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1

Demographic patterns, attitudes and practices of women attending an antenatal clinic in rural Nepal.  

PubMed

To establish the demographic patterns, attitudes, and practices of women attending an antenatal clinic in an isolated rural area, 175 women were interviewed by questionnaire, and 7 groups of 5 women were interviewed in focus discussion groups. Further demographic information was collected using routine registration data and was compared with similar data gathered from an under-10 years' clinic held in the same place on different days. This showed differences in caste distribution for antenatal clinic attenders compared to those attending the under-10 years' clinic. Almost 1/4 of the women were prepared to walk a considerable distance to attend the antenatal clinic. Compared to the national literacy rate, women attending here were more likely to be literate and to have attended the hospital for their previous delivery. Foetal lie was of particular concern to women attending this clinic. Even among this biased population, the majority of women still delivered at home with only the assistance of a female relative or friend. Sudhenis (traditional birth attendants) were used in only a small number of cases. Education, not only of the sudhenis, but also of local women, is important in improving perinatal care in rural areas. PMID:12283775

Kirkpatrick, M; Lamichhane, S

1990-01-01

2

Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%). Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%), hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%), and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%). Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75) and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75) were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ? 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57). It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment.

Wekesa, A. W.; Mulambalah, C. S.; Muleke, C. I.; Odhiambo, R.

2014-01-01

3

Prevalence and Patterns of Gender-based Violence and Revictimization among Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Soweto, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender-based violence is a key health risk for women globally and in South Africa. The authors analyzed data from 1,395 interviews with women attending antenatal clinics in Soweto, South Africa, between November 2001 and April 2002 to estimate the prevalence of physical\\/sexual partner violence (55.5%), adult sexual assault by nonpartners (7.9%), child sexual assault (8.0%), and forced first intercourse (7.3%).

Kristin L. Dunkle; Rachel K. Jewkes; Heather C. Brown; Mieko Yoshihama; Glenda E. Gray; James A. McIntyre; Siobán D. Harlow

4

Determinants for refusal of HIV testing among women attending for antenatal care in Gambella Region, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. Objective To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refused HIV testing and 249 who accepted HIV testing) were taken for the study. The study was supplemented with four focus group discussions. Multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to control for confounding factors. Results When adjusted with other factors pregnant women with 2–3 live births in the past; who claimed divorce as a perceived response of their husband following HIV positive test result; who had not sought agreement from their husband for testing; disclosure of test for husband and being from certain ethnic group (E.g. Mejenger) were independent predictors for refusal of HIV testing among ANC attendees. Conclusion and recommendation Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded: Provision of innovative information and education on the pre-test session for those pregnant women having two or more children; community involvement to tackle stigma; women empowerment; designing couple friendly counseling service; and fighting harmful traditional practices related with decision of HIV testing.

2012-01-01

5

Drinking and smoking patterns amongst women attending an antenatal clinic--II. During pregnancy.  

PubMed

This paper describes smoking and drinking patterns during pregnancy amongst a cohort of 2266 women who enrolled at a London antenatal clinic 1982-1983. Only 12% of mothers were non-drinkers before pregnancy, but 44% abstained in the first trimester, 38% in the second and 50% in the third. Before pregnancy 20% of mothers were drinking more than the recommended 10 units of alcohol per week. This dropped to 6% during pregnancy. Mean consumption at each of the three stages of pregnancy was highest amongst those mothers who were the heaviest drinkers before pregnancy. The heaviest pre-pregnancy drinkers were also the least likely to abstain at any point in pregnancy. Of those mothers who were drinking less than 10 units of alcohol per week before pregnancy, 3% increased during pregnancy. Wine was the most popular beverage choice but heavier drinkers were more likely to drink beers and spirits in addition. Before pregnancy 29% of mothers smoked. This dropped to 23% in pregnancy. Consumption levels fell amongst those who continued smoking. The heaviest pre-pregnancy smokers were the most likely to reduce but the least likely to stop. Smoking was positively associated with the level of both pre-pregnancy and pregnancy drinking. The most commonly cited reasons for changes in drinking and smoking habits in pregnancy were concern for the child, concern for self or concern for both. Feeling sick or ill was a more commonly stated reason for reduction of drinking than smoking. Social pressures were important in reducing smoking, but the mass media were quoted as a more important influence in reducing drinking. Mothers who drank more than 10 units of alcohol per week during pregnancy were more likely to be older, of higher social status and primiparous. In contrast those who smoked in pregnancy were more likely to be younger, of lower social status and multiparous. This has important implications for planning antenatal health education. PMID:2785805

Waterson, E J; Murray-Lyon, I M

1989-01-01

6

Health service barriers to HIV testing and counseling among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic; a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background HIV testing and counseling (HTC) remains critical in the global efforts to reach a goal of universal access to prevention and timely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and health care. Routine HIV testing has been shown to be cost-effective and life-saving by prolonging the life expectancy of HIV patients and reducing the annual HIV transmission rate. However, these benefits of routine HIV testing may not be seen among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) due to health facility related factors. This paper presents the influence of health facility related factors on HTC to inform HTC implementation. Methods The study was cross-sectional in design and used structured questionnaire and interview guides to gather information from 300 pregnant women aged 18 to 49 years and had attended ANC for more than twice at the time of the study. Twelve health workers were interviewed as key informants. Respondents were selected from the five sub metro health facilities in the Kumasi Metropolis through systematic random sampling from August to November 2011. Pregnant women who had not tested after two or more ANC visits were classified as not utilizing HTC. Data was analyzed with STATA 11. Logistic regression was run to assess the odds ratios at 95% confidence level. Results Twenty-four percent of the pregnant women had not undergone HTC, with “never been told” emerging as the most cited reason as reported by 29.5% of respondents. Decisions by pregnant women to take up HTC were mostly influenced by factors such as lack of information, perceptions of privacy and confidentiality, waiting time, poor relationship with health staff and fear of being positive. Conclusions Access to HTC health facility alone does not translate into utilization of HTC service. Improving health facility related factors such as health education and information, confidentiality, health staff turnaround time and health staff-client relationship related to HTC will improve implementation.

2014-01-01

7

Acceptance of HIV testing among women attending antenatal care in south-western Uganda: risk factors and reasons for test refusal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem commonly encountered in programs for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is low rates of HIV test acceptance among pregnant women. In this study, we examined risk factors and reasons for HIV test refusal among 432 women attending three antenatal care clinics offering PMTCT in urban and semi-urban parts of the Mbarara district, Uganda. Structured

V. Dahl; L. Mellhammar; F. Bajunirwe; P. Björkman

2008-01-01

8

Parvovirus B19 antibodies and correlates of infection in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in central Nigeria.  

PubMed

Human parvovirus B19 infection is associated with spontaneous abortion, hydrops foetalis, intrauterine foetal death, erythema infectiosum (5th disease), aplastic crisis and acute symmetric polyarthropathy. However, data concerning Nigerian patients with B19 infection have not been published yet. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of B19 IgG and IgM antibodies, including correlates of infection, among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nigeria. Subsequent to clearance from an ethical committee, blood samples were collected between August-November 2008 from 273 pregnant women between the ages of 15-40 years who have given their informed consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Recombinant IgG and IgM enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits (Demeditec Diagnostics, Germany) were used for the assays. Out of the 273 participants, 111 (40.7%) had either IgG or IgM antibodies. Out of these, 75 (27.5%) had IgG antibodies whereas 36 (13.2%) had IgM antibodies, and those aged 36-40 years had the highest prevalence of IgG antibodies. Significant determinants of infection (p < 0.05) included the receipt of a blood transfusion, occupation and the presence of a large number of children in the household. Our findings have important implications for transfusion and foeto-maternal health policy in Nigeria. Routine screening for B19 IgM antibodies and accompanying clinical management of positive cases should be made mandatory for all Nigerian blood donors and women of childbearing age. PMID:21537685

Emiasegen, Samuel E; Nimzing, Lohya; Adoga, Moses P; Ohagenyi, Adamu Y; Lekan, Rufai

2011-03-01

9

Prevalence and patterns of gender-based violence and revictimization among women attending antenatal clinics in Soweto, South Africa.  

PubMed

Gender-based violence is a key health risk for women globally and in South Africa. The authors analyzed data from 1,395 interviews with women attending antenatal clinics in Soweto, South Africa, between November 2001 and April 2002 to estimate the prevalence of physical/sexual partner violence (55.5%), adult sexual assault by nonpartners (7.9%), child sexual assault (8.0%), and forced first intercourse (7.3%). Age at first experience of each type of violence was modeled by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox hazard models with time-varying covariates were used to explore whether child sexual assault and forced first intercourse were associated with risk of violent revictimization in adulthood. Child sexual assault was associated with increased risk of physical and/or sexual partner violence (risk ratio = 2.43, 95% confidence interval: 1.93, 3.06) and with adult sexual assault by a nonpartner (risk ratio = 2.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.40, 3.89). Forced first intercourse was associated with increased risk of physical and/or sexual partner violence (risk ratio = 2.64, 95% confidence interval: 2.07, 3.38) and nonsignificantly with adult sexual assault by a nonpartner (risk ratio = 2.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.92, 4.98). This study confirms the need for increased attention by the public health community to primary and secondary prevention of gender-based violence, with a specific need to reduce risk among South African adolescents. PMID:15257996

Dunkle, Kristin L; Jewkes, Rachel K; Brown, Heather C; Yoshihama, Mieko; Gray, Glenda E; McIntyre, James A; Harlow, Siobán D

2004-08-01

10

How Do Women Prepare for Pregnancy? Preconception Experiences of Women Attending Antenatal Services and Views of Health Professionals  

PubMed Central

Main objective To determine the extent to which women plan and prepare for pregnancy. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of pregnant women attending three maternity services in London about knowledge and uptake of preconception care; including a robust measure of pregnancy planning, and phone interviews with a range of health care professionals. Main results We recruited 1173/1288 (90%) women, median age of 32 years. 73% had clearly planned their pregnancy, 24% were ambivalent and only 3% of pregnancies were unplanned. 51% of all women and 63% of those with a planned pregnancy took folic acid before pregnancy. 21% of all women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking alcohol in the 3 months before pregnancy; 48% of smokers and 41% of drinkers reduced or stopped before pregnancy. The 51% of all women who reported advice from a health professional before becoming pregnant were more likely to adopt healthier behaviours before pregnancy [adjusted odds ratios for greatest health professional input compared with none were 2.34 (95% confidence interval 1.54–3.54) for taking folic acid and 2.18 (95% CI 1.42–3.36) for adopting a healthier diet before pregnancy]. Interviews with 20 health professionals indicated low awareness of preconception health issues, missed opportunities and confusion about responsibility for delivery of preconception care. Significance of the findings Despite a high level of pregnancy planning, awareness of preconception health among women and health professionals is low, and responsibility for providing preconception care is unclear. However, many women are motivated to adopt healthier behaviours in the preconception period, as indicated by halving of reported smoking rates in this study. The link between health professional input and healthy behaviour change before pregnancy is a new finding that should invigorate strategies to improve awareness and uptake of pre-pregnancy health care, and bring wider benefits for public health.

Stephenson, Judith; Patel, Dilisha; Barrett, Geraldine; Howden, Beth; Copas, Andrew; Ojukwu, Obiamaka; Pandya, Pranav; Shawe, Jill

2014-01-01

11

Utilization of folic acid and iron supplementation services by pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic at a regional referral hospital in Kenya.  

PubMed

To determine utilization of iron and folic acid supplementation services among pregnant women in Kenya. A cross sectional study was conducted at Nyeri Hospital, a regional referral hospital in central Kenya. Women attending the antenatal clinic were selected through systematic sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on utilization of folic acid and iron supplementation services. Women who ingested folic acid or iron supplements for >4 days in a week were considered "highly compliant". The health worker in-charge of the antenatal clinic was interviewed about the frequency of supplement stock-outs during the past year. Haemoglobin concentration was measured directly from one drop of capillary blood and measured using portable HEMOCUE B-Hb photometer. Of the 381 women interviewed, only 23.6 % obtained antenatal care in the first trimester; 69.3 and 51.2 % received folic acid and iron supplements, respectively. However, only half (45-58 %) received any information about supplementation. Most women were initiated on folic acid (80.7 %) or iron (67.7 %) after 12 and 16 weeks of gestation, respectively, well after the recommended time period. However, more than 80 % of those who received folic acid and iron were highly compliant. Stock-outs were common at the facility. Of 361 women tested for Hb level, the prevalence of anaemia (Hb levels < 11 g/dl) was 7.8 %. Health workers need to better explain the importance of supplements to pregnant women. Women who come late to antenatal clinic miss opportunities to start supplementation early in pregnancy. Problems with supply chain management exacerbate the problem. PMID:22907273

Maina-Gathigi, L; Omolo, J; Wanzala, P; Lindan, C; Makokha, A

2013-09-01

12

HIV infection seroprevalence and risk factor study among pregnant women attending the Antenatal Clinic at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among the antenatal clinic population at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). Pregnant mothers (4186) attending antenatal clinic at the UHWI were screened for HIV infection between September, 1998, and October, 2000. Tests were performed with the use of Abbott enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits for the detection of antibodies to HIV 1 and 2. Demographic characteristics and risk factor assessments were performed using a questionnaire for all positive cases and four randomly selected negative controls matched by age to each positive case. Twenty-one women were found to be HIV positive. Nineteen of these women were not previously aware that they were HIV-positive. The seroprevalence of HIV infection among antenatal mothers was 0.5%. The mean age of cases was 29.3 +/- 4.6 years. There was no significant difference between cases and controls with regards to parity, socio-economic status and educational achievement. Women residing in urban Kingston and St Andrew (Odds ratio (OR) 5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4, 18), as well as those with a higher number of lifetime sexual partners (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.13, 1.79) and those with previous sexually transmitted diseases (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1, 10.6) were at greater risk for HIV infection. In contrast, women who commenced coitus at a later age were at less risk of becoming infected (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.6, 0.97). This study demonstrates a low seroprevalence of HIV in the UHWI antenatal population compared to the reported seroprevalence of 2%-8% in pregnant women in Latin America and the Caribbean. The results from this study emphasize the continuing need for voluntary HIV testing and HIV/AIDS educational campaign for this vulnerable group. PMID:12232946

Perry, D; Reid, M; Thame, M; Fletcher, H; Mullings, A; McCaw-Binns, A; King, D; Rattray, C A

2002-06-01

13

Satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town, Jimma zone, South West Ethiopia; a facility based cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Client satisfaction is essential for further improvement of quality of focused antenatal care and to provide uniform health care services for pregnant women. However, studies on level of client satisfaction with focused antenatal care and associated factors are lacking. So, the purpose of this study is to assess satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study involving both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used from Feb 1-30/2013. Three hundred eighty nine pregnant women those come to the health centers were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussion guide was employed to obtain the necessary information for this study. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Logistic regression model was used to compare level of satisfaction by predictors’ variables. Qualitative data was analyzed based on thematic frameworks to support the quantitative results. Result More than half of the respondents (60.4%) were satisfied with the service that they received. As to specific components, most of the respondents (80.7%) were satisfied with interpersonal aspects, and 62.2% were satisfied with organization of health care aspect. Meanwhile, 49.9% of the respondents were not satisfied with technical quality aspect and 67.1% were not satisfied with physical environment aspect. Multivariate logistic regression analysis result showed that type of health center, educational status of mother, monthly income of the family, type of pregnancy and history of stillbirth were the predictors of the level of satisfaction. The study found out that dissatisfaction was high in mothers utilizing service at Jimma health center, in mothers with tertiary educational level, in mothers with average monthly family income >1000birr, in mothers with unplanned pregnancy and in mothers with history of stillbirth. Conclusions Even though greater percentages of women (60.4%) were satisfied with the focused antenatal care service, the level of satisfaction was lower compared to other studies. The investigator recommends that patient feedback should be recognized as a legitimate method of evaluating health services in the health center as a whole.

