. Unwanted pregnancy was one of the most important risk factors for induced abortion (OR = 8.84, 95% CI: 4.36-17.92). PMID:18557457
Majlessi, F; Forooshani, A R; Shariat, M
Background Proper antenatal care and good delivery practice helps to prevent the complications of childbirth and ensures a wholesome maternal and child health in the future. Almost half of the births in the developing countries take place without a skilled birth attendant. Objectives To assess the antenatal care (ANC) and delivery practices in the Village Development Committees (VDC) of Ilam district, Nepal and to identify the relationship with the socio-demographic factors. Method Cross sectional study of 262 mothers of reproductive age group having at least one child of less than five years of age, selected by simple random sampling, was carried out over different VDCs of Ilam by face to face interview using semi-structured questionnaire. Results Among 262 mothers, 34.7% were married before the age of 18 years. 69.5% of the mothers had attended four antenatal care visits. Nearly 47% of the deliveries were conducted at home out of which only 33.6% were conducted by skilled birth attendant. Number of children and maternal education were found to significantly affect the ANC visit and place of delivery. Age at marriage and age at first pregnancy were significantly associated with the place of delivery. Conclusion Large proportion of mothers still do not have adequate antenatal visits and this is supported by the fact that nearly half of the deliveries were conducted at home. Motivation and incentives are required for pregnant mothers especially in rural areas regarding importance of adequate antenatal visits and delivery in health institutions. Population policies should be aimed at reducing proportion of women marrying and giving birth in their teens. PMID:23774416
Pradhan, Pm S; Bhattarai, S; Paudel, I S; Gaurav, K; Pokharel, P K
Voluntary testing and counseling (VTC) for HIV/AIDS is now widely accepted as an effective HIV prevention and control strategy among heterosexual couples in sub-Saharan Africa. The most appropriate format and venue for VTC remains a topic of debate among clinicians and public health professionals. Our research done in Lusaka, Zambia, took a tripartite approach to exploring the most acceptable format and venue for VTC: a community survey of attitudes towards VTC, a pre- and postcounseling knowledge survey, and a pilot study of same-day VTC in urban antenatal care clinics. A community survey of 181 individuals was conducted in July-August 1996 based on a structured questionnaire. A pre- and post-VTC intervention knowledge survey was conducted during the same period among 82 couples attending the Zambia-UAB HIV Research Project (ZUHRP) HIV VTC center in Lusaka. Finally, same-day HIV VTC was pilot tested in six antenatal clinic locations during February-May 1997 and June-August 1998. The community survey revealed that 98% of participants support promotion of HIV VTC in the community and 83.8% prefer the same-day testing format. The knowledge survey revealed misconceptions about discordance within a couple and perinatal transmission of HIV. Pilot testing in antenatal clinics was well received, with 84% of pregnant women requesting testing and 25% having positive HIV serologies. Women with primary school or less education, those seeking antenatal care in local clinics, and those seen before the third trimester of pregnancy were more likely to request HIV testing. Testing and counseling for HIV were shown to be feasible and effective in the antenatal clinic setting. Implementation of same-day HIV VTC in antenatal clinics is an effective strategy to prevent vertical transmission and should be expanded to include couples to leverage a decrease in heterosexual transmission as well. PMID:11131736
Bakari, J P; McKenna, S; Myrick, A; Mwinga, K; Bhat, G J; Allen, S
The scope of this article is to examine the findings of the psychic experiences of women attended at Primary Care level in public healthcare centers in Teresina, State of Piaui, Brazil. Qualitative research was conducted in order to assess emotional, social, family, sexual and workplace experiences from the standpoint of women who seek Family Healthcare services in Teresina. Semi-structured interviews and non-systematic observation carried out in the Municipal Health Unit itself were used to collect the data. The information gathered revealed psychic suffering that is intrinsic to everyday experiences, family relationships and situations involving betrayal, separation, unemployment, violence and sexual experiences. The importance of integrating mental healthcare and basic healthcare was identified, requiring in-depth dialogue, bringing together staff, family and communities that will undoubtedly benefit from this to tackle day-to-day problems permeated by violence, abuse, maltreatment and negligence. The proposal put forward is to train healthcare professionals and implement an interface between Family Healthcare and psychosocial treatment permitting integrated action geared to the individual as a whole. PMID:21584462
Cavalcante, Ana Célia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães
There is a paucity of data on vulval disease in HIV-infected women. We describe the spectrum of vulval disease in HIV-infected women attending a tertiary vulval dermatology referral centre over a five-year period. Seven vulval conditions were identified in 14 women. Most were attending for HIV care (n?=?12, 86%), and on combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) with a CD4 cell count above 200 cells/µL (n?=?9, 64%) at diagnosis. Imiquimod therapy was effective in treating undifferentiated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) - the most common diagnosis. There were no cases of invasive vulval carcinoma. Hypertrophic herpes simplex virus occurred in one woman stable on CART with good immune reconstitution. Clinicians should be vigilant about the spectrum of vulval disease in HIV-infected women and consider genital examination as part of routine care. PMID:23970605
Dosekun, Olamide; Farrugia, Pippa; Lewis, Fiona; Sethi, Gulshan
Given the causal relationship between specific types of HPV with cervical cancer and precursor lesions, it is important to identify the viral type involved. The aim of this study is to access the prevalence of HPV types in HIV seropositive and seronegative women. Accordingly, 77 HPV positive cervical samples were obtained from 284 women (seropositive (n=112) and seronegative (n=172) for HIV) who attended a Sexually Transmitted Infection clinic, in Vitoria, Southeastern Brazil. Viral DNA was amplified by PCR using MY09/MY11 degenerated primers and the genotyping was performed by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Seventy five out of the 77 HPV samples were genotyped: 6, 11, 13, 16, 18, 26, 31, 31b, 32, 33, 34, 35, 52, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 71, 81, 83, 84. The most prevalent type was HPV16 followed by HPV types 6, 11 and 53. Fifty five percent and 45% belonged to high and low risk types, respectively. High risk types corresponded to 59% and 54.5% of the HPV detected in HIV seronegative and seropositive women, respectively. The uncommon HPV 13 type in cervical samples was also observed in this study. The oncogenic types were more common in the HIV seronegative samples and the number of cases with multiple infections was similar for the two groups. HPV typing is not only important clinically for the establishment of monitoring and treatment of a patient, it also provides knowledge of the viral types circulating in a population, which is of interest in the development of prevention and treatment programs for this disease.
de Mattos, Adriana Tonani; de Freitas, Luciana Bueno; Lima, Bettina Moulin Coelho; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Spano, Liliana Cruz
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the United Kingdom (UK) prevalence of HBV is low, it is increasing. There is some evidence that the rate of infection is much higher in some populations living in Britain of non-white ethnicity or who were not born in Britain, compared with the British-born white population. We examined the prevalence of HBV infection in pregnant women through hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or e-antigen (HBeAg) in Birmingham UK between May 2004 and December 2008 and the effect of ethnicity on the relative risk of infection. There was a significant increase in the number of antenatal HBV infections detected over the study period from 106 cases in 2005 to 161 cases in 2008 (p=0.037). Women who define themselves as of black African, non-British white and Pakistani ethnicity had a markedly elevated rate of HBV infection (relative risk (RR): 11.25, 5.87 and 2.33 respectively) compared to the England average. Health organisations that serve populations with a high or increasing proportion of women originating from intermediate and high HBV prevalence areas of the world such as Africa, some parts of Europe and Asia, should anticipate a need for perinatal and postnatal prophylaxis to children born to HBV infected mothers. PMID:22856511
Caley, M; Fowler, T; Greatrex, S; Wood, A
An assessment of women's knowledge of cervical screening and cervical cancer was considered important as up to 92% of those dying from this form of cancer had never been tested. What were the reasons which determined their non-attendance? Issues to be addressed were reactions to invitation, women's knowledge of screening, and the possible factors which they envisaged as being associated with cervical cancer. Other issues to be considered were practical problems associated with attendance, and preference for the sex and professional status of the health professionals involved; 187 women in a general practitioner practice in Lothian, Scotland were targeted by questionnaire. As with other studies in this field 50% of those contacted were ineligible for a variety of reasons. Seventy-two women completed the questionnaire, providing a mix of qualitative and quantitative data. Although the majority of women felt the invitation to attend screening was clear and easy to understand, there was a lack of knowledge with regard to both the screening itself and the possible causes of cervical cancer. The main 'causes' were seen as higher sexual activity among those aged under 37 and smoking and a virus by those over 37. The majority of women showed preference for a female professional to take the smear. Practical problems of time and venue were not considered insurmountable. The main reasons cited for non-compliance were the fear and dislike of the test itself. PMID:9756225
Neilson, A; Jones, R K
A cross sectional descriptive study of awareness and practice of family planning methods among 200 women of reproductive age attending gynecology out patient department (GOPD) of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from 14 th May 2008 to 14 th July, 2008 was carried out. Most of the respondents (93.0%) were aware of at least one of family planning methods out
|The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding and gather insight into the experiences of Cuban American women attending a 4-year, public, Hispanic Serving Institution and how those experiences influenced their identity development. This was accomplished by conducting in-depth interviews and focus groups with 12 self-identified Cuban…
Background Global coverage of prevention of mother-to-child (PMTCT) services reached 53% in 2009. However the number of pregnant women who test positive for HIV in antenatal clinics and who link into long-term HIV care is not known in many resource-poor countries. We measured the proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women in Mwanza city, Tanzania, who completed the cascade of care from antenatal HIV diagnosis to assessment and engagement in care in adult HIV clinics. Methods Thirty antenatal and maternity ward health workers were interviewed about PMTCT activities. Nine antenatal HIV education sessions were observed. A prospective cohort of 403 HIV-positive women was enrolled by specially-trained clinicians and nurses on admission to delivery and followed for four months post-partum. Information was collected on referral and attendance at adult HIV clinics, eligibility for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and reasons for lack of attendance. Results Overall, 70% of PMTCT health workers referred HIV-positive pregnant women to the HIV clinic for assessment and care. Antenatal HIV education sessions did not cover on-going care for HIV-infected women. Of 310 cohort participants tested in pregnancy, 51% had received an HIV clinic referral pre-delivery. Only 32% of 244 women followed to four months post-partum had attended an HIV clinic and been assessed for HAART eligibility. Non-attendance for HIV care was independently associated with fewer antenatal visits, poor PMTCT prophylaxis compliance, non-disclosure of HIV status, and non-Sukuma ethnicity. Conclusion Most women identified as HIV-positive during pregnancy were not assessed for HAART eligibility during pregnancy or in the first four months post-partum. Initiating HAART at the antenatal clinic, improved counselling and linkages to care between PMTCT and adult HIV treatment services and reducing stigma surrounding disclosure of HIV results would benefit on-going care of HIV-positive pregnant women.
Watson-Jones, Deborah; Balira, Rebecca; Ross, David A.; Weiss, Helen A.; Mabey, David
BACKGROUND: In pregnancy, untreated chlamydia infection has been associated with adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Like most women, pregnant women infected with chlamydia do not report genital symptoms, and are therefore unlikely to be aware of their infection. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of screening pregnant women aged 16-25 years for chlamydia as
Jade E Bilardi; Deborah L De Guingand; Meredith J Temple-Smith; Suzanne Garland; Christopher K Fairley; Sonia Grover; Euan Wallace; Jane S Hocking; Sepehr Tarbrizi; Marie Pirotta; Marcus Y Chen
This qualitative study used semistructured interviews to examine the accuracy of knowledge concerning antioxidants and health among a convenience sample of 79 women attending a breast cancer risk assessment clinic. Despite a high level of familiarity (98%) with the word antioxidant, few participants could name more than one of these compounds and most relied on print media (41.6%) and radio/TV (22.2%) for antioxidant information. Thematic content analysis revealed participants' beliefs that antioxidants were strongly linked to reduced breast cancer risk and improved health. They described antioxidant functions that take place before (e.g., "Prevention . . . a best defense mechanism" and "To boost strength and good health") or after (e.g., "Fights diseases, free radicals, and cancer," "Acts as a cleanser or purifier," and "Undoes the harm that I am consciously or unconsciously doing to my body") a health threat. Participants' understandings of the links between antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk did not accurately reflect the scientific evidence. This large priority population group needs tailored, evidence-based nutrition communications to address inaccurate understandings about antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk. PMID:21191082
Burris, Lilisha; Paisley, Judy; Greenberg, Marlene
Background\\/Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of abuse among pregnant women in Germany attending our antenatal outpatient clinic and to observe whether a history of abuse had consequences for women’s feelings about their pregnancy. Methods: 455 women between the 35th and 42nd weeks of gestational age were included and were asked to fill out an
Katharina Jundt; Kristin Haertl; Angelika Knobbe; Ralph Kaestner; Klaus Friese; Ursula M. Peschers
Mozambique, within its plan for overall social and economic change, has given priority to primary health care with a principal focus on maternal and child health. In 1980 an antenatal control form was introduced into all Maputo's antenatal clinics to monitor pregnancies and to help direct specialist care to mothers at greatest risk--a strategy known by WHO as the "risk approach." In this study three health centres were selected from contrasting areas of the city. Almost 1000 completed antenatal forms were analysed to determine incidence of risk and to evaluate the implementation of this strategy. It was found that: (1) a considerable number of women at risk were identified, referred, and successfully monitored through their pregnancy. (2) Of those women at risk who were identified by the health centres, fewer than half were actually referred for specialist care. (3) Those women at greatest risk were not the highest users of the services, and many of them underused the services compared with those at lower risk. (4) The level of risk and child mortality varied with a measure of urban quality of the areas in which the centres were located.
Jelley, D; Madeley, R J
Objectives To determine the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending a traditional birth center as well as the effect of herbal remedies, gravidity, age, educational background and malaria prevention methods on their prevalence. Methods Blood specimens were collected from 119 pregnant women attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria. Malaria parasitemia was diagnosed by microscopy while anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11 g/dL. Results The prevalence of malaria infection was (OR=4.35 95% CI=1.213, 15.600; p=0.016) higher among primigravidae (92.1%). Pregnant women (38.5%) with tertiary level of education had significantly lower prevalence of malaria infection (p=0.002). Malaria significantly affected the prevalence of anemia (p<0.05). Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies (OR=2.973; 95% CI=1.206, 7.330; p=0.017). The prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia were not affected by malaria prevention methods used by the participants. Conclusion The overall prevalence of malaria infection and anemia observed in this study were 78.9% and 46.2%, respectively. Higher prevalence of malaria infection was associated with primigravidae and lower prevalence with tertiary education of subjects. Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies. There is urgent need to control the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending traditional birth homes.
Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Omoregie, Richard; Odia, Ikponmwosa; Oladeinde, Oladapo Babatunde
We determined the frequency of antenatal corticosteroid use for mothers with threatened premature delivery in 1985, 1990, 1995, and 2000. We next compared published data to the surveyed recollections of 302 obstetricians who were practicing during these years. Two points emerged. First, published reports reveal that the use of antenatal corticosteroids increased steadily, from 8% in 1985 to 20% in
William L. Meadow; Anthony Bell; Cass R. Sunstein
Background The aim was to explore the concerns and expectations of women invited to attend group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence and whether the experience changed their views; and to gather recommendations from women attending group sessions on the design and delivery of these sessions Methods An interview study nested within a randomised controlled trial in five British NHS physiotherapy departments, including 22 women who had expressed a preference for an individual physiotherapy session but were randomised to, and attended, group sessions. Results Embarrassment was woven throughout women's accounts of experiencing urinary incontinence and seeking health care. Uncertainty about the nature of group sessions was a source of concern. Attending the first session was seen as a big hurdle by many women. However, a sense of relief was common once the session started, with most women describing some benefit from attendance. Recommendations for design and delivery of the sessions from women focused on reducing embarrassment and uncertainty prior to attendance. Conclusion Taking account of women's embarrassment and providing detailed information about the content of group sessions will enable women to benefit from group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence. Trial Registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN 16772662
Griffiths, Frances; Pepper, Jo; J?rstad-Stein, Ellen C; Smith, Jan Fereday; Hill, Lesley; Lamb, Sarah (Sallie) E
Background: Coordination of care has grown in importance with the advent of new modalities of treatment that require specialized expertise. In cancer care, multidisciplinary approaches have shown improvements in quality of care. Tumor boards may provide a mechanism for improving coordination of care. We evaluated physician and practice characteristics that predict frequency of tumor board attendance. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study used data obtained by surveying physicians of a population-based sample of women with incident breast cancer. Physicians were queried regarding tumor board attendance, specialty [medical oncologist (MO), radiation oncologist (RO), surgeon at a hospital with American College of Surgeons accreditation (ACOSSg) and surgeon without such affiliation (non-ACOSSg)], physician characteristics (gender, race/ethnicity, teaching involvement, patient volume, ownership interest) and practice setting (type, size, reimbursement method). Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were performed for the dependent variable characterizing provider report of frequency of tumor board attendance. Results: Most surveyed physicians (83%) report attending tumor board weekly (58%) or monthly (25%). Specialty and higher patient volumes are significant predictors of more frequent attendance. Compared with the most prevalent specialty category (low-volume ACOSSgs), high-volume MOs attend more frequently (P = .01) and low volume non-ACOSSgs attend less frequently (P = .00). Conclusions: Tumor board provides a structure for engaging providers in discussion of cancer cases that is designed to enhance quality of care. Tumor board agendas and formalized institution-wide policies could be designed to engage low-frequency attendees as a means to improve quality measures, promote multidisciplinary care, and potentially improve health outcomes.
Scher, Kevin S.; Tisnado, Diana M.; Rose, Danielle E.; Adams, John Lloyd; Ko, Clifford Y.; Malin, Jennifer L.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Kahn, Katherine L.
The goal of this study was to determine compliance with official recommendations for prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers to their offspring. All infants born to HBsAg positive mothers at the University Women’s Hospital in Basel, Switzerland, in 2001 were identified and post-exposure immunisations were analysed. In addition, detailed written information
Kirsten Beckers; Urs B. Schaad; Ulrich Heininger
Background Pregnancy is an ideal time to encourage healthy lifestyles as most women access health services and are more receptive to health messages; however few effective interventions exist. The aim of this research was to deliver a low-intensity, dietitian-led behavior change workshop at a Maternity Hospital to influence behaviors with demonstrated health outcomes. Methods Workshop effectiveness was evaluated using an RCT; ‘usual care’ women (n = 182) received a nutrition resource at their first antenatal visit and 'intervention' women also attended a one-hour ‘Healthy Start to Pregnancy’ workshop (n = 178). Dietary intake, physical activity levels, gestational weight gain knowledge, smoking cessation, and intention to breastfeed were assessed at service-entry and 12 weeks later. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses examined change over time between groups. Results Approximately half (48.3%) the intervention women attended the workshop and overall response rate at time 2 was 67.2%. Significantly more women in the intervention met pregnancy fruit guidelines at time 2 (+4.3%, p = 0.011) and had a clinically-relevant increase in physical activity (+27 minutes/week) compared with women who only received the resource (ITT). Women who attended the workshop increased their consumption of serves of fruit (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.004), vegetables (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.006), met fruit guidelines (+11.9%, p < 0.001), had a higher diet quality score (p = 0.027) and clinically-relevant increases in physical activity (+21.3 minutes/week) compared with those who only received the resource (PP). Conclusions The Healthy Start to Pregnancy workshop attendance facilitates improvements in important health behaviors. Service changes and accessibility issues are required to assist women's workshop attendance to allow more women to benefit from the workshop’s effects. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000867998
Continuing medico-technical progress has led toan increasing medicalisation of pregnancy andchildbirth. One of the most common technologiesin this context is ultrasound. Based on someidentified `pro-technology feminist theories',notably the postmodernist feminist discourse,the technology of ultrasound is analysedfocusing mainly on social and political ratherthan clinical issues. As empirical researchsuggests, ultrasound is welcomed by themajority of women. The analysis, however, showsthat attitudes and
BACKGROUND: Antenatal care has a positive effect on pregnancy, both clinically and psychologically, but consensus about the optimal number of antenatal visits is lacking. This study aims to provide insight into the dynamics of the number of antenatal visits a woman receives. Independent effects of predisposing, enabling and pregnancy-related determinants are examined. METHODS: Women were recruited in nine clinical centres
Katrien Beeckman; Fred Louckx; Koen Putman
Coronary heart disease is generally considered a “man’s disease,” but it also the greatest killer of women older than 50 . Cardiovascular diseases remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women . Coronary heart disease is more dependent on age in women than in men; women are usually 10 years older than men when any\\u000a coronary manifestations
P. Affinito; D. Agostinelli; C. Albanese; F. Bartiromo; G. Bonaccorsi; A. Cagnacci; S. Guaschino; F. Mangino; B. Mauro; B. Molteni; D. Morano; U. Omodei; G. L. Radici; G. Ranchet; G. Sciacchitano; M. Milani
This article assessed the relationship between breast and cervical cancer screening rates and health beliefs in African American women participating in Witness Project of Harlem (WPH) education sessions. WPH is a culturally sensitive, faith-based breast and cervical cancer screening education program targeting African American women in medically underserved New York City communities. A questionnaire administered to women participating for the
Lisa Ochoa-Frongia; Hayley S. Thompson; Yulinda Lewis-Kelly; Terri Deans-McFarlane; Lina Jandorf
Background Mammography has been used in developed countries with considerable success but very little is known about this imaging modality in low resource settings. This study examined the level of awareness of mammography and determined factors influencing the level of awareness. Methods We conducted a hospital based cross sectional study to investigate the level of awareness of mammography among 818 randomly selected women attending the General Outpatient clinics (GOP) of the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Independent predictors of level of awareness of mammography were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The proportion of women who ever heard of mammography was 5%, and they demonstrated poor knowledge of the procedure. Those with primary or secondary levels of education were about three times less likely to be aware of mammography when compared with those with tertiary level of education (OR?=?0.3, 95% CI, 0.12 – 0.73). Also, participation in community breast cancer prevention activities (OR?=?3.4, 95% CI, 1.39 – 8.36), and previous clinical breast examination (OR?=?2.34, 95% CI, 1.10 – 4.96) independently predicted mammography awareness. Newspapers and magazines appeared to be the most important sources of information about mammography screening. Conclusion The level of awareness of mammography is poor among women attending outpatient clinics in the studied population. Interventions promoting awareness of this screening procedure should give particular attention to the illiterate and older women while clinicians performing breast examinations should utilize the opportunity to inform women about the mammography procedure. Promotion of educational articles on breast cancer and its screening methods via media remains vital for the literate.
One hundred consecutive new patients attending for urodynamic investigation were assessed using a questionnaire to investigate the prevalence and nature of sexual dysfunction. Of the 59 who were sexually active, 29 (49%) had a sexual dysfunction as defined by the study: 9 of these considered themselves to have a sexual problem and 6 would have liked therapy. Forty-one patients were
S. M. Field; P. Hilton
Background: Maternal mortality remains a leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. While Nigeria has only two percent of the global population, it contributes 10% to the global maternal mortality burden. Antenatal care (ANC) reduces the incidence of maternal mortality. However, financial capability affects access to antenatal care. Thus, the rural poor are at a higher risk of maternal mortality. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 135 women (pregnant women and those who are 6 weeks postpartum). Structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data analysis was carried out using statistical package for social sciences software (version 17). Results: The average amount spent on booking and initial laboratory investigations were N77 (half a dollar) and N316 ($2), respectively. Per ANC visit, average amount spent on drugs and transportation were N229 ($1.5) and N139 ($0.9) respectively. For delivery, the average amount spent was N1500 ($9.6). On an average, ANC plus delivery cost about N3,365.00 ($22). There was a statistically significant association between husband's income and ANC attendance (X2 = 2.451, df = 2, P = 0.048). Conclusion: Cost of Antenatal care and delivery services were not catastrophic but were a barrier to accessing antenatal care and facility-based delivery services in the study area. ANC attendance was associated with the income of household heads. Pro-poor policies and actions are needed to address this problem, as it will go a long way in reducing maternal mortality in this part of the country.
Sambo, Mohd Nasiq; Abdulrazaq, Gobir A.; Shamang, Anthony F.; Ibrahim, Ahmad A.
Background Antenatal education (AE) started more than 30 years ago with the purpose of decreasing pain during childbirth. Epidural anaesthesia has achieved this objective, and the value of AE is therefore currently questioned. This article describes the protocol and process of a study designed to assess AE results today. Methods/Design A prospective study was designed in which a cohort of 616 nulliparous pregnant women attending midwife offices of the Basque Health Service were followed for 13 months. Three exposure groups were considered based on the number of AE sessions attended: (a) women attending no session, (b) women attending 1 to 4, and (c) women attending 5 or more sessions. Sociodemographic, personality, and outcome variables related to childbirth and breastfeeding were measured. It was expected 40% of pregnant women not to have participated in any AE session. However, 93% had attended at least one session. This low exposure variability decreased statistical power of the study as compared to the initially planned power. Despite this, there was a greater than 80% power for detecting as significant differences between exposure groups of, for instance, 10% in continuation of breastfeeding at one and a half months and in visits for false labour. Women attending more sessions were seen to have a mean higher age and educational level, and to belong to a higher socioeconomic group (p < 0.01). Follow-up was completed in 99% of participants. Discussion Adequate prior estimation of variability in the exposure under study is essential for designing cohort studies. Sociodemographic characteristics may play a confounding role in studies assessing AE and should be controlled in design and analyses. Quality control during the study process and continued collaboration from both public system midwives and eligible pregnant women resulted in a negligible loss rate.
Paz-Pascual, Carmen; Pinedo, Isabel Artieta; Grandes, Gonzalo; de Gamboa, Gurutze Remiro Fernandez; Hermosilla, Itziar Odriozola; de la Hera, Amaia Bacigalupe; Gordon, Janire Payo; Garcia, Guadalupe Manzano; de Pedro, Magdalena Ureta
Background: Osteoporosis and related fractures are be- coming more prevalent as the population ages. Primary care professionals counsel all women about adequate calcium intake as part of an overall osteoporosis pre- ventive strategy. Population data shows that the aver- age calcium intakes in women are substantially lower than standard recommendations. No data is available on dietary calcium intakes among a
Sarina Schrager; Michelle Girard; Marlon Mundt
Preventive health services, such as mammography, play an increasingly important role in maintaining women's health. Social factors, such as religion, may influence utilization rates by expanding access, offering information, and increasing motivation. The current study examines the relationship between religious involvement, religious beliefs, and mammography usage in a nationally representative sample of Presbyterian women (N = 1,070). We use multivariate
MAUREEN R. BENJAMINS; JENNY TRINITAPOLI; CHRISTOPHER G. ELLISON
Background. Estimates of perinatal depression have ranged from 5% to more than 25% of women (Gavin et al. 2005). Although Hispanics have one of the highest birthrates, few studies have looked at the prevalence of depression among this population. This study aims to describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms among a sample of Hispanic women. Methods. A convenience sample of
Delivery assistance by skilled health personnel is a key progress indicator for Millennium Development Goal 5, which aims\\u000a to reduce the worldwide maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. The role of socio-demographic factors in determining\\u000a skilled attendance at delivery has been widely explored, but relatively little attention has been paid to the effect of gender\\u000a power relations
Leslie GooSioban; Siobán D. Harlow
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) case detection in women has remained low in developing world. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of smear positive TB among women with cough regardless of the duration attending family Planning (FP) and Maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in Dar es Salaam. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study in all three municipal hospitals
Esther S Ngadaya; Godfrey S Mfinanga; Eliud R Wandwalo; Odd Morkve
The problem of antenatal care in developing countries may be considered from two aspects: (a) areas where antenatal facilities are absent or are inadequate, and (b) areas where antenatal facilities are adequate but for some reasons are not adequately utilized. The solution to the first part of the problem would appear to be simple. The governments concerned should provide the required facilities. This obviously is not an easy task in many areas of the world, especially with the present profound economic depression in many developing countries. The people just have to use the facilities available to their best advantage, or do without the facilities. The second part of the problem presents more difficulties. Where antenatal facilities are available, inadequate utilization has been shown to be due to a number of factors: 1. The facilities are too distant or too expensive. It has been shown how the Nigerian authorities dealt with this problem in the Ibarapa district. However, it is a very expensive solution and few governments will be able to afford this. 2. Illiteracy or ignorance. The obvious solution to this difficulty is to educate the masses and a few governments have already embarked on these commendable programmes. Unfortunately, this procedure is expensive, may take a long time and, as already pointed out, even literate women may not use the antenatal services. 3. Traditional and cultural beliefs and prejudices. It has already been shown that this factor is a very important one in the population in developing countries, even among literate patients. The saying that 'old habits die hard' is probably apt here. Probably, with time, education and closer contact with the developed world, these prejudices will disappear. From the above observations, it would appear that an inexpensive short-term solution to the two parts of the problem mentioned above is for governments to train and use the TBAs who are already 'in our midst' and who already enjoy the confidence of the masses. The authorities, however, have to be very careful in integrating the TBAs into the health system. It has to be done very judiciously and tactfully, otherwise antagonism and unhealthy rivalry will be created between the TBAs and other members of the health team. They must be made to realize that they are a part of the health team. PMID:2205429
Nylander, P P; Adekunle, A O
Background HIV testing for pregnant women is an important component for the success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). A lack of antenatal HIV testing results in loss of benefits for HIV-infected mothers and their children. However, the provision of unnecessary repeat tests at a very late stage of pregnancy will reduce the beneficial effects of PMTCT and impose unnecessary costs for the individual woman as well as the health system. This study aims to assess the number and timing of antenatal HIV testing in a low-income setting where PMTCT programmes have been scaled up to reach first level health facilities. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV testing. Results The prevalence of women who lacked HIV testing among the study group was 10% while more than half of the women tested had had more than two tests during pregnancy. The following factors were associated with the lack of antenatal HIV test: having two children (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4), living in a remote rural area (aOR 7.8, 95% CI 3.4-17.8), late antenatal care attendance (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-10.1) and not being informed about PMTCT at their first antenatal care visits (aOR 7.4, 95% CI 2.6-21.1). Among women who had multiple tests, 80% had the second test after 36 weeks of gestation. Women who had first ANC and first HIV testing at health facilities at primary level were more likely to be tested multiple times (OR 2.9 95% CI 1.9-4.3 and OR = 4.7 95% CI 3.5-6.4), respectively. Conclusions Not having an HIV test during pregnancy was associated with poor socio-economic characteristics among the women and with not receiving information about PMTCT at the first ANC visit. Multiple testing during pregnancy prevailed; the second tests were often provided at a late stage of gestation.
Objective—To evaluate universal antenatal screening for haemoglobinopathies. Setting—District general hospital serving a London borough with 45% ethnic mi- norities. Methods—Retrospective cohort study of 1444 women referred in 1688 pregnancies and 95 tertiary referrals during 101 preg- nancies. Results—Unselected women at risk for sickle cell disease booked 2.7 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 5.1) later in gestation than those
Peter Greengross; Matthew Hickman; Mike Gill; Brian Dugan; Sally C Davies
We determined the frequency of antenatal corticosteroid use for mothers with threatened premature delivery in 1985, 1990, 1995, and 2000. We next compared published data to the surveyed recollections of 302 obstetricians who were practicing during these years. Two points emerged. First, published reports reveal that the use of antenatal corticosteroids increased steadily, from 8% in 1985 to 20% in 1990, 52% in 1995, and 75% in 2000 (P <.001). Second, "expert" opinions derived from the recollections of practicing obstetricians consistently overestimated the actual use of antenatal corticosteroids during the year in question-31% versus 8% for 1985, 56% versus 20% for 1990, 78% versus 52% for 1995, and 92% versus 72% for 2000 (all Ps <.001). The use of antenatal corticosteroids by obstetricians in the past 15 years reveals a phenomenon that is widely recognized elsewhere-retrospective memories are often wrong, and when they are wrong they are not randomly wrong. Rather, recollections are systematically skewed toward an outcome that, in hindsight, is considered desirable (the "Monday morning quarterback" phenomenon). We offer a simple proposal. In determining the "standard of medical care," the legal system should rely on statistical data about doctors' performance rather than the recollections of experts about doctors' performance. The fallible memories of isolated experts are a crude second-best, far inferior to the data that they approximate. Widespread adoption of this view by professional physician organizations would dramatically increase the rationality of expert testimony in medical malpractice tort law. PMID:12907113
Meadow, William L; Bell, Anthony; Sunstein, Cass R
Background Unintended pregnancy (mistimed or unwanted) remains an important health issue for women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with risk of unintended pregnancy in a sample of Victorian women attending family planning clinics. Methods This cross-sectional survey of three Family Planning Victoria Clinics from April to July 2011 recruited women aged 16-50 years with a male sexual partner in the last 3 months, and not intending to conceive. The questionnaire asked about contraceptive behaviours and important factors that influence contraception use (identified from a systematic literature review). Univariate analysis was calculated for the variables of interest for associations with contraceptive use. An overall multivariate model for being at risk for unintended pregnancy (due to inconsistent or ineffective contraceptive use or non-use) was calculated through backward elimination with statistical significance set at <0.05. Results 1006 surveys were analyzed with 96% of women reporting contraception use in the last 3 months. 37% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy due to imperfect use (61% inconsistent users; 31% ineffective methods) or never using contraception (8%). On multivariate analysis, women at risk for unintended pregnancy compared with women not at risk were <25 years old (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7); had no university/postgraduate degree (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4); and had >1 partner in the last 3 months (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.6). These women were dissatisfied with current contraception (OR 2.5, 95% 1.8-3.5); felt “vulnerable” to pregnancy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3.0); were not confident in contraceptive knowledge (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.8); were unable to stop to use contraception when aroused (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9) but were comfortable in speaking to a doctor about contraception (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.1). Conclusion Despite reported high contraceptive usage, nearly 40% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy primarily due to inconsistent contraceptive use and use of ineffective contraception. Strategies for improving consistency of effective contraception use or greater emphasis on long-acting contraception may be needed for certain subpopulations at higher risk for unintended pregnancy.
Food safety knowledge and practices among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Slovenia were systematically assessed through an inquiry-based investigation. The study was conducted with 291 pregnant women, who attended antenatal classes at the time of the investigation, and 200 non-pregnant women, all of whom participated during consultation hours for parents in ten, randomly selected primary schools in the country. Results
Mojca Jevšnik; Silvestra Hoyer; Peter Raspor
The World Health Organization estimated alcohol consumption in Uganda to be one of the highest in the world. We examined alcohol\\u000a consumption among Ugandan women prior to and after learning of pregnancy. We developed a screening algorithm using factors\\u000a that predicted alcohol consumption in this study. In 2006, we surveyed 610 women attending antenatal care at the national\\u000a referral hospital
Imelda Namagembe; Leila W. Jackson; Melissa D. Zullo; Scott H. Frank; Josaphat K. Byamugisha; Ajay K. Sethi
Safe sex skills training often teach women to be assertive in condom use negotiations. However, it has been suggested that assertiveness training may be inappropriate for women who lack power in their sexual relationship. Our qualitative study of 62 women attending a family planning clinic explored various communication styles they used to introduce and negotiate female condom use in their sexual relationships. We further examined how different introduction and negotiation styles were related to actual use of the device. The device was introduced using a direct, semidirect, indirect, or nonverbal communication approach. Use of the female condom was negotiated by avoiding sex, using humor, discussing the possibility of using the condom, or being argumentative with partners. The outcome of introducing and negotiating female condom use was often mediated by other factors including partner characteristics, relationship power dynamics, situational context, and use of additional discourse strategies (e.g., describing the female condom as a sexual toy or taking the opportunity to educated partners about the female condom). Less direct approaches appeared to be as effective in facilitating use of the female condom as more direct approaches. Female condom introduction and negotiation styles that continued to engage their partners by using additional discourse strategies led to more frequent use of the device. Implications of our findings for HIV risk reduction program development are discussed. PMID:15475674
Choi, Kyung-Hee; Wojcicki, Janet; Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira
This study evaluated antenatal care (ANC) services for pregnant women attending primary health care centres in Medina city, Saudi Arabia in 2009. A cross-sectional survey collected data on ANC tasks performed at visits by 394 pregnant women attending 7 clinics. ANC was assessed in 3 domains: clinical assessment (at the initial visit and return visit), health promotion and care provision. The mean duration of initial visits was 10.3 (SD 2.3) minutes and of return visits was 9.1 (SD 1.1) minutes. Overall performance on ANC tasks was fair. The significant predictors of ANC performance of tasks were: size of population served per centre; presence of more than 1 physician carrying out ANC at the centre; physician's age, mother tongue, nationality and qualifications; and woman's education and employment status. Having more physicians available for ANC in primary care centres could improve the standard of care. PMID:21735959
Habib, F; Hanafi, M I; El-Sagheer, A
Little research has focused specifically on disclosure among HIV+ Black Africans living in the UK; however, the available evidence suggests that this population may be reluctant to disclose to significant others. Forty-five HIV+ Black African men and women were recruited from a London HIV clinic. Semi-structured interviews gathered information on: disclosure, social support, mental and physical health, medication adherence, acculturation
T. Calin; J. Green; J. Hetherton; G. Brook
|This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…
Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.
Accidents from external causes affect the human population in different ways. This article seeks to analyze emergency care for women who are victims of accidents and violence. Data from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents were analyzed. This study was carried out in 74 emergency units of 23 state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and included 6,965 women aged from 20-59 years. The age groups of 20-39 and 40-59 years were compared for the occurrence of accidents and violence. Accidents were more frequent among young black women (20-39 years) with more than nine years of schooling. The occurrence of violence was also prevalent in young black women but with less schooling. Falls were the most frequent accidents (38.6%), followed by traffic accidents. The occurrence of violence was more frequent in the home (p <0.000) and the mention of alcohol abuse among victims of violence was predominant. The most frequent type of violence was aggression (84.6%), in which the aggressor was male (79.1%) and identified as an intimate partner (44.1%). It is increasingly important that services are able to provide comprehensive and humanized care to the victims of this important public health problem. PMID:22996883
Rodrigues, Celeste de Souza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Godinho, Tatau; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves; Silva, Rurany Ester
Afghans comprise one of the largest groups of refugees in the world, with the majority living in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify commonly-occurring reproductive tract infections (RTIs), describe knowledge of women about RTIs, and assess physical and behavioural factors contributing to the development of RTIs. Afghan women presenting at Basic Health Units in refugee camps in Haripur, Pakistan, with reproductive health-related complaints, were included in the study (n=634). Data collection included implementation of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, along with a physical examination and laboratory tests. A descriptive analysis was conducted first. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using predetermined themes. Chi-square test was used for determining the possible relationships between a binary outcome and categorical risk factors. Over three-fourths (76.7%) of those who reported to the health clinics with reproductive complaints had an RTI. Nearly half (49.5%) of these women were diagnosed with some form of vaginitis, and 14.7% were diagnosed with clinical suspicion of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Women with cervical prolapse (p=0.033) or who cleansed after intercourse (p=0.002) were more likely to have vaginitis. There was a significant difference (p=0.017) in the prevalence of suspected PID among women who used mud only (11.1%), any water (18.8%), and an old cloth or toilet paper (9.8%) for cleansing after defaecation. Specific physical and behavioural contributors to the high prevalence of RTIs in this population were identified, and recommendations to ameliorate these factors are offered.
Balsara, Z.P.; Wu, I.; Marsh, D.R.; Ihsan, A.T.; Nazir, R.; Owoso, E.; Robinson, C.
The World Health Organization estimated alcohol consumption in Uganda to be one of the highest in the world. We examined alcohol consumption among Ugandan women prior to and after learning of pregnancy. We developed a screening algorithm using factors that predicted alcohol consumption in this study. In 2006, we surveyed 610 women attending antenatal care at the national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda about consumption of traditional and commercial alcoholic beverages before and after learning of pregnancy. Predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy were examined and a practical screening algorithm was developed for use in antenatal clinics. One hundred eighty women (30%) drank alcohol at least monthly before learning of their pregnancy. Among these women, almost one-third reported usual consumption of at least one beverage type at quantities that equal binging levels for women. Overall, 151 women (25%) consumed alcohol after learning of pregnancy. Commercial beverages, particularly beer, were consumed more often than traditional drinks. A two-stage screening algorithm asking women about their religion, male partner or friends' drinking, and any lifetime drinking predicted self-reported consumption of alcohol during pregnancy with 97% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Alcohol consumption among pregnant Ugandan women attending antenatal care is high. A feasible screening algorithm can help providers target education and counseling to women who are likely drinking during pregnancy. Given the preference for commercial alcoholic beverages, it is recommended that labels be placed prominently on bottled alcoholic beverages warning of the adverse effects of consuming alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:19629663
Namagembe, Imelda; Jackson, Leila W; Zullo, Melissa D; Frank, Scott H; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Sethi, Ajay K
Five hundred and twelve women attending the antenatal clinic of the Rotunda Hospital of Dublin were studied by means of abdominal real time ultrasound (US) scanning to establish some of the characteristics of those subjects found to be gallstone-positive, compared to the gallstone-negative control population.
L. Basso; P. T. McCollum; M. R. N. Darling; W. A. Tocchi; W. A. Tanner
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recommended. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for HCV and HIV infection among pregnant women who attended prenatal care under the coverage of public health in
Zelma B Costa; Gustavo C Machado; Mariza M Avelino; Clidenor Gomes Filho; Jose V Macedo Filho; Ana L Minuzzi; Marilia D Turchi; Mariane MA Stefani; Wayner Vieira de Souza; Celina MT Martelli
INTRODUCTION: To determinate the knowledge on osteoporosis-risk factors and disease in three age groups of Pakistani women.METHODS: In this exploratory cross-sectional study, an osteoporosis knowledge assessment questionnaire (OKAT) was used to collect data and it was delivered through a face-to-face interview. Questions were asked about symptoms of osteoporosis, knowledge of risk factors, preventive factors and treatment. A convenience sample (n
Mehmood Riaz; Naushad Abid; Junaid Patel; Muhammad Tariq; Muhammad Shoaib Khan; Lubna Zuberi
There is a rising incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Bahrain. This study aimed to determine physician practices with regard to sexual and reproductive health in women in the primary care setting in Bahrain, and to ascertain if physician gender affected these. The study included all eligible Ministry of Health family physicians (217) in 2006 and data were collected by a self-completed questionnaire; the response rate was 90.3%. Over half (58%) of the responding physicians were female. Male physicians did not undertake gynaecological examinations nor carry out STI screening procedures for asymptomatic women, and rates for women physicians were low (28.9% and 11.4% respectively). As regards to identification of and counselling for sexual health and STI risk factors, there were no differences between male and female physicians in addressing these issues with less than 25% doing so. All physicians would benefit from continuing education in the area of sexual medicine regardless of their gender. PMID:22891529
Al-Mohsen, Z; Grant, N; Obaidat, M A; Al-Farra, H; Budhaish, N; Al-Farra, W
This article assessed the relationship between breast and cervical cancer screening rates and health beliefs in African American women participating in Witness Project of Harlem (WPH) education sessions. WPH is a culturally sensitive, faith-based breast and cervical cancer screening education program targeting African American women in medically underserved New York City communities. A questionnaire administered to women participating for the first time in a Witness Project education session collected demographics, adherence to breast and cervical cancer screening, and information about health beliefs related to cancer worry, medical mistrust, and religious faith. Screening adherence guidelines applied were as per the American Cancer Society recommendations. No statistically significant relationship was found between worry about getting breast or cervical cancer and screening adherence, or between screening adherence and agreement with statements about medical mistrust and religious beliefs. The low screening mammography and monthly breast self-exam rates emphasize the utility of programs like WPH that teach the importance of screening mammography and breast self-exam and point to the need for increased access to quality health care and cancer screening in underserved populations. PMID:21451008
Ochoa-Frongia, Lisa; Thompson, Hayley S; Lewis-Kelly, Yulinda; Deans-McFarlane, Terri; Jandorf, Lina
Objective To describe the prevalence and nature of sex trade in a clinic-based sample of young women and to evaluate associations with sexual and reproductive health. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with women aged 16–29 years (n=1277) presenting to family-planning clinics in Northern California, USA. Results Overall, 8.1% of respondents indicated a lifetime history of trading sex for money or other resources. Sex trade was associated with unintended pregnancy (adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.48), multiple abortions (ARR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.19–2.23), STI diagnosis (ARR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.27–1.68), and unwanted sex (vaginal ARR 3.64; 95% CI, 2.39–5.56; anal ARR 4.99; 95% CI, 2.17–11.50). Of the women ever involved in sex trade, 12 (37.3%) reported that their first such experience was before they were 18 years of age. Conclusion Approximately 1 in 12 participants had been involved in sex trade, illustrating the presence of patients with this history within the family-planning clinical setting. Sex trade was associated with multiple indicators of poor sexual and reproductive health. Family-planning clinics may represent an underused mechanism for engaging this high-risk population.
Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.
Depression affects 13% of postnatal women and the long?term repercussions affect women, children and families. Health visitors are being urged to increase antenatal support, including preparation for the impact of becoming a parent, and identification of vulnerable families. An antenatal tool incorporating validated measures was developed to facilitate discussion on childhood experiences, perceived physical and emotional social support and to
Jenny Ingram; Jenny Taylor
Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women experience higher rates of obesity, chronic disease, and are less active than non-Indigenous Australian women. Lifestyle programs designed to increase physical activity and encourage healthy eating are needed to ameliorate this disparity. The aim of this study was to identify participants’ perceived barriers and enablers to attend group exercise classes as part of a 12-week fitness program. Methods To understand the factors that influence attendance, a mixed method process evaluation was undertaken in which a quantitative measure of attendance in the group exercise classes was used to identify cases for further qualitative investigation. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women aged 18 to 64 years were recruited to a research trial of a fitness program. The 12-week program included two 60-minute group exercise classes per week, and four nutrition education workshops. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at program completion. Participants were stratified by attendance, and interviews from the highest and lowest 25 percentiles analysed. Rigour was strengthened through use of multiple data analysts, member checking and prolonged engagement in the field. Results Analyses of the post-program interviews revealed that participants enrolled in the program primarily for the perceived health benefits and all (with one exception) found the program met their needs and expectations. The atmosphere of classes was positive and comfortable and they reported developing good relationships with their fellow participants and program staff. Low attendees described more barriers to attendance, such as illness and competing work and family obligations, and were more likely to report logistical issues, such as inconvenient venue or class times. Conclusions Attendance to the ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women’s Fitness Program’ was primarily influenced by the participant’s personal health, logistics and competing obligations. Low attendees reported more barriers during the 12-week period and identified fewer enabling factors than high attendees. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000224022
Objective To compare iron status in women with pruritus vulvae and in asymptomatic controls. Methods 42 women with pruritus vulvae and 42 asymptomatic broadly age?matched controls were enrolled in this prospective study. The outcome measures assessed were serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron?binding capacity, haemoglobin and transferrin saturation. Results 12 (29%) participants and 10 (24%) controls were iron deficient; 1 (2%) participant and 1 (2%) control had laboratory?defined iron deficiency anaemia. Participants generally had lower levels of iron markers than controls, with differences (95% confidence interval (CI)) of ?3.5??g/l (?9.89 to 6.99) for serum ferritin (p?=?0.73), ?4.9?mmol/l (?8.12 to 0.12) for serum iron (p?=?0.06) and ?5.5?mmol/l (?5.75 to 1.46) for total iron?binding capacity (p?=?0.24). No significant difference in haemoglobin or mean cell volume was shown between the two groups (haemoglobin: p?=?0.17, 95% CI ?0.83 to 0.15; mean cell volume: p?=?0.15, 95% CI ?4.59 to 0.73). Conclusion This study does not provide evidence to support the routine determination of iron status in patients presenting to genitourinary medicine clinics with pruritus vulvae from all causes.
Bates, S M; Dilke-Wing, G
This retrospective study was done in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Bangladesh Medical College hospital during the period of July 2003 to June 2004 in the women suffering from primary and secondary subfertility, who underwent laparoscopy. The aim of this study was to see the laparoscopic findings of internal genitalia and other pelvic structures in subfertile women. The study group comprises 55 cases of which 67.37% of primary and 32.73% were of secondary subfertility. Both the ovaries were normal looking in 41.81% cases. Endometriosis was present in 5.45% of both the ovaries. Corpus luteum was seen in 20% cases on right ovary and in 27.27% cases on left ovary. Laparoscopy shows normal looking fallopian tube in 65.45% cases in right side and 61.81% cases in the left side. Right sided tubal block was in 5.46% and 9.10 % in the left side. Both the tubes were patent in 81.6% cases. PMID:23982536
Deeba, F; Alam, M M; Islam, M R; Matin, A; Khan, R; Ava, N N
OBJECTIVE: to explore what role religious beliefs of pregnant Muslim women play in their decision-making on antenatal screening, particularly regarding congenital abnormalities and termination, and whether their interpretations of the religious doctrines correspond to the main sources of Islam. DESIGN: qualitative pilot study using in-depth interviews with pregnant Muslim women. SETTING: one midwifery practice in a medium-sized city near Amsterdam participated in the study. PARTICIPANTS: 10 pregnant Muslim women of Turkish origin who live in a high density immigrant area and who attended primary midwives for antenatal care were included in the study. DATA COLLECTION AND DATA ANALYSIS: to explore the role of religion in decision-making on antenatal screening tests, a topic list was constructed, including four subjects: being a (practising) Muslim, the view on unborn life, the view on disabled life and the view on termination. To analyse the interviews, open and axial coding based on the Grounded Theory was used and descriptive and analytical themes were identified and interpreted. FINDINGS: all 10 interviewees stated that their faith played a role in their decision-making on antenatal screening, specific to the combined test. They did not consider congenital anomalies as a problem and did not consider termination to be an option in case of a disabled fetus. However, the Islamic jurisprudence considers that termination is allowed if the fetus has serious abnormalities, but only before 19 weeks plus one day of gestation. KEY CONCLUSIONS: religious convictions play a role regarding antenatal screening in pregnant Muslim women of Turkish origin. The interviewees did not consider a termination in case of an affected child. Women were unaware that within Islamic tradition there is the possibility of termination if a fetus has serious anomalies. Incomplete knowledge of religious doctrines may be influencing both decisions of antenatal screening and diagnostic tests uptake and of terminating a pregnancy for fetuses with serious anomalies. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTISE: counsellors should be aware of the role of religious beliefs in the decision-making process on antenatal screening tests. PMID:23726134
Gitsels-van der Wal, Janneke T; Manniën, Judith; Ghaly, Mohammed M; Verhoeven, Pieternel S; Hutton, Eileen K; Reinders, Hans S
Substance abuse is prevalent in Ireland. The potential sequelae for abuser and carer are many. In pregnancy there are further problems. We assessed the prevalence of substance abuse in our antenatal population using an anonymous questionnaire and urine toxicology screening. We examined 522 women and 18 (3.4%) had positive urine toxicology. The anonymous questionnaire failed to identify all of these women. No typical patient profile emerged when the demographic features were studied. We believe that our study has underestimated the true prevalence of substance abuse in our antenatal population and many factors may have contributed to this. Substance abuse in pregnancy remains a difficult problem to quantify and for the future the main focus of attention must be on education and prevention. PMID:15512412
Lyons, F; Milner, M; Davey, C; Bosio, P; O'Connor, J; Dorman, A; McKenna, P
A case is described of suicidal impulses apparently stemming from the patient's experience before and during his birth. By using a technique of `rebirthing', antenatal memories were relived and their traumatic effects resolved. Theoretical and practical accounts of rebirthing are given, and its significance for general practitioners is discussed.