2014-01-01

14

Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and its Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern Among Pregnant Women Attending the Antenatal Clinic at Kanpur, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common in pregnant women. Pregnancy enhances the progression from ASB to symptomatic bacteriuria, which if left untreated, could lead to acute pyelonephritis and other adverse outcomes such as prematurity, postpartum, hypertensive disease, anaemia, UTIs and higher foetal mortality rates. Aim: To identify the prevalence of ASB, the most common causative microorganisms and the antibacterial susceptibilities of the isolated microorganisms at a tertiary care centre at Kanpur, India. Materials and Methods: A total number of 300 asymptomatic pregnant women were screened for ASB by urine culture by using a semi quantitative culture method. Results: In this study, significant bacteriuria was found in only 22 cases (7.3%). Growth of contaminants was seen in 40 cases (13.3%). Among cases which showed positive cultures, 48.9% were primigravidae and 51.1% were multigravidae. Highest incidence was reported in age group of 21-30 years. The predominant organisms which were isolated were Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. Escherichia coli, the most common isolate, was found to be only 61% and 70% sensitive to ampicillin and amoxicillin + clavulanate, respectively. Sensitivity to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin was 95%, and sensitivity to amikacin was 99%. Hundred percent sensitivity was found for the broad spectrum pencillins, imipenem, and meropenem. Klebsiella pneumoniae, the second most frequent organism which was grown on culture, was only 11% sensitive to ampicillin, while sensitivity to amoxicillin + clavulanate and cefuroxime was 86%. 100% sensitivity was found for cefepime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and meropenem. Conclusion: Routine urine culture test should be carried out for all antenatal women, to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria, and every positive case should be treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy, to prevent any obstetric complication which is associated with pregnancy.

Nawani, Manju

2014-01-01

15

Mobile phones improve antenatal care attendance in Zanzibar: a cluster randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Applying mobile phones in healthcare is increasingly prioritized to strengthen healthcare systems. Antenatal care has the potential to reduce maternal morbidity and improve newborns’ survival but this benefit may not be realized in sub-Saharan Africa where the attendance and quality of care is declining. We evaluated the association between a mobile phone intervention and antenatal care in a resource-limited setting. We aimed to assess antenatal care in a comprehensive way taking into consideration utilisation of antenatal care as well as content and timing of interventions during pregnancy. Methods This study was an open label pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial with primary healthcare facilities in Zanzibar as the unit of randomisation. 2550 pregnant women (1311 interventions and 1239 controls) who attended antenatal care at selected primary healthcare facilities were included at their first antenatal care visit and followed until 42 days after delivery. 24 primary health care facilities in six districts were randomized to either mobile phone intervention or standard care. The intervention consisted of a mobile phone text-message and voucher component. Primary outcome measure was four or more antenatal care visits during pregnancy. Secondary outcome measures were tetanus vaccination, preventive treatment for malaria, gestational age at last antenatal care visit, and antepartum referral. Results The mobile phone intervention was associated with an increase in antenatal care attendance. In the intervention group 44% of the women received four or more antenatal care visits versus 31% in the control group (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.03-5.55). There was a trend towards improved timing and quality of antenatal care services across all secondary outcome measures although not statistically significant. Conclusions The wired mothers’ mobile phone intervention significantly increased the proportion of women receiving the recommended four antenatal care visits during pregnancy and there was a trend towards improved quality of care with more women receiving preventive health services, more women attending antenatal care late in pregnancy and more women with antepartum complications identified and referred. Mobile phone applications may contribute towards improved maternal and newborn health and should be considered by policy makers in resource-limited settings. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01821222.

2014-01-01

16

Acceptance of HIV testing among women attending antenatal care in south-western Uganda: risk factors and reasons for test refusal.  

PubMed

A problem commonly encountered in programs for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is low rates of HIV test acceptance among pregnant women. In this study, we examined risk factors and reasons for HIV test refusal among 432 women attending three antenatal care clinics offering PMTCT in urban and semi-urban parts of the Mbarara district, Uganda. Structured interviews were performed following pre-test counselling. Three-hundred-eighty women were included in the study, 323 (85%) of whom accepted HIV testing. In multivariate analysis, testing site (Site A: OR = 1.0; Site B: OR = 3.08; 95%CI: 1.12-8.46; Site C: OR = 5.93; 95%CI: 2.94-11.98), age between 30 and 34 years (<20 years: OR = 1.0; 20-24 years: OR = 1.81; 95%CI: 0.58-5.67; 25-29 years: OR = 2.15; 95%CI: 0.66-6.97; 30-34 years: OR = 3.88; 95%CI: 1.21-13.41), mistrust in reliability of the HIV test (OR = 20.60; 95%CI: 3.24-131.0) and not having been tested for HIV previously (OR = 2.15; 95%CI: 1.02-4.54) were associated with test refusal. Testing sites operating for longer durations had higher rates of acceptance. The most common reasons claimed for test refusal were: lack of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected women (88%; n=57), a need to discuss with partner before decision (82%; n=57) and fear of partner's reaction (54%; n=57). Comparison with previous periods showed that the acceptance rate increased with the duration of the program. Our study identified risk factors for HIV test refusal among pregnant women in Uganda and common reasons for not accepting testing. These findings may suggest modifications and improvements in the performance of HIV testing in this and similar populations. PMID:18576178

Dahl, V; Mellhammar, L; Bajunirwe, F; Björkman, P

2008-07-01

17

Antenatal care attendance, a surrogate for pregnancy outcome? The case of kumasi, ghana.  

PubMed

Antenatal care (ANC) has been shown to influence infant and maternal outcomes. WHO recommends 4 ANC visits for uncomplicated pregnancies. However, pregnant women in Ghana are required to attend 8-13 antenatal visits. We investigated the association of ANC attendance with adverse pregnancy outcomes (defined as low infant birth weight, stillbirth, preterm delivery or small for gestational age). A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted on 629 women, age 19-48 years who presented for delivery at two selected public hospitals and 16 traditional birth attendants from July to November 2011. Socio-demographic and antenatal information were collected using a structured questionnaire. ANC attendance, medical and obstetric/gynecological history were abstracted from maternal antenatal records. Data were analyzed using Chi square and logistic regression. Twenty-two percent of the women experienced an adverse outcome. Eleven percent of the women attended <4 ANC visits. In an unadjusted model, these women had an increased likelihood of experiencing an adverse outcome (OR 2.27; 95 % CI 1.30-3.94; p = 0.0038). High parity (>5 children) was also associated with adverse birth outcomes. Women screened for syphilis or use of insecticide-treated bed nets had a 40 and 36 % (p = 0.0447 and p = 0.0293) reduced likelihood of experiencing an adverse pregnancy outcome respectively. After adjusting for confounders, attending <4 antenatal visits was associated with adverse pregnancy outcome compared with ?4 ANC visits (Adjusted OR 2.55; 95 % CI 1.16-5.63; p = 0.0202). Attending <4 antenatal visits and high parity were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes for uncomplicated pregnancies. PMID:23948806

Asundep, Ntui N; Jolly, Pauline E; Carson, April; Turpin, Cornelius A; Zhang, Kui; Tameru, Berhanu

2014-07-01

18

Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

1993-01-01

19

The demographic characteristics of early and late attenders for antenatal care.  

PubMed

In the Royal New Zealand Plunket Society's 1990-91 Cohort study, 581 of 4,286 women questioned (13.7%) had not initiated antenatal care until after the first trimester. These late attenders were more likely to be non-European or of high parity; 42.9% of Pacific Islander mothers and 28.9% of Maori mothers did not initiate antenatal care until after the first trimester. Late attenders were also more likely to be unmarried, of lower socioeconomic status, young or with lower educational attainment. The reason for delayed antenatal care needs to be investigated and mothers who are high parity and non-European need to be particularly targeted to encourage them to attend for antenatal care early. PMID:1290424

Essex, C; Counsell, A M; Geddis, D C

1992-11-01

20

Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first antenatal care visit and identifies factors influencing early and late attendance. Methods The study was conducted in the Ulanga and Kilombero rural Demographic Surveillance area in south-eastern Tanzania in 2008. Qualitative exploratory studies informed the design of a structured questionnaire. A total of 440 women who attended antenatal care participated in exit interviews. Socio-demographic, social, perception- and service related factors were analysed for associations with timing of antenatal care initiation using regression analysis. Results The majority of pregnant women initiated antenatal care attendance with an average of 5 gestational months. Belonging to the Sukuma ethnic group compared to other ethnic groups such as the Pogoro, Mhehe, Mgindo and others, perceived poor quality of care, late recognition of pregnancy and not being supported by the husband or partner were identified as factors associated with a later antenatal care enrolment (p < 0.05). Primiparity and previous experience of a miscarriage or stillbirth were associated with an earlier antenatal care attendance (p < 0.05). Adolescent pregnant women started antenatal care no later than adult pregnant women despite being more likely to be single. Conclusions Factors including poor quality of care, lack of awareness about the health benefit of antenatal care, late recognition of pregnancy, and social and economic factors may influence timing of antenatal care. Community-based interventions are needed that involve men, and need to be combined with interventions that target improving the quality, content and outreach of antenatal care services to enhance early antenatal care enrolment among pregnant women.

2012-01-01

21

Under-attending free antenatal care is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Most pertinent studies of inadequate antenatal care concentrate on the risk profile of women booking late or not booking at all to antenatal care. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of pregnancies when free and easily accessible antenatal care has been either totally lacking or low in number of visits. Methods This is a hospital register based cohort study of pregnancies treated in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland, in 1989 – 2001. Pregnancy outcomes of women having low numbers (1–5) of antenatal care visits (n = 207) and no antenatal care visits (n = 270) were compared with women having 6–18 antenatal visits (n = 23137). Main outcome measures were: Low birth weight, fetal death, neonatal death. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were controlled for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratios, OR: s) in multiple logistic regression models. Results Of the analyzed pregnant population, 1.0% had no antenatal care visits and 0.77% had 1–5 visits. Under- or non-attendance associated with social and health behavioral risk factors: unmarried status, lower educational level, young maternal age, smoking and alcohol use. Chorio-amnionitis or placental abruptions were more common complications of pregnancies of women avoiding antenatal care, and pregnancy outcome was impaired. After logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding, there were significantly more low birth weight infants in under- and non-attenders (OR:s with 95% CI:s: 9.18 (6.65–12.68) and 5.46 (3.90–7.65), respectively) more fetal deaths (OR:s 12.05 (5.95–24.40) and 5.19 (2.04–13.22), respectively) and more neonatal deaths (OR:s 10.03 (3.85–26.13) and 8.66 (3.59–20.86), respectively). Conclusion Even when birth takes place in hospital, non- or under-attendance at antenatal care carries a substantially elevated risk of severe adverse pregnancy outcome. Underlying adverse health behavior and possible abuse indicate close surveillance of the newborn.

Raatikainen, Kaisa; Heiskanen, Nonna; Heinonen, Seppo

2007-01-01

22

HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and misconceptions among women attending government-owned antenatal clinics in Gwagwalada Area Council of Abuja, Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study assessed the level of knowledge and misconceptions about HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention among women. Using a semi-structured pretested questionnaire we obtained relevant data from 420 respondents in five randomly selected antenatal clinics (ANCs) in Gwagwalada Area Council (GAC) of Abuja, Nigeria. Knowledge about the existence of HIV/AIDS was high (92.8%). Only 52.1% knew the cause of AIDS and 58.6% were aware that AIDS had no cure. About twenty percent of respondents believed that breast-milk could not transmit HIV and 27.9% were unaware that condom protects against HIV. Only 33.3% were aware that HIV infected persons may look and feel healthy. Mothers with at least secondary level education had significantly higher knowledge scores on HIV/AIDS transmission (X2 = 14.8, p = 0.01) than less educated mothers and less educated mothers were more likely to relate HIV infection to past misdeeds (X2 = 13.6, p = 0.01). Significant misconception concerning HIV transmission existed in the study population. More community outreach programmes to intensify HIV education and counseling in GAC is required. PMID:24069740

Otokpa, Aboh O; Lawoyin, Taiwo O; Asuzu, Michael C

2013-03-01

23

Disclosure experience to partner and its effect on intention to utilize prevention of mother to child transmission service among HIV positive pregnant women attending antenatal care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Disclosure of HIV status has become an entry criterion for prevention of mother to child transmission programs in resource-constrained countries. However, little has been explored about the prevalence of, barriers to, outcomes and factors associated with HIV status disclosure among HIV positive pregnant women in Ethiopia. Method Cross- sectional study was conducted among 107 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care in public centers from April to June 2011 in Addis Ababa capital city of Ethiopia. Data was collected using interviewer administered pretested structured questionnaire and entered and was analyzed using SPSS- 15 version. Results presented in tables. Result Seventy three percent of women had disclosed their HIV status to their partner. Discussion about testing and a smooth relationship with the partner were independently associated with their disclosure. Women who disclosed to their partners were almost five times more likely to participate in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission programs than their counterparts (AOR?=?4.74; 95% CI 1.24-18.14). Conclusions Although most participants disclosed their HIV sero-positive status, lack of disclosure by some women might result in a limited ability to participate in PMTCT programs. Thus, assertiveness and improved communication skills training should be offered to HIV positive pregnant mothers and be reinforced during on-going counseling.

2013-01-01

24

Antenatal care visit attendance, intermittent preventive treatment and bed net use during pregnancy in Gabon  

PubMed Central

Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) must be provided during antenatal care (ANC) visits for malaria prevention during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the level of ANC attendance and its relationship with IPTp-SP and bed net coverage in Gabonese pregnant women. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey performed in 2011 in sentinel sites for malaria: two ANC units (Melen and Owendo) and one delivery unit (CHL). A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect the following data: age, parity, history of the current pregnancy including gestational age at the interview, number of ANC visits already performed, date of first visit, use of malaria preventive measure and details on IPTp-SP administration. Results During the study, 1030 women were interviewed, 735 at their ANC visit and 295 at the delivery. Their median age was 24[20–29] years and 21.0% were primigravidae. More than 70.0% attended their first ANC visit during the second trimester. Among the 442 women who were at the end of their pregnancy, 71.5% had a correct attendance, at least four ANC visits, most frequently women with no education and older women; IPTp-SP was offered to 84.1% of them and 57.4% received at least two doses. The number of SP doses was correlated to the number of ANC visits. Bed net coverage was 59.0%, not associated with ANC attendance. Among the women with correct ANC attendance, only 49.5% had a complete IPTp-SP course associated with bed net use during pregnancy. In the site where SP administration was supervised, 80% had four ANC visits and 97.4% received a full 2-dose course of IPTp-SP. Conclusions Despite a high level of correct ANC attendance in Gabon, the goal of 80% of women with 2-dose IPTp-SP during pregnancy is not achieved. Evaluations, training of health workers, as well as surveys from other areas of the country are needed to further measure the implementation and the impact of these strategies.

2013-01-01

25

Perception of child oral health needs by antenatal clinic attenders in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

PubMed

One hundred and eighty-three women, attending government owned antenatal clinics in Ibadan, a metropolitan city in the south western part of Nigeria participated in a questionnaire-based survey. The women's opinions on the oral health needs of their children were sought. These included the time of commencement of tooth-cleaning, types of materials recommended for cleaning at different ages, frequency of cleaning children's teeth as well as the perceived effects of certain food items and drugs on the teeth. The results showed that 140 (76.5%) of the respondents advised the use of cotton wool for cleaning babies mouths before the age of 6 months while 12 (6.6%) mentioned the use of polystyrene foam. One hundred and sixty six women (90.7%) felt that children's teeth should be cleaned with toothbrush between the ages of 2 years and 6 years. On the knowledge of the effects of drugs on the teeth, 11 (62.8%) believed that the ingestion of certain drugs, particularly tetracycline, in pregnancy could have adverse effects on the teeth. These findings showed that the majority of those in the study population had appreciable, though inaccurate knowledge of children's oral health needs. Nevertheless, the authors propose a programme of education on oral health for pregnant women which should enlighten them in the prevention disease of the oral cavity in themselves and their children. PMID:10497655

Aderinokun, G A; Arowojolu, M O; Arowojolu, A O

1998-01-01

26

Women's education level, antenatal visits and the quality of skilled antenatal care: a study of three African countries.  

PubMed

Many pregnant women in Africa who access professional antenatal care do not receive all the WHO-recommended components of care. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Kenya, Malawi and Nigeria, this study assesses the relationship of education level with the quality of antenatal care received and highlights how the number of antenatal visits mediates this relationship. The results show that a large proportion of the effect of education level on quality of care is direct, while only a small portion is mediated through the number of antenatal visits. Efforts to improve pregnancy outcomes for under-privileged women should focus on removing structural barriers to access, strengthening the technical and interpersonal skills of providers, and addressing providers' biases and discriminatory practices towards these women. Such efforts should also seek to empower underprivileged women to insist on quality antenatal care by explaining what to expect during an antenatal visit. PMID:24509018

Babalola, Stella

2014-02-01

27

Women's Awareness of Periconceptional Use of Folic Acid Before and After Their Antenatal Visits  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to assess women’s awareness of the benefit and use of folic acid during pregnancy and to assess whether their knowledge has improved following hospital visits. METHOD This is a prospective survey conducted in a large teaching hospital in the UK. The survey questionnaire consisted of 28 questions about demographic variables, behavioral variables, and knowledge about folic acid and neural tube defects (NTDs). RESULT A total of 603 women participated in this study. Some of them attended for the first time and others had more than one visit, either in their current or previous pregnancies. In about 25% of cases, the pregnancy was not planned. Between 14 and 19% of the women of First and Two+ Visit groups consulted their doctor or other healthcare professional before conception. Nearly 98% of the women stated that they had heard of folic acid, but only 42–52% knew the medical condition it protects against. The main sources of information for women who were aware of folic acid were midwives and general practitioners. Nearly 90% of women who attended their first antenatal visit were taking folic acid. However, only 40% of women knew that they should take it before pregnancy, and only between 36 and 46% knew the dietary sources of folic acid, although about 84% know the foods that should be avoided during pregnancy. This study found that attending antenatal clinic has not increased women’s awareness about folic acid. CONCLUSION There is still a high proportion of women who do not know that folic acid should be taken before pregnancy and continued for the first three months of pregnancy. School education, primary care team, and family planning service should take the lead in providing information to women about folic acid.

Maher, Mark; Keriakos, Remon

2014-01-01

28

Evaluating a policy of reduced consultant antenatal clinic visits for low risk multiparous women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To evaluate a change in antenatal care policy to reduce antenatal clinic visits, whereby low risk multiparous women were managed by the primary care team and seen at booking and at 41 weeks' gestation at the consultant antenatal clinic. DESIGN--Comparative study of low risk multiparous women retrospectively identified through the Oxford obstetric data system and cared for by three consultants

A M Hill; P L Yudkin; D J Bull; D H Barlow; F M Charnock; M D Gillmer

1993-01-01

29

Factors Affecting Attendance at and Timing of Formal Antenatal Care: Results from a Qualitative Study in Madang, Papua New Guinea  

PubMed Central

Background Appropriate antenatal care (ANC) is key for the health of mother and child. However, in Papua New Guinea (PNG), only a third of women receive any ANC during pregnancy. Drawing on qualitative research, this paper explores the influences on ANC attendance and timing of first visit in the Madang region of Papua New Guinea. Methods Data were collected in three sites utilizing several qualitative methods: free-listing and sorting of terms and definitions, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, observation in health care facilities and case studies of pregnant women. Respondents included pregnant women, their relatives, biomedical and traditional health providers, opinion leaders and community members. Results Although generally reported to be important, respondents’ understanding of the procedures involved in ANC was limited. Factors influencing attendance fell into three main categories: accessibility, attitudes to ANC, and interpersonal issues. Although women saw accessibility (distance and cost) as a barrier, those who lived close to health facilities and could easily afford ANC also demonstrated poor attendance. Attitudes were shaped by previous experiences of ANC, such as waiting times, quality of care, and perceptions of preventative care and medical interventions during pregnancy. Interpersonal factors included relationships with healthcare providers, pregnancy disclosure, and family conflict. A desire to avoid repeat clinic visits, ideas about the strength of the fetus and parity were particularly relevant to the timing of first ANC visit. Conclusions This long-term in-depth study (the first of its kind in Madang, PNG) shows how socio-cultural and economic factors influence ANC attendance. These factors must be addressed to encourage timely ANC visits: interventions could focus on ANC delivery in health facilities, for example, by addressing healthcare staff’s attitudes towards pregnant women.

Andrew, Erin V. W.; Pell, Christopher; Angwin, Angeline; Auwun, Alma; Daniels, Job; Mueller, Ivo; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pool, Robert

2014-01-01

30

PMM.04?Women's awareness of periconceptional use of folic acid before and after their antenatal visits.  

PubMed

: This is a prospective survey performed in a large teaching hospital in the UK. The aim of the study is to assess the awareness amongst women of the benefit and use of folic acid during pregnancy and whether their knowledge improved following hospital visits. A total of 603 women participated in the study; some attending for the first time and others had more than one visit, either in their current or previous pregnancies. The survey consisted of 28 questions regarding demographic variables, including behavioural variables, and knowledge about folic acid and neural tube defects. In around 25% of cases the pregnancy was unplanned. Between 14-19% of the women that did plan their pregnancy consulted their doctor or other health care professional before conception. Nearly 98% of the women stated having heard of folic acid, however, only 42-52% knew the medical condition it protects against. The main sources of information in women who were aware of folic acid were midwives and GPs. Nearly 90% of women who attended their first antenatal visit were taking folic acid. However, only 40% knew that they should take it before pregnancy. Only between 36-46% of women knew the dietary sources of folic acid, although about 84% knew the foods that should be avoided during pregnancy. This study found that attending antenatal clinic hasn't increased women's awareness about folic acid. This study highlighted the importance of school education, Primary Care Team and Family Planning service in providing information to women about folic acid. PMID:25021001

Maher, M; Keriakos, R

2014-06-01

31

Antenatal telephone support intervention with and without uterine artery Doppler screening for low risk nulliparous women: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The number of routine antenatal visits provided to low risk nulliparous women has been reduced in the UK, acknowledging this change in care may result in women being less satisfied with their care and having poorer psychosocial outcomes. The primary aim of the study was to investigate whether the provision of proactive telephone support intervention (TSI) with and without uterine artery Doppler screening (UADS) would reduce the total number of antenatal visits required. A secondary aim was to investigate whether the interventions affected psychological outcomes. Methods A three-arm randomised controlled trial involving 840 low risk nulliparous women was conducted at a large maternity unit in North East England. All women received antenatal care in line with current UK guidance. Women in the TSI group (T) received calls from a midwife at 28, 33 and 36 weeks and women in the telephone and Doppler group (T?+?D) received the TSI and additional UADS at 20 weeks’ gestation. The main outcome measure was the total number of scheduled and unscheduled antenatal visits received after 20 weeks’ gestation. Results The median number of unscheduled (n?=?2.0), scheduled visits (n?=?7.0) and mean number of total visits (n?=?8.8) were similar in the three groups. The majority (67%) of additional antenatal visits were made to a Maternity Assessment Unit because of commonly occurring pregnancy complications. Additional TSI+/–UADS was not associated with differences in clinical outcomes, levels of anxiety, social support or satisfaction with care. There were challenges to the successful delivery of the telephone support intervention; 59% of women were contacted at 29 and 33 weeks gestation reducing to 52% of women at 37 weeks. Conclusions Provision of additional telephone support (with or without UADS) in low risk nulliparous women did not reduce the number of unscheduled antenatal visits or reduce anxiety. This study provides a useful insight into the reasons why this client group attend for unscheduled visits. Trial registration ISRCTN62354584

2014-01-01

32

Antenatal Rh prophylaxis is unnecessary for “Asia type” DEL women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGenerally Rh-negative patients need to be transfused with Rh-negative red blood cells. For pregnant women carrying Rh-positive fetus, the antenatal anti-D detection and Rh immunoglobulin prophylaxis are required worldwide. In East Asia, a RhD variant, termed “Asia type” DEL, was found in approximately 30% of apparent Rh-negative individuals. The antigenic and molecular properties of the DEL were previously defined. Few

Chao-Peng Shao; Hua Xu; Qun Xu; Guo-Dong Sun; Jian-Ping Li; Bo-Wei Zhang; Xiao-Hua Liang; Zhong Liu; Ying Zhou; Dan Li; Nai-Bao Zhuang

2010-01-01

33

Women's experiences and views about costs of seeking malaria chemoprevention and other antenatal services: a qualitative study from two districts in rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Tanzanian government recommends women who attend antenatal care (ANC) clinics to accept receiving intermittent preventive treatment against malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at subsidized prices. Little emphasis has been paid to investigate the ability of pregnant women to access and effectively utilize these services. OBJECTIVES: To describe the experience and perceptions of pregnant

Godfrey M Mubyazi; Paul Bloch; Pascal Magnussen; Øystein E Olsen; Jens Byskov; Kristian S Hansen; Ib C Bygbjerg

2010-01-01

34

Antenatal Mental Health and Retinal Vascular Caliber in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Purpose Depression, anxiety, and poor sleep are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between negative emotion and retinal microvascular changes among adults, yet no study has been done in pregnant women so far. This study aims to examine the association of antenatal mental health and retinal vascular caliber among Asian pregnant women. Methods Nine hundred and fifty two Asian pregnant women aged 18 to 46 years were included in this study, who were recruited from two Singapore cohort studies, the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study and the In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) study conducted from 2009 onwards. A total of 835 Asian pregnant women underwent retinal photography at 26 weeks follow up, of whom 800 had gradable photographs. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. Results In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, ethnicity, household income, pregnancy outcome history, means of conception, hypertension history, diabetes history, cigarette smoking history, mean arterial blood pressure, body mass index, and spherical equivalent, each standard deviation (SD) increase in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (4.49 scores) and in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (2.90 scores) was associated with a 0.80 ?m (P = 0.03) and a 1.22 ?m (P = 0.01) widening in retinal arteriolar caliber, respectively. Conclusions Our study demonstrates relationships of antenatal depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality with retinal arteriolar widening in pregnant women. Translational Relevance We speculate that this might possibly indicate an effect of antenatal depression and poor sleep on the microcirculation during pregnancy.