Objective: Numerous correlational studies have examined whether perceptions of vulnerability or worry are better predictors of health-related behavior. The aim of this experimental study was to explore some of the potential causal relationships involved: Are the effects of a brief smoking cessation intervention (for women attending for cervical smear tests) on intention to stop smoking mediated by perceived vulnerability or
Sue Hall; David P. French; Theresa M. Marteau
Background: Midwives in Ontario, Canada, provide care in the home and hospital and are required to submit data for all births to the Ontario Ministry of Health database. The purpose of this study was to compare maternal and perinatal\\/neonatal mortality and morbidity and intrapartum intervention rates for women attended by Ontario midwives who planned a home birth compared with similar
Eileen K. Hutton; Angela H. Reitsma; Karyn Kaufman
OBJECTIVE: timely initiation of antenatal care (i.e. within the first trimester) is associated with attendance of the full recommended regimen of antenatal visits. This study assessed social and behavioural factors that affect timely initiation of antenatal care in Kigali, Rwanda from the perspective of health facility professionals. DESIGN: health facility professionals involved in antenatal care provision were interviewed on their perceptions about untimely initiation of antenatal care based on open-ended questions. These one-on-one interviews were tape recorded and transcribed for analysis. SETTING: interviews were performed in June and July 2011 at Muhima Health Center in Kigali, Rwanda. PARTICIPANTS: 17 health facility professionals with a wide range of skills and experience levels were selected from the 36 total staff members of Muhima Health Center based on their participation in and knowledge of antenatal care. MEASUREMENTS AND FINDINGS: inductive content analysis was used to group responses from these qualitative interviews with the goal of creating a conceptual map around barriers and solutions for untimely antenatal care. Qualitative responses were coded to identify the most common themes and sub-themes following a consensus methodology. The health-care professional interviews identified five themes as barriers to timely initiation of antenatal care: (1) lack of knowledge; (2) experience with previous births; (3) issues with male partners not willing/able to attend the clinic; (4) poverty or problems with health insurance; and (5) antenatal care culture. As potential solutions to these hurdles, the following themes were identified: (1) maternal/community education and sensitisation; (2) incentives to attend antenatal care visits; and (3) tracking the content and recommended number of antenatal visits. KEY CONCLUSIONS: qualitative results indicate that behavioural contextual interventions may help overcome antenatal care barriers. The Rwandan Government and health facilities should work together with target communities to improve antenatal care compliance, taking into account the solutions suggested by the health facility professional interviews. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: study findings suggest that there are specific solutions to increase adherence with timely initiation of antenatal care in Rwanda, including education and sensitisation, modifying couples' HIV testing policies, addressing costs of antenatal care, and tracking the number of recommended antenatal visits. PMID:23538104
Hagey, Jill; Rulisa, Stephen; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael
Summary Background Abnormal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis are associated with amplified risks of late miscarriage and spontaneous preterm delivery. We aimed to establish whether antibiotic treatment early in the second trimester might reduce these risks in a general obstetric population. Methods We screened 6120 pregnant women attending hospital for their first antenatal visit—who were at 12-22 weeks' gestation (mean
Austin Ugwumadu; Isaac Manyonda; Fiona Reid; Phillip Hay
Little research has focused specifically on disclosure among HIV+ Black Africans living in the UK; however, the available evidence suggests that this population may be reluctant to disclose to significant others. Forty-five HIV+ Black African men and women were recruited from a London HIV clinic. Semi-structured interviews gathered information on: disclosure, social support, mental and physical health, medication adherence, acculturation and the perceived prevalence of stigma. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. The majority of the participants had disclosed to one significant other and there was an inverse association between perceived stigma and disclosure. Disclosure could not be predicted by any of the respondent characteristics identified in the study; rather, disclosure decisions were reasoned, interpersonal in nature and many of the motivations were specific to the individual. There was little evidence to suggest that those who disclosed to more than one other gained additional benefits in physical or mental well-being. Clinicians seeking to assist members of this population to disclose need to assess the specific reasons for and barriers against disclosure for that individual. PMID:17453574
Calin, T; Green, J; Hetherton, J; Brook, G
This study was designed to investigate experiences of maintaining and dropping out of a gym-based exercise programme. Interviews were carried out with 14 people, aged 19–32?years, comprising seven men and two women who had maintained their gym membership and three women and two men who had not. Member validation interviews were conducted 20?months later with one man who was previously
Lisa Pridgeon; Sarah Grogan
Our objective was to assess the effects of repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatments on the neonatal auditory brainstem response (ABR), a sensitive measure of neonatal brain maturity and auditory function. To achieve this, we performed and blindly evaluated neonatal ABRs on a subset of infants delivering within a multicenter randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing single versus repeated courses of antenatal corticosteroid treatments for women at 23-31 weeks gestation who remained at increased risk for preterm birth. The women were randomly assigned to either the single or the repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatment group. Women in the repeated antenatal corticosteroid group received weekly antenatal corticosteroid treatments until 34 weeks gestation or until they reached a study-determined limited number of courses, whereas women in the single antenatal corticosteroid group received an initial course of corticosteroid followed by weekly placebo injections. We performed ABR testing on their infants prior to discharge. The latencies of waves I, III and V and the peak-to-trough amplitudes of waves I and V were compared between those in the single (n=27) and repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatment (n=24) groups. The majority of repeated antenatal corticosteroid infants (20 of 24) were exposed to ? 4 antenatal corticosteroid treatments. Even though gestational age was similar between our subset of single and repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatment groups, infant birth weight and length and head circumference were significantly smaller in the repeated antenatal corticosteroid group (p <0.05). Despite these differences in birth sizes, there were no significant group differences in the ABR wave latencies or amplitudes. We concluded that our repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatments, in comparison to a single treatment, did not significantly benefit or harm the neonatal ABR despite significant effects on birth size. PMID:20553856
Church, Michael W; Wapner, Ronald J; Mele, Lisa M; Johnson, Francee; Dudley, Donald J; Spong, Catherine Y; Peaceman, Alan M; Moawad, Atef H; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Miodovnik, Menachem
Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program . In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Conclusion Risk factor profiles for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress differ but are interrelated. Antenatal depression was the strongest predictor of postnatal depression, and in turn postnatal depression was the strongest predictor for parenting stress. These results provide clinical direction suggesting that early identification and treatment of perinatal depression is important.
Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP) is currently being scaled up in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite high antenatal clinic (ANC) attendance, coverage with the required two doses of SP remains low. The study investigated whether a targeted community-based promotion campaign to increase ANC attendance and SP uptake could effectively improve pregnancy outcomes in the
Sabine Gies; Sheick Oumar Coulibaly; Florence Tiemegna Ouattara; Clotilde Ky; Bernard John Brabin; Umberto D'Alessandro
Background The fifth Millennium Development Goal calls for a reduction of maternal mortality ratio by 75% between 1990 and 2015. A key indicator to measure this goal is the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel. The maternal mortality ratio of Ethiopia is 676 deaths per 100,000 live births. Skilled birth attendance is correlated with lower maternal mortality rates globally and in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the proportion of births with a skilled attendant is only 10% in Ethiopia. Therefore identifying the determinants of skilled attendance for delivery is a priority area to give policy recommendations. Methods A community based nested case control study was conducted from October 2009 – August 2011 at the University of Gondar health and demographic surveillance systems site located at Dabat district, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were obtained from the infant mortality prospective follow up study conducted to identify the determinants of infant survival. A pretested and structured questionnaire via interview was used to collect data on the different variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of skilled birth attendance. Strength of the association was assessed using odds ratio with 95% CI. Results A total of 1065 mothers (213 cases and 852 controls) were included in the analysis. Among the cases, 166 (77.9%) were from urban areas. More than half (54%) of the cases have secondary and above level of education. Secondary and above level of education [AOR (95%CI) = 2.8 (1.29, 3.68)] and urban residence [AOR (95%CI)?=?8.8 (5.32, 14.46)] were associated with skilled attendance for delivery. Similarly, women who had ANC during their pregnancy four or more times [AOR (95%CI)?=?2.8 (1.56, 4.98)] and who own TV [AOR (95%CI)?=?2.5 (1.32, 4.76)] were more likely to deliver with the assistance of a skilled attendant. Conclusions Women’s education, place of residence, frequency of antenatal care visit and ever use of family planning were found to be determinants of skilled birth attendance. Encouraging women to complete at least secondary education and to have antenatal care frequently are important to increase skilled attendance during delivery.
RationaleChorioamnionitis is associated with preterm delivery and involution of the fetal thymus. Women at risk of preterm delivery receive antenatal corticosteroids which accelerate fetal lung maturation and improve neonatal outcome. However, the effects of antenatal corticosteroids on the fetal thymus in the settings of chorioamnionitis are largely unknown. We hypothesized that intra-amniotic exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes involution of the
Elke Kuypers; Jennifer J. P. Collins; Reint K. Jellema; Tim G. A. M. Wolfs; Matthew W. Kemp; Ilias Nitsos; J. Jane Pillow; Graeme R. Polglase; John P. Newnham; Wilfred T. V. Germeraad; Suhas G. Kallapur; Alan H. Jobe; Boris W. Kramer
Background: Hypoxia\\/ischemia in utero can result in brain damage to the fetus and newborn. Antenatal steroids are a routine part of the management of women who develop premature labor. Pretreatment of young postnatal rats with dexamethasone before hypoxic\\/ischemic insults has been reported to attenuate brain injury. However, the effects of antenatal steroids on ischemic brain injury in fetuses have not
Christopher M. Elitt; Grazyna B. Sadowska; Edward G. Stopa; Halit Pinar; Katherine H. Petersson; Barbara S. Stonestreet
Objectives: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem and the abuse of women during pregnancy is of particular concern. Few studies have addressed the relationship between IPV and antenatal hospitalization. This study utilized a novel approach to examine the impact of IPV during pregnancy on antenatal hospitalization not associated with delivery. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included
Sherry Lipsky; Victoria L. Holt; Thomas R. Easterling; Cathy W. Critchlow
IN 1981 the West Midlands Health services undertook a publicity campaign aimed at helping women to under stand more about keeping healthy during pregnancy and encouraging them to seek early ante-natal care. A series of full page advertisements on ante-natal care were placed in local newspapers in the Region. Set out here are the findings of two studies of the
Judith M. Berry
Background Animal studies have shown that prenatal stress has persisting effects on several aspects of offspring development; more recent studies show that this effect may be eliminated by positive postnatal rearing. Human studies of prenatal anxiety/stress are now also beginning to document links between antenatal stress/anxiety and behavioural and cognitive development of the child; however, there is no human evidence as to whether the early caregiving environment moderates the effect of antenatal anxiety/stress on child outcomes. Methods Antenatal and postnatal measures of stress were collected on 123 women who were recruited from an antenatal clinic. Laboratory-based assessment of the children's cognitive development and fearfulness were assessed when the children were aged 17 months. In addition, child-parent attachment quality was assessed using the Strange Situation. Results Attachment classification moderated the link between antenatal stress and observed fearfulness. The effect of antenatal stress on fearfulness was most accentuated in children with an Insecure/Resistant attachment classification; the significant antenatal stress X attachment classification interaction held after controlling for postnatal stress and obstetric, social and demographic factors. Attachment did not moderate the effects of antenatal anxiety on cognitive development. Discussion These findings provide the first human evidence that postnatal parenting may moderate the adverse effects of antenatal stress. These results raise developmental questions about the timing and effect of interventions to reduce the adverse effects of antenatal stress exposure.
Bergman, K; Sarkar, P; Glover, V; O'Connor, TG
Background: Delay in seeking care for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has adverse consequences for both the individual and population. We sought to identify factors associated with delay in seeking care for STDs. Methods: Subjects included 300 young men and women (aged 15-24) attending an urban STD clinic for a new STD-related problem due to symptoms or referral for an STD screening. Subjects completed a structured interview that evaluated STD history, attitudes and beliefs about STDs, depression, substance use, and other factors possibly associated with delay. Delay was defined as waiting > 7 days to seek and obtain care for STDs. Results: Nearly one-third of participants delayed seeking care for > 7 days. Significant predictors for delay included self-referral for symptoms as the reason for visit (OR 5.3, 95% CI: 2.58 – 10.98), and the beliefs “my partner would blame me if I had an STD” (OR 2.44, 95% CI: 1.30 – 4.60) and “it’s hard to find time to get checked for STDs” (OR 3.62, 95% CI: 1.95 – 6.69), after adjusting for age, race, sex, and other factors. Agreeing with the statement “would use a STD test at home if one were available” was associated with a decrease in delay (OR 0.24, 95% CI: 0.09 – 0.60). Conclusions: Many young persons delay seeking care for STDs for a number of reasons. Strategies to improve STD care-seeking include encouragement of symptomatic persons to seek medical care more rapidly, reduction of social stigmas, and improved access to testing options.
Malek, Angela M.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Clark, Duncan B.; Cook, Robert L.
ObjectiveAssess the feasibility and acceptability of a patient-led syphilis partner notification strategy among pregnant women with syphilis, their male partners and treatment completion in Bolivia.MethodsIn four provinces, women who had tested positive for syphilis while attending antenatal care visits were recruited to receive a partner notification (PN) intervention on how to notify partners of their positive diagnosis and encourage them
Claudia Díaz Olavarrieta; Jorge Valencia; Kate Wilson; Sandra G García; Freddy Tinajeros; Tahilin Sanchez
Objective Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal death and disability worldwide. Recognition depends on subjective visual quantification. This study sought to assess and compare the thresholds for excessive postpartum blood loss reported by skilled birth attendants (SBA), traditional birth attendants (TBA), and laywomen in Matlab, Bangladesh. Method Data from six questions asking about excessive blood loss in the postpartum period were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Hochberg test, Kruskal-Wallis and standard descriptive statistics. Results Thresholds for excessive blood loss estimated by laywomen and TBAs exceed biomedical standards for PPH. Skilled birth attendant reports are consistent with the definition of severe acute PPH. Conclusion Further research on locally validated blood collection devices, in birth kits, for diagnostic aid or referral indication is needed. Areas where coverage and uptake of skilled birth attendance are low should be targeted due to the number of home births attended by TBAs and laywomen in such settings. Precis A comparison of excessive postpartum blood loss estimates among skilled birth attendants, traditional birth attendants and laywomen in Matlab, Bangladesh.
Edmonds, Joyce K.; Hruschka, Daniel; Sibley, Lynn M.
Perinatal depression, a prevalent condition with negative consequences for the mother, infant and family, has been reported in many countries. This study aimed to assess the scope of depressive symptoms among pregnant and postnatal Israeli Arab women and to identify possible risk factors. Data were collected from a screening program at 58 Mother-Child Health Care clinics in northern Israel from June to December, 2009. Participants included 1,254 pregnant and 2,326 postnatal women. The rate of antenatal depressive symptoms, i.e., a score of ?10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was 20.8%. Women attending clinics with primarily religious or traditional populations had lower rates antenatally than did those described as secular. During the postnatal period 16.3% of the women scored ?10 on the EPDS. The rate of postnatal depressive symptoms was significantly higher among women living in Moslem than Druze communities (EPDS ? 10: 19.0% vs. 13.4%, respectively, P = 0.01). Postnatally, there were no significant differences according to SES cluster, community size, or religious orientation. The rate of antenatal and postnatal depression among Arab women in northern Israel was somewhat higher than that of Jewish Israeli women in the same region, and considerably lower than that of Arab Bedouin women in southern Israel. Given the differences in their life styles and circumstances, health policy authorities should be informed regarding the needs of these various sub-populations. PMID:21735141
Glasser, Saralee; Tanous, Mary; Shihab, Shihab; Goldman, Nofar; Ziv, Arnona; Kaplan, Giora
Objective To determine whether offering self sampling of cervicovaginal material for high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is an effective screening method for women who do not attend regular cervical screening programmes. Design Cohort study (the PROHTECT trial). Settings Noord-Holland and Flevoland regions of the Netherlands, December 2006 to December 2007, including 13 laboratories, gynaecologists, and more than 800 general practitioners. Participants 28?073 women who had not responded to two invitations to the regular cervical screening programme: 27?792 women were assigned to the self sampling group and invited to submit a self collected cervicovaginal sample for HPV testing; 281 were assigned to the recall control group and received a second re-invitation for conventional cytology. Intervention Women with a positive result on the high risk HPV test on their self sample material were referred to their general practitioner. Women with abnormal results on cytology were referred for colposcopy. Women with normal results on cytology were re-evaluated after one year by cytology and high risk HPV testing and referred for colposcopy if either result was positive. Main outcome measures Attendance rate in both groups and yield of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II/III or worse (?CIN II/?CIN III) in self sampling responders. Results The compliance rate in the self sampling group was significantly higher than in the control group (crude 26.6% v 16.4%, P<0.001; adjusted 27.5% v 16.6%, P<0.001). The number of detected ?CIN II and ?CIN III lesions in self sampling responders was 99 (1.3%) and 76 (1.0%), respectively. Self sampling responders who had not participated in the previous round of screening (43%) had increased relative risks of ?CIN II (2.04, 95% confidence interval 1.27 to 3.28) and ?CIN III (2.28, 1.31 to 3.96) compared with self sampling women who had been screened in the previous round (57%). Conclusions Offering self sampling by sending a device for collecting cervicovaginal specimens for high risk HPV testing to women who did not attend regular screening is a feasible and effective method of increasing coverage in a screening programme. The response rate and the yield of high grade lesions support implementation of this method for such women. Trial registration ISRCTN45527158.
Background. Proportionally, India has the highest mortality from cervical cancer in the world. Methods. A 2nd-year medical student recruited 299 women from a gynecology clinic in Kolkata, India who completed a questionnaire\\u000a assessing demographic information; health care history; Pap test utilization; and knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about\\u000a cervical cancer and screening. Results. A total of 10% had received a Pap
Brita Roy; Tricia S. Tang
Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the United States. In acute-care settings such as clinics and emergency rooms, a desirable chlamydia screening assay should exhibit good sensitivity and good specificity and should provide test results while the patient is still present. The Biostar Chlamydia OIA (Biostar, Inc., Boulder, Colo.) is an optical immunoassay (OIA) that provides test results in less than 30 min and that uses a test format that allows office-based testing. This assay is performed entirely at room temperature without the need for rotators or other specialized equipment. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of the Biostar Chlamydia OIA for the detection of C. trachomatis with the performance of cell culture, direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) assay (Syva MicroTrak; Syva Co., Palo Alto, Calif.), and PCR (Roche Amplicor Chlamydia trachomatis; Roche, Branchburg, N.J.) for the detection of C. trachomatis infections in women attending an urban STD clinic. For calculations of relative test performance (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values), patient specimens that yielded positive results by two or more of the four assays (cell culture, DFA assay, PCR, and OIA) were classified as "true infections." By these criteria, 42 of 306 total specimens were classified as positive for C. trachomatis (positive prevalence, 13.7%), 11 (3.6%; 10 by PCR and 1 by DFA assay) were positive by a single assay, and 253 (82.7%) were negative by all four tests. All culture-positive specimens were also positive by at least one other assay. Among the culture-negative specimens, 14(5%) specimens were positive by two of the three non-culture-based assays used. By using the criterion that positivity by at least two of the tests indicated a true infection,the relative sensitivities were as follows: culture and PCR, 92.9% each; Biostar Chlamydia OIA, 73.8%; and DFA assay, 59.5%. PMID:9665987
Pate, M S; Dixon, P B; Hardy, K; Crosby, M; Hook, E W
A brief history of training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs), summary of evidence for effectiveness of TBA training, and consideration of the future role of trained TBAs in an environment that emphasizes transition to skilled birth attendance are provided. Evidence of the effectiveness of TBA training, based on 60 studies and standard meta-analytic procedures, includes moderate-to-large improvements in behaviours of TBAs relating to selected intrapartum and postnatal care practices, small significant increases in women's use of antenatal care and emergency obstetric care, and small significant decreases in perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality due to birth asphyxia and pneumonia. Such findings are consistent with the historical focus of TBA training on extending the reach of primary healthcare and a few programmes that have included home-based management of complications of births and the newborns, such as birth asphyxia and pneumonia. Evidence suggests that, in settings characterized by high mortality and weak health systems, trained TBAs can contribute to the Millennium Development Goal 4--a two-thirds reduction in the rate of mortality of children aged less than 14 years by 2015--through participation in key evidence-based interventions. PMID:17591344
Sibley, Lynn M; Sipe, Theresa Ann
Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values < 0.05 was considered significant and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used for the odds ratio. Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining actual HIV testing. This low explanatory power of TPB was mainly due to the large proportion of low intenders that ended up being tested contrary to their intention before entering the antenatal clinic. PMTCT programs should strengthen women's intention through social approval and information that testing will provide positive consequences for them. However, women's rights to opt-out should be emphasized in any attempt to improve the PMTCT programs.
We reviewed the antenatal HIV testing history, clinical presentation and outcome of 25 infants diagnosed with HIV between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2005 in a tertiary referral hospital in London. Of the 25 cases, 21 had received antenatal care in the UK. Twelve mothers had not had an antenatal HIV test, four had tested positive antenatally, while five
S S Struik; G Tudor-Williams; G P Taylor; S D Portsmouth; C J Foster; C Walsh; C Hanley; S Walters; J H Smith; H Lyall
In a randomized prospective study, we investigated the effect of antenatal phenobarbital on neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage in 39 women destined to deliver babies of less than 32 weeks of gestation. The treatment group received an intravenous loading dose of 700 mg of phenobarbital, followed by a daily maintenance dose until delivery. The newborns were treated with phenobarbital for the first
Sara De Carolis; Maria Pia De Carolis; Alessandro Caruso; Gian Carlo Oliva; Costantino Romagnoli; Sergio Ferrazzani; Umberto Muzii; Rita Luciano; Salvatore Mancuso
In August 2007, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institutes of Health Office of Rare Diseases, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American Academy of Pediatrics cosponsored a 2-day workshop to reassess the body of evidence supporting antepartum assessment of fetal well-being, identify key gaps in the evidence, and formulate recommendations for further research. Participants included experts in obstetrics and fetal physiology, and representatives from relevant stakeholder groups and organizations. This article is a summary of the discussions at the workshop, including synopses of oral presentations on the epidemiology of stillbirth and fetal neurological injury, fetal physiology, techniques for antenatal monitoring, and maternal and fetal indications for monitoring. Finally, a synthesis of recommendations for further research compiled from three breakout workgroups is presented.
Signore, Caroline; Freeman, Roger K.; Spong, Catherine Y.
|This paper explores the migration patterns of women who studied at Girton and Newnham prior to 1939 through whom dissemination of knowledge and values flowed from Cambridge overseas. It also considers organisations that fostered women's mobility in empire, particularly the Colonial Intelligence League for Educated Women and the International…
Goodman, Joyce; Jacobs, Andrea; Kisby, Fiona; Loader, Helen
Sentimental novels were the juggernaut of the publishing industry in America in the nineteenth century. Also known as novels of domesticity and, more recently, as women’s fiction, these novels were written largely by and for women. The story was one of survival, of girls cast out to make their way in the world. However, they were to hold fast to
Beverly B. Holmes
|The current study aims to highlight how Turkish students perceive important issues such as discrimination against women, violence that surfaced as a result of discrimination, alienation, inequality between men and women and isolation of women from work life. A total of 50 students participated in the study. Individual interviews were conducted.…
Summary A multicentre study on the epidemiology of perinatal depression was conducted among Japanese women expecting the first baby\\u000a (N = 290). The incidence rate of the onset of the DSM-III-R Major Depressive Episode during pregnancy (antenatal depression)\\u000a and within 3 months after delivery (postnatal depression) were 5.6% and 5.0%, respectively. Women with antenatal depression\\u000a were characterised by young age and
T. Kitamura; K. Yoshida; T. Okano; K. Kinoshita; M. Hayashi; N. Toyoda; M. Ito; N. Kudo; K. Tada; K. Kanazawa; K. Sakumoto; S. Satoh; T. Furukawa; H. Nakano
QUESTION: I am following up a former preterm infant, born at 29 weeks' gestation after premature labour. This infant had a relatively benign hospital course and when discharged was not thought to have any complications of prematurity. Despite this, at 1 year old his neurologic examination is abnormal: head circumference is on the 3rd percentile for age (weight on the 25th percentile), and he has increased tone in his lower legs and a moderate developmental delay. His discharge letter indicated that he was exposed antenatally to many doses of dexamethasone. Could this have adversely influenced his neurologic outcome? ANSWER: Antenatal steroids are proven therapy for preventing respiratory distress syndrome and decrease both morbidity and mortality associated with prematurity. Use of multiple doses of antenatal steroids might adversely affect neurologic outcome. There is insufficient evidence to support routine use of multiple doses of antenatal steroids when delivery of a preterm infant is anticipated.
Klinger, G.; Koren, G.