Li, Ling-Jun; Ikram, M. Kamran; Broekman, Leutscher; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui; Chen, Helen; Gooley, Joshua J.; Soh, Shu-E; Gluckman, Peter; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei

2013-01-01

35

Effectiveness of antenatal screening for sickle cell trait: the impact on women's self-report of sickle cell trait status  

PubMed Central

Objectives The sickle gene frequency in the Jamaican population has not changed over a generation. It is unknown whether routine antenatal screening for sickle cell trait (SCT) has affected women’s knowledge of their SCT status. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported SCT in parous women to the prevalence in nulliparous women, men and to the observed prevalence of SCT measured in an antenatal clinic. Methods All participants in the nationally representative Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2008 were asked whether they had the SCT. The impact of gender, age, educational attainment, geographical location, and pregnancy on self-reported SCT were assessed. The prevalence of SCT in women attending a large antenatal clinic concurrently was compared to that reported by women of child-bearing age in the lifestyle survey. Results Self-report significantly underestimated the prevalence of SCT (2.9% versus 10.1%, P<0.001). Those with secondary education were more likely than those with presecondary education (P?=?0.01) and women more likely than men (3.2% versus 1.1%, P?=?0.001) to report having SCT. Women who had been pregnant were no more likely than other women to report having SCT (3.1% versus 4.1%, P?=?0.4). Conclusions Attendance at antenatal clinic where SCT screening is routine, is not associated with increased self-report of SCT. Screening programs must ensure that, as well as technically accurate screening, there is effective communication of the results of screening for SCT to those tested to help reduce the public health burden of sickle cell disease in tropical countries.

Knight-Madden, J M; Reid, M; Younger, N; Francis, D; McFarlane, S; Wilks, R

2012-01-01

36

Antenatal care visit attendance, intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) and malaria parasitaemia at delivery  

PubMed Central

Background The determinants and barriers for delivery and uptake of IPTp vary with different regions in sub-Saharan Africa. This study evaluated the determinants of ANC clinic attendance and IPTp-SP uptake among parturient women from Mount Cameroon Area and hypothesized that time of first ANC clinic attendance could influence uptake of IPTp-SP/dosage and consequently malaria parasite infection status at delivery. Methods Two cross sectional surveys were carried out at the Government Medical Centre in the Mutengene Health Area, Mt Cameroon Area from March to October 2007 and June 2008 to April 2009. Consented parturient women were consecutively enrolled in both surveys. In 2007, socio-demographic data, ANC clinic attendance, gestational age, fever history and reported use/dosage of IPTp-SP were documented using a structured questionnaire. In the second survey only IPT-SP usage/dosage was recorded. Malaria parasitaemia at delivery was determined by blood smear microscopy and placental histology. Results and discussion In 2007, among the 287 women interviewed, 2.2%, 59.7%, and 38.1% enrolled in the first, second and third trimester respectively. About 90% of women received at least one dose SP but only 53% received the two doses in 2007 and by 2009 IPTp-two doses coverage increased to 64%. Early clinic attendance was associated (P?=?0.016) with fever history while being unmarried (OR?=?2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.8) was significantly associated with fewer clinic visits (<4visits). Women who received one SP dose (OR?=?3.7; 95% CI: 2.0-6.8) were more likely not to have attended???4visits. A higher proportion (P?women with first visit during the third trimester received only one dose, meanwhile, those who had an early first ANC attendance were more likely (OR?=?0.4; 95% CI?=?0.2 - 0.7) to receive two or more doses. Microscopic parasitaemia at delivery was frequent (P?=?0.007) among women who enrolled in the third trimester and had received only one SP dose than in those with two doses. Conclusion In the study area, late first ANC clinic enrolment and fewer clinic visits may prevent the uptake of two SP doses and education on early and regular ANC clinic visits can increase IPTp coverage.

2014-01-01

37

Who attends antenatal care and expanded programme on immunization services in Chad, Mali and Niger? the implications for insecticide-treated net delivery  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria remains one of the largest public health problems facing the developing world. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are an effective intervention against malaria. ITN delivery through routine health services, such as antenatal care (ANC) and childhood vaccination (EPI), is a promising channel of delivery to reach individuals with the highest risk (pregnant women and children under five years old). Decisions on whether to deliver ITNs through both channels depends upon the reach of each of these systems, whether these are independent and the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of each. Predictors of women attending ANC and EPI separately have been studied, but the predictors of those who attend neither service have not been identified. Methods Data from Chad, Mali and Niger demographic and health surveys (DHS) were analyzed to determine risk factors for attending neither service. A conceptual framework for preventative health care-seeking behaviour was created to illustrate the hierarchical relationships between the potential risk factors. The independence of attending both ANC and EPI was investigated. A multivariate model of predictors for non-attendance was developed using logistic regression. Results ANC and EPI attendance were found to be strongly associated in all three countries. However, 47% of mothers in Chad, 12% in Mali and 36% in Niger did not attend either ANC or EPI. Region, mother's education and partner's education were predictors of non-attendance in all three countries. Wealth index, ethnicity, and occupation were associated with non-attendance in Mali and Niger. Other predictors included religion, healthcare autonomy, household size and number of children under five. Conclusions Attendance of ANC and EPI are not independent and therefore the majority of pregnant women in these countries will have the opportunity to receive ITNs through both services. Although attendance at ANC and EPI are not independent, delivery through both systems may still add incrementally to delivery through one alone. Therefore, there is potential to increase the proportion of women and children receiving ITNs by delivering through both of these channels. However, modelling is required to determine the level of attendance and incremental potential at which it's cost effective to deliver through both services.

2011-01-01

38

Urethritis in women attending an STD clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of an unselected group of 159 women attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic 20% (32) had symptoms of urethritis. A positive correlation existed between the finding of more than 10 polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) per high-power field in the Gram-stained urethral smear and the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Conversely, these organisms were rarely isolated if

J E Wallin; S E Thompson; A Zaidi; K H Wong

1981-01-01

39

Malaria control in Bungoma District, Kenya: a survey of home treatment of children with fever, bednet use and attendance at antenatal clinics.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To lay the basis for planning an improved malaria control programme in Bungoma District, Kenya. METHODS: By means of a cluster sample household survey an investigation was conducted into the home management of febrile children, the use of bednets, and attendance at antenatal clinics. FINDINGS: Female carers provided information on 314 recently febrile children under 5 years of age, of whom 43% received care at a health facility, 47% received an antimalarial drug at home, and 25% received neither. Of the antimalarial treatments given at home, 91% were started by the second day of fever and 92% were with chloroquine, the nationally recommended antimalarial at the time. The recommended dosage of chloroquine to be administered over three days was 25 mg/kg but the median chloroquine tablet or syrup dosage given over the first three days of treatment was 15 mg/kg. The total dosages ranged from 2.5 mg/kg to 82 mg/kg, administered over one to five days. The dosages were lower when syrup was administered than when tablets were used. Only 5% of children under 5 years of age slept under a bednet. No bednets had been treated with insecticide since purchase. At least two antenatal visits were made by 91% of pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS: Carers are major and prompt providers of antimalarial treatment. Home treatment practices should be strengthened and endorsed when prompt treatment at a health facility is impossible. The administration of incorrect dosages, which proved common with chloroquine, may occur less frequently with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, as its dosage regimen is simpler. High levels of utilization of antenatal clinics afford the opportunity to achieve good coverage with presumptive intermittent malaria treatments during pregnancy, and to reach the goal of widespread bednet use by pregnant women and children by distributing nets during antenatal clinic visits.

Hamel, M. J.; Odhacha, A.; Roberts, J. M.; Deming, M. S.

2001-01-01

40

The Murri clinic: a comparative retrospective study of an antenatal clinic developed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri) antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Methods A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367) with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414) provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. Results The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy) rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Conclusions Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary services, and working in partnership with community-based providers. Combining multi-agency resources to increase continuity of carer, culturally responsive care, and capacity building, including creating opportunities for Indigenous employment, education, and training is desirable, but challenging. Empirical evidence from our Evaluation provided the leverage for a multi-agency agreement to progress this goal within our catchment area.

2012-01-01

41

Do Sociodemographic Characteristics of Pregnant Women Determine their Perception of Antenatal Care Quality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To explore sociodemographic determinants of perceived quality of antenatal care (ANC) at the primary care level. Methods A survey of 452 randomly selected pregnant women accessing antenatal care at the primary healthcare facilities in Sagamu\\u000a Local Government Area (LGA) of Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. The relationships between 13 sociodemographic characteristics\\u000a of women and their overall perception of the quality

Olufemi T. Oladapo; Modinat O. Osiberu

2009-01-01

42

Antenatal HIV testing—which way forward?  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV prevalence in childbearing women is increasing rapidly over time. HIV screening in pregnancy may identify infected women but the implementation of HIV screening policy is fraught with difficulties. This study examined HIV screening in a group of 76 pregnant women attending inner London GP antenatal clinics. Women completed standardized questionnaires to examine the psychological impact of HIV testing on

L. Sherr; S. Jefferies; C. Victor; J. Chase

1996-01-01

43

Antenatal care, attitudes, and practices.  

PubMed

This paper discusses attitudes and practices of antenatal care in Saudi Arabia, based on the results of the maternal and child health survey of 1991. The survey covered a cluster random sample of 6306 households, with 6294 ever-married Saudi women 15-49 years of age out of whom 1050 were pregnant. The interview questionnaire included maternal care data on current pregnancies and births in the sample, totaling 4777 children less than 5 years old. Coverage of antenatal care and frequency of visits among pregnancies identified, by whom and where, and reasons for not attending antenatal services by age, urban-rural, geographical, and educational differentials. Proportions pregnant at the time of the survey were 17 per cent; antenatal care attendance for the whole sample reached 86 per cent; frequencies of one or two visits were 37 per cent; and three or four visits 25 per cent; those checked by a physician were 85 per cent, while 88 per cent attended governmental facilities. Those with timely attendance were 85 per cent. However, almost one-third of non-attenders (30 per cent) believed they did not need antenatal care. Though utilization of antenatal care services is already high, it has to be further increased through health education and publicity, emphasizing the couples role. PMID:8568947

Baldo, M H; al-Mazrou, Y Y; Farag, M K; Aziz, K M; Khan, M U

1995-01-01

44

Antenatal hepatitis C virus screening and management of infected women and their children: policies in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A postal survey of 31 European centres was conducted to document current practices regarding screening and management of\\u000a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected pregnant women and their children. Antenatal HCV prevalence was low. Universal antenatal\\u000a screening programmes were in place in ten centres, selective screening occurred in ten other centres, two did not specify\\u000a the type of policy, and there was

L. Pembrey; M.-L. Newell; P.-A. Tovo

1999-01-01

45

Prevalence, correlates and pattern of Hepatitis B among antenatal clinic attenders in Yaounde-Cameroon: is perinatal transmission of HBV neglected in Cameroon?  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of HBV in the general Cameroonian population or among antenatal attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, correlates and patterns of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yaounde-Cameroon. Methods This was a cross-sectional multicenter study carried out in a referral hospital and two secondary hospitals in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon. The study lasted 15 months (March 2011 to June 2012), and recruited 959 pregnant women. Patient recruitment was consecutive. The HBsAg was tested using the Monalisa HBsAg Ultra ELISA kit. Other hepatitis B markers were equally tested. We used the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 14.0 software to conduct a quantitative analysis of the derived data. Simple descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations, and proportions were used to describe the data. We tested for association in categorical variables using the chi-squared (?2) test. The odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to summarise the strength of association between specific binary exposure and outcome variables. The level of statistical significance for the study was set at p?antenatal clinic attenders in our setting was 7.7%. Amongst these women, just 5.4% were previously aware of their HBsAg status. The rate of HBV infectivity was high, with 28% of HBsAg positive women having evidence of HBeAg in their plasma, and up to 45.8% of these women lacking antibodies against hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe). About 41% of the pregnant women had had previous contact with HBV as evidenced by the positive status for anti-HBc. Just 2.7% of the pregnant women had previously been vaccinated against HBV. The mean age for HBsAg positivity in our setting was 26.9 ±4.7 years, and the most affected age group was the 25 – 29 years age group. There was no statistically significant association between age or other socio-demographic risk factors and HBsAg status. Numerous risk factors for HBV acquisition exists in our settings, but amongst these, only a history of a contact with hepatitis B infection was found to be significantly associated with HBsAg positivity (OR 1.63, 95% C.I 1.15-2.30). Finally, the coinfection rate of HBV/HIV was 0.74%. Conclusion The prevalence of hepatitis B among pregnant women in Cameroon is high, and the pattern tends towards high infectivity and therefore increased risk of perinatal HBV transmission. These highlight the need to step up preventive efforts against hepatitis B infection and perinatal HBV transmission in our community.

2013-01-01

46

Understanding why women adopt and sustain home water treatment: insights from the Malawi antenatal care program.  

PubMed

In many settings in Africa, social marketing has proven more successful in generating brand recognition for chlorine water treatment products than in promoting their use. To promote household use of one such product in Malawi, WaterGuard, the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Population Services International (PSI) distributed free hygiene kits that included WaterGuard to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in 2007. Follow-up surveys documented a sustained increase in WaterGuard use three years after the initial intervention. In 2010, PATH (www.path.org) conducted qualitative research on the factors motivating women to adopt, sustain, or discontinue use. To provide context, interviews were also conducted with their friends, relatives, and husbands. Interviews revealed that sustained use of WaterGuard does not necessarily imply consistent use. Most respondents reported switching back and forth between WaterGuard and stock chlorine distributed for free by the government, and many treated water seasonally rather than year-round. Qualitative findings suggest that two program strategies strongly influenced women's decisions to adopt, purchase, and continue using WaterGuard. First, positive, ongoing contacts with health care workers, especially during home visits, raised awareness of the need to treat water, encouraged trial use, and supported continuing use. Second, an extended free trial of the product overcame initial cost barriers and allowed women and their families to experience the health benefits of WaterGuard, appreciate its value and relevance to their lives, and get used to its taste. Social support-from like-minded relatives, friends, neighbors, health care workers, husbands, and children-was also a critical factor that promoted consistent, ongoing use of WaterGuard. The findings confirm the importance of interpersonal communication in prompting adoption of household water treatment and suggest that consumers assess the perceived value of a product, not simply its cost. Further research is planned to investigate questions raised about patterns of ongoing use. PMID:22051403

Wood, Siri; Foster, Jennifer; Kols, Adrienne

2012-08-01

47

The psychological profile of women attending breast-screening tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though the benefits of early detection of breast cancer are generally known, only few women attend breast-screening examinations. The study was designed to gain insight into the problem by exploring the psychological profile of clinic attenders. In order to find out whether there is such a profile, 210 self-referred women were compared with 210 nonattending women, from the same working

Shulamith Kreitler; Samario Chaitchik; Hans Kreitler

1990-01-01

48

Women's views and experiences of antenatal care in Iraq: a Q methodology study  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding women’s experiences and perspectives of antenatal care services is particularly critical for enhancing effectiveness of services delivery and addressing women’s needs and expectations. As part of a comprehensive assessment of the maternity care services in Iraq, this study aimed to explore the views and experiences of antenatal care in a sample of women. Methods This explorative study was conducted in Erbil governorate, Iraq. Data were collected using Q methodology, a technique for eliciting subjective views and identifying shared patterns among individuals. A sample of 38 women of different educational and socioeconomic statuses were invited to sort a set of 39 statements reflecting different aspects of the available antenatal care services and issues related to their last pregnancies into a distribution on a scale of nine from “disagree most” to “agree most”. By-person factor analysis was used to derive latent views through centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation of factors. Results Analysis of the participants’ Q sorts resulted in identifying four distinct views and experiences of pregnancy and antenatal care services: (i) public maternity services second best: preference for, and ability to afford, private care, (ii) dissatisfaction with public maternity services: poor information sharing and lack of health promotion, (iii) satisfaction with public maternity service but information gaps perceived and (iv) public maternity services second best: preference for private care but unaffordable. The typical characterizations that were associated with each view were highlighted. Conclusions This study revealed different patterns of views and experiences of women of pregnancy and antenatal care services and recognized the particular issues related to each pattern. Different patterns and types of problems and concerns related mainly to inadequate provision of information and poor interpersonal communication, poor utilization of public services and a general preference to use private services were identified in the different groups of women.

2014-01-01

49

A Low-Cost Ultrasound Program Leads to Increased Antenatal Clinic Visits and Attended Deliveries at a Health Care Clinic in Rural Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background In June of 2010, an antenatal ultrasound program to perform basic screening for high-risk pregnancies was introduced at a community health care center in rural Uganda. Whether the addition of ultrasound scanning to antenatal visits at the health center would encourage or discourage potential patients was unknown. Our study sought to evaluate trends in the numbers of antenatal visits and deliveries at the clinic, pre- and post-introduction of antenatal ultrasound to determine what effect the presence of ultrasound at the clinic had on these metrics. Methods and Findings Records at Nawanyago clinic were reviewed to obtain the number of antenatal visits and deliveries for the 42 months preceding the introduction of ultrasound and the 23 months following. The monthly mean deliveries and antenatal visits by category (first visit through fourth return visit) were compared pre- and post- ultrasound using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA. Following the introduction of ultrasound, significant increases were seen in the number of mean monthly deliveries and antenatal visits. The mean number of monthly deliveries at the clinic increased by 17.0 (13.3–20.6, 95% CI) from a pre-ultrasound average of 28.4 to a post-ultrasound monthly average of 45.4. The number of deliveries at a comparison clinic remained flat over this same time period. The monthly mean number of antenatal visits increased by 97.4 (83.3–111.5, 95% CI) from a baseline monthly average of 133.5 to a post-ultrasound monthly mean of 231.0, with increases seen in all categories of antenatal visits. Conclusions The availability of a low-cost antenatal ultrasound program may assist progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 by encouraging women in a rural environment to come to a health care facility for skilled antenatal care and delivery assistance instead of utilizing more traditional methods.

Ross, Andrew B.; DeStigter, Kristen K.; Rielly, Matthew; Souza, Sonia; Morey, Gabriel Eli; Nelson, Melissa; Silfen, Eric Z.; Garra, Brian; Matovu, Alphonsus; Kawooya, Michael Grace

2013-01-01

50

Is postpartum contraceptive advice given antenatally of value?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the concept that a good postpartum program should begin prenatally, this study was designed to determine whether the provision of expert contraceptive counseling during the antenatal period would have an impact on contraceptive uptake, patterns of contraceptive usage, and pregnancy rates during the first year after childbirth. Over 500 women attending antenatal clinics in each of three

K. B. Smith; Z. M. van der Spuy; L. Cheng; R. Elton; A. F. Glasier

2002-01-01

51

Emotional reactions in women attending a UK colposcopy clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess the emotional responses of women attending a colposcopy clinic for investigation of an abnormal cervical smear, and to elicit the women's views on the screening service and colposcopy clinic. DESIGN--Over 12 months all new attenders at a colposcopy clinic were invited to join the study. They were assessed psychiatrically four weeks before their first clinic appointment, and

D H Gath; N Hallam; L Mynors-Wallis; A Day; S A Bond

1995-01-01

52

Antenatal Depressive Symptomatology, Family Conflict and Social Support Among Chengdu Chinese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the association between demo-socio-economic status, obstetric variables, family conflict, social support and\\u000a antenatal depressive symptoms among 1,609 Chinese women from four regional public hospitals during their second trimester\\u000a of pregnancy in Chengdu. The vulnerable factors of depressive symptoms were explored in terms of their demo-socio-economic,\\u000a obstetric, and Chinese family relational aspects, as well as in terms of social

Ying Lau; Lei Yin; Yuqiong Wang

53

Opportunities and obstacles to screening pregnant women for intimate partner violence during antenatal care in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Pregnancy offers an opportunity for midwives to recognise and respond to women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). However, most antenatal care interventions have been conducted in private specialist services in high-income countries and do not address the structural and cultural realities of developing country settings. We report on an exploratory qualitative study conducted in antenatal public health facilities in Harare, Zimbabwe, involving six in-depth interviews with midwives and seven FGDs with 64 pregnant and postpartum women. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic content analysis. We found that identifying and responding to IPV in antenatal care is hampered by inadequate human, financial and infrastructural resources as well as poor support of gender-based violence training for midwives. Midwives had divergent views of their role, with some perceiving IPV as a non-clinical, social and domestic problem that does not require their attention, while others who had been sensitised to the problem felt that it could easily overwhelm them. A comprehensive response to IPV by midwives would be difficult to achieve in this setting but sensitised midwives could respond to cues to violence and ultimately assist abused women in culturally sensitive and appropriate ways. PMID:23343085

Shamu, Simukai; Abrahams, Naeemah; Temmerman, Marleen; Zarowsky, Christina

2013-01-01

54

Satisfaction of Women Attending the Manitoba Breast Screening Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study evaluated the satisfaction of women who attended the Manitoba Breast Screening Program (MBSP) during the first 17 months of operation and examined differences in satisfaction by screening location and screening result. The setting was the province of Manitoba, Canada.Methods. A breast screening program satisfaction questionnaire comprising six subscales was mailed to 1,331 randomly chosen women in five

Kathleen M. Decker; Marion Harrison; Robert B. Tate

1999-01-01

55

Motivations of Adult Women Attending College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational motivation of 200 adult undergraduate college women from four academic groups were examined, using the Educational Participation Scale (Boshier, 1971). The sample ranged in age from 30 to 55 years old, with a median age of 39. Their academic areas of study were business and public administration, health services, liberal arts and…

Der-Karabetian, Aghop; Best, Beverly

56

Antenatal corticosteroids impact the inflammatory rather than the antiangiogenic profile of women with preeclampsia.  

PubMed

Circulating antiangiogenic factors and proinflammatory cytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that steroids modify the balance of inflammatory and proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors that potentially contribute to the patient's evolving clinical state. Seventy singleton women, admitted for antenatal corticosteroid treatment, were enrolled prospectively. The study group consisted of 45 hypertensive women: chronic hypertension (n=6), severe preeclampsia (n=32), and superimposed preeclampsia (n=7). Normotensive women with shortened cervix (<2.5 cm) served as controls (n=25). Maternal blood samples of preeclampsia cases were obtained before steroids and then serially up until delivery. A clinical severity score was designed to clinically monitor disease progression. Serum levels of angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 [sFlt-1], placental growth factor [PlGF], soluble endoglin [sEng]), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and proinflammatory markers (IL-6, C-reactive protein [CRP]) were assessed before and after steroids. Soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and total immunoglobulins (IgG) were measured as markers of T- and B-cell activation, respectively. Steroid treatment coincided with a transient improvement in clinical manifestations of preeclampsia. A significant decrease in IL-6 and CRP was observed although levels of sIL-2R and IgG remained unchanged. Antenatal corticosteroids did not influence the levels of angiogenic factors but ET-1 levels registered a short-lived increase poststeroids. Although a reduction in specific inflammatory mediators in response to antenatal steroids may account for the transient improvement in clinical signs of preeclampsia, inflammation is unlikely to be the major contributor to severe preeclampsia or useful for therapeutic targeting. PMID:24664292

Nayeri, Unzila A; Buhimschi, Irina A; Laky, Christine A; Cross, Sarah N; Duzyj, Christina M; Ramma, Wenda; Sibai, Baha M; Funai, Edmund F; Ahmed, Asif; Buhimschi, Catalin S

2014-06-01

57

Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy.

Mbada, Chidozie E.; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Arije, Olujide O.; Dada, Olumide O.; Akinwande, Olabisi A.; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Alonge, Ibidun A.

2014-01-01

58

Offering antenatal sickle cell and thalassaemia screening to pregnant women in primary care: a qualitative study of GPs' experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Timely antenatal sickle cell and thalassaemia (SC&T) screening for all women in primary care facilitates informed decision making, but little is known about its implementation. Aim To assess the feasibility of offering antenatal SC&T screening in primary care at the time of pregnancy confirmation. Design of study Cross-sectional investigation of GPs' beliefs and perceived practices. Method Informal face-to-face interviews with 34 GPs. Setting Seventeen inner-city general practices that offered antenatal SC&T screening as part of a trial. Results GPs identified both barriers and facilitators. Organisational barriers included inflexible appointment systems and lack of interpreters for women whose first language was not English. Professional barriers included concerns about raising possible adverse outcomes in the first antenatal visit. Perceived patient barriers included women's lack of awareness of SC&T. Hence, GPs presented the test to women as routine, rather than as a choice. Organisational facilitators included simple and flexible systems for offering screening in primary care, practice cohesion, and training. Professional facilitators included positive attitudes to screening for SC&T. Perceived patient facilitators included women's desire for healthy children. Conclusion GPs reported barriers, as well as facilitators, to successful implementation but the extent to which screening could be regarded as offering ‘informed choice’ remained fundamental when making sense of these barriers and facilitators.

Tsianakas, Vicki; Calnan, Michael; Atkin, Karl; Dormandy, Elizabeth; Marteau, Theresa M

2010-01-01

59

Repeat antenatal glucocorticoids for women at risk of preterm birth: a Cochrane Systematic Review.  

PubMed

Administration of antenatal glucocorticoids to women at risk of preterm birth has major benefits for infants but the use of repeat dose(s) is controversial. We performed a systematic review of randomized trials, using standard Cochrane methodology, to assess the effectiveness and safety of 1 or more repeat doses given to women at risk of preterm birth 7 or more days after an initial course. Ten trials were included involving over 4730 women and 5700 infants. Treatment with repeat dose(s) compared with no repeat treatment reduced the risk of respiratory distress syndrome (risk ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) and serious neonatal morbidity (risk ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.94). At 2- to 3-year follow-up (4 trials, 4170 children), there was no evidence of either significant benefit or harm. Repeat doses of glucocorticoids should be considered in women at risk of preterm birth 7 or more days after an initial course, in view of the neonatal benefits. PMID:21982021

McKinlay, Christopher J D; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa; Harding, Jane E

2012-03-01

60

Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina  

PubMed Central

Background The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina) are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the provision of information to women in relation to the traditional protocol applied in each country. Methods Through focus groups discussions we were able to assess the concepts and expectations underlying women's evaluation of concepts and experiences of the care received in antenatal care clinics. 164 women participated in 24 focus groups discussion in all countries. Results Three areas are particularly addressed in this paper: a) concepts about pregnancy and health care, b) experience with health services and health providers, and c) opinions about the modified Antenatal Care (ANC) programme. In all three topics similarities were identified as well as particular opinions related to country specific social and cultural values. In general women have a positive view of the new ANC protocol, particularly regarding the information they receive. However, controversial issues emerged such as the reduction in the number of visits, particularly in Cuba where women are used to have 18 ANC visits in one pregnancy period. Conclusion Recommendations to improve ANC services performance are being proposed. Any country interested in the application of a new ANC protocol should regard the opinion and acceptability of women towards changes.

Nigenda, Gustavo; Langer, Ana; Kuchaisit, Chusri; Romero, Mariana; Rojas, Georgina; Al-Osimy, Muneera; Villar, Jose; Garcia, Jo; Al-Mazrou, Yagob; Ba'aqeel, Hassan; Carroli, Guillermo; Farnot, Ubaldo; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Belizan, Jose; Bergsjo, Per; Bakketeig, Leiv; Lindmark, Gunilla

2003-01-01

61

Improving knowledge of antenatal care (ANC) among pregnant women: a field trial in central Java, Indonesia.  