In this study we investigated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-I), human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in 200 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the University Hospital of the West Indies. 19% of the women had at least one pathogen: C. trachomatis was found in 16%, HTLV-1 in 2%, HIV-1, HBV and N. gonorrhoeae each in 0.5% C. trachomatis infection was more prevalent in women less than 20 years of age (31%) than in those 20 years and older (16%; OR = 0.43; chi 2 = 5.66; p < 0.05). The study demonstrates the need for identification of sexually transmitted pathogens in antenatal women for syndromic management of genital infections as part of the strategy for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in Jamaica. PMID:9619092
Dowe, G; King, S D; Smikle, M F; Wynter, H H; Chout, R; Klaskala, W
One hundred and ninety three consecutive pregnant women attending peripheral antenatal clinics attached to Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, Kwa-Zulu, were examined for evidence of sexually transmitted pathogens. The following incidences were found: Trichomonas vaginalis 49.2% (95), Candida spp 38.3% (74), Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4% (22), Gardnerella vaginalis 6.2% (12), Neisseria gonorrhoeae 5.7% (11), positive syphilis serology results 11.9% (23), hepatitis B surface
N OFarrell; A A Hoosen; A B Kharsany; J van den Ende
Knowledge of the prevalence of different human papillomavirus (HPV) types in young girls is important for the early detection of changes in HPV prevalence, e.g. due to HPV vaccines. The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the prevalence of 24 different genital HPV types in a group of sexually active young women (aged 15-23 y) attending a major youth healthcare centre in Stockholm, before the introduction of public HPV vaccination of young women in the autumn of 2010. A total of 615 women were analyzed for 24 different, mainly high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types using multiplex polymerase chain reaction and Luminex technology. A high HPV prevalence in this cohort was demonstrated, particularly with regard to HPV16, but also to all included HR-HPV types. Of the 544 successfully analyzed samples from non-vaccinated individuals, 70% were positive for the HPV types assayed for, and 62% were positive for HR-HPV types. Over a third (34.7%) of the women were infected with HPV16, and a high frequency of infections with HR-HPV types 51 (10.7%), 18 (10.1%), 52 (9.9%) and 73 (9.4%) was also observed. At least 9 different non-vaccine HR-HPV types were present with a prevalence of >6% in this selected group of young women. PMID:20964488
Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Du, Juan; Lundén, Mikaela; Ahrlund-Richter, Sofie; Ferreira, Joana; Marions, Lena; Sparén, Pär; Andersson, Sören; Dalianis, Tina
Female sexual dysfunction is a common health problem for many women all over the world. This study was constructed to determine\\u000a risk factors and prevalence of female sexual dysfunction among Turkish women, in Ordu province of Turkey between May 2008\\u000a and December 2008. Four hundred and twenty-five married women, between 18 and 56 years of age, who consented to participate,\\u000a were
Background Antenatal ultrasound scan is a widely accepted component of antenatal care. Studies have looked at the relationship between ultrasound scanning and caesarean section (CS) in certain groups of women in China. However, there are limited data on the utilization of antenatal ultrasound scanning in the general population, including its association with CS. The purpose of this study is to describe the utilization of antenatal ultrasound screening in rural Eastern China and to explore the association between antenatal ultrasound scan and uptake of CS. Methods Based on a cluster randomized sample, a total of 2326 women with childbirth participated in the study. A household survey was conducted to collect socio-economic information, obstetric history and utilization of maternal health services. Results Coverage of antenatal care was 96.8% (2251/2326). During antenatal care, 96.1% (2164/2251) women received ultrasound screening and the reported average number was 2.55. 46.8% women received at least 3 ultrasound scans and the maximum number reached 11. The CS rate was found to be 54.8% (1275/2326). After adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical variables, it showed a statistically significant association between antenatal ultrasound scans and uptake of CS by multivariate logistic regression model. High husband education level, high maternal age, having previous adverse pregnant outcome and pregnancy complications during the index pregnancy were also found to be risk factors of choosing a CS. Conclusions A high use of antenatal ultrasound scan in rural Eastern China is found and is influenced by socio-demographic and clinical factors. Evidence-based guidelines for antenatal ultrasound scans need to be developed and disseminated to clinicians including physicians, nurses and sonographers. Guidance about the appropriate use of ultrasound scans should also be shared with women in order to discourage unreasonable expectations and demands. It is important to monitor the use of antenatal ultrasound scan as well as the indications for caesarean section in rural China.
Traditionally, Chinese women adhere to special dietary practices during the month following childbirth. This paper discusses the dietary practices and food taboos practised by Chinese women in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 134 Chinese mothers of children below one year were recruited from three Maternal and Child Health Clinics and Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used
Poh Bee Koon; Wong Yuen Peng; Norimah A. Karim
The study assessed whether a mass media cam- paign could encourage women who were over- due for a Papanicolaou (Pap) test to have one, without prompting unnecessary early re- screening. A telephone survey of a representa- tive sample of 1000 Victorian women aged 25-65 years assessed recall of the advertisement and intention to act after seeing it. The televi- sion
Robyn Mullins; Melanie Wakefield; Kate Broun
The prevalence of domestic violence (DV) during pregnancy could be high and is associated with significant psychological and\\u000a physical impairment for mother and the fetus. The major objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of DV in expectant\\u000a mothers who have attended the Iran University of Medical Sciences’ Hospitals (IUMS). In this cross-sectional study, 1,800\\u000a subjects were interviewed
Shayesteh Jahanfar; Zahra Malekzadegan
Objective: To compare the effect of betamethasone and dexamethasone on maternal white blood cell (WBC) and differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Apgar score, maternal and fetal plasma glucose and length of admission to delivery, gestational age at delivery in women at risk of preterm labor (PTL). Study Design: Two hundred and forty pregnant women at risk for PTL with intact membranes or preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) were randomly allocated to receive either two intramuscular injections of 12 mg betamethasone at 24-h intervals or 4 injections of 6 mg dexamethasone at 12-h intervals. Blood tests for WBC and differential count, ESR and fasting plasma glucose were drawn before betamethasone or dexamethasone injection and after injection every 24 h for two days. Pregnancy outcome was assessed as Apgar score, fetal plasma glucose and length of gestation. Result: In the preterm delivery group with intact membranes, no significant differences were found between the two groups in the maternal serum indicators of infection. The mean gestational age at delivery, 1- and 5-min Apgar score were higher in the dexamethasone group than in the betamethasone group. In the PPROM group, a significant rise in WBC count was occurred (12.4 cells/mm3 vs. 10.5 cells/mm3, P < 0.001), none of the other maternal serum indicators of infection and outcome variables showed significant differences between the dexamethasone and betamethasone groups. Conclusions: Dexamethasone compared to betamethasone significantly increased WBC count in women with PPROM, but in women at risk of PTL with intact membranes none of the maternal serum indicators of infection showed significant differences.
Danesh, Azar; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Khalatbari, Shila
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence supporting the use of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk of preterm birth to promote fetal lung maturation and reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. This audit aimed to assess the use of antenatal corticosteroids prior to preterm birth in the nine hospitals in four South East Asian countries participating in the South East Asia Optimising
Porjai Pattanittum; Melissa R Ewens; Malinee Laopaiboon; Pisake Lumbiganon; Steven J McDonald; Caroline A Crowther
Quantitative study in order to study domestic violence in women with induced abortion. Interviews were conducted with 147 women hospitalized for induced abortion in a public maternity hospital in Salvador, Bahia. The subjects are characterized by mostly women, black, poorly educated, economically dependent on spouses, experienced psychological abuse, physical and sexual abuse committed by their spouses. Almost half of the women were victims of domestic violence during the current pregnancy, and that was the reason for inducing abortion for 67% of them. The study reveals an association between experience of domestic violence and induced abortion. As mental health consequences, they developed symptoms of post trauma stress disorder. It is necessary that the health professionals consider the cues to identify domestic violence as a health problem associated with induced abortion, which requires a transformation on the training model, including domestic violence as a health issue. PMID:22664597
Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Gesteira, Solange Maria Dos Anjos; Lopes, Regina Lúcia Mendonça; Santos Mota, Rosana; Pérez, Bárbara Angélica Gómez; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira
BackgroundIn Honduras in 2008 were made 6.572 domestic violence complaints. At the Marcala Forensic Medicine Institute (IML), the leading injury cause complaint by women is domestic violence; the IML covers 10 municipalities, 57 833 women (51%). No previous studies, being necessary to determine the domestic violence prevalence, epidemiological characterisation, injury types and identify the aggressor–victim relationship.Materials and MethodsA series of
E E Lopez
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for delivering a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant. Haemoglobin A1c (A1C) is an indicator of glycaemic control. The objective of this study was to test whether higher A1C quartile at the time of diagnosis of GDM is associated with increased risk of delivering a LGA or macrosomic infant. Women with singleton pregnancies treated for GDM at a large diabetes and pregnancy programme located in Charlotte, North Carolina, were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective cohort study. Clinical information, including A1C at diagnosis, treatment, prior medical and obstetric history, and birth data were abstracted from medical records. LGA was defined as birthweight >90th percentile for gestational age and sex and macrosomia as birthweight >4000?g. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association of A1C at GDM diagnosis with risk of delivering LGA or macrosomic infants. This study included 502 women. Prevalences of LGA and macrosomia were 4% and 6% respectively. After adjustment there was no detectable trend of increased risk for LGA (P for trend?=?0.12) or macrosomia (P for trend?=?0.20) across increasing quartiles of A1C at GDM diagnosis. A1C at GDM diagnosis may not be linearly associated with LGA or macrosomia, possibly because of the mediating effect of strict glycaemic control in this clinical setting. PMID:22471680
Katon, Jodie; Reiber, Gayle; Williams, Michelle A; Yanez, David; Miller, Edith
The study assessed whether a mass media campaign could encourage women who were overdue for a Papanicolaou (Pap) test to have one, without prompting unnecessary early re-screening. A telephone survey of a representative sample of 1000 Victorian women aged 25-65 years assessed recall of the advertisement and intention to act after seeing it. The television advertisement was recalled by 61.5% of women. Significantly more who said 'I mean to have a test every two years, but I usually leave it longer' indicated they would have a Pap test more often as a result of seeing the advertisement (63%), than women who had Pap tests every 1 (6%) or 2 (12%) years. Negative binomial regression analysis on data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry from the middle of 2002 to the end of 2004 showed that during the campaign the number of Pap tests conducted increased by 18% (coeff = 0.169, df < 0.029). The rate increased most among those due or overdue for a Pap test. In a population with a high level of awareness of cervical screening, it is possible to run a mass media campaign to encourage screening which is specific to women whose test is due or overdue. PMID:17615181
Mullins, Robyn; Wakefield, Melanie; Broun, Kate
Objective: Eliciting known risk factors for postpartum depression (PPD) during pregnancy may enable primary health care providers to identify women at increased risk of becoming depressed. The purpose of this study was to examine how well the Antenatal Psychosocial Health Assessment (ALPHA) form identified antenatal risk factors for PPD, compared with routine care, in a sample of pregnant women. Methods:
Emma Robertson Blackmore; June Carroll; Anthony Reid; Anne Biringer; Richard H. Glazier; Deana Midmer; Joanne A. Permaul; Donna E. Stewart
Objective: The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of antenatal care, use of food supplements during pregnancy and lactation and factors responsible for not taking them in Tarlai, an urban slum of Islamabad. Material and Methods: A Cross-sectional survey of 100 married women in the age range 15-45 years women utilizing and not utilizing antenatal care facilities
Muhammad Zubair; Malik Muhammad Adil; Ali Yawar Alam; Akhtar Ali Qureshi
Background Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported pathogen that causes urogenital infection such as urethritis or cervicitis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum, which are commensals in the genital tract, have also now been recognized as contributors to urogenital infection. However, whether the presence of either U. parvum or U. urealyticum is related to that of C. trachomatis in the urogenital tract remains unknown. We therefore attempted to estimate by PCR the prevalence of C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum in endocervical samples obtained from healthy women attending their first prenatal visit in Sapporo, Japan. Methods The samples were taken from 303 apparently healthy women, and the extracted DNAs (n = 280) were used for PCR detection targeting C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by Fisher's exact test. Results PCR detection revealed that the prevalence of C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum was 14.3% (40/280), 41.7% (117/280) and 8.9% (25/280), respectively. C. trachomatis ompA genotype D was most frequently identified. Surprisingly, either C. trachomatis or Ureaplasma spp. was detected in almost half of the healthy women. Mixed infection of C. trachomatis with either U. parvum or U. urealyticum was also observed in 9.2% (26/280) of the women. There was a significant association between C. trachomatis and either U. parvum (p = 0.023) or Ureaplasma total (p = 0.013), but not U. urealyticum (p = 0.275). Conclusion This study demonstrated that the presence of Ureaplasma had a significant effect on the presence of C. trachomatis in the genital tract of healthy women, suggesting that mixed infection is an important factor in bacterial pathogenesis in the genital tract.
In female sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) was more frequently detected using vaginal (53/73) versus endocervical (43/73) specimens. In women without other STIs, MG detection (N=44) was associated with age? 22 years (odds ratio (OR) 2.53, P=0.006) and clinical evidence of cervicitis (OR 2.11, P=0.03).
Mobley, Victoria L.; Hobbs, Marcia M.; Lau, Karen; Weinbaum, Barbara S.; Getman, Damon K.; Sena, Arlene C.
|Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.
BACKGROUND: Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his\\/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. METHODS: We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11
Bjørg Hjerkinn; Morten Lindbæk; Idar Skogmo; Elin Olaug Rosvold
Introduction: The extent of acceptance of contraceptive methods still varies within societies. Reliance on sterilisation is appearing earlier in marriage and among ever-younger ages and lower parities. Aim and Objective: To study the family planning practices adopted by women who undergo tubectomy before the acceptance of tubectomy. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of tubectomy acceptors who attended a corporation referral maternity home in Bangalore, India by interview method using a pre-designed a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results: Majority 295(73.9%) of the study subjects had not practised any method of contraception before they underwent sterilisation. Increase in the education levels of the study subjects was associated with an increase in the contraceptive use (temporary methods) before they accepted tubectomy; this association was found to be statistically significant (p<0.0001). PMID:24086862
V, Srividya; Kumar, Jayanth
Introduction: The extent of acceptance of contraceptive methods still varies within societies. Reliance on sterilisation is appearing earlier in marriage and among ever-younger ages and lower parities. Aim and Objective: To study the family planning practices adopted by women who undergo tubectomy before the acceptance of tubectomy. Material and Methods: Cross–sectional study of tubectomy acceptors who attended a corporation referral maternity home in Bangalore, India by interview method using a pre–designed a pre–tested structured questionnaire. Results: Majority 295(73.9%) of the study subjects had not practised any method of contraception before they underwent sterilisation. Increase in the education levels of the study subjects was associated with an increase in the contraceptive use (temporary methods) before they accepted tubectomy; this association was found to be statistically significant (p<0.0001).
V, Srividya; Kumar, Jayanth
Aims: To evaluate the validity of new simple qualitative osmotic fragility test (simple OF) as a screening test in predicting thalassemia trait (alpha-thalassemia-1 and beta-thalassemia). Methods: This diagnostic test study was conducted on non-anemic pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, during September 2007, and June 2008. Blood samples were collected from 477 singleton pregnancies with
Fuanglada Tongprasert; Supatra Sirichotiyakul; Wirawit Piyamongkol; Theera Tongsong
Objective: To compare HIV prevalence from antenatal surveillance to that of the demographic and health survey (DHS), and to identify factors determining the difference of HIV prevalence between women recruited in these two surveys in Rwanda in 2005. Methods: Comparative cross-sectional study of HIV prevalence and socio-demographic factors collected by the antenatal survey in 13,745 pregnant women, seen in 30 health centres located throughout the country and those collected by the DHS among 5641 women, aged 15-49 years living in households located throughout the country. Log-binomial regression and direct standardization were used to estimate and compare HIV prevalence between the two surveys. Results: HIV prevalence in the antenatal survey was slightly higher than that in DHS women (4.1% versus 3.6% p=0.103). Socio-demographic characteristics were differently distributed between the two populations. Whereas, 59%, 93%, 53% of pregnant women were aged 20-29 years, married or cohabiting and living in rural areas respectively, the corresponding proportions among DHS women were 35%, 48% and 83% (p<0.001). Simultaneous standardization of antenatal prevalence according to the distribution of socio-demographic characteristics in the DHS gave an overall HIV prevalence estimate of 3.6%, similar to the prevalence measured among DHS women. Conclusions: HIV prevalence in the antenatal survey overestimated that among women of the general population in Rwanda in 2005. This overestimation could be corrected by standardization of antenatal prevalence according to the distribution of age, geographical area, marital status, parity, and education, in the general population.
Kayibanda, Jeanne Francoise; Alary, Michel; Bitera, Raphael; Kabeja, Adeline; Hinda, Ruton; Munyakazi, Louis; Chitou, Bassirou; Gatarayiha, Jean Philippe
Malaria during pregnancy causes anaemia in pregnant women and low birthweight in infants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the OptiMAL rapid malaria test in comparison with standard microscopy for malaria diagnosis in 268 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the Jos University Teaching Hospital and the Federal Medical Centre-Gombe in Nigeria. Positive results by either method were confirmed using a polymerase chain reaction assay for malaria. Although the OptiMAL assay did not detect malaria in the blood of pregnant women with low levels of parasitaemia, it may be useful for the detection of placental malaria which predisposes to low birthweight infants. PMID:15655012
VanderJagt, T A; Ikeh, E I; Ujah, I O A; Belmonte, J; Glew, R H; VanderJagt, D J
Objectives: Immigrant women living in Canada present with higher rates of prenatal depressive symptomatology than Canadian-born women; however, the associated psychosocial correlates remain understudied. Antenatal depression and stress negatively affect maternal health and infant development, in part through changes in maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. We aimed to examine the factors associated with prenatal depressive symptoms, including altered HPA axis function, in an ethnically diverse community sample of Canadian immigrant women. Methods: Seventy-eight pregnant immigrant women were recruited from the community at 19 weeks' gestation and provided information on health, mood, stressful life events (SLEs), and social support. Fifty-seven of these women also provided saliva samples for measurement of the cortisol awakening response and nighttime cortisol levels. Results: Seventeen per cent of the sample had a high level of prenatal depressive symptoms, and these women reported more perceived stress, more somatic symptoms, lower social support, and were less often working or attending school during pregnancy. Controlling for wake time, parity, and region of origin, high levels of prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with elevated nighttime cortisol levels, whereas SLEs were not associated with any measures of HPA axis activity. Conclusions: High levels of prenatal depressive symptoms are common in immigrant women living in Canada, and are associated with identifiable factors. Preliminary evidence suggests a similar pattern of HPA axis activity characterizing depressive symptomatology in this subpopulation as previously seen in clinically depressed patients. PMID:24165105
Peer, Miki; Soares, Claudio N; Levitan, Robert D; Streiner, David L; Steiner, Meir
|Depression in pregnancy or antenatal depression (AD) occurs in approximately one in five women, with potentially deleterious effects to the mother and fetus. People are encouraged to get treatment for depression; however, pregnant women can experience stigma when they reach out for help with depression. Research indicates that healthcare…
Gawley, Laura; Einarson, Adrienne; Bowen, Angela
This article describes the setting, policies, practices, and outcomes of the nurse-managed in-hospital birth center at Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Women's Hospital, where women are selected upon admission for birth center care. A retrospective review of available data was made; when compared with hospital records, the primary data source was found to be 96% accurate. Results of the review indicated that from 1981 to 1992, there were 36,410 birth center admissions and 30,311 births, all attended by nurse-midwives; no intrapartum maternal or fetal deaths occurred among all admissions. The intrapartum transfer rate averaged 17%, and declined steadily from a high of 28% in 1982 to a low of 7% in 1990. More in-depth review showed an overall primary cesarean birthrate of 1.8% and an operative birthrate of 4% among the 25,890 admissions and 22,490 births from 1985 to 1992. Detailed postpartum and newborn outcomes from 1982 to 1986 showed a neonatal intensive care unit admission rate of 1.5% and a one-week newborn readmission rate of 1.3% among newborns discharged within 12 to 24 hours; 85% of all newborns returned for follow-up care. This large longitudinal experience demonstrates excellent outcomes that can be achieved when nurse-midwives, working cooperatively with a multidisciplinary health care team, provide in-hospital birth center care to a predominately low-income Hispanic population using a variety of less-traditional intrapartum management techniques. Broader implications for making alternative maternity care services available for low-income women with nurse-midwives and nurses playing a central role are discussed. PMID:7965188
Greulich, B; Paine, L L; McClain, C; Barger, M K; Edwards, N; Paul, R
Background China has been experiencing a rapidly growing syphilis epidemic since the early 1990s, with the reported incidence of congenital syphilis increasing from 0.01 cases per 100?000 live births in 1991 to 19.7 cases per 100?000 live births in 2005. Detailed studies of risk factors for syphilis in pregnant women are needed to inform new preventive interventions. Objective To investigate factors associated with recent syphilis infection among pregnant women and recommend strategies for improved preventive interventions in the community. Methods A case–control study was conducted among women attending antenatal clinics in Shenzhen City, South China. Cases were antenatal clinic women testing positive for early syphilis, based on laboratory results, with those testing negative being controls. All participants completed the same anonymous questionnaire covering demographics, lifestyle, sexual behaviour, and sexual partnerships. Results 129 cases and 345 controls were recruited. Syphilis was significantly associated with unmarried status, less education, multiple sex partners, travel of sex partner in the past 12?months, a history of induced abortion, and previous sexually transmitted infections. Overall, there were no differences between syphilis?positive and negative women in household registration status (hukou), living district and duration in Shenzhen, monthly income, and age at first sex. Conclusions Many demographic and behavioural risk factors are associated with syphilis among pregnant women. In the government congenital syphilis control programme, comprehensive preventive interventions should be provided in all clinical settings in addition to the current procedures for syphilis screening among antenatal women.
Zhou, Hua; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Hong, Fu-Chang; Pan, Peng; Yang, Fan; Cai, Yu-Mao; Yin, Yue-Ping; Peeling, Rosanna W; Mabey, David
Background Antenatal care (ANC) presents important opportunities to reach women with crucial interventions. Studies on determinants of ANC use often focus on household and individual factors; few investigate the role of health service factors, partly due to lack of appropriate data. We assessed how distance to facilities and level of service provision at ANC facilities in Zambia influenced the number and timing of ANC visits and the quality of care received. Methods and Findings Using the 2005 Zambian national Health Facility Census, we classified ANC facilities according to the level of service provision. In a geographic information system, we linked the facility information to household data from the 2007 DHS to calculate straight-line distances. We performed multivariable multilevel logistic regression on 2405 rural births to investigate the influence of distance to care and of level of provision on three aspects of ANC use: attendance of at least four visits, visit in first trimester and receipt of quality ANC (4+ visits with skilled health worker and 8+ interventions). We found no effect of distance on timing of ANC or number of visits, and better level of provision at the closest facility was not associated with either earlier ANC attendance or higher number of visits. However, there was a strong influence of both distance to a facility, and level of provision at the closest ANC facility on the quality of ANC received; for each 10 km increase in distance, the odds of women receiving good quality ANC decreased by a quarter, while each increase in the level of provision category of the closest facility was associated with a 54% increase in the odds of receiving good quality ANC. Conclusions To improve ANC quality received by mothers, efforts should focus on improving the level of services provided at ANC facilities and their accessibility.
Kyei, Nicholas N. A.; Campbell, Oona M. R.; Gabrysch, Sabine
Background A randomised controlled trial of participatory women's groups in rural Nepal previously showed reductions in maternal and newborn mortality. In addition to the outcome data we also collected previously unreported information from the subgroup of women who had been pregnant prior to study commencement and conceived during the trial period. To determine the mechanisms via which the intervention worked we here examine the changes in perinatal care of these women. In particular we use the information to study factors affecting positive behaviour change in pregnancy, childbirth and newborn care. Methods Women's groups focusing on perinatal care were introduced into 12 of 24 study clusters (average cluster population 7000). A total of 5400 women of reproductive age enrolled in the trial had previously been pregnant and conceived during the trial period. For each of four outcomes (attendance at antenatal care; use of a boiled blade to cut the cord; appropriate dressing of the cord; not discarding colostrum) each of these women was classified as BETTER, GOOD, BAD or WORSE to describe whether and how she changed her pre-trial practice. Multilevel multinomial models were used to identify women most responsive to intervention. Results Among those not initially following good practice, women in intervention areas were significantly more likely to do so later for all four outcomes (OR 1.92 to 3.13). Within intervention clusters, women who attended groups were more likely to show a positive change than non-group members with regard to antenatal care utilisation and not discarding colostrum, but non-group members also benefited. Conclusion Women's groups promoted significant behaviour change for perinatal care amongst women not previously following good practice. Positive changes attributable to intervention were not restricted to specific demographic subgroups.
Wade, Angie; Osrin, David; Shrestha, Bhim Prasad; Sen, Aman; Morrison, Joanna; Tumbahangphe, Kirti Man; Manandhar, Dharma S; de L Costello, Anthony M
Pregnancy in teenagers seems to be a challenge that might contribute to a struggle to fulfil the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals directly related to women's reproductive health and neonatal care. The challenge becomes worse as midwives and nurses find it difficult to fully supervise all these pregnancies, because teenagers stay away or default from clinic attendance. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the perceptions of pregnant teenagers of the antenatal care (ANC) clinic environment and to recommend guidelines to midwifery operational managers for strategies to create teenager-friendly ANC clinic environments. The study applied a qualitative research design with explorative, descriptive and contextual research approaches. The ethical principles that guided this study were respect for the person, beneficence and justice. Semi-structured interviews utilising a predetermined interview schedule with a central open-ended question to address the study objectives were used. Data were collected from pregnant teenagers attending ANC clinics in Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality. Participants were unanimous in that they perceived the clinic environment as causing discomfort to them. Different reasons attributed to this experience were related to their young age. The age difference between themselves and other women attending the clinic made participants perceive themselves as inferior and as being treated as such at the clinic. They found this embarrassing and recommended having their own waiting area and additional midwives at the clinic so that they would not be subjected to humiliating scrutiny and disapproval from older pregnant women. Pregnant teenagers' recall of their experiences of the ANC clinic environment suggests that they perceive themselves as not being adequately cared for, as judged, and as forced to be in an environment that is insensitive to their needs. As a result some of their peers stayed away from the clinic and at times they contemplated the same action. A well-managed ANC clinic environment which has midwives who are empowered with the necessary skills in terms of dealing with the needs of youth has been requested by the pregnant teenagers. PMID:23327773
James, Sindiwe; Rall, Nadine; Strümpher, Juanita
The antenatal use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVG) was explored in 9 cases of alloimmune cytopenias affecting fetuses. In 7 cases of alloimmune thrombocytopenia, IVG at a dose of 1 gm\\/kg\\/week appeared to be uniformly effective in elevating the fetal platelet count and preventing a recurrence of antenatal intracranial hemorrhage (2 cases). In 2 cases of Rh disease the results were
James B. Bussel; Janice G. McFarland; Richard Berkowitz
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV was added to standard antenatal care (ANC) in 2000 for Colombians enrolled in the two national health insurance schemes, the 'subsidized regime' (covering poor citizens) and the 'contributory regime' (covering salaried citizens with incomes above the poverty threshold), which jointly covered 80% of the total Colombian population as of 2007. This article examines integration of HIV testing in ANC through the relationship between ordering an HIV test with the type of health insurance, including lack of health insurance, using data from the nationally representative 2005 Colombia Demographic and Health Survey. Overall, health-care providers ordered an HIV test for only 35% of the women attending ANC. We regressed the order of an HIV test during ANC on health systems characteristics (type of insurance and type of ANC provider), women's characteristics (age, wealth, educational attainment, month of pregnancy at first antenatal visit, HIV knowledge, urban vs. rural residence and sub-region of residence) and children's characteristics (birth order and birth year). Women enrolled in the subsidized regime were significantly less likely to be offered and receive an HIV test in ANC than women without any health insurance (adjusted odds ratio = 0.820, P < 0.001), when controlling for the other independent variables. Wealth, urban residence, birth year of the child and the type of health-care provider seen during the ANC visit were significantly associated with providers ordering an HIV test for a woman (all P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that enrolment in the subsidized regime reduced access to HIV testing in ANC. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms through which the potential effect of health insurance coverage on HIV testing in ANC occurs and to examine whether enrolment in the subsidized regime has affected access to other essential health services. PMID:23598426
Ettenger, Allison; Bärnighausen, Till; Castro, Arachu
Knowledge and utilization of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in primary health care centers in rural southwest, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment for prevention of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a key component of malaria control strategy in Nigeria and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the drug of choice. Despite the evidence of the effectiveness of IPTp strategy using SP in reducing the adverse effects of malaria during pregnancy the uptake and coverage in Nigeria is low. This study set
Stella O Akinleye; Catherine O Falade; Ikeoluwapo O Ajayi
This retrospective analysis of psychological predictors of attendance studied the women from the annual screening arm of the United Kingdom Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research (UKCCCR) trial of annual screening mammography for the early detection of breast cancer. Some women attended screening at the first invitation in year 1 (attenders), others did not attend for screening at any time (non-attenders), whereas a third group delayed attending until year 2 (ambivalent attenders). A total of 147 women were recruited to the study: 80 attenders, 28 non-attenders and 39 ambivalent attenders. It proved extremely difficult to contact non-attenders to take part in the study. Non-attenders were significantly more depressed on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; had experienced more miscarriages, stillbirths or terminations of pregnancy; were less knowledgeable about mammography; and were displeased to have received an invitation to screening. Whereas non-attenders are unlikely ever to attend breast screening because of their long-standing attitudes and preferred coping styles, ambivalent attenders may become more amenable to screening with the passage of time. In this study such women were persuaded to attend in year 2 with a simple, cost-effective intervention: an additional invitation letter after a year.
Burton, M. V.; Warren, R.; Price, D.; Earl, H.
The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidate the impact of domestic violence on the health and pregnancy outcomes of women. Data were extracted from literature through the MEDLINE database for years 2000-2011. Domestic violence occurs in every society, irrespective of class, creed, religion and country. Women attending antenatal clinics in Delhi reported experience of 26.9% physical, 29% mental and 6.2% sexual abuse, irrespective of their age. The spouse was the perpetrator of abuse in 47% cases and his family members were responsible for 31%. Pregnant women were hit by their husbands on the back and abdomen, sometimes repeatedly, besides psychological abuse. Incidence of domestic violence was more when the male spouse was less educated or in the habit of consuming alcohol, opium or tobacco. Illiteracy, poverty, family status and uncaring attitude of community about spousal violence were the causes of domestic violence. Women having experience of violence were less likely to receive antenatal care or home visits by health workers and had a risk of perinatal and neonatal mortality of 2.59 and 2.37 times higher, respectively, than women having no violence during pregnancy. The survey indicated that 4.5% of abused women required hospitalisation and 3.8% needed medical care. Women's education, economic autonomy and empowerment may reduce the incidence of domestic violence among Indian women. PMID:23550851
Sarkar, N N
Objective: To evaluate the effect of antenatal betamethasone on fetal branch pulmonary artery flow velocity waveforms. Methods: Betamethasone 12 mg i.m. in 2 injections 24 h apart was given to 25 pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery. Pulsatility (PI) and resistance (RI) indexes were measured at the proximal, middle and distal segments of the fetal pulmonary artery before and
José L. Bartha; Marta Largo-Heinrich; María J. Machado; Fernando González-Bugatto; Blas Hervías-Vivancos
Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the effect of antenatal betamethasone administration on the incidences of respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, and perinatal infectious morbidity in the setting of preterm premature rupture of membranes. Study Design: We performed a nonconcurrent prospective analysis of women with singleton pregnancies who were delivered between 24 and 32 weeks’ gestation after preterm premature
Stephen T. Vermillion; David E. Soper; Mark L. Bland; Roger B. Newman
Monthly serological testing is mandatory in France for pregnant women not immune to toxoplasmosis. We assessed for the first time the adherence to this national programme, using data from antenatal tests for Toxoplasma antibodies collected by the Union of Health Insurance Services in the French Rhone-Alpes region. PMID:19317970
Cornu, C; Bissery, A; Malbos, C; Garwig, R; Cocherel, C; Ecochard, R; Peyron, F; Wallon, M
Background: The assessment of the psychosocial health of pregnant women and their families, although recommended, is not carried out by most practitioners. One reason is the lack of a practical and evidence-based tool. In response, a multidisciplinary group created the Antenatal Psychosocial Health Assessment (ALPHA) form. This article describes the development of this tool and experi- ence with it in
Anthony J. Reid; Anne Biringer; June D. Carroll; Deana Midmer; Lynn M. Wilson; Beverley Chalmers; Donna E. Stewart
Background Hepatitis C infection (HCV) has an estimated seroprevalence of 1–2% in women of child-bearing age and vertical transmission\\u000a rate of 5–15%.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims To characterise the current trends of HCV in an Irish antenatal population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Infants of HCV seropositive women, born 1994 to 1999, were referred to the Paediatric Infectious Diseases service. Maternal\\u000a details were collected retrospectively.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results 296 HCV seropositive women were
C. M. Healy; M. T. Cafferkey; A. Conroy; S. Dooley; W. W. Hall; M. Beckett; R. Mackey; T. A. Clarke; M. J. White; W. A. Gorman; K. M. Butler
Objectives: Two primary objectives were to examine (a) changes in physical activity (PA) over a 12-month period in people living with cardiac disease who did not attend cardiac rehabilitation (CR), and (b) the role of barrier self-efficacy in explaining these changes from a gender perspective. A secondary objective was to examine whether attending CR (or not) moderated the gender–barrier self-efficacy
Chris M. Blanchard; Robert D. Reid; Louise I. Morrin; Louise J. Beaton; Andrew Pipe; Kerry S. Courneya; Ronald C. Plotnikoff
Objective. Antenatal perineal massage has been shown to reduce the incidence of perineal tears in primiparous women. The aim of this study was to determine whether perineal massage impacts on primary prevention of symptomatic disruption of the fecal continence mechanism. Methods. An observational study recruited two cohorts of women. The first, massage group (MG) chose to perform daily perineal massage
Maeve Eogan; Leslie Daly; Colm O'Herlihy
The study investigates the effect of wealth on maternal health care utilization in Ghana via its effect on Antenatal care use. Antenatal care serves as the initial point of contact of expectant mothers to maternal health care providers before delivery. The study is pivoted on the introduction of the free maternal health care policy in April 2005 in Ghana with the aim of reducing the financial barrier to the use of maternal health care services, to help reduce the high rate of maternal deaths. Prior to the introduction of the policy, studies found wealth to have a positive and significant influence on the use of Antenatal care. It is thus expected that with the policy, wealth should not influence the use of maternal health care significantly. Using secondary data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey, the results have revealed that wealth still has a significant influence on adequate use of Antenatal care. Education, age, number of living children, transportation and health insurance are other factors that were found to influence the use of Antenatal care in Ghana. There also exist considerable variations in the use of Antenatal care in the geographical regions and between the rural and urban dwellers. It is recommended that to improve the use of Antenatal care and hence maternal health care utilization, some means of support is provided especially to women within the lowest wealth quintiles, like the provision and availability of recommended medication at the health center; secondly, women should be encouraged to pursue education to at least the secondary level since this improves their use of maternal health services. Policy should also target mothers who have had the experience of child birth on the need to use adequate Antenatal care for each pregnancy, since these mothers tend to use less antenatal care for subsequent pregnancies. The regional disparities found may be due to inaccessibility and unavailability of health facilities and services in the rural areas and in some of the regions. The government and other service providers (NGOs, religious institutions and private providers) may endeavor to improve on the distribution of health facilities, human resources, good roads and necessary infrastructure among other things in order to facilitate easy access to health care providers especially for the rural dwellers.
Objective: To determine the effectiveness of antenatal steroids in the reduction of neonatal morbidity and mortality in obstetric subgroups of preterm labor with intact membranes, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM), and pregnancy-associated hypertension. The secondary objective was to determine the effect of antenatal steroids in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and growth-restricted neonates.Methods: We studied the neonatal outcomes for
Andrew Elimian; Uma Verma; Joseph Canterino; Jalpa Shah; Paul Visintainer; Nergesh Tejani
Antenatal depression is a debilitating experience for many women with significant personal and familial sequelae. Low-income pregnant women living in rural settings are especially vulnerable because of isolation, decreased resources, and stressful living environments. This systematic review summarizes what is known about antenatal depression and synthesizes the evidence regarding the role psychosocial variables could play in the development of safe, effective, and culturally-acceptable non-pharmacological interventions. Searches of the CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, and ERIC databases, as well as the Cochrane Library, were conducted in September 2010 to identify articles relevant to our topic of study. Psychosocial variables have a significant association with antenatal depression. Optimism has been shown to be inversely correlated with depression, and directly correlated with improved birth outcomes. Optimism is a potentially modifiable variable that could be used to design antenatal prevention and treatment programs. As depression continues to increase in prevalence, and treatment options for pregnant women remain limited, effective interventions must be developed that address the psychosocial variables examined in this review. PMID:22762538
Evans, Emily C; Bullock, Linda F C
Routine Comprehensive Psychosocial Assessment was implemented antenatally at a public hospital in Sydney in 2000. The assessment,\\u000a completed on all women, classifies them as (1) currently, or at high-risk of becoming, distressed, or, (2) not currently,\\u000a or at low risk of becoming, distressed during the perinatal period. This pilot study followed up a sample of women (N?=?50) from the latter
Janan C. Karatas; Stephen Matthey; Bryanne Barnett
Background Malawi has a high perinatal mortality rate of 40 deaths per 1,000 births. To promote neonatal health, the Government of Malawi has identified essential health care packages for improving maternal and neonatal health in health care facilities. However, regardless of the availability of health services, women’s perceptions of the care is important as it influences whether the women will or will not use the services. In Malawi 95% of pregnant women receive antenatal care from skilled attendants, but the number is reduced to 71% deliveries being conducted by skilled attendants. The objective of this study was to describe women’s perceptions on perinatal care among the women delivered at a district hospital. Methods A descriptive study design with qualitative data collection and analysis methods. Data were collected through face-to-face in-depth interviews using semi-structured interview guides collecting information on women’s perceptions on perinatal care. A total of 14 in depth interviews were conducted with women delivering at Chiradzulu District Hospital from February to March 2011. The women were asked how they perceived the care they received from health workers during antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum. They were also asked about the information they received during provision of care. Data were manually analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Two themes from the study were good care and unsatisfactory care. Subthemes under good care were: respect, confidentiality, privacy and normal delivery. Providers’ attitude, delay in providing care, inadequate care, and unavailability of delivery attendants were subthemes under unsatisfactory care. Conclusions Although the results show that women wanted to be well received at health facilities, respected, treated with kindness, dignity and not shouted at, they were not critical of the care they received. The women did not know the quality of care to expect because they were not well informed. The women were not critical of the care they received because they were not aware of the standard of care. Instead they had low expectations. Health workers have a responsibility to inform women and their families about the care that women should expect. There is also a need for standardization of the antenatal information that is provided.
Antenatal Bartter syndrome (ABS) is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder. The defective chloride transport in the loop of Henle leads to fetal polyuria resulting in severe hydramnios and premature delivery. Early onset, unexplained maternal polyhydramnios often challenges the treating obstetrician. Increasing polyhydramnios without apparent fetal or placental abnormalities should lead to the suspicion of this entity. Biochemical analysis of amniotic fluid is suggested as elevated chloride level is usually diagnostic. Awareness, early recognition, maternal treatment with indomethacin, and amniocentesis allow the pregnancy to continue. Affected neonates are usually born premature, have postnatal polyuria, vomiting, failure to thrive, hypercalciuria, and subsequently nephrocalcinosis. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, secondary hyperaldosteronism and hyperreninaemia are other characteristic features. Volume depletion due to excessive salt and water loss on long term stimulates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system resulting in juxtaglomerular hyperplasia. Clinical features and electrolyte abnormalities may also depend on the subtype of the syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis and timely indomethacin administration prevent electrolyte imbalance, restitute normal growth, and improve activity. In this paper, authors present classification, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, complications, and prognosis of ABS.
Bhat, Y. Ramesh; Vinayaka, G.; Sreelakshmi, K.
Background Skilled attendants during labor, delivery, and in the early postpartum period, can prevent up to 75% or more of maternal death. However, in many developing countries, very few mothers make at least one antenatal visit and even less receive delivery care from skilled professionals. The present study reports findings from a region where key challenges related to transportation and availability of obstetric services were addressed by an ongoing project, giving a unique opportunity to understand why women might continue to prefer home delivery even when facility based delivery is available at minimal cost. Methods The study took place in Ethiopia using a mixed study design employing a cross sectional household survey among 15–49 year old women combined with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results Seventy one percent of mothers received antenatal care from a health professional (doctor, health officer, nurse, or midwife) for their most recent birth in the one year preceding the survey. Overall only 16% of deliveries were assisted by health professionals, while a significant majority (78%) was attended by traditional birth attendants. The most important reasons for not seeking institutional delivery were the belief that it is not necessary (42%) and not customary (36%), followed by high cost (22%) and distance or lack of transportation (8%). The group discussions and interviews identified several reasons for the preference of traditional birth attendants over health facilities. Traditional birth attendants were seen as culturally acceptable and competent health workers. Women reported poor quality of care and previous negative experiences with health facilities. In addition, women’s low awareness on the advantages of skilled attendance at delivery, little role in making decisions (even when they want), and economic constraints during referral contribute to the low level of service utilization. Conclusions The study indicated the crucial role of proper health care provider-client communication and providing a more client centered and culturally sensitive care if utilization of existing health facilities is to be maximized. Implications of findings for maternal health programs and further research are discussed.
Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and common mental disorders (CMD) on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. Methods A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12–20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb <11 g/dL and serum ferritin <15 ng/mL. CMD symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam validation. Infant cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Ed. Path analyses were performed to determine the direct and indirect, partly or fully mediated, causal effects of the antenatal exposures. Results A total of 497 pregnant women were recruited, of those 378 women provided complete data which were included in the analyses. Statistically significant direct adverse effects of persistent antenatal IDA (estimated difference of ?11.62 points; 95% CI ?23.01 to ?0.22) and antenatal CMD (?4.80 points; 95% CI: ?9.40 to ?0.20) on infant Bayley cognitive scores at six months were found. Higher birthweight, household wealth, and self-rated sufficient supply of breastmilk were associated with higher cognitive scores. Maternal age >30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants’ Bayley cognitive scores. Conclusions These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.
Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane
Introduction More efforts need to be directed to improving the quality of maternal health in developing countries if we are to keep on track with meeting the fifth millennium development goal. The World Health Organization says developing countries account for over 90% of maternal deaths of which three fifths occur in Sub-Saharan African countries like Uganda. Abortion, obstetric complications such as hemorrhage, dystocia, eclampsia, and sepsis are major causes of maternal deaths here. Good quality Antenatal Care (ANC) provides opportunity to detect and respond to risky maternal conditions. This study assessed quality of ANC services in eastern Uganda with a goal of benchmarking implications for interventions. Methods Data was collected from 15 health facilities in Eastern Uganda to establish capacity of delivering ANC services. Observation checklists were used to assess structural components and completeness of the ANC consultation process among 291 women attending it. Lastly, structured exit-interviews were conducted to assess satisfaction of patients. Data analysis was done in STATA Version 10. Results There was an overall staffing gap of over 40%, while infection control facilities, drugs and supplies were inadequate. However, there was good existence of physical infrastructure and diagnostic equipment for ANC services. It was observed that counseling for risk factors and birth preparedness was poorly done; in addition essential tests were not done for the majority of clients. Conclusion To improve the quality of ANC, interventions need to improve staffing, infection control facilities and drug-supplies. In addition to better counseling for risk factor-recognition and birth preparedness.
Tetui, Moses; Ekirapa, Elizabeth Kiracho; Bua, John; Mutebi, Aloysius; Tweheyo, Raymond; Waiswa, Peter
Background Despite Malawi government’s policy to support women to deliver in health facilities with the assistance of skilled attendants, some women do not access this care. Objective The study explores the reasons why women delivered at home without skilled attendance despite receiving antenatal care at a health centre and their perceptions of perinatal care. Methods A descriptive study design with qualitative data collection and analysis methods. Data were collected through face-to-face in-depth interviews using a semi- structured interview guide that collected information on women’s perception on perinatal care. A total of 12 in- depth interviews were conducted with women that had delivered at home in the period December 2010 to March 2011. The women were asked how they perceived the care they received from health workers before, during, and after delivery. Data were manually analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Onset of labor at night, rainy season, rapid labor, socio-cultural factors and health workers’ attitudes were related to the women delivering at home. The participants were assisted in the delivery by traditional birth attendants, relatives or neighbors. Two women delivered alone. Most women went to the health facility the same day after delivery. Conclusions This study reveals beliefs about labor and delivery that need to be addressed through provision of appropriate perinatal information to raise community awareness. Even though, it is not easy to change cultural beliefs to convince women to use health facilities for deliveries. There is a need for further exploration of barriers that prevent women from accessing health care for better understanding and subsequently identification of optimal solutions with involvement of the communities themselves.
Fathers now provide more care for their babies and children than they have in the past, and a large body of evidence supports the important role that father involvement plays in determining child and family outcomes. Fathers have also become the primary source of informal support for most mothers and it is now customary for fathers to attend antenatal education in this supporting role. However, many fathers remain unprepared for their personal transition to parenthood and this has important implications for all of the family. Antenatal education is likely to be more effective for fathers when it addresses fathers' needs but the literature is unclear about what fathers need to know. This paper presents evidence-based recommendations for core subject matter to be addressed when preparing men for the important challenges of new fatherhood. PMID:23159162
May, Chris; Fletcher, Richard
This study sought to examine the effect of high school gender composition on eating disorder symptomatology and attitudes\\u000a of female Australian university students. We compared female students who had previously attended single sex (n?=?52) or coeducational (n?=?43) high schools on measures of eating disorder symptomatology, role concerns, figure preference and social comparison\\u000a so as to examine the effect of high
Zoe Davey; Mairwen K. Jones; Lynne M. Harris
The aim of the present study was to develop recommendations for antenatal care and monitoring for women with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia who are on lithium carbonate, antipsychotic or anti-epileptic medication during pregnancy. A literature search and review of original research, published reviews and guidelines was undertaken for mood stabilizers and antipsychotics in pregnancy and for the management of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in pregnancy. This information was summarized, condensed and then reviewed by representatives of psychiatry, pharmacy, paediatrics and obstetrics to produce an information booklet and subsequently monitoring recommendations and tables. A model of antenatal monitoring and care for women with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and related disorders who are maintained on psychotropic medication was developed. This included an online and published booklet for clinicians summarizing psychotropic medication in pregnancy, and lactation and monitoring tables that could be part of patient case files. These were to assist in reminding and educating staff on the need for additional monitoring and assessment above standard antenatal care for women on mood stabilizers and antipsychotic medication. Women with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have an increased risk of complications in pregnancy from their illness and from the medications they are prescribed. A summary of the risks and a model of suggested additional monitoring during pregnancy have been developed in consultation across a number of clinical disciplines. PMID:20113298
Galbally, Megan; Snellen, Martien; Walker, Susan; Permezel, Michael
This article presents data from 1354 women from five countries who participated in a prospective cohort study conducted between 2007 and 2010. Women undergoing surgery for fistula repair were interviewed at the time of admission, discharge, and at a 3-month follow-up visit. While women's experiences differed across countries, a similar picture emerges across countries: women married young, most were married at the time of admission, had little education, and for many, the fistula occurred after the first pregnancy. Median age at the time of fistula occurrence was 20.0 years (interquartile range 17.3–26.8). Half of the women attended some antenatal care (ANC); among those who attended ANC, less than 50% recalled being told about signs of pregnancy complications. At follow-up, most women (even those who were not dry) reported improvements in many aspects of social life, however, reported improvements varied by repair outcome. Prevention and treatment programmes need to recognise the supportive role that husbands, partners, and families play as women prepare for safe delivery. Effective treatment and support programmes are needed for women who remain incontinent after surgery.
Landry, Evelyn; Vera, Frajzyngier; Ruminjo, Joseph; Asiimwe, Frank; Barry, Thierno Hamidou; Bello, Abubakar; Danladi, Dantani; Ganda, Sanda Oumarou; Idris, Sa'ad; Inoussa, Maman; Kanoma, Bashir; Lynch, Maura; Mussell, Felicity; Podder, Dulal Chandra; Wali, Abba; Mielke, Erin; Barone, Mark A.
This article presents data from 1354 women from five countries who participated in a prospective cohort study conducted between 2007 and 2010. Women undergoing surgery for fistula repair were interviewed at the time of admission, discharge, and at a 3-month follow-up visit. While women's experiences differed across countries, a similar picture emerges across countries: women married young, most were married at the time of admission, had little education, and for many, the fistula occurred after the first pregnancy. Median age at the time of fistula occurrence was 20.0 years (interquartile range 17.3-26.8). Half of the women attended some antenatal care (ANC); among those who attended ANC, less than 50% recalled being told about signs of pregnancy complications. At follow-up, most women (even those who were not dry) reported improvements in many aspects of social life, however, reported improvements varied by repair outcome. Prevention and treatment programmes need to recognise the supportive role that husbands, partners, and families play as women prepare for safe delivery. Effective treatment and support programmes are needed for women who remain incontinent after surgery. PMID:23947903
Landry, Evelyn; Frajzyngier, Vera; Ruminjo, Joseph; Asiimwe, Frank; Barry, Thierno Hamidou; Bello, Abubakar; Danladi, Dantani; Ganda, Sanda Oumarou; Idris, Sa'ad; Inoussa, Maman; Kanoma, Bashir; Lynch, Maura; Mussell, Felicity; Podder, Dulal Chandra; Wali, Abba; Mielke, Erin; Barone, Mark A
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%), slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%), kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%), throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%), and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%). HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]). Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29]), having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers), and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be made available.
Ntaganira, Joseph; Muula, Adamson S; Masaisa, Florence; Dusabeyezu, Fidens; Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel
The uptake of any screening test is influenced by knowledge of the condition being screened for. In the present study, the knowledge and the source of knowledge of women offered antenatal screening for Down syndrome (DS) was assessed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to 300 consecutive women booking for antenatal care, of the 245 (82%) women who completed and returned the questionnaire, 117 (48%) were Caucasian, 85 (35%) were Asian born outside the UK, 32 (13%) were Asian born in the UK and ten (4%) belonged to other categories. Only 30% of the cohort had a good understanding of the condition. Racial groups other than Caucasian had a poorer understanding of DS. The factors which affected knowledge of DS included quality of spoken English, knowing an affected child, parity and religion. The most significant factor affecting acceptance of screening was the woman's knowledge of DS. The source of information for the condition varied widely: 42% from a general practitioners (GP), 24% from the hospital and 16% from midwives. The proportion with good knowledge was similar in those women whose source of information was the GP (45%) and the midwife (41%). These proportions were, however, higher (though not significantly) when the source of information was from magazines and newspapers (67%) and from friends (53%). Uptake of the screening test was best in those with good knowledge (53%) compared to those with poor knowledge (23%) (p<0.02). Between 28% and 66% (depending on the ethnic group) of women had a screening blood test "allegedly" without knowing why it had been performed. In order to improve uptake of the screening test for DS there is need for better education and counselling of women attending for antenatal care. PMID:11260600
Chilaka, V N; Konje, J C; Stewart, C R; Narayan, H; Taylor, D J
A controlled evaluation of health education for pregnant women was implemented from 1983 to 1985 in the French north alpine rural area with a quasi-experimental design. Altogether 116 villages (88,983 inhabitants) constituted the pilot zone where the programme took place. This was matched with a control zone of 114 villages (78,800 inhabitants) where routine antenatal surveillance was not changed. The programme involved a large group of health and social workers and institutions and several educational devices. There was a total of 3143 births to the study women during the programme. In all the 45 maternity clinics of the region the mothers were questioned as to their pregnancy history and delivery outcome. The programme succeeded in increasing, in the pilot zone, the proportion of women who benefited from a monthly antenatal visit, whereas no positive trend was shown in the control zones, even when controlling for some identified potential confounders (age and distance to health care providers). Similarly, women in the pilot zone were more likely to attend delivery preparation sessions than women in the control zone. However, many conditions revealed no differential modification in the two study zones. Perinatal morbidity is lower in the north alpine rural area than in the whole country. These results favour further development of social policies for pregnancy and of prenatal care, complemented by better information and training for health and social workers; they also favour better information as to medical monitoring, hygiene, and social rights related to pregnancy.