PubMed

The need for reducing maternal mortality has become a paramount concern in developing countries including Indonesia. One of the strategies for reducing maternal mortality in Indonesia is the provision of antenatal care (ANC). Previous studies have reported the advantages and disadvantages of ANC. The purpose of this study is to ascertain if a new approach to ANC can improve pregnant women's knowledge of its benefits. An experimental design with 60 pregnant women from 10 cluster villages is used in this study. The intervention group received the new approach to ANC, while the control group received routine ANC. The findings show that the improvement of knowledge in the intervention group is significant particularly in the knowledge about healthy pregnancy (p=0.012), pregnancy complications (p=0.01), safe birth (p=0.01) and taking care of the newborn (p=0.012). The improvement of knowledge was significantly influenced by the respondents' educational back ground (p=0.002) and socio-economic status (p=0.027). This study recommends that the new approach to ANC be considered to educate pregnant women regarding safe birth and it is considered as one of the strategies that may be adopted to reduce maternal mortality. PMID:16044824

Nuraini, E; Parker, E

2005-01-01

62

Women in couples antenatal HIV counseling and testing are not more likely to report adverse social events  

PubMed Central

Background: Couple counseling has been promoted as a strategy to improve uptake of interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT) and to minimize adverse social outcomes associated with disclosure of HIV status. Objectives: We tested whether women counseled antenatally as part of a couple were more likely to accept HIV testing and nevirapine in a pMTCT program, and whether they would be less likely to experience later adverse social events than women counseled alone. Methods: A pMTCT program that included active community education and outreach to encourage couple counseling and testing was implemented in two antenatal clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. A subset of HIV-positive women was asked to report their experience of adverse social events 6 months after delivery. Couple-counseled women were compared with individual-counseled women stratified by whether or not they had disclosed their HIV status to their partners. Results: Nine percent (868) of 9409 women counseled antenatally were counseled with their husband. Couple-counseled women were more likely to accept HIV testing (96%) than women counseled alone (79%); however uptake of nevirapine was not improved. Six months after delivery, 28% of 324 HIV-positive women reported at least one adverse social event (including physical violence, verbal abuse, divorce or separation). There were no significant differences in reported adverse social events between couple- and individual-counseled women. Conclusions: Couple counseling did not increase the risk of adverse social events associated with HIV disclosure. Support services and interventions to improve social situations for people living with HIV need to be further evaluated.

Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Vwalika, Cheswa; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Shutes, Erin; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Donald M.

2005-01-01

63

Women's experiences and views about costs of seeking malaria chemoprevention and other antenatal services: a qualitative study from two districts in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The Tanzanian government recommends women who attend antenatal care (ANC) clinics to accept receiving intermittent preventive treatment against malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at subsidized prices. Little emphasis has been paid to investigate the ability of pregnant women to access and effectively utilize these services. Objectives To describe the experience and perceptions of pregnant women about costs and cost barriers for accessing ANC services with emphasis on IPTp in rural Tanzania. Methods Qualitative data were collected in the districts of Mufindi in Iringa Region and Mkuranga in Coast Region through 1) focus group discussions (FGDs) with pregnant women and mothers to infants and 2) exit-interviews with pregnant women identified at ANC clinics. Data were analyzed manually using qualitative content analysis methodology. Findings FGD participants and interview respondents identified the following key limiting factors for women's use of ANC services: 1) costs in terms of money and time associated with accessing ANC clinics, 2) the presence of more or less official user-fees for some services within the ANC package, and 3) service providers' application of fines, penalties and blame when failing to adhere to service schedules. Interestingly, the time associated with travelling long distances to ANC clinics and ITN retailers and with waiting for services at clinic-level was a major factor of discouragement in the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women because it seriously affected their domestic responsibilities. Conclusion A variety of resource-related factors were shown to affect the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women in rural Tanzania. Thus, accessibility to ANC services was hampered by direct and indirect costs, travel distances and waiting time. Strengthening of user-fee exemption practices and bringing services closer to the users, for example by promoting community-directed control of selected public health services, including IPTp, are urgently needed measures for increasing equity in health services in Tanzania.

2010-01-01

64

Nutritional factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in the early stage of pregnancy among urban South Indian women.  

PubMed

Many women of reproductive age from developing countries have poor nutritional status, and the prevalence of depression during pregnancy is high. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy, and to identify the demographic and nutritional factors associated with these symptoms in a sample of urban South Indian pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was the baseline assessment of a prospective randomized controlled trial of vitamin B12 supplementation in urban pregnant south Indian women between the ages of 18 and 40 years ( www.clinicaltrials.gov : NCT00641862). 365 women in their first trimester of pregnancy were screened for depressive symptoms at an urban clinic in Karnataka, South India, using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10). Nutritional, clinical and biochemical factors were also assessed. Mean (SD) age of the cohort was 22.6 (3.7) years and mean (SD) BMI was 20.4 (3.3) kg/m(2). 121 (33 %) of the women in the 1st trimester had symptoms consistent with depression (K-10 score >6). In multivariate log binomial regression analysis, presence of antenatal depressive symptoms in the first trimester were positively associated with vomiting, prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.54 (95 % CI 1.10, 2.16) and negatively with anemia, PR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.47, 0.96). Nutrient intakes, serum vitamin B12, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and red cell folate levels were not associated with measures of depression. Antenatal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy are highly prevalent in urban Indian women and are more common in women with vomiting and without anemia. In this cross-sectional data, blood concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate were not associated with depressive symptoms. The relationship between nutritional status and depressive symptoms may require larger and longitudinal studies. PMID:23440491

Lukose, Ammu; Ramthal, Asha; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Kurpad, Anura V; Duggan, Christopher; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

2014-01-01

65

FACTORS INFLUENCING ANTENATAL MOTHERS CHOICE OF HOSPITAL FOR DELIVERY AT HOSPITAL UNIVERSITI SAlNS MALAYSIA (HUSM) AND HOSPITAL KOTA BHARU (HKB)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to determine the factors that influence antenatal mothers choice of hospitals for delivery at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSW and Hospital Kota Bharu (HKB). A cross sectional study was conducted on 344 Malays, multiparity antenatal mothers who attended selected Women and Child Health Clinics in Kota Bharu district, from November 2003 to February 2004.

S. Zaharah; Mohamed Hashim; A. Mazlan

66

Routine antenatal HIV testing: the responses and perceptions of pregnant women and the viability of informed consent. A qualitative study.  

PubMed

This qualitative cross-sectional survey, undertaken in the antenatal booking clinics of a hospital in central London, explores pregnant women's responses to routine HIV testing, examines their reasons for declining or accepting the test, and assesses how far their responses fulfil standard criteria for informed consent. Of the 32 women interviewed, only 10 participants were prepared for HIV testing at their booking interview. None of the women viewed themselves as being particularly at risk for HIV infection. The minority (n = 6) of the participants who declined testing differed from those who accepted, by interpreting test acceptance as risky behaviour, privileging the negative outcomes of HIV positivity and expressing an inability to cope with these, should they occur. Troublingly, only a minority of women (n = 9) had a broad understanding of the rationale for the test, and none fulfilled the standard criteria for informed consent. This study suggests that, although routine screening combined with professional recommendation may be successful in increasing uptake, this may be at the cost of eroding informed consent. Protecting third parties (notably fetuses) from a preventable disease may outweigh the moral duty of respecting autonomy, enshrined in Western bioethical tradition. Nevertheless, such a policy should be made transparent, debated in the public domain and negotiated with women seeking antenatal care. PMID:17526682

de Zulueta, Paquita; Boulton, Mary

2007-06-01

67

Should women attending fracture clinics be counselled about osteoporosis?  

PubMed

Osteoporotic fractures cause much morbidity and mortality and are a great burden on health care resources. It is well established that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) reduces the risk of osteoporotic fracture; it is also known to be worth initiating therapy even when one osteoporotic fracture has occurred in order to reduce the incidence of further fractures. In this study, detailed questionnaires assessing risk factors for osteoporosis were given to all women aged 25-60 years attending a daily fracture clinic over a 10-week period, and their radiographs were studied for signs of early trabecular bone loss, in order to determine whether at-risk patients could be identified easily. The findings were that 50 per cent of the premenopausal women had lifestyle-related risk factors about which they could be counselled. Using current guidelines, 90 per cent of the peri- and post-menopausal group should be considered for HRT. Overall, only 7 per cent of patients who should be on HRT were receiving it. It was concluded that most of those at risk can be identified very simply in the fracture clinic. This aspect of fracture management is currently being neglected. PMID:8406759

Gundle, R; Simpson, A H

1993-08-01

68

Refugee and Migrant Women's Views of Antenatal Ultrasound on the Thai Burmese Border: A Mixed Methods Study  

PubMed Central

Background Antenatal ultrasound suits developing countries by virtue of its versatility, relatively low cost and safety, but little is known about women’s or local provider’s perspectives of this upcoming technology in such settings. This study was undertaken to better understand how routine obstetric ultrasound is experienced in a displaced Burmese population and identify barriers to its acceptance by local patients and providers. Methodology/Principal Findings Qualitative (30 observations, 19 interviews, seven focus group discussions) and quantitative methods (questionnaire survey with 644 pregnant women) were used to provide a comprehensive understanding along four major themes: safety, emotions, information and communication, and unintended consequences of antenatal ultrasound in refugee and migrant clinics on the Thai Burmese border. One of the main concerns expressed by women was the danger of childbirth which they mainly attributed to fetal malposition. Both providers and patients recognized ultrasound as a technology improving the safety of pregnancy and delivery. A minority of patients experienced transitory shyness or anxiety before the ultrasound, but reported that these feelings could be ameliorated with improved patient information and staff communication. Unintended consequences of overuse and gender selective abortions in this population were not common. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study are being used to improve local practice and allow development of explanatory materials for this population with low literacy. We strongly encourage facilities introducing new technology in resource poor settings to assess acceptability through similar inquiry.

Thwin, May Myo; Ladda Kajeechewa, Honey Moon; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Lwin, Khin Maung; Jones, Caroline; Nosten, Francois; McGready, Rose

2012-01-01

69

Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women’s perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA) services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. Methods A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1) statistical software. Results Almost half (48.8%) of the respondents were in the age group 26–35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6%) of the respondents had been pregnant 2–4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: “taking normal delivery” (56.7%), “providing antenatal services” (16.5%), “performing caesarean section” (13.0%), “providing family planning services” (8.2%), and “performing gynaecological surgeries” (5.6%). About 6/10 (61.0%) respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7%) respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%), normal delivery (36.1%), “special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits” (1.9%), “concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong” (15.1%), and family planning services (1.9%). Reasons for using TBA services were: “TBA services are cheaper” (50.9%), “TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment” (34.0%), “TBA services are closer to my house than hospital services” (13.2%), “TBAs provide more compassionate care than orthodox health workers” (43.4%), and “TBA service is the only maternity service that I know” (1.9%). Approximately 8/10 (79.2%) of the users (past or current) opined that TBA services are effective but could be improved with some form of training (78.3%). More than three-quarters (77.1%) opposed the banning of TBA services. Almost 7/10 (74.8%) users were satisfied with TBA services. Conclusion Study findings revealed a positive perception and use of TBA services by the respondents. This underlines the necessity for TBAs’ knowledge and skills to be improved within permissible standards through sustained partnership between TBAs and health systems. It is hoped that such partnership will foster a healthy collaboration between providers of orthodox and traditional maternity services that will translate into improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes in relevant settings.

Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Akintujoye, IA

2012-01-01

70

Making friends at antenatal classes: a qualitative exploration of friendship across the transition to motherhood.  

PubMed

This study explored how friendships made at antenatal classes preserve new mothers' well-being, postnatally. Eight women from the United Kingdom who had attended antenatal classes in the third trimester were interviewed following the birth of their first baby. Transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Findings suggest that friendships made at antenatal classes are not only unique but also support women's mental health and enhance self-efficacy because the women give and gain reassurance that their babies are developing normally. Such friendships may reduce demands on overstretched social and health-care services. Childbirth educators, midwives, and nurses can be encouraged to capitalize on the opportunity provided by antenatal classes to facilitate the formation of friendships that can help mothers to find "a new equilibrium." PMID:23730129

Nolan, Mary L; Mason, Victoria; Snow, Sarah; Messenger, Wendy; Catling, Jonathon; Upton, Penney

2012-01-01

71

Attending  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

So you'd like to invite some friends and colleagues to an event? There are plenty of ways to accomplish this task and the Attending application can handle it with ease. Visitors don't need to sign in but can create their own free event page straight away. As the site notes, the point of this application is to help users "put on any kind of small, free, useful event." It is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-02-27

72

Spatial autocorrelation in uptake of antenatal care and relationship to individual, household and village-level factors: results from a community-based survey of pregnant women in six districts in western Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths are concentrated in a few countries, many of which have weak health systems, poor access to health services, and low coverage of key health interventions. Early and consistent antenatal care (ANC) attendance could significantly reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Despite this, most Kenyan mothers initiate ANC care late in pregnancy and attend fewer than the recommended visits. Methods We used survey data from 6,200 pregnant women across six districts in western Kenya to understand demand-side factors related to use of ANC. Bayesian multi-level models were developed to explore the relative importance of individual, household and village-level factors in relation to ANC use. Results There is significant spatial autocorrelation of ANC attendance in three of the six districts and considerable heterogeneity in factors related to ANC use between districts. Working outside the home limited ANC attendance. Maternal age, the number of small children in the household, and ownership of livestock were important in some districts, but not all. Village proportions of pregnancy in women of child-bearing age was significantly correlated to ANC use in three of the six districts. Geographic distance to health facilities and the type of nearest facility was not correlated with ANC use. After incorporating individual, household and village-level covariates, no residual spatial autocorrelation remained in the outcome. Conclusions ANC attendance was consistently low across all the districts, but factors related to poor attendance varied. This heterogeneity is expected for an outcome that is highly influenced by socio-cultural values and local context. Interventions to improve use of ANC must be tailored to local context and should include explicit approaches to reach women who work outside the home.

2013-01-01

73

Specialised antenatal clinics for women with a pregnancy at high risk of preterm birth (excluding multiple pregnancy) to improve maternal and infant outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Amongst the risk factors for preterm birth, previous preterm delivery is a strong predictor. Specialised clinics for women with a history of spontaneous preterm delivery have been advocated as a way of improving outcomes for women and their infants. Objectives To assess using the best available evidence, the value of specialised antenatal clinics for women with a pregnancy at high risk of preterm delivery when compared with ‘standard’ antenatal clinics. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2011). Selection criteria All published, unpublished, and ongoing randomised controlled trials (including cluster-randomised trials) examining specialised compared with standard antenatal clinic care for women with a singleton pregnancy considered at high risk of preterm labour. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results We included three trials with 3400 women, all carried out in the USA. All focused on specialised clinics for women at high risk of preterm birth. Gestational age at delivery, preterm delivery, or both were primary outcomes in all studies. The interventions in the three trials differed. Overall there was very little data on our prespecified outcomes. For most outcomes a single study provided data, hence there was not the statistical power to detect any possible differences between groups. There was no clear evidence that specialised antenatal clinics reduce the number of preterm births. Authors’ conclusions Specialised antenatal clinics are now an accepted part of care in many settings, and carrying out further randomised trials may not be possible. Any future research in this area should include psychological outcomes and should focus on which aspects of service provision are preferred by women. Such research could underpin further service development in this area.

Whitworth, Melissa; Quenby, Siobhan; Cockerill, Ruth O; Dowswell, Therese

2014-01-01

74

Periodontal status in infertile women attending in vitro fertilization clinics.  

PubMed

Background and Aim: Throughout a woman's life, hormonal influences affect therapeutic decision making in periodontics. A woman undergoing infertility treatment is given drugs to stimulate the ovaries, which lead to sustained higher levels of female sex hormones. The differing levels of these hormones, either in infertile women or in women undergoing therapy for infertility or in women who have conceived and delivered naturally could suggest a differing periodontal status amongst these three groups. Hence, this cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess and compare the periodontal status in the above three groups. Materials and Methods: 180 women including 60 women undergoing treatment for infertility (Group I), 60 women in whom infertility treatment had not yet been initiated (Group II) and 60 women who had conceived and delivered naturally (Group III-control group), of age range 25-35 years, were included. Clinical parameters including oral hygiene index simplified (OHI-S), gingival index, sulcus bleeding index (SBI) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were assessed by a single examiner. Results: Despite similar OHI-S scores (P > 0.05) in all groups, women of Group I had significantly higher gingival inflammation and SBI (P < 0.05) as compared to women of Group II and Group III. Furthermore, the women in Group I and Group II had statistically higher CAL (P < 0.05) as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that altered hormonal levels in infertile women undergoing assisted reproductive therapy and infertile women not undergoing this treatment can lead to increased attachment loss, suggesting that these women may require constant periodontal monitoring. PMID:24748299

Lalasa, Godavarthi; Murthy, K Raja V; Pavankumar, Sandhya; Raju, Gottimukkala Atchyuta Rama

2014-01-01

75

Reduction in Preterm Delivery and Neonatal Mortality after the Introduction of Antenatal Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis among HIV-Infected Women with Low CD4 Cell Counts  

PubMed Central

Background. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis is recommended for subgroups of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults and children to reduce all-cause morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether antenatal cotrimoxazole prophylaxis begun during pregnancy for HIV-infected pregnant women with low CD4 cell counts would affect birth outcomes. Methods. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was introduced as a routine component of antenatal care for HIV-infected women with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/?L during the course of a trial of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia. Rates of preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality were compared for women with low CD4 cell counts before and after its introduction. Results. Among 255 women with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/?L, the percentage of preterm births (?34 weeks of gestation) was lower (odds ratio [OR], 0.49 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.24-0.98]) after cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was introduced than before; there was a significant decrease in neonatal mortality (9% to 0%; P = .01) and a trend toward increased birth weight (? = 114 g [95% CI, -42 to 271 g]). In contrast, there were no significant changes in these parameters over the same time interval among women with CD4 cell counts ?200 cells/?L. Conclusion. Antenatal provision of cotrimoxazole for HIV-infected pregnant women with low CD4 cell counts may have indirect benefits for neonatal health.

Walter, Jan; Mwiya, Mwiya; Scott, Nancy; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Kauchali, Shuaib; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Thea, Donald M.; Kuhn, Louise

2006-01-01

76

Reported Frequency Of Domestic Violence: Cross Sectional Survey Of Women Attending General Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine exposure to violence by a partner or spouse among women attending general practice and its association with respondents' demographic and personal characteristics; frequency of inquiry about violence by general practitioners; and women's views on routine questioning about domestic violence by general practitioners. Design Cross sectional, self administered, anonymous survey. Setting 22 volunteer Irish general practices. Participants 1871

Fiona Bradley; Mary Smith; Jean Long; Tom O'Dowd

2002-01-01

77

How well do antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees represent the general population? A comparison of HIV prevalence from ANC sentinel surveillance sites with a population-based survey of women aged 15-49 in Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HIV-1 prevalence among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees in Cambodia provided a reasonable estimate of HIV-1 prevalence among all women 15-49 years. Methods Antenatal clinic attendees in five HIV sentinel surveillance sites (five provinces) were selected by consecutive sampling (n = 1695). The population survey of females by household was carried

Vonthanak Saphonn; Leng Bun Hor; Sun Penh Ly; Samrith Chhuon; Tobi Saidelb; Roger Detelsc

78

Quality of antenatal services at the primary care level in southwest Nigeria.  

PubMed

A survey of 452 pregnant women accessing care at first level public health facilities in a local government area in southwest Nigeria was conducted to assess their perspectives on the quality of antenatal care received. Majority of the women expressed satisfaction with the level of expertise and basic technical competence of their careproviders. Less than 30% were pleased with the existing patients' referral mechanisms. At least two-thirds received as much information as desired in salient aspects of antenatal health information needs. Frequency of antenatal visits was "about the same as expected" for 93.6% of the women. The mean reported waiting time before antenatal consultation was 131.1 minutes although 106 (43.3 %) women expected to be attended within 30 minutes of arrival. Approximately two-thirds of women were unhappy about their involvement in decision-making with respect to birth planning and postpartum contraception. Compared to other elements of quality, women were least pleased with constellation of services especially sanitary facilities and number of skilled healthcare providers. On the whole, respondents expressed a high level of overall satisfaction (81.4%) with the care received. The survey indicates that antenatal women may generally express satisfaction with the quality of services despite some inconsistencies between received care and their expectations of the facilities. PMID:19435014

Oladapo, Olufemi T; Iyaniwura, Christianah A; Sule-Odu, Adewale O

2008-12-01

79

Prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner violence among pregnant women attending Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya.  

PubMed

To determine prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women seeking antenatal care. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya amongst randomly selected pregnant women. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Participants self-reported about their own IPV experience (lifetime, 12 months prior to and during index pregnancy) and associated risk factors. Data were analyzed using Epi-info. The mean age of the 300 participants was 23.7 years. One hundred and ten (37 %) of them experienced at least one form of IPV during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common (29 %), followed by sexual (12 %), and then physical (10 %). Women who experienced IPV during pregnancy were more likely to have witnessed maternal abuse in childhood (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI = 1.05-4.89), been in a polygamous union (aOR 2.48, 95 % CI = 1.06-5.8), been multiparous (aOR 1.94, 95 % CI = 1.01-3.32) or had a partner who drank alcohol (aOR 2.32, 95 % CI = 1.21-4.45). Having a partner who attained tertiary education was protective against IPV (aOR 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.16-0.83). We found no association between HIV status and IPV. IPV is common among women seeking antenatal care at Kisumu District Hospital. Health care providers should be alerted to the possibility of IPV during pregnancy in women who witnessed maternal abuse in childhood, are multiparous, polygamous, have a partner who drinks alcohol or has low level education. Screening for IPV, support and referral is urgently needed to help reduce the burden experienced by pregnant women and their unborn babies. PMID:22569943

Makayoto, Lyndah A; Omolo, Jared; Kamweya, Abel M; Harder, Valarie S; Mutai, Joseph

2013-04-01

80

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Intimate Partner Violence Among Pregnant Women Attending Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya  

PubMed Central

To determine prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women seeking antenatal care. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya amongst randomly selected pregnant women. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Participants self-reported about their own IPV experience (lifetime, 12 months prior to and during index pregnancy) and associated risk factors. Data were analyzed using Epi-info. The mean age of the 300 participants was 23.7 years. One hundred and ten (37 %) of them experienced at least one form of IPV during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common (29 %), followed by sexual (12 %), and then physical (10 %). Women who experienced IPV during pregnancy were more likely to have witnessed maternal abuse in childhood (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI = 1.05–4.89), been in a polygamous union (aOR 2.48, 95 % CI = 1.06–5.8), been multiparous (aOR 1.94, 95 % CI = 1.01–3.32) or had a partner who drank alcohol (aOR 2.32, 95 % CI = 1.21–4.45). Having a partner who attained tertiary education was protective against IPV (aOR 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.16–0.83). We found no association between HIV status and IPV. IPV is common among women seeking antenatal care at Kisumu District Hospital. Health care providers should be alerted to the possibility of IPV during pregnancy in women who witnessed maternal abuse in childhood, are multiparous, polygamous, have a partner who drinks alcohol or has low level education. Screening for IPV, support and referral is urgently needed to help reduce the burden experienced by pregnant women and their unborn babies.

Omolo, Jared; Kamweya, Abel M.; Harder, Valarie S.; Mutai, Joseph

2012-01-01

81

Antenatal care packages with reduced visits and perinatal mortality: a secondary analysis of the WHO Antenatal Care Trial  

PubMed Central

Background In 2001, the WHO Antenatal Care Trial (WHOACT) concluded that an antenatal care package of evidence-based screening, therapeutic interventions and education across four antenatal visits for low-risk women was not inferior to standard antenatal care and may reduce cost. However, an updated Cochrane review in 2010 identified an increased risk of perinatal mortality of borderline statistical significance in three cluster-randomized trials (including the WHOACT) in developing countries. We conducted a secondary analysis of the WHOACT data to determine the relationship between the reduced visits, goal-oriented antenatal care package and perinatal mortality. Methods Exploratory analyses were conducted to assess the effect of baseline risk and timing of perinatal death. Women were stratified by baseline risk to assess differences between intervention and control groups. We used linear modeling and Poisson regression to determine the relative risk of fetal death, neonatal death and perinatal mortality by gestational age. Results 12,568 women attended the 27 intervention clinics and 11,958 women attended the 26 control clinics. 6,160 women were high risk and 18,365 women were low risk. There were 161 fetal deaths (1.4%) in the intervention group compared to 119 fetal deaths in the control group (1.1%) with an increased overall adjusted relative risk of fetal death (Adjusted RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.03, 1.58). This was attributable to an increased relative risk of fetal death between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation (Adjusted RR 2.24; 95% CI 1.42, 3.53) which was statistically significant for high and low risk groups. Conclusion It is plausible the increased risk of fetal death between 32 and 36 weeks gestation could be due to reduced number of visits, however heterogeneity in study populations or differences in quality of care and timing of visits could also be playing a role. Monitoring maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes when implementing antenatal care protocols is essential. Implementing reduced visit antenatal care packages demands careful monitoring of maternal and perinatal outcomes, especially fetal death.

2013-01-01

82

Women's Social Networks and Birth Attendant Decisions: Application of the Network-Episode Model  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the association of women's social networks with the use of skilled birth attendants in uncomplicated pregnancy and childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh. The Network-Episode Model was applied to determine if network structure variables (density / kinship homogeneity / strength of ties) together with network content (endorsement for or against a particular type of birth attendant) explain the type of birth attendant used by women above and beyond the variance explained by women's individual attributes. Data were collected by interviewing a representative sample of 246 women, 18–45 years of age, using survey and social network methods between October and December 2008. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. Results suggest that the structural properties of networks did not add to explanatory value but instead network content or the perceived advice of network members add significantly to the explanation of variation in service use. Testing aggregate network variables at the individual level extends the ability of the individual profile matrix to explain outcomes. Community health education and mobilization interventions attempting to increase demand for skilled attendants need to reflect the centrality of kinship networks to women in Bangladesh and the likelihood of women to heed the advice of their network of advisors with regard to place of birth.

Edmonds, Joyce K.; Hruschka, Daniel; Bernard, H. Russell; Sibley, Lynn

2011-01-01

83

Perception of quality of maternal healthcare services among women utilising antenatal services in selected primary health facilities in Anambra State, Southeast Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing antenatal care service attendees’ perception of quality of maternal healthcare (MHC) services in Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 310 pregnant women utilising antenatal care (ANC) services in three purposively selected primary health centres (PHCs) in rural communities in Anambra State were studied. Reponses were elicited from the participants selected consecutively over a 4-month period, using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, utilisation and perception of MHC services. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 17. Results: Findings showed that utilisation of facility for both antenatal (97.0%; 95% CI, 94.4–98.4%) and natal services (92.7%; 95% CI 89.2–95.2%) were quite high. Generally, most of the women were satisfied with MHC services (89.7%). Most of them were satisfied with the staff attitude (85.1%), waiting time (84.1%) and cost of services (79.5%). Being ?30 years (X2 = 4.61, P = 0.032), married (X2 = 9.70, P = 0.008) and multiparous (X2 = 9.14, P = 0.028), as well as utilisation of formal health facility for antenatal (X2 = 26.94, P = 0.000) and natal (X2 = 33.42, P = 0.000) services were associated with satisfaction with maternal health services. Conclusions: The study showed high level of satisfaction with quality of maternal health services among antenatal attendees and highlights the need to strengthen interventions that increase uptake of formal MHC services.

Emelumadu, Obiageli F.; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Ukegbu, Andrew Ugwunna; Ezeama, Nkiru N.; Ifeadike, Chigozie Ozoemena; Okezie, Obasi Kanu

2014-01-01

84

Attending to Early Modern Women: Gender, Culture, and Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides annotated links to high quality academic resources useful for the study of women in early modern Europe and the Americas. Specific focus is on periods between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries; however, links also include some medieval and nineteenth century resources. Selected by members of the Arts and Humanities Team of the University of Maryland Libraries, materials range from bibliographic databases to full-text resources, images, and sound recordings. Viewers may search the database by keyword or browse by title, subject, reference type, time period, language, or geographic area. Although most of the resource links are free, some require a license for access.