Zmirou, D; Charrel, M; Veyre, C
Currently, 40% of HIV-infected women enrolled in national prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program in India are loss to follow-up (LTF) before they can receive single dose Nevirapine. To date no study from India has examined the reasons for inadequate utilization of PMTCT services. This study sought to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with LTF of HIV-infected women enrolled during
Mayuri Panditrao; Shrinivas Darak; Vinay Kulkarni; Sanjeevani Kulkarni; Ritu Parchure
The highest rates of fetal alcohol syndrome worldwide can be found in South Africa. Particularly in impoverished townships\\u000a in the Western Cape, pregnant women live in environments where alcohol intake during pregnancy has become normalized and interpersonal\\u000a violence (IPV) is reported at high rates. For the current study we sought to examine how pregnancy, for both men and women,\\u000a is
Lisa A. Eaton; Seth C. Kalichman; Kathleen J. Sikkema; Donald Skinner; Melissa H. Watt; Desiree Pieterse; Eileen V. Pitpitan
There is substantial related morbidity and mortality among men and women in developed countries. Certain events during the course of a woman’s life such as menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and the menopause may compromise haematinic nutrient status. The purpose of this study was to investigate iron, folate and vitamin B12 status among a sample of apparently healthy, non-pregnant Irish adult women
Helen R. Casey
|A study investigated audience motives for movie attendance. Subjects were 493 college students, who indicated on an eight-point scale the extent to which a series of 70 reasons for movie going matched their own reasons for movie attendance. Three frequency of attendance groups were identified: infrequent--once in two to six months;…
Austin, Bruce A.
Background: Isolated fetal ascites can be caused by many heterogeneous disorders and is associated with a variety of conditions. Cloacal anomalies are rare abnormalities with a highly variable array of sonographic symptoms, which make them difficult to diagnose antenatally. We present a case with isolated fetal ascites without hydronephrosis caused by a cloacal malformation. Case: A 28-year-old woman, gravida 2,
I. Staboulidou; J. Schauer; G. A. Rau; R. Hass; B. Hollwitz; A. Scharf
Objective—To study psychosocial predic- tors of attendance at an organised breast cancer screening programme. Setting—Finnish screening programme based on personal first round invitations in 1992-94, and with 90% attendance rate. Methods—Attenders (n=946) belonged to a 10% random sample (n=1680 women, age 50, response rate 64%) of the target population (n=16 886), non-attenders (n=641, 38%) came from the whole target population.
Arja R Aro; Harry J de Koning; Pilvikki Absetz; Marjut Schreck
Interviews of 120 British adolescents and their parents (80% of a random sample of antenatal patients drawn from a representative urban population and followed longitudinally) revealed that 40 (33%) had been arrested and/or had a diagnosis of DSM-IV conduct disorder by 16 years of age; of those, 18 (45%) had committed violent acts. Depression in pregnancy significantly predicted violence in adolescence, even after controlling for the family environment, the child's later exposure to maternal depression, the mother's smoking and drinking during pregnancy, and parents' antisocial behavior. Mothers with a history of conduct problems were at elevated risk to become depressed in pregnancy, and the offspring of depressed women had a greater chance of becoming violent by age 16. PMID:20331659
Hay, Dale F; Pawlby, Susan; Waters, Cerith S; Perra, Oliver; Sharp, Deborah
Routine screening for serious congenital abnormalities is an established part of antenatal care in the UK. Since the mid-1970s pregnant women have been offered mid-trimester serum ?-fetoprotein screening for neural tube defects and detailed ultrasound screening for structural abnormalities generally. In the early 1980s serum ?-fetoprotein was found also to be a marker of Down’s syndrome, albeit a rather weak
The objective of this study was to improve by a two day training on interpersonal communication (IPC), the professional communication skills of nurses during antenatal care (ANC), and to obtain higher levels of knowledge among the pregnant women after the visit. The head-nurses of 22 health facilities in 3 rural health districts in Cameroon were randomly assigned to either the
Niklaus D. Labhardt; Bernard Cerutti; Kaspar Fischer; Engelbert Manga; Beat Stoll
This paper describes the experiences of caregivers in a rural district in Zimbabwe, in caring for pregnant women within a context of changing antenatal care routines. Data were generated using individual interviews with 18 nurses and midwives. The caregivers experienced their working situation as stressful and frustrating due to high staff turnover, inconsistent policies, parallel programmes and limited resources, including
T Mathole; G LINDMARK; BM AHLBERG
Objective Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as having experienced CSA despite meeting objective criteria that CSA occurred. This study sought to determine whether individuals who met research criteria for CSA and who self-defined as sexually abused differed on traumagenic dynamics constructs and current sexual risk behavior from individuals who met research criteria for CSA and who did not self-define as sexually abused. Methods Participants were 481 women recruited from a publicly-funded STD clinic. Participants completed a computerized survey assessing childhood sexual experiences and adult sexual risk behavior. Results Of the total sample, 206 (43%) met research criteria for CSA. Of the women meeting research criteria for CSA, 142 (69%) self-defined as sexually abused. Women who met research criteria for CSA reported more traumatic sexualization, more trust of a partner, more powerlessness, less sexual guilt, more episodes of unprotected sex, more sex partners, and greater likelihood of sex trading, compared to women who did not meet research criteria for CSA. Among women meeting research criteria, those who self-defined as sexually abused did not differ from those who did not self-define on any of the traumagenic dynamics constructs or on current sexual risk behavior, controlling for CSA characteristics. Conclusions Individuals who were sexually abused as children by behavioral research criteria are at risk for engaging in sexual risk behavior as adults, regardless of whether or not they perceive the experience to be CSA. Future research is needed to understand how non-definers perceive these childhood sexual experiences.
Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
Background This study investigates factors determining the timing of antenatal care (ANC) visit and the type of delivery assistant present during delivery among a national representative sample of Ghanaian women. Method Data for the study was drawn from the women questionnaire (N=4,916) of the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey among 15–49-years-old women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors determining the type of delivery assistance and timing of ANC visit for live births within five years prior to the survey. Results Majority of Ghanaian women attended ANC visit (96.5%) but many (42.7%) did so late (after the first trimester), while 36.5% had delivery without the assistance of a trained personnel (30.6%) or anyone (5.9%). Age (OR=1.5, CI=1.1-1.9, OR for 25-34-year-olds compared to 15-24-year-olds), religion (OR=1.8, CI=1.2-2.8, OR for Christians versus Traditional believers) wealth index (OR=2.6, CI=1.7-3.8, OR for the richest compared to the poorest) were independently associated with early ANC visit. Likewise, age, place of residence, education and partner’s education were associated with having a delivery assisted by a trained assistant. Also, Christians (OR=1.8, CI=1.1-3.0) and Moslems (OR=1.9, CI=1.1-3.3) were more likely to have trained delivery assistants compared to their counterparts who practised traditional belief. Furthermore, the richer a woman the more likely that she would have delivery assisted by a trained personnel (OR=8.2, CI= 4.2-16.0, OR for the richest in comparison to the poorest). Conclusions Despite the relatively high antenatal care utilisation among Ghanaian women, significant variations exist across the socio-demographic spectrum. Furthermore, a large number of women failed to meet the WHO recommendation to attend antenatal care within the first trimester of pregnancy. These findings have important implications for reducing maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters by the year 2015.
This pilot study explored the relationship between self-reported religiosity, spirituality, and sexual risk-taking. The participants were a convenience sample of (N = 100) female students attending a historically African-American college (HBCU) in the south. On this predominantly female campus, students completed an anonymous health-risk survey, plus additional items, to measure their religiosity and spirituality. Correlation analysis revealed that although these students reported a high degree of religiosity and spirituality, these characteristics did not predict a decrease in sexual risk-taking behavior. Over six million new cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including the human papilloma virus (HPV), are projected in young Americans despite primary prevention measures. Although no predictive relationships were noted, self-reported spirituality or religiosity were not protective factors against high-risk sexual behavior. These findings are relevant to developing effective interventions in this population in order to decrease STI/HPV rates. PMID:21888148
Thomas, Tami L; Freeman, Arin
|Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as…
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
In accordance with the sociocultural model, race/ethnicity is considered a major influence on factors associated with body image and body dissatisfaction, and eating disorders are often characterized as problems that are primarily limited to young White women from Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences that exist by race in desired body weight; the importance placed on those ideals; and dieting strategies among White, Asian American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, and other mixed-race young women in Hawai‘i. A total of 144 female college students 18–20 years of age were surveyed about body weight as well as eating and exercise habits. Results demonstrated that all the young women wanted to lose weight. However, there were no differences in desired body weight or desired weight change by race after controlling for body mass index suggesting that current weight rather than race/ethnicity is the predominant influence on weight-related concerns. Young White women placed the greatest level of importance on achieving a lower body weight, which corresponded with a greater likelihood to be attempting weight loss (dieting) and greater endorsement of behaviors consistent with weight loss compared to their counterparts. Findings imply that, for young women, race/ethnicity may not have as significant an impact on factors associated with body weight ideals as previously believed. Rather, differences in the value placed on achieving a desired body weight, as it relates to disordered eating, should be further explored among race/ethnic groups.
Nigg, Claudio R; Albright, Cheryl L
Background The deep south of Thailand is an area which has been affected by violence since 2004, yet the concurrent coverage of antenatal care has remained at over 90%. Our study aimed to describe the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinics in hospitals in the study area and assess factors associated with nutrient inadequacy. Methods Pregnant women from four participating hospitals located in lower southern Thailand were surveyed during January-December 2008. Nutrient intake was estimated based on information provided by the women on the amount, type and frequency of various foods eaten. Logistic regression was used to assess individual and community factors associated with inadequate nutrient intake, defined as less than two thirds of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Results The prevalence of carbohydrate, protein, fat, calories, calcium, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, retinol, niacin, vitamin C, folic acid and iodine inadequacy was 86.8%, 59.2%, 78.0%, 83.5%, 55.0%, 29.5%, 45.2%, 85.0%, 19.2%, 3.8%, 43.2%, 0.8%, 0.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Maternal age, education level, gestational age at enrolment and pre-pregnancy body mass index and level of violence in the district were significantly associated with inadequacy of carbohydrate, protein, phosphorus, iron, thiamine and niacin intake. Conclusions Nutrient intake inadequacy among pregnant women was common in this area. Increasing levels of violence was associated with nutrient inadequacy in addition to individual factors.
Objectives. We evaluated a theory-based lifestyle intervention targeting physical activity and dietary fat intake among African American women at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Methods. The Heart Healthy and Ethnically Relevant Lifestyle trial (2005–2008) randomly assigned 266 low-income African American women aged 35 years and older who were patients of South Carolina community health care centers into comprehensive or standard care interventions. Comprehensive participants received standard care (stage-matched provider counseling and assisted goal setting) plus 12 months of telephone counseling and tailored newsletters. Primary outcomes were 6- and 12-month self-reported physical activity and dietary fat intake. Results. Comprehensive participants were more likely than were standard care participants to decrease total physical activity (odds ratio [OR] = 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 8.25) and increase leisure-time physical activity (OR = 3.82; 95% CI = 1.41, 10.3) at 6 months (no 12-month differences). Mean reductions in Dietary Risk Assessment score occurred in both groups but were greater among comprehensive participants than among standard care participants (6 months, ?8.50 vs ?5.34; 12 months, ?7.16 vs ?3.37; P < .001). Conclusions. The comprehensive intervention improved women's leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat intake, highlighting a replicable model to help primary care providers implement lifestyle counseling.
Wilcox, Sara; Salinas, Jennifer; Addy, Cheryl; Fore, Elizabeth; Poston, Marybeth; Wilson, Dawn K.
OBJECTIVE: by exploring midwives' communication techniques intended to promote a wellness focus in the antenatal period, this study identified strategies midwives use to amplify women's own resources and capacities, with the aim of reducing antenatal anxiety. DESIGN: a qualitative design utilising focus groups as a means of generating data. SETTING: two Australian cities: Canberra, ACT and Sydney NSW. PARTICIPANTS: 14 experienced, practising midwives across two states/territories, employed in multiple hospitals and community settings. FINDINGS: three themes emerged from the analysis: calm unhurriedness, speaking in wellness and reassuring bodies. Midwives in these focus groups used strategies in antenatal care that could be co-ordinated into a planned process for wellness focussed care. KEY CONCLUSIONS: individually midwives used a variety of strategies specifically intended to facilitate women's capabilities, to employ worry usefully and to reduce anxiety. Midwives in the study clearly viewed this kind of wellness focussed care as their responsibility and their right. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: the midwives' collective wisdom could be shared and developed further into an overall salutogenic antenatal strategy to be used for the good of pregnant women and their infants. PMID:23747292
Browne, Jenny; O'Brien, Maureen; Taylor, Jan; Bowman, Rebekah; Davis, Deborah
This article presents the Antenatal Perceived Stress Inventory. The originality of this scale is to assess the impact of events experienced during pregnancy on the stress perceived by mothers. Scale validation was performed using data from 150 French-speaking nulliparous mothers and collected between 36 and 39 weeks of gestation (T1), and between 2 days (T2) and 6 weeks postpartum (T3). Factor analysis revealed a hierarchical three-factor structure that closely fit the data, including medical and obstetric risks/fetal health (F1), psychosocial changes (F2), and the prospect of childbirth (F3). The Antenatal Perceived Stress Inventory is a valid French prenatal stress scale with good psychometric properties. PMID:23493866
Razurel, Chantal; Kaiser, Barbara; Dupuis, Marc; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Citherlet, Catherine; Epiney, Manuella; Sellenet, Catherine
Conjoined twins have been the subject of myth and legend since antiquity because of the rarity and peculiarity of their juxtaposition. Fortunately, modern medical technology and concurrent advancements in surgical techniques provide an opportunity for successful separation and hope of a normal independent existence for these unique children. Antenatal sonography allows timely detection of this condition so that further management may be planned. PMID:23303732
Sharma, Dinesh; Jhobta, Anupam; Azad, J R; Dhiman, D S; Pandith, Mansa; Sharma, Sanjiv
Background Antenatal Care (ANC) is universally considered important for women and children. This study aims to identify factors, demographic, social and economic, possibly associated with three ANC indicators: number of visits, timing of visits and content of services. The aim is also to compare the patterns of association of such factors between one rural and one urban context in northern Vietnam. Methods Totally 2,132 pregnant women were followed from identification of pregnancy until birth in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS). Information was obtained through quarterly face to face interviews. Results Living in the rural area was significantly associated with lower adequate use of ANC compared to living in the urban area, both regarding quantity (number and timing of visits) and content. Low education, living in poor households and exclusively using private sector ANC in both sites and self employment, becoming pregnant before 25 years of age and living in poor communities in the rural area turned out to increase the risk for overall inadequate ANC. High risk pregnancy could not be demonstrated to be associated with ANC adequacy in either site. The medical content of services offered was often inadequate, in relation to the national recommendations, especially in the private sector. Conclusion Low education, low economic status, exclusive use of private ANC and living in rural areas were main factors associated with risk for overall inadequate ANC use as related to the national recommendations. Therefore, interventions focussing on poor and less educated women, especially in rural areas should be prioritized. They should focus the importance of early attendance of ANC and sufficient use of core services. Financial support for poor and near poor women should be considered. Providers of ANC should be educated and otherwise influenced to provide sufficient core services. Adherence to ANC content guidelines must be improved through enhanced supervision, particularly in the private sector.
Background Woman's nutritional status, before and during pregnancy, is a strong determinant of health outcomes in the mother and newborn. Gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention increases risk of overweight or obesity in the future and they depend on the pregestational nutritional status and on food consumption and eating behavior during pregnancy. Eating behavior during pregnancy may be the cause or consequence of mood changes during pregnancy, especially depression, which increases likelihood of postpartum depression. In Brazil, a study carried out in the immediate postpartum period found that one in three women experienced some type of violence during pregnancy. Violence and depression are strongly associated and both exposures during pregnancy are associated with increased maternal stress and subsequent harm to the infant. The main objectives of this study are: to identify food intake and eating behaviors patterns; to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders and the experience of violence during and after pregnancy; and to estimate the association between these exposures and infant's health and development. Methods/Design This is a cohort study of 780 pregnant women receiving care in 18 primary care units in two cities in Southern Brazil. Pregnant women were first evaluated between the 16th and 36th week of pregnancy at a prenatal visit. Follow-up included immediate postpartum assessment and around the fifth month postpartum. Information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, living circumstances, food intake, eating behaviors, mental health and exposure to violence, and on infant's development and anthropometrics measurements. Discussion This project will bring relevant information for a better understanding of the relationship between exposures during pregnancy and how they might affect child development, which can be useful for a better planning of health actions aiming to enhance available resources in primary health care.
Objective To explore the association between preterm delivery and treatment at colposcopy. Design Retrospective-prospective cohort study using record linkage. Setting 12 National Health Service hospitals in England. Participants Women who had a cervical histology sample taken between 1987 and 2009. These women were linked by hospital episode statistics to hospital obstetric records between 1998 and 2009 for the whole of England to identify singleton live births between 20-43 gestational weeks before or after cervical histology. Main outcome measures Proportion of preterm births (<37 weeks); the relative risk for the strength of association between preterm births and treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Results 18?441 singleton births occurred: 4176 before histology and 14?265 after histology. Of the singleton births after histology, 9.0% (n=1284) were preterm compared with 6.7% of all births in England over the same period (excess risk 2.3 per 100 births, 95% confidence interval 1.8% to 2.8%). Among first births after histology, the adjusted relative risk associated with previous treatment was 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.41); among first births before histology the relative risk associated with subsequent treatment was 1.47 (1.05 to 2.05). Combining these, the relative risk associated with treatment adjusted for timing relative to histology was 0.91 (0.66 to 1.26) corresponding to an absolute difference of ?0.25 (?2.61 to 2.11) per 100 singleton births. Among 372 women who gave birth both before and after treatment, there were 30 preterm births after treatment and 32 before treatment (relative risk 0.94, 0.62 to 1.43). Conclusion The risk of preterm delivery in women treated by colposcopy in England was substantially less than that in many other studies, predominantly from Nordic countries. The increased risk may be a consequence of confounding and not caused by treatment. Although this study is reassuring for large loop excision of the transformation zone overall, it is possible that deep conisation or repeated treatment leads to an increased risk of preterm delivery.
This study investigated college students' motives for attendance at theatrically exhibited motion pictures and the relationship between the motivations and frequency of attendance, pattern of movie?going, and the students' gender and age. Respondents (n = 493) completed a survey instrument consisting of 70 motivation items and other items. Factor analysis of the motivation items resulted in seven motives for movie
Bruce A. Austin
Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). Conclusion The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method.
Kamel, Remah M
Objective: To characterize the clinical decisions, knowledge, opinions, and education of obstetricians and gynecologists about antenatal corticosteroids.Methods: Questionnaires mailed to 1020 ACOG Fellows included items on demographics, knowledge, clinical practice patterns, and educational background regarding antenatal corticosteroids.Results: The survey response rate was 47.8%. Almost all respondents (94%) reported administering antenatal corticosteroids, with reduction of respiratory distress syndrome (82%) as the
Kristine Erickson; Louis Schmidt; Diane L Santesso; Jay Schulkin; Kimberly Gregory; Calvin Hobel
Objectives The objective of this study is to determine the awareness of perception and attitude toward cesarean section (CS) in a high-user setting. Design and methods A cross-sectional design using multistage sampling methods was used to select participants from antenatal and postnatal clinics in a primary health care setting in north Trinidad. A multi-item structured questionnaire was designed and administered by in-depth interviews. Sociodemographic data and data about history of previous pregnancies and outcomes and about knowledge and perceptions of CSs were collected from women aged 16 years and older. Results Of the women who were eligible for entry into the study, 368 participated. However, participants chose not to respond to some questions. The majority of women (46.2%) were found to have very little information from which to make informed decisions about selecting CS as the preferred choice of delivery. Their preference was significantly associated with the perception of safety (maternal or fetal death, P = 0.001), difficulty (complications to mother and baby, P = 0.001), and pain (P = 0.001). Notwithstanding, persons who received information from health care professionals (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; confidence interval, 1.50–2.33) were more likely to have high or adequate levels of information about CSs. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, and ORs were calculated using logistic regression. Conclusion The majority of women attending antenatal and postnatal clinics in north Trinidad were not sufficiently knowledgeable about CS to enable them to make informed choices. In addition, the information obtained was from an unreliable source, emphasizing the need for information on CS to form a component of a structured antenatal education program.
Mungrue, K; Nixon, C; David, Y; Dookwah, D; Durga, S; Greene, K; Mohammed, H
It is not known whether schizophrenic women have increased incidence of complications during pregnancy and delivery. Data from the Danish Medical Birth Register were used to compare 2212 births to 1537 schizophrenic women in Denmark with a random sample of all deliveries in Denmark during 1973–1993 (122931 births to 72742 women). The schizophrenic women had fewer antenatal care visits. They
B. E Bennedsen; P. B Mortensen; A. V Olesen; T. B Henriksen; M Frydenberg
Purpose To examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the prevention of postpartum depression (PPD) in "at risk" women. Materials and Methods We recruited 927 pregnant women in 6 obstetric and gynecology clinics and screened them using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Ninety-nine of the screened women who had significantly high scores in BDI (a score above 16) were selected for the study. They were contacted through by telephone, and 27 who had consented to participate in the study were interviewed via SCID-IV-I. Twenty-seven eligible women were randomly assigned to the CBT intervention (n = 15) and control condition (n = 12). All participants were required to complete written questionnaires, assessing demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, negative thoughts, dyadic communication satisfaction, and global marital satisfaction prior to treatment and approximately 1 month postpartum. The 15 women in the CBT condition received 9 bi-weekly 1-hour individual CBT sessions, targeting and modifying negative patterns of thinking and behaviors occurring in the context of the dyadic relationship. Results The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that there were significant differences in all postpartum measures between the 2 groups, indicating that our antenatal intervention with CBT was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and improving marital satisfaction, which lasted until the postpartum period. Conclusion Our pilot study has provided preliminary empirical evidence that antenatal CBT intervention can be an effective preventive treatment for PPD. Further study in this direction was suggested.
Kwon, Jung Hye; Lee, Jeong Jae
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to investigate whether having a graded attendance policy would have an effect on course attendance among college students, and (b) to examine beliefs about education and attendance policies among college students. Results support the utility of graded attendance policies for increasing class attendance…
Chenneville, Tiffany; Jordan, Cary
There now exists a considerable body of sociological work examining antenatal screening for fetal abnormalities. A common theme emerging from this literature is that pregnant women report not feeling able to exercise choice freely, experiencing constraints both from medical professionals and their perceived expectations of the sociocultures in which they live. This study adds to existing literature in three ways. Firstly, in contrast to the existing body of interview-based research, the study uses video recordings of actual consultations, in order to capture the interactional processes through which choice and constraints are established, negotiated and contested. Secondly, it explores the next stage in the process of antenatal screening, by focusing on women who are offered invasive diagnostic testing as a result of 'high risk' screening results, and who have been the subject of little research. Thirdly, the study site in Hong Kong provides a particularly interesting location, given limited research on antenatal screening in that part of the world, and Hong Kong's cosmopolitan environment that is reflected in the diversity of client population undergoing antenatal screening. Using conversation analysis we examine how aspects of the clients' diverse socioeconomic backgrounds and circumstances are interactionally managed in this setting, and how this might impact on decision-making. PMID:22085332
Pilnick, Alison; Zayts, Olga
OBJECTIVE: Programmes to control syphilis in developing countries are hampered by a lack of laboratory services, delayed diagnosis, and doubts about current screening methods. We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of an immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test and the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test with the combined gold standard (RPR, Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay and direct immunofluorescence stain done at a reference laboratory) for the detection of syphilis in pregnancy. METHODS: We included test results from 4789 women attending their first antenatal visit at one of six health facilities in Sofala Province, central Mozambique. We compared diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) of ICS and RPR done at the health facilities and ICS performed at the reference laboratory. We also made subgroup comparisons by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria status. FINDINGS: For active syphilis, the sensitivity of the ICS was 95.3% at the reference laboratory, and 84.1% at the health facility. The sensitivity of the RPR at the health facility was 70.7%. Specificity and positive and negative predictive values showed a similar pattern. The ICS outperformed RPR in all comparisons (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic accuracy of the ICS compared favourably with that of the gold standard. The use of the ICS in Mozambique and similar settings may improve the diagnosis of syphilis in health facilities, both with and without laboratories.
Montoya, Pablo J.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Brentlinger, Paula E.; Blanco, Ana J.; Floriano, Florencia; Sairosse, Josefa; Gloyd, Stephen
Background The use of most anti-malarial medications is restricted during pregnancy, but two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine are recommended after the first trimester as intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). In The Gambia, only 32% of women receive two doses and very little research has been conducted on women's awareness of drug safety during pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to assess whether rural Gambian women were aware of the importance of the timing of the two-dose IPT dose schedule and its relevance to drug safety. Methods This was a qualitative study in which 41 interviews and 16 focus group discussions with women, adolescents, men and traditional birth attendants were conducted. A generic qualitative approach was used to generate a theory as to why women might not participate in IPTp as recommended. Results Although most women used calendar months to count their stage of pregnancy, these months did not correlate with their concept of foetal development. Foetal growth was described following Islamic tradition as water, clot, piece of meat and human being, although there was little consensus about the order or timing in which these stages occurred. Common signs and conditions of malaria were known. Women were anxious about miscarriage and recognized that some medicines should not be taken in the first trimester, but were urged by men and traditional birth attendants to attend for antenatal care in the first trimester to "start treatment." General knowledge about the purpose of pregnancy medications and when they should be taken was poor among both men and women. One important result was that women relied entirely on health workers to provide safe drugs, at the correct time. Conclusion Women did not have relevant information to judge the safety and appropriate timing of pregnancy drugs, which made them over-reliant on health workers. They should be encouraged to date their own pregnancies in culturally relevant terms and to anticipate when and which medications they should receive.
Brabin, Loretta; Stokes, Elizabeth; Dumbaya, Isatou; Owens, Stephen
Urogenital mycoplasma (UGM) infections have often been reported in HIV patients. Little is known about UGM colonization and infection. We assessed the level of UGM colonization and infection in a cohort of HIV-positive women living in Bangui, Central African Republic. We studied 146 women of child-bearing age, some of whom were pregnant. All were HIV-positive but asymptomatic and attended one of the urban health centers and the National Center for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Bangui in April or May 1995. Colonization was defined as an endocervical mycoplasma concentration of less than 10(4) color change units per milliliter (CCU/ml) and infection was defined as an endocervical mycoplasma concentration of at least 10(4) CCU/ml. 58 of the 146 HIV-positive women were pregnant (group A). Group B comprised the other 88 women who were not pregnant. The mean age of the women in group A was 22.7 years (range: 15 to 41) and that for the women in group B was 25.8 years (range: 17 to 40). 134 of the 146 women were carrying one or both of the two types of UGM. There were 53 (91.4%) cases in group A and 81 (92%) in group B. Overall, 40% of the women were colonized and 51.4% were infected. UGM infections frequently affect HIV-positive pregnant women in Bangui. Our results suggest that women should be screened for UGM as well as for other sexually transmitted diseases, to improve the care of HIV-infected women attending antenatal clinics in developing countries. PMID:9690318
Rapelanoro Rabenja, F; Lepère, P; Escarguel, C; Pelissier, C; Lamarque, P; Malvy, D
Objectives: The objectives of this study are to discuss the use of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of foetal intralobar sequestration (FILS) antenatally and the management options available for these pregnancies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of six cases of FILS diagnosed antenatally by two dimensional (2D) and colour Doppler ultrasonography out of a total of 31,508 deliveries over a
J S C Chen; N Walford; Y L Yan; C L Ong; G S H Yeo
INTRODUCTION: Improving the utilization of antenatal care services is a global challenge for the health system in low and middle income countries. Antenatal care is one of preventive health care to diagnose early the morbidity during the pregnancy and plan to avert any complication to mother and new born during delivery. During the pregnancy it is very essential and important
C. K. Dolla
We evaluated antenatal ultrasound (U/S) exposure as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), comparing affected singleton children and control children born 1995-1999 and enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente health care system. Among children with ASD (n = 362) and controls (n = 393), 13% had no antenatal exposure to U/S examinations;…
Grether, Judith K.; Li, Sherian Xu; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Croen, Lisa A.
Although the aetiology of antenatal brain injury is often unclear, procedures can be employed to prevent or reduce the risk of injury. Defective neuropore closure can be prevented by periconceptional administration of folic acid, and the incidence of other severe malformations and genetic disorders can be reduced by early identification and termination of pregnancy. Antenatal identification of IUGR, administration of
Henrik Hagberg; Carina Mallard
Objectives: We sought to examine outcome for premature neonates after multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids compared with a single course. Study Design: We performed a post hoc nonrandomized analysis on 710 neonates of 25-32 weeks’ gestation who were born to mothers enrolled in the North American Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Trial and who received 1, 2, or ?3 courses of antenatal corticosteroids.
Beverly A. Banks; Avital Cnaan; Mark A. Morgan; Julian T. Parer; Jeffrey D. Merrill; Philip L. Ballard; Roberta A. Ballard
BACKGROUND: Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early
Bronwyn Leigh; Jeannette Milgrom
The high prevalence of antenatal common mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa compared to high-income countries is poorly understood. This qualitative study explored the sociocultural context of antenatal mental distress in a rural Ethiopian community. Five focus group discussions and 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively sampled community stakeholders. Inductive analysis was used to develop final themes. Worry about forthcoming delivery and fears for the woman's survival were prominent concerns of all participants, but only rarely perceived to be pathological in intensity. Sociocultural practices such as continuing physical labour, dietary restriction, prayer and rituals to protect against supernatural attack were geared towards safe delivery and managing vulnerability. Despite strong cultural norms to celebrate pregnancy, participants emphasised that many pregnancies were unwanted and an additional burden on top of pre-existing economic and marital difficulties. Short birth interval and pregnancy out of wedlock were both seen as shameful and potent sources of mental distress. The notion that pregnancy in traditional societies is uniformly a time of joy and happiness is misplaced. Although antenatal mental distress may be self-limiting for many women, in those with enduring life difficulties, including poverty and abusive relationships, poor maternal mental health may persist. PMID:20148274
Hanlon, Charlotte; Whitley, Rob; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Alem, Atalay; Prince, Martin
Background Although medical interventions play an important role in preserving lives and maternal comfort they have become increasingly routine in normal childbirth. This may increase the risk of associated complications and a less satisfactory birth experience. Antenatal hypnosis is associated with a reduced need for pharmacological interventions during childbirth. This trial seeks to determine the efficacy or otherwise of antenatal group hypnosis preparation for childbirth in late pregnancy. Methods/design A single centre, randomised controlled trial using a 3 arm parallel group design in the largest tertiary maternity unit in South Australia. Group 1 participants receive antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth administered by a qualified hypnotherapist with the use of an audio compact disc on hypnosis for re-enforcement; Group 2 consists of antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth using an audio compact disc on hypnosis administered by a nurse with no training in hypnotherapy; Group 3 participants continue with their usual preparation for childbirth with no additional intervention. Women > 34 and < 39 weeks gestation, planning a vaginal birth, not in active labour, with a singleton, viable fetus of vertex presentation, are eligible to participate. Allocation concealment is achieved using telephone randomisation. Participants assigned to hypnosis groups commence hypnosis training as near as possible to 37 weeks gestation. Treatment allocations are concealed from treating obstetricians, anaesthetists, midwives and those personnel collecting and analysing data. Our sample size of 135 women/group gives the study 80% power to detect a clinically relevant fall of 20% in the number of women requiring pharmacological analgesia – the primary endpoint. We estimate that approximately 5–10% of women will deliver prior to receiving their allocated intervention. We plan to recruit 150 women/group and perform sequential interim analyses when 150 and 300 participants have been recruited. All participant data will be analysed, by a researcher blinded to treatment allocation, according to the "Intention to treat" principle with comprehensive pre-planned cost- benefit and subgroup analyses. Discussion If effective, hypnosis would be a simple, inexpensive way to improve the childbirth experience, reduce complications associated with pharmacological interventions, yield cost savings in maternity care, and this trial will provide evidence to guide clinical practice.
Cyna, Allan M; Andrew, Marion I; Robinson, Jeffrey S; Crowther, Caroline A; Baghurst, Peter; Turnbull, Deborah; Wicks, Graham; Whittle, Celia
The system of antenatal care in Sweden is reported. Every clinically healthy pregnant woman has to undergo more than 15 checks during pregnancy, including two examinations by a gynaecological specialist and the others by skilled midwives. Uterine growth (and, consequently, fetal growth) and increase of maternal bodyweight are kept under surveillance by means of gravidogram. All measured data are graphically recorded and compared to the standard values given in the gravidogram. Hence, early diagnosis is possible of major highrisk groups, such as retardation of fetal growth, macrosomia, twins and hydramnios. -- A catalogue of risk factors and a cervix score for assessment of cervical maturity are available for early detection of imminent premature delivery. -- The introduction of the gravidogram at Danderyds Hospital in 1972 has been followed by antepartum, intrapartum and neonatal mortality figures down by some 50 per cent as well as by unambiguous improvement in the general condition of newborns. Growing and widening use of the gravidogram throughout Sweden has been accompanied by increasingly visible decline of perinatal mortality. Systematic and improved antenatal care, consequently, is decisive for reduction of perinatal mortality and morbidity. PMID:7211032
Widespread antenatal screening has resulted in increased detection of anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract. The present guidelines update the recommendations published in 2000. Antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) is transient and resolves by the third trimester in almost one-half cases. The presence of oligohydramnios and additional renal or extrarenal anomalies suggests significant pathology. All patients with ANH should undergo postnatal ultrasonography; the intensity of subsequent evaluation depends on anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the renal pelvis and/or Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) grading. Patients with postnatal APD exceeding 10 mm and/or SFU grade 3-4 should be screened for upper or lower urinary tract obstruction and vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). Infants with VUR should receive antibiotic prophylaxis through the first year of life, and their parents counseled regarding the risk of urinary tract infections. The management of patients with pelviureteric junction or vesicoureteric junction obstruction depends on clinical features and results of sequential ultrasonography and radionuclide renography. Surgery is considered in patients with increasing renal pelvic APD and/or an obstructed renogram with differential renal function <35-40% or its subsequent decline. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of prenatal intervention, frequency of follow-up investigations and indications for surgery in these patients.
Sinha, A.; Bagga, A.; Krishna, A; Bajpai, M.; Srinivas, M.; Uppal, R.; Agarwal, I.
Background Estimating the seroprevalence of HIV in a low risk population such as pregnant women provides essential information for an effective implementation of AIDS control programmes, and also for the monitoring of HIV spread within a country. Very few studies are available from north India showing the current trend in HIV prevalence in the antenatal population;which led us to carry outthis study at a tertiary care hospital in north India Methods Blood samples from pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi were collected after informed consent and pre-test counseling. The samples were tested for HIV antibodies as per the WHO guidelines, over a period of four years from January 2003 to December 2006. Results Of the 3529 pregnant women tested in four years, 0.88% (CI 0.5 – 1.24) women were found to be HIV seroreactive. Majority of the seroreactive pregnant women (41.9%) were in the age group of 20–24 years followed by the 30–34 yrs (25.8%) and 25–29 years (22.6%) age group. The mean age of the HIV positive women was 24.9 years (SD ± 1.49 yrs). The HIV seroprevalence rates showed an increasing trend from 0.7% (CI 0.14 – 2.04) in 2003–2004 to 0.9% (CI 0.49 – 1.5) in 2005–2006. This prevalence rate indicates concern, as Delhi and its adjoining states are otherwise considered as 'low prevalence states'. Conclusion Seroprevalence of HIV infection was found to be increasing in the last four years amongst pregnant women of North India. These findings are in contrast to the national projections.
Gupta, Swati; Gupta, Richa; Singh, Sarman
Antenatal corticosteroids given to women, who are 24 to 34 weeks pregnant and may deliver within the next 24 hours to 7 days, are associated with significant reduction in rates of respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage and mortality of pre-term babies. The aim of this study is assessment of antenatal corticosteroid effectiveness in reduction of RDS incidence in optimal delivery-treatment interval, in comparison to babies delivered before and after the optimal treatment interval has elapsed. This investigation included 80 pre-term babies between 26 and 34 gestational weeks whose mothers received corticosteroids before delivery. Control group consisted of 92 children of the same gestational age, whose mothers did not received corticosteroids antenatally. Babies of diabetic mothers, babies with IUGR and babies with congenital abnormalities were excluded. RDS was significantly less frequent in babies antenatally treated by corticosteroids (x2 31,473 p < 0.0001 coefficient contingency 0.366) then in babies whose mothers did not received corticosteroids before delivery. The majority of babies, 54.67% (p < 0.01) were born in optimal interval, 24 hours to 7 days from the beginning of the treatment, 32.0% (24/75) children were born within 24 hours and 13.3% (10/75) were born more then 7 days after the start of treatment. Comparing the incidence of RDS between groups of children born in optimal treatment-delivery interval (1 -7 days) and in the group of children born within 24 hours or after 7 days from the beginning of the treatment, no significant difference was found. The effect was clinically comparable, which suggests the possibility of reduction treatment-delivery interval in acute clinical conditions. PMID:20088174
Helji?, Suada; Maksi?, Hajrija; Misanovi?, Verica; Dizdarevi?, Jadranka
Background There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a public tertiary maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Secondary aims were to explore why women took the herbal medicine, where they received advice, what form the supplements took and if they perceived the supplements to be helpful. Methods Consecutive pregnant women were approached in the antenatal clinic and the birth centre at around 36–38 weeks gestation. A questionnaire was developed and self-administered in English, as well as being translated into the four most common languages of women attending the hospital: Cantonese, Vietnamese, Turkish and Arabic. Back translation into English was undertaken by different professional translators to verify accuracy of both words and concepts. Data collected included demographic information, model of pregnancy care and herbal supplement use. Descriptive statistics were used initially, with stratified and regression analysis to compare sub-groups. Results Of 705 eligible women, 588 (83%) agreed to participate. Of these, 88 (15%) completed the questionnaire in a language other than English. Thirty-six percent of women took at least one herbal supplement during the current pregnancy. The most common supplements taken were raspberry leaf (14%), ginger (12%) and chamomile (11%). Women were more likely to take herbal supplements if they were older, tertiary educated, English speaking, non-smokers and primiparous. Conclusion Use of herbal supplements in pregnancy is likely to be relatively high and it is important to ascertain what supplements (if any) women are taking. Pregnancy care providers should be aware of the common herbal supplements used by women, and of the evidence regarding potential benefits or harm.
Forster, Della A; Denning, Angela; Wills, Gemma; Bolger, Melissa; McCarthy, Elizabeth
The positive deviance approach identifies and promotes existing uncommon healthy behaviours. A positive deviance-informed antenatal project was pilot-tested in Al-Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt, during 2003-2004, after a positive deviance study in 2000 found that successful pregnancies had increased consumption of meat and vegetables, daytime rest, and antenatal care; less second-hand smoke exposure; and symptoms of no urinary tract infection. Accordingly, health facilities were upgraded in target and comparison areas to provide quality antenatal care, including treatment of urinary tract infection. Additionally, in the target villages, women at-risk of delivering low-birth-weight infants were enrolled in weekly 'IMPRESS' (improved pregnancy through education and supplementation) sessions with counselling and supplemental food. In total, 519 women (344 target, 175 comparison) were enrolled in the third or fourth month of pregnancy and were followed through delivery. Birth-weights of the target mothers increased 2.2 times more than birth-weights of the comparison mothers over baseline (mean increase: 0.58 vs 0.26 g respectively, p<0.01). Similarly, the decrease in prevalence of low birth-weight from baseline was greater in the target villages than in the comparison mothers (% of decrease: 26.9 vs 11.9 respectively, p<0.01). The target at-risk women were far more likely than their counterparts to report eating more food (54.9% vs 10.6%), more meat (57.1% vs 4.2%), more vegetables (66.9% vs 5.3%), increasing daytime rest (64.1% vs 11.7%), and avoiding second-hand smoke (91.3% vs 51.6%) during pregnancy. The cost per 100 g of improvement in birth-weight was US$ 3.98. The Government of Egypt and partners are scaling up the elements of the project. PMID:17591347
Ahrari, Mahshid; Houser, Robert F; Yassin, Siham; Mogheez, Mona; Hussaini, Y; Crump, Patrick; Darmstadt, Gary L; Marsh, David; Levinson, F James
Corticosteroids administered to women in preterm labor are the standard of care for reducing neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with prematurity. These agents promote lung development and reduce the incidence of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage. Several studies have investigated the method by which fetal lung fluid is cleared after birth. This exploration resulted in the elucidation of the Starling equation or the hypothesis that fluid filtration through capillary membranes is dependent on the balance between the pressure blood places on the capillary membranes and the osmotic pressure of the membranes. The clinical observation that a neonate experiences a vaginal squeeze during a vaginal birth may be important, but it can account for only a small percentage of the lung fluid absorbed. Perhaps more importantly, amiloride-sensitive sodium transport channels (ENaCs) have emerged as key factors in the movement of alveolar fluid from the lung into the vascular system. Several potential clinical applications have been developed from this new knowledge about the physiology of lung fluid clearance at birth. Neonates born late preterm or at term by elective cesarean before the onset of labor are more likely to develop respiratory distress than those born vaginally. Based on the mechanism of action of antenatal corticosteroids, these drugs may be beneficial in the clearance of fetal lung fluid in this population. This article reviews how fetal lung fluid is cleared; the pharmacologic effects of corticosteroids on the fetus; and the risks, benefits, and controversies associated with corticosteroid use. PMID:22060219
Riley, Cheryl A; Boozer, Kathileen; King, Tekoa L
Background HIV testing for pregnant women is an important component for the success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of\\u000a HIV (PMTCT). A lack of antenatal HIV testing results in loss of benefits for HIV-infected mothers and their children. However,\\u000a the provision of unnecessary repeat tests at a very late stage of pregnancy will reduce the beneficial effects of PMTCT and\\u000a impose
Tine M Gammeltoft; Vibeke Rasch
Background: Previously we showed that women in rural Nepal experience multiple micronutrient deficiencies in early pregnancy. Objective: This study examined the effects of daily antenatal mi- cronutrientsupplementationonchangesinthebiochemicalstatusof several micronutrients during pregnancy. Design: In Nepal, we conducted a randomized controlled trial in which4combinationsofmicronutrients(folicacid,folicacidiron, folic acid iron zinc, and a multiple micronutrient supplement containingfolicacid,iron,zinc,and11othernutrients)plusvitamin A, or vitamin A alone as a control,
Parul Christian; Tianan Jiang; Subarna K Khatry; Steven C LeClerq; Sharada R Shrestha; Keith P West Jr
Informed choice is internationally recognised and accepted as an important aspect of ethical healthcare. In the U.K., NHS antenatal screening policies state that their primary aim is to facilitate reproductive informed choices. These policies, implemented within a multiethnic population, are largely guided by the ethical principle of autonomy. This study was carried out in 2009 in the U.K. and used Q-methodology to explore diversity in the value attached to autonomous informed choice in antenatal screening for genetic disorders and similarities and differences in this value in women from different ethnic origins. Ninety-eight participants of African, British White, Caribbean, Chinese and Pakistani origin completed a 41-statement Q-sort in English, French, Mandarin or Urdu. Q-Factor analysis produced five statistically independent viewpoints of the value of informed choice: choice as an individual right; choice informed by religious values; choice as a shared responsibility; choice advised by health professionals; and choice within the family context. The findings show that women hold a variety of views on the nature of informed choice, and that, contradictory to policies of autonomous informed choice, many women seek and value the advice of health professionals. The findings have implications for the role of health professionals in facilitating informed choice, quality of care and equity of access. PMID:22326381
Ahmed, Shenaz; Bryant, Louise D; Tizro, Zahra; Shickle, Darren
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Antenatal Care (ANC) is universally considered important for women and children. This study aims to identify factors, demographic, social and economic, possibly associated with three ANC indicators: number of visits, timing of visits and content of services. The aim is also to compare the patterns of association of such factors between one rural and one urban context in
T. K. Tran; K. Gottvall; H. D. Nguyen; H. Ascher; M. Petzold
|Observational studies suggest that including men in reproductive health interventions can enhance positive health outcomes. A randomized controlled trial was designed to test the impact of involving male partners in antenatal health education on maternal health care utilization and birth preparedness in urban Nepal. In total, 442 women seeking…
Mullany, Britta C.; Becker, S.; Hindin, M. J.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore unnecessary outpatient department attendances and to improve efficiency by actively pre-assessing patient charts and pre-specifying management plans before scheduled outpatient visits. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – All charts were reviewed by a senior clinician two weeks before the clinic and a brief, written management plan made. Findings – A significant reduction in clinic
F. Donnellan; T. Hussain; A. R. Aftab; C. McGurk
The digital personal calendar has long been established as an effective tool for supporting workgroup coordination. For the new class of ubiquitous computing applications, however, the calendar can also be seen as a sensor, providing both location and availability information to these applications. In most cases, however, the calendar represents a sequence of events that people could (or should) attend,
Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Joe Tullio
PURPOSE OF THIS RESEARCH WAS TO IDENTIFY FACTORS, OBTAINED FROM A SELF-REPORT INVENTORY, DETERMINING THE DECISION TO ATTEND COLLEGE. 214 MALE AND 306 FEMALE STUDENTS FROM THE STATE UNIVERSITY COMPLETED A 78-ITEM INVENTORY, REASONS FOR GOING TO COLLEGE, AS FRESHMEN AND AGAIN AS SENIORS. ANALYSES AND MATCHING PROCEDURES YIELDED 13 MAJOR FACTORS: SOCIAL REASON, CONFORMITY, CURIOSITY, VOCATIONAL REASON, ACADEMIC VALUE,
ARTHUR A. DOLE; JOHN M. DIGMAN
Objective To determine the concentration of amino acids in women receiving the first course of antenatal betamethasone and to evaluate the umbilical venous and arterial amino acid concentrations at the time of elective caesarean section following betamethasone administration. Study Design Blood samples were collected from 34 pregnant women at risk of premature delivery before and 24 and 48 hours after the first course of betamethasone. In addition, maternal and cord blood samples were collected in 13 women undergoing an elective cesarean section between 24 and 192 hours after betamethasone. Results Maternal amino acid concentrations were significantly increased after the first dose of betamethasone. Overall total amino nitrogen increased 17.5% 24 hours after betamethasone administration and 20.5% after 48 hours. The concentration of most amino acids was increased both in the umbilical vein and artery after maternal betamethasone administration. Conclusion The concentration of maternal and fetal amino acids increases significantly after betamethasone administration.
MARCONI, Anna Maria; MARIOTTI, Valentina; TENG, Cecilia; RONZONI, Stefania; D'AMATO, Barbara; MORABITO, Alberto; BATTAGLIA, Frederick C
A total of 200 Nigerian women visiting Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital's antenatal clinic were interviewed about their knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning. About 90% were literate. Their knowledge (80%) and approval (87%) of family planning was high, but the practice of modern family planning was low (25%) with most women involved in Billings/safe period (56%). The common methods used were Billings/safe period, condom, withdrawal and the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). A total of 81.5% of the respondents are still willing to give birth while 77% agreed that their last pregnancy was planned. A total of 58.5% of respondents were educated about family planning in the antenatal clinic. The most common source of family planning information was mass media, closely followed by health workers, while the most common single reason for non-practice of family planning was rejection by the husband. We therefore conclude that despite the high education/literacy with the attendant and high knowledge and approval rate of family planning in this part of Nigeria, the practice of family planning is still low, especially due to partner objection. Policy makers should therefore increase male involvement in family planning programmes and pursue a more aggressive public awareness campaign. PMID:16368587
Ikechebelu, J I; Joe-Ikechebelu, N N; Obiajulu, F N
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored.
Wilkinson, D.; Abdool Karim, S. S.; Harrison, A.; Lurie, M.; Colvin, M.; Connolly, C.; Sturm, A. W.
An integrated analysis of detailed ethnography and large-scale survey data is presented to explore the gendered influences on women's uptake of antenatal care (ANC) services in Punjab, Pakistan. Pregnancy and its associated decisions were shown to be normatively the older women's domain, with pregnant women and their husbands being distanced from the decision-making process. Women who successfully claimed ANC did so not by overtly challenging the dominant construction of young femininity, but rather by using existing gendered structures and channels of communication to influence authority figures. The quality of a woman's inter-personal ties, particularly with her mother-in-law and husband, were found to be important in accessing resources, including ANC. Gendered influences were moderated by social class. Family finances were an important determinant of ANC use, as was women's education. Wealthier, higher status women also found it easier to circumvent gendered proscriptions against their mobility while pregnant. As well as illuminating the ways in which the sociocultural construction of gender acts to constrain women's access to ANC, the empirical findings are used to highlight significant inadequacies in the 'autonomy paradigm' that has dominated much of the research into women's reproductive health in South Asia. PMID:17286703
Mumtaz, Zubia; Salway, Sarah M
In recent decades antenatal screening has become one of the most routine procedure of pregnancy-follow up and the subject of hot debate in bioethics circles. In this paper the rationale behind doing antenatal screening and the actual and potential problems that it may cause will be discussed. The paper will examine the issue from the point of wiew of parents, health care professionals and, most importantly, the child-to-be. It will show how unthoughtfully antenatal screening is performed and how pregnancy is treated almost as a disease just since the emergence of antenatal screening. Genetic screening and ethical problems caused by the procedure will also be addressed and I will suggest that screening is more to do with the interests of others rather than those of the child-to be.
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration of the anticoagulated blood specimens were determined using standard techniques. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11g/dl for pregnant women and <12g/dl for non-pregnant women. Results: Pregnancy was not a risk factor for acquiring HIV infection (pregnant vs. non-pregnant: 10.2% vs. 13.8%; OR=0.713, 95% CI=0.407, 1.259, P = 0.247). The prevalence of HIV was significantly (P = 0.005 and P = 0.025) higher in the age group 10-20 years and 21 – 30 years among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Pregnancy was a risk factor for acquiring anemia (OR=1.717, 95% CI=1.179, 2.500, P = 0.006). Only the age of pregnant women significantly (P = 0.004) affected the prevalence of anemia inversely. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women were 10.2% and 49.3% respectively. Pregnancy was associated with anemia. Interventions by appropriate agencies are advocated to reduce associated sequelae.
Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Phil, Richard Omoregie M.; Olley, Mitsan; Anunibe, Joshua A.
Objectives: To determine if insensible water loss (IWL) differed between infants exposed or not exposed antenatally to corticosteroids and to explore possible mechanisms for the early postnatal diuresis associated with antenatal steroid exposure.Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.Setting: Level three neonatal intensive care unit.Patients: Ninety six infants, median gestational age 27.5 weeks (range 23–33).Main outcome measures: Comparison of the
G Dimitriou; V Kavvadia; M Marcou; A Greenough
OBJECTIVE: To review the body of international literature regarding lung surfactant supplements in order to determine: 1) the current knowledge of the antenatal routes of administration of surfactant supplements; 2) in-utero, antenatal, endotracheal surfactant treatment; 3) if antenatal, intraamniotic or oral administration of surfactant supplements has an equal therapeutic effect in the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome as endotracheal, postnatal administration. STUDY DESIGN: The appropriate medical subject heading terms were selected and applied in a search of the Medline and ACOG online databases. Articles focusing on fetal breathing, the fetal swallowing mechanism of amniotic fluid and the route of supplementary surfactant administration in both animal and human studies were reviewed. RESULTS: This review determined that an antenatal approach to supplementary surfactant administration has been attempted in both animal and human studies. Recent endeavors included attempts at antenatal routes of administration involving delivery into the mouth of the fetus or into the intraamniotic fluid around the mouth or nostrils. The therapeutic effect has proven inconclusive in its benefits. CONCLUSION: In-utero, oral delivery of surfactant supplements has been documented; however, the mechanism of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by the lung tissue is difficult to determine, and the level of postnatal surfactant in the endotracheal fluid was not assessed. In-utero, intraamniotic surfactant installation was noted in the literature; however, the level of surfactant in endotracheal fluid was also not documented postnatally. No study or technique presented a description or model for antenatal, endotracheal surfactant supplement administration.
Ostrzenski, Adam; Radolinski, Bartholomew; Ostrzenska, Katarzyna M.
BACKGROUND: A policy for couple HIV counseling and testing was introduced in 2006 in Uganda, urging pregnant women and their spouses to be HIV tested together during antenatal care (ANC). The policy aims to identify HIV-infected pregnant women to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV through prophylactic antiretroviral treatment, to provide counseling, and to link HIV-infected persons to care. However, the
Elin C Larsson; Anna Thorson; Xavier Nsabagasani; Sarah Namusoko; Rebecca Popenoe; Anna Mia Ekström
Study objectives—To investigate whether public response to an invitation to attend mammography screening can be in- creased by strategic relocation of the clinics. Methods—Women invited to attend mam- mography screening were classified by attendance, socioeconomic status, and distance from their screening clinic. A geographic information system was used to investigate whether the response could be increased by relocating clinics to
J C G Hyndman; C D J Holman; V P Dawes
The importance of a course that teaches about the biology of women is discussed. This type of course was developed while the authors attended the Women's Curricular Reform Institute in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The interaction of biological and sociological iss
Lea-Fox, Deborah; Kennedy, Frances G.
OBJECTIVE To assess random venous blood glucose (RBG) measurement at antenatal booking to detect “overt diabetes in pregnancy” (ODIP). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of regional hospital obstetric data from 2004–2008 was performed. Universal RBG screening was included at booking. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered if RBG >7.0 mmol/L or other indications, e.g., if a 50-g glucose challenge test was >7.7 mmol/L at 26–28 weeks. ODIP was based upon World Health Organization plasma glucose criteria for diabetes. RESULTS RBG data were collected from 17,852/26,369 (67.7%) pregnancies around the initial antenatal visit; 3,007 women had an OGTT. The receiver operator curve area under the curve for RBG to detect ODIP was 0.86 (0.80–0.92) (assuming women without an OGTT did not have ODIP). CONCLUSIONS RBG at booking may provide a sufficiently sensitive screening tool for the detection of ODIP. We recommend further studies and comparison with fasting glucose and HbA1c.
Church, David; Halsall, David; Meek, Claire; Parker, Richard A.; Murphy, Helen R.; Simmons, David
Traditionally, student attendance is done using pen and papers. Therefore, computer-based students' attendance management system is required to assist the faculty and the lecturer for this time-consuming process. In this paper, we proposed a system that is capable to record the students' attendance using interactive input, generating the reports, viewing the students and lecturers profiles, and providing the students timetable.
Jonathan Sidi; Syahrul N. Junaini; Lau S. Ling
BACKGROUND: A controlled trial of asthma education was conducted but only 51 out of 164 eligible patients participated. METHODS: Differences between subjects who participated in the trial and those who expressed initial interest but subsequently declined were studied. RESULTS: Women, non-smokers, and those whose attending physician was concerned in the study were significantly more likely to attend the programme. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with greater attendance, but this did not reach significance. Psychosocial malfunctioning due to asthma was also associated with attendance, but this was not significant when sex and education level were taken into account. There was no difference between attenders and non-attenders with respect to age, number of previous admissions, airway function, self reported asthma severity, knowledge about asthma, and self management practices. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that many asthmatic patients recovering from a severe exacerbation of airflow obstruction will not participate in hospital based health education programmes. Alternative strategies may be required to improve the self management behaviour of these patients.
Yoon, R; McKenzie, D K; Miles, D A; Bauman, A
Plasma fibronectin (FN) levels in obese/overweight and non-obese pregnant women were evaluated as a possible risk factor for preeclampsia. A total of one hundred and sixty three pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital participated in the study and sixty non-pregnant women served as control. About 77 (47.24%) of the pregnant women were followed up for any subsequent development of preeclampsia during the pregnancy. Fibronectin levels in plasma were measured by ELISA assay and serum total protein, urea and creatinine were determined spectrophotometrically. The mean plasma FN concentration of non-obese pregnant women in first trimester was lower than those of the non-pregnant women by 24%, but however, increased to the non-pregnant level in second and third trimesters. Obese/overweight pregnant women had significantly (P < 0.05) higher values than non-obese pregnant women in second and third trimesters. FN in obese/overweight pregnant women correlated positively with mean arterial blood pressure (MAP: r = 0.414, P = 0.04). About 28.57% of the pregnant women with FN above cut off point of 330 ?g/ml at 18-24 weeks of gestation developed preeclampsia. This value increased to 40.0% when only the obese/overweight women were considered. On analysis of both fibronectin >330 ?g/ml and MAP > 90, the predictive value increased to 66.7%. We therefore conclude that elevated FN may be regarded as a risk factor of preeclampsia especially among the obese women. PMID:22468048
Ekaidem, Itemobong S; Bolarin, Debayo M; Udoh, Alphonsus E; Etuk, Saturday J; Udiong, Christopher E J
Background Few trials have evaluated the effectiveness of psychological treatment in improving depression by the end of pregnancy. This is the first pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) looking at treating depression by the end of pregnancy. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of delivering a CBT intervention modified for antenatal depression during pregnancy. Methods Women in North Bristol, UK between 8–18 weeks pregnant were recruited through routine contact with midwives and randomised to receive up to 12 sessions of individual CBT in addition to usual care or to continue with usual care only. Women were eligible for randomisation if they screened positive on a 3-question depression screen used routinely by midwives and met ICD-10 criteria for depression assessed using the clinical interview schedule – revised version (CIS-R). Two CBT therapists delivered the intervention. Follow-up was at 15 and 33 weeks post-randomisation when assessments of mental health were made using measures which included the CIS-R. Results Of the 50 women assessed for the trial, 36 met ICD-10 depression criteria and were randomised: 18 to the intervention and 18 to usual care. Thirteen of the 18 (72%) women who were allocated to receive the intervention completed 9 or more sessions of CBT before the end of pregnancy. Follow-up rates at 15 and 33 weeks post-randomisation were higher in the group who received the intervention (89% vs. 72% at 15 weeks and 89% vs. 61% at 33 weeks post-randomisation). At 15 weeks post-randomisation (the end of pregnancy), there were more women in the intervention group (11/16; 68.7%) who recovered (i.e. no longer met ICD-10 criteria for depression), than those receiving only usual care (5/13; 38.5%). Conclusions This pilot trial shows the feasibility of conducting a large RCT to assess the effectiveness of CBT for treating antenatal depression before the end of pregnancy. The intervention could be delivered during the antenatal period and there was some evidence to suggest that it could be effective. Trial registration ISRCTN44902048
Background: High fertility levels are of major concern to planners and policy makers in most countries in the developing world. In Saudi Arabia, the rate of population growth is the third highest of the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Objectives: This study aimed at identifying determinants of birth spacing and attitudes toward family planning among Saudi women. Methods: A cross sectional survey of all women who have been married before, aged 15-49 years attending Al Hada armed forces hospital (primary health care and antenatal care clinics), was conducted between 1st February 2005 and 31st January 2006. Data was collected on socio-demographic, biological characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, and utilization of family planning services, pregnancy intervals and medical history Results: For the 786 women included in the study, the mean duration of interbirth interval was 2.38±1.24 years. The multivariate Cox regression revealed that a woman's education, work status, husband's work status, a woman's history of chronic diseases, and husband's encouragement of interbirth spacing were the only significant predictors of longer interbirth intervals. Shorter interbirth intervals were independently predicted by lower family income, and presence of female offspring only or equal number of male and female offspring as opposed to presence of more males. The great majority of participating women (98%) had a positive opinion of the effect of birth spacing on the family. Conclusion: This study showed that certain factors were significant predictors of interbirth spacing for the Saudi women. This should lead to the encouragement of longer intervals between births. However, further studies are needed to ascertain a cause-effect association.
Abdel-Fattah, Moataz; Hifnawy, Tamer; El Said, Tarek I.; Moharam, Maha M.; Mahmoud, Mahmoud A.
One hundred and ninety three consecutive pregnant women attending peripheral antenatal clinics attached to Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, Kwa-Zulu, were examined for evidence of sexually transmitted pathogens. The following incidences were found: Trichomonas vaginalis 49.2% (95), Candida spp 38.3% (74), Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4% (22), Gardnerella vaginalis 6.2% (12), Neisseria gonorrhoeae 5.7% (11), positive syphilis serology results 11.9% (23), hepatitis B surface antigen 4.1% (eight). No woman had antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Dyskaryotic smears were found in 20 (10.4%). Human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected cytologically in 11 (5.7%). The range of sexually transmitted pathogens found in this rural community was similar to that found in urban groups studied in South Africa.
O'Farrell, N; Hoosen, A A; Kharsany, A B; van den Ende, J
|A study of 143 "low-risk" pregnant women in Australia examined the contribution of a woman's background and attitudes to her relationship with her baby during the baby's first year. Women who perceived their social network as less supportive during pregnancy were likely to see their one-year-old babies as more difficult. (Author/DB)|
Adler, Robert; And Others
Objective—To determine the socioeco- nomic, cultural, and clinical predictors of non-attendance for second round mam- mography. Design\\/participants—Retrospective co- hort study of 121 889 women aged 50-69 years who attended for first mammogra- phy screening in the BreastScreen Victo- ria programme in 1995\\/1996 and who were recommended to be invited for routine biennial mammography. Women were considered to be non-attenders if
A-M O'Byrne; A M Kavanagh; A Ugoni; F Diver
Background Nearly half the world’s babies are born at home. We sought to evaluate the training, knowledge, skills, and access to medical equipment and testing for home birth attendants across 7 international sites. Methods Face-to-face interviews were done by trained interviewers to assess level of training, knowledge and practices regarding care during the antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum periods. The survey was administered to a sample of birth attendants conducting home or out-of-facility deliveries in 7 sites in 6 countries (India, Pakistan, Guatemala, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Zambia). Results A total of 1226 home birth attendants were surveyed. Less than half the birth attendants were literate. Eighty percent had one month or less of formal training. Most home birth attendants did not have basic equipment (e.g., blood pressure apparatus, stethoscope, infant bag and mask manual resuscitator). Reporting of births and maternal and neonatal deaths to government agencies was low. Indian auxilliary nurse midwives, who perform some home but mainly clinic births, were far better trained and differed in many characteristics from the birth attendants who only performed deliveries at home. Conclusions Home birth attendants in low-income countries were often illiterate, could not read numbers and had little formal training. Most had few of the skills or access to tests, medications and equipment that are necessary to reduce maternal, fetal or neonatal mortality.
The study objective was to investigate whether women who frequently attend religious services are more likely to have breast cancer screening—mammography and clinical breast examinations—than other women. Multivariate logistic regression models show that white women who attended religious services frequently had more than twice the odds of breast cancer screening than white women who attended less frequently (Odds Ratio (OR)
Peter H. Van Ness; Stanislav V. Kasl; Beth A. Jones
This review is to explore the factors affecting the uptake of skilled birth attendants for delivery and the issues associated with women's role and choices of maternal health care service for delivery in Nepal. Literature was reviewed across the globe and discussed in a Nepalese context. Delivery by Skilled Birth Attendance serves as an indicator of progress towards reducing maternal mortality worldwide, the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Nepal has committed to reducing its maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 through ensuring accessibility to the availability and utilisation of skilled care at every birth. The literature suggests that several socio-economic, cultural and religious factors play a significant role in the use of Skilled Birth Attendance for delivery in Nepal. Availability of transportation and distance to the health facility; poor infrastructure and lack of services; availability and accessibility of the services; cost and convenience; staff shortages and attitudes; gender inequality; status of women in society; women's involvement in decision making; and women's autonomy and place of residence are significant contributing factors for uptake of Skilled Birth Attendance for delivery in Nepal. The review found more quantitative research studies exploring the determinants of utilisation of the maternal health services during pregnancy in Nepal than qualitative studies. Findings of quantitative research show that different social demographic, economic, socio-cultural and religious factors are responsible for the utilisation of maternal health services but very few studies discussed how and why these factors are responsible for utilisation of skilled birth attendants in pregnancy. It is suggested that there is need for more qualitative research to explore the women's role and choice regarding use of skilled birth attendants services and to find out how and why these factors are responsible for utilisation of skilled birth attendants for delivery. Qualitative research will help further exploration of the issues and contribute to improvement of maternal health services. PMID:22610739
Baral, Y R; Lyons, K; Skinner, J; van Teijlingen, E R
Summary Objective To examine ethnic and social inequalities in women's experience of maternity care in England. Design A 2007 national survey of women (16 years or over) about their experience of maternity care. Multiple logistic regression analysis, controlling for several maternal characteristics, was used to examine inequalities by ethnicity, partner status and education. Setting Sample of records of 149 NHS acute trusts and two primary care trusts (PCTs) providing maternity services in England. Results A total of 26,325 women responded to the survey (response rate 59%). Ethnic minority women were more likely than White British women to access services late, not have a scan by 20 weeks, and experience complications during pregnancy and birth. They were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and say they were treated with respect and dignity. Single women responded more negatively to almost all questions than women with a husband/partner. They were less likely to access care within 12 weeks of pregnancy (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.39–0.52), have a scan at 20 weeks (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.39–0.63), attend NHS antenatal classes (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.49–0.65), have a postnatal check-up (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.60–0.75), and initiate breastfeeding (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.51–0.62), and were more likely to experience complications. Women completing education at 19+ years were more likely to access services early (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04–1.40), attend antenatal classes (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.31–1.67), have a postnatal check-up (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07–1.32) and initiate breastfeeding (OR 3.88, 95% CI 3.56–4.22) than those completing education at 16 years or younger, and were less likely to experience complications. Conclusions Ethnic minority women, single mothers, and those with an earlier age at completing education access maternity services late, have poorer outcomes, and report poorer experiences across some – though not all – dimensions of maternity care. Ethnic differences were absent or inconsistent between groups for some aspects of care. We recommend these findings are used by commissioners, trusts and healthcare professionals to inform improvements in maternity services for high-risk groups and reduce inequalities.
Raleigh, VS; Hussey, D; Seccombe, I; Hallt, K
Knowledge, perception and utilisation of malaria prophylaxis were assessed among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Of the 301 women interviewed, 71.1% reported having used chloroquine prophylaxis while 28.9% did not. Women with high knowledge of malaria were more likely to use malaria prophylaxis than those with low knowledge. However, there was no significant association between knowledge of malaria and perceived effectiveness of the various methods of malaria control. Chloroquine side effects and perceived lack of protective effect against malaria were mentioned as causes of failure to use chloroquine prophylaxis. Fear of chloroquine-induced pruritus accounted for the largest proportion (49.4%) of women who reported having failed to use chloroquine prophylaxis. Occurrence of malaria episodes was reported to be similar among users and non-users of malaria prophylaxis probably due to inconsistent use of malaria prophylaxis and reduced chloroquine sensitivity of malaria parasites. It is suggested that, in addition to chemoprophylaxis, pregnant women should be encouraged to use bednets in combination with mosquito repellents throughout the course of pregnancy. PMID:7498025
Mnyika, K S; Kabalimu, T K; Lugoe, W L
Rationale Chorioamnionitis is associated with preterm delivery and involution of the fetal thymus. Women at risk of preterm delivery receive antenatal corticosteroids which accelerate fetal lung maturation and improve neonatal outcome. However, the effects of antenatal corticosteroids on the fetal thymus in the settings of chorioamnionitis are largely unknown. We hypothesized that intra-amniotic exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes involution of the fetal thymus resulting in persistent effects on thymic structure and cell populations. We also hypothesized that antenatal corticosteroids may modulate the effects of LPS on thymic development. Methods Time-mated ewes with singleton fetuses received an intra-amniotic injection of LPS 7 or 14 days before preterm delivery at 120 days gestational age (term?=?150 days). LPS and corticosteroid treatment groups received intra-amniotic LPS either preceding or following maternal intra-muscular betamethasone. Gestation matched controls received intra-amniotic and maternal intra-muscular saline. The fetal intra-thoracic thymus was evaluated. Results Intra-amniotic LPS decreased the cortico-medullary (C/M) ratio of the thymus and increased Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mRNA and CD3 expression indicating involution and activation of the fetal thymus. Increased TLR4 and CD3 expression persisted for 14 days but Foxp3 expression decreased suggesting a change in regulatory T-cells. Sonic hedgehog and bone morphogenetic protein 4 mRNA, which are negative regulators of T-cell development, decreased in response to intra-amniotic LPS. Betamethasone treatment before LPS exposure attenuated some of the LPS-induced thymic responses but increased cleaved caspase-3 expression and decreased the C/M ratio. Betamethasone treatment after LPS exposure did not prevent the LPS-induced thymic changes. Conclusion Intra-amniotic exposure to LPS activated the fetal thymus which was accompanied by structural changes. Treatment with antenatal corticosteroids before LPS partially attenuated the LPS-induced effects but increased apoptosis in the fetal thymus. Corticosteroid administration after the inflammatory stimulus did not inhibit the LPS effects on the fetal thymus.
Kuypers, Elke; Collins, Jennifer J. P.; Jellema, Reint K.; Wolfs, Tim G. A. M.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Nitsos, Ilias; Pillow, J. Jane; Polglase, Graeme R.; Newnham, John P.; Germeraad, Wilfred T. V.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kramer, Boris W.
Background Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Methods Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1) the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV) study's main survey, conducted in 2008-09 among clients (N = 408) and providers at health facilities offering HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) services; 2) semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 63 HIV-positive women on their experiences of stigma, disclosure, post-test counseling and access to follow-up psycho-social support; (3) in-depth interviews with key informants and PMTCT healthcare workers; and (4) document study of national PMTCT policies and guidelines. We quantitatively examined differences in the quality of counseling by country and by HIV status using Fisher's exact tests. Results The majority of pregnant women attending antenatal care (80-90%) report that they were explained the meaning of the tests, explained how HIV can be transmitted, given advice on prevention, encouraged to refer their partners for testing, and given time to ask questions. Our qualitative findings reveal that some women found testing regimes to be coercive, while disclosure remains highly problematic. 79% of HIV-positive pregnant women reported that they generally keep their status secret; only 37% had disclosed to their husband. Conclusion To achieve better PMTCT outcomes, the strategy of testing women in antenatal care (perceived as an exclusively female domain) when they are already pregnant needs to be rethought. When scaling up HIV testing programs, it is particularly important that issues of partner disclosure are taken seriously.
Armed conflicts, which primarily occur in low- and middle-income countries, have profound consequences for the health of affected populations, among them a decrease in the utilization of maternal health care services. The quantitative relationship between armed conflict and maternal health care utilization has received limited attention in the public health literature. We evaluate this relationship for a particular type of health care service, antenatal care, in Nepal. Using count regression techniques, household survey data and sub-national conflict data, we find a negative correlation between the number of antenatal care visits and incidents of conflict-related violence within a respondent's village development committee. Specifically, we find that under high-intensity conflict conditions women receive between 0.3 and 1.5 fewer antenatal care check-ups. These findings imply that maternal health care utilization is partially determined by characteristics of the social environment (e.g. political instability) and suggest health care providers need to revise maternal health strategies in conflict-affected areas. Strategies may include decentralization of services, maintaining neutrality among factions, strengthening community-based health services and developing mobile clinics. PMID:22773608
Price, James I; Bohara, Alok K
|The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…
Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark
The characteristics of Roman Catholic women in today's society were investigated. Subjects were 154 Catholic women, both religious and lay, who participated on a volunteer basis. The Catholic lay women (111) were divided into two groups: those who attended a Catholic elementary school (63) and those who attended a non-Catholic elementary school (48). Catholic women religious were found to be
Sarah A. Dolan; M. Marie Meier; Charles A. Dill
Background Postnatal care is uncommon in Nepal, and where it is available the quality is often poor. Adequate utilisation of postnatal care can help reduce mortality and morbidity among mothers and their babies. Therefore, our study assessed the utilisation of postnatal care at a rural community level. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in two neighbouring villages in early 2006. A total of 150 women who had delivered in the previous 24 months were asked to participate in the study using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results The proportion of women who had received postnatal care after delivery was low (34%). Less than one in five women (19%) received care within 48 hours of giving birth. Women in one village had less access to postnatal care than women in the neighbouring one. Lack of awareness was the main barrier to the utilisation of postnatal care. The woman's own occupation and ethnicity, the number of pregnancies and children and the husband's socio-economic status, occupation and education were significantly associated with the utilisation of postnatal care. Multivariate analysis showed that wealth as reflected in occupation and having attended antenatal are important factors associated with the uptake of postnatal care. In addition, women experiencing health problems appear strongly motivated to seek postnatal care. Conclusion The postnatal care has a low uptake and is often regarded as inadequate in Nepal. This is an important message to both service providers and health-policy makers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to assess the actual quality of postnatal care provided. Also there appears to be a need for awareness-raising programmes highlighting the availability of current postnatal care where this is of sufficient quality.
Dhakal, Sulochana; Chapman, Glyn N; Simkhada, Padam P; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Stephens, Jane; Raja, Amalraj E
...readjustment counseling, women Veterans' legislative issues, special health initiatives, women Veterans' research, rural health, and homeless initiatives for women Veterans. Interested persons may attend, appear before, or file...
|Interviews of 120 British adolescents and their parents (80% of a random sample of antenatal patients drawn from a representative urban population and followed longitudinally) revealed that 40 (33%) had been arrested and/or had a diagnosis of "DSM-IV" conduct disorder by 16 years of age; of those, 18 (45%) had committed violent acts. Depression…
Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Sharp, Deborah
Antenatal inquiry of 658 parents in the North Staffordshire District Health Authority showed at least 13% to lack knowledge about a baby's potential for personal interaction when under 1 week old. Mothers and fathers varied significantly, independent of parity. Experienced parents expected later smiles. Two hundred and seventy eight of the same families were questioned three to four months after birth. Most parents had observed their baby's early responsiveness. Specific responses (Looking, listening) were noted earlier when anticipated and looked for. Significant among postnatal non-responders was their antenatal selection of predominantly impersonal stimulation for a baby. The greatest degree of warmth noted in postnatal observations correlated notably with a father's antenatal interest and postnatal support from him and their friends, a mother's commitment to breast feeding and her knowledge that a very young baby can see, like faces, and cries for emotional reasons. This highlights areas for antenatal tuition and postnatal encouragement, aiming to enhance warm early mutual regard between parents and child.
Delight, E; Goodall, J; Jones, P W
Cerebral palsy occurs in three to four infants per 1000 live births. Preterm birth prior to 34 weeks’ gestation is a major risk factor. Five randomized controlled trials of antenatal magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) found a trend of reduced risk of cerebral palsy and mortality in preterm infants. Three meta-analyses using the data from the five randomized controlled trials, which included a total of 5235 prospectively evaluated fetuses, found that MgSO4 given to women at risk of premature birth significantly reduced the risk of cerebral palsy by 30% without increasing the risk of perinatal or infant death. The implication for clinical practice is that MgSO4 should be considered for use in patients at high risk of delivery before 34 weeks’ gestation.
At the Danish census on 9 November 1970, 4,055 men and 1,195 women aged 20-64 years indicated an employment that was coded as retail sale of oil and gasoline; almost all individuals probably worked as filling station attendants. Record linkage at Danmarks Statistik showed that 529 of the men had died during the following 17 years. Respiratory cancer (75 deaths) was the only cause of death that showed a significant excess (standardized mortality ration, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.00) when compared to all men gainfully employed at the time of the census. An increased mortality due to cardiovascular disease could not be related to any particular diagnostic subgroup; the mortality in women did not differ from expected rates. These results are in accordance with data from other countries on occupational groups exposed to high levels of exhaust fumes.
Grandjean, P.; Andersen, O. (Institute of Community Health, Odense University, (Denmark))
The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of healthcare providers on the advantages and disadvantages of integrating HIV care services, including highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), into antenatal care (ANC) clinics in rural Kenya. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews and thematic analysis; 36 healthcare providers from 6 health centres in Nyanza Province, Kenya participated. Effects on service providers included increased workload due to the incorporation of specialised HIV services into ANC clinics. Providers observed that integration results in decreased patient time spent at the health facility, increased efficiency, and closer provider-patient relationships; all leading to increased patient satisfaction. Providers also said that women would be more likely to receive HAART and adhere to their treatment as a result of improved confidentiality and decreased stigma. However, a minority of providers noted that integration could result in longer appointment times for HIV-positive women at ANC clinics leading to inadvertent disclosure. Integration could lead to strengthened antenatal care, postpartum care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and HIV care for women and their families. However, integration efforts need to take into account potential negative effects on ANC provider workload, disclosure, and the quality of care.
Winestone, Lena E.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Kwaro, Daniel; Kley, Nicole; Turan, Janet M.
The urban population in India is one of the largest in the world. Its unprecedented growth has resulted in a large section of the population living in abject poverty in overcrowded slums. There have been limited efforts to capture the health of people in urban slums. In the present study, we have used data collected during the National Family Health Survey-3 to provide a national representation of women’s reproductive health in the slum population in India. We examined a sample of 4,827 women in the age group of 15–49 years to assess the association of the variable slum with selected reproductive health services. We have also tried to identify the sociodemographic f