2001-01-01

85

Delivering at home or in a health facility? health-seeking behaviour of women and the role of traditional birth attendants in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional birth attendants retain an important role in reproductive and maternal health in Tanzania. The Tanzanian Government promotes TBAs in order to provide maternal and neonatal health counselling and initiating timely referral, however, their role officially does not include delivery attendance. Yet, experience illustrates that most TBAs still often handle complicated deliveries. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to describe (1) women’s health-seeking behaviour and experiences regarding their use of antenatal (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC); (2) their rationale behind the choice of place and delivery; and to learn (3) about the use of traditional practices and resources applied by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and how they can be linked to the bio-medical health system. Methods Qualitative and quantitative interviews were conducted with over 270 individuals in Masasi District, Mtwara Region and Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results The results from the urban site show that significant achievements have been made in terms of promoting pregnancy- and delivery-related services through skilled health workers. Pregnant women have a high level of awareness and clearly prefer to deliver at a health facility. The scenario is different in the rural site (Masasi District), where an adequately trained health workforce and well-equipped health facilities are not yet a reality, resulting in home deliveries with the assistance of either a TBA or a relative. Conclusions Instead of focusing on the traditional sector, it is argued that more attention should be paid towards (1) improving access to as well as strengthening the health system to guarantee delivery by skilled health personnel; and (2) bridging the gaps between communities and the formal health sector through community-based counselling and health education, which is provided by well-trained and supervised village health workers who inform villagers about promotive and preventive health services, including maternal and neonatal health.

2013-01-01

86

Religiosity, spirituality and antenatal anxiety in Southern U.S. women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Introduction: We investigated the association between religiosity, spirituality, and anxiety in pregnant women, taking into account potential\\u000a confounders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods: From September 2005 through March 2006, pregnant women in three obstetrics practices in the American South were included\\u000a in a cross-sectional study. The anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure anxiety.

J. R. Mann; R. E. McKeown; J. Bacon; R. Vesselinov; F. Bush

2008-01-01

87

Antenatal depression and suicidal ideation among rural Bangladeshi women: a community-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression during pregnancy is a significant public health problem because of its negative effects on the health of both mother\\u000a and infant. Data on its prevalence and determinants are lacking in Bangladesh. To estimate the prevalence of depression during\\u000a pregnancy and to identify potential contributory factors among rural Bangladeshi women, a community-based study was conducted\\u000a during 2005 in Matlab sub-district,

Kaniz Gausia; Colleen Fisher; Mohammed Ali; Jacques Oosthuizen

2009-01-01

88

Antenatal mental representations about the child and mother–infant interaction at three months post partum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To study the predictive value of antenatal maternal mental representations about the child for mother–infant interaction at\\u000a three months after birth.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Probands  A total of 73 pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination during the third trimester, who agreed to return with\\u000a their baby for the interaction study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Antenatally a questionnaire for assessing maternal representations about the child was given to

Leonhard Thun-Hohenstein; Christa Wienerroither; Mynda Schreuer; Gunda Seim; Heinrich Wienerroither

2008-01-01

89

STDS in women attending family planning clinics: a case study in Addis Ababa.  

PubMed

For cultural reasons modern contraception has been slow to gain acceptance in Ethiopia. Knowledge about contraception and abortion is still limited in many family and community settings in which it is socially disapproved. By 1990 only 4% of Ethiopian females aged 15-49 used contraception. Little is known of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence in family planning (FP) attenders in Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular, even though attenders of family planning clinics (FPCs) are appropriate target groups for epidemiological studies and control programmes. A study of 2111 women of whom 542 (25.7%) attended FPCs in Addis Ababa showed utilisation rates to be highest in women who were: Tigre (33%) or Amhara (31%), aged 20-34 years (30%), age 16 or older at first marriage/coitus (28%:38% in those first married after 25 years); who had a monthly family income of 10 Ethiopian Birr (EB) or more (33%:36% for those with income 100-500 EB), three or more children (37%), more than five lifetime husbands/sexual partners (39%); or were bargirls (73%) or prostitutes (43%). The seroprevalence rates for all STDs, higher in FPC attenders compared with other women, were syphilis (TPHA) 39%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 66%, genital chlamydia 64%, HSV-2 41%, HBV 40% and Haemophilus ducreyi 20%. Only 4% of FPC attenders had no serological evidence of STD: 64% were seropositive for 3 or more different STD. Clinical evidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) was also more common in the FPC attenders (54%), 37% having evidence of salpingitis. The FPC provides a favourable setting for screening women likely to have high seroprevalence of STD, who for lack of symptoms will not attend either an STD clinic nor a hospital for routine check up. We recommend that measures be taken to adequately screen, treat and educate FPC attenders, their partners, and as appropriate and when possible their clients, in an attempt to control STDs and ultimately HIV in the community. Social, economic and cultural factors in the occurrence of STDs, prostitution, family planning and modern contraception coverage in Ethiopia are identified and deficiencies of current programmes briefly discussed with the objective of targeting services more effectively. PMID:9015881

Duncan, M E; Tibaux, G; Kloos, H; Pelzer, A; Mehari, L; Perine, P L; Peutherer, J; Young, H; Jamil, Y; Darougar, S; Lind, I; Reimann, K; Piot, P; Roggen, E

1997-02-01

90

Non-fistulous urinary leakage among women attending a Nigerian family planning clinic  

PubMed Central

Urinary leakage is an important gynecological challenge, which has a substantial impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of non-fistulous urinary leakage among women attending the family planning clinic of the University of Ilorin teaching hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional study carried out between January 3 and April 25 2009. One hundred and two women experienced urinary leakage out of 333 women interviewed, giving a prevalence rate of 30.6%. Stress incontinence was the most common urinary leakage (prevalence rate 12.0%). This is followed by urge incontinence (10.8%), urinary incontinence (4.8%), and overflow incontinence (3.0%). None of the women afflicted sought medical help. Conclusively, this study has demonstrated that non-fistulous urinary leakage is a common problem among women of reproductive age in this environment.

Ijaiya, Munir'deen A; Raji, Hadijat O; Aboyeji, Abiodun P; Adesina, Kike T; Adebara, Idowu O; Ezeoke, Grace G

2011-01-01

91

Male Perspectives on Incorporating Men into Antenatal HIV Counseling and Testing  

PubMed Central

Background Male partner involvement in antenatal voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) has been shown to increase uptake of interventions to reduce the risk of HIV transmission in resource-limited settings. We aimed to identify methods for increasing male involvement in antenatal VCT and determine male correlates of accepting couple counseling in these settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We invited women presenting to a Nairobi antenatal clinic to return with their male partners for individual or couples VCT. Male attitudes towards VCT and correlates of accompanying female partners to antenatal clinic and receiving couple counseling were determined. Of 1,993 women who invited their partner, 313 (16%) returned with their partners to ANC. Men attending antenatal clinic were married (>99%), employed (98%), and unlikely to report prior HIV testing (14%). Wanting an HIV test (87%) or health information (11%) were the most commonly cited reasons for attending. Most (95%) men who came to antenatal clinic accepted HIV testing and 39% elected to receive counseling as a couple. Men who received counseling with partners were younger, had fewer children, and were less knowledgeable about prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) than those who received counseling individually (p<0.05). Only 27% of men stated they would prefer HIV testing at a site other than the ANC. There was agreement between male and female reports for sociodemographic characteristics; however, men were more likely to report HIV preventive behaviors and health communication within the partnership than their partners (p<0.05). Conclusions/Significance Offering VCT services to men at antenatal clinic with options for couple and individual counseling is an important opportunity and acceptable strategy for increasing male involvement in PMTCT and promoting male HIV testing.

Katz, David A.; Kiarie, James N.; John-Stewart, Grace C.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John, Francis N.; Farquhar, Carey

2009-01-01

92

Attitudes Towards the Role of Women in Cuban Women Attending a Community College  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines both the attitudes towards the role of women in society and the psychological masculinity\\/femininity manifested by a small group of Cuban-American college women. In Miami, 31 such women completed the Attitudes Towards Women Scale and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Overall, the means for this group corresponded with the established American norms. The authors thought that age, number

Oliva M. Espin; Beth Warner

1982-01-01

93

Chlamydial infection in a population of Ethiopian women attending obstetric, gynaecological and mother and child health clinics.  

PubMed

The prevalence of chlamydial infection was assessed in 1,846 Ethiopian women attending clinics in Addis Ababa. Sera were tested for type-specific anti-chlamydial antibodies using purified chlamydial antigens (C. trachomatis A-C (CTA-C), C. trachomatis D-K (CTD-K), Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGVI-3), and C. pneumoniae (CPn), in a micro-immunofluorescence (micro-IF) test. Three levels of chlamydial infection were established. Sera with: 1) antibodies to CTA-C, CTD-K, LGV 1-3 and CPn singly or in combination, are considered as evidence of overall exposure to chlamydial species (OEC); 2) antibodies to CTD-K and LGV 1-3 are considered as evidence of exposure to genital chlamydial pathogens (GENCI); 3) IgM titre > or = 1/8, or Ig G titre > or = 1/64 to CTD-K and LGV 1-3 alone or at a similar level with antibodies to CTA-C and CPn is considered as being evidence of active genital chlamydial infection (AGCI). OEC was found in 84 pc, GENCI in 60 pc and AGCI in 42 pc. Infection was highest in family planning and lowest in antenatal clinic attenders. OEC increased progressively with age while GENCI and AGCI peaked at ages 35 to 49. Chlamydial infection was highest in those married and sexually active < 13 years of age (OEC 88 pc, GENCI 69 pc, AGCI 49 pc); the lowest income groups (OEC 85 pc, GENCI 65 pc, AGCI 45 pc); those with more than five sexual partners (OEC 92 pc, GENCI 78 pc and AGCI 65 pc); with highest prevalence in bargirls (OEC 97 pc, GENCI 84 pc, AGCI 75 pc). Fifty pc had clinical evidence of past or present infection in the urethra, salpinges or bartholin glands (USB). OEC, GENCI and AGCI were associated with PID. The association of seropositivity with USB was remarkably similar for both gonorrhoea and chlamydial infection: we recommend adoption of a treatment regimen effective for both infections. The micro-IF test is a useful epidemiological tool for identifying the of antibodies to chlamydial pathogens. Use of antigen pools CTA-C, CTD-K LGVI-3 and CPn enables a distinction to be made between genital and non-genital infections. The problem of symptomatic and asymptomatic chlamydial disease needs to be addressed urgently. PMID:8868379

Duncan, M E; Jamil, Y; Tibaux, G; Pelzer, A; Mehari, L; Darougar, S

1996-01-01

94

Maternal Perceptions of Antenatal Care Provision at a Tertiary Level Hospital, Riyadh  

PubMed Central

Objective Report maternal perceptions of antenatal care provision and identify deficiencies in the current model of care provision. Methods A survey was conducted to record maternal views about quality of antenatal consultations provided at a tertiary level hospital. Trained nurses and female health workers interviewed the patients attending antenatal visits during the month of July 2009. A standard questionnaire was use to enter the responses. Data were entered into the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for appropriate statistical analysis of the results. Data analysis generated two groups. One group had up to 4 antenatal visits and the other group had more than 4 visits. Results Responses were obtained for 244 patients. Chi-square test was applied for the comparison of variables between the two groups. Significantly higher number of women preferred to follow the 4 visit care plan (n=118/244 vs. n=103/244, respectively; p=0.004). Patient satisfaction was also significantly higher among women in the 4 visit group (n=112/244 vs. n=90/244; p=0.04). More than 50% of patients said that they did not receive any information about the process of labor, breast-feeding or contraception. Conclusion Women included in the study did not want frequent visits to antenatal clinic. Efforts should be made to provide information about labor, breast-feeding and contraception.

Kamil, Aneela; Khorshid, Ezzeldin

2013-01-01

95

Hepatitis B among pregnant women attending health care facilities in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This study assessed hepatitis B prevalence among pregnant women attending health care facilities in rural Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected from 480 participants. HBsAg was positive in 0.4% of subjects, anti-HBc was positive in 21.5% and anti-HBs was positive in 8.5% of subjects. HBsAg was more prevalent among the older age group. Hepatitis B has a low prevalence among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. Existing hepatitis B vaccination schedule in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) to vaccinate the children in rural Bangladesh is appropriate. PMID:22299410

Shamsuzzaman, Md; Singhasivanon, P; Kaewkungwal, J; Lawpoolsri, S; Tangkijvanich, P; Gibbons, Robert V; Rahman, M; Alamgir, A S M; Mahtab, M A

2011-11-01

96

Characterization of frequent douchers attending a community clinic primarily serving African-American women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to characterize African-American women attending a community clinic who report frequent douching (douching > or = 2 times per week). METHODS: A consecutive sample of 115 black women attending a community clinic were interviewed face-to-face about their douching practices. Logistic regression was used to control for age and compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Of the 115 women interviewed, 93% (107) had douched sometime during their lifetime; 16% (18) reported douching > or = 2 times per week. Frequent douchers compared with women who douche < 2 times per month were more likely to report douching after sex [89% (n=16) vs. 49% (n=32), odds ratio (OR): 5.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 26.2] or after discharge [89% (n=1 6) vs. 58% (n=38), OR: 8.11, 95% CI: 1.64, 40.1], and self-report a history of gonorrhea [28% (n=5) vs. 8% (n=5), OR: 4.87, 95% CI: 1.07, 22.2]. CONCLUSION: Further research should be done to understand the use of douching as an STD/HIV prevention method and the association between sexual risk behaviors and douching practices.

Smith, Lisa V.; Rudy, Ellen T.; Ivie, Sylvia D.; Lee, Donzella; Visscher, Barbara; Kerndt, Peter

2005-01-01

97

A cluster randomized implementation trial to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by women for childbirth: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Nepal is on track to achieve MDG 5 but there is a huge sub-national disparity with existing high maternal mortality in western and hilly regions. The national priority is to reduce this disparity to achieve the goal at sub-national level. Evidences from developing countries show that increasing utilization of skilled attendant at birth is an important indicator for reducing maternal death. Further, there is a very low utilization during childbirth in western and hilly regions of Nepal which clearly depicts the barriers in utilization of skilled birth attendants. So, there is a need to overcome the identified barriers to increase the utilization thereby decreasing the maternal mortality. The hypothesis of this study is that through a package of interventions the utilization of skilled birth attendants will be increased and hence improve maternal health in Nepal. Method/Design This study involves a cluster randomized controlled trial involving approximately 5000 pregnant women in 36 clusters. The 18 intervention clusters will receive the following interventions: i) mobilization of family support for pregnant women to reach the health facility, ii) availability of emergency funds for institutional childbirth, iii) availability of transport options to reach a health facility for childbirth, iv) training to health workers on communication skills, v) security provisions for SBAs to reach services 24/24 through community mobilization; 18 control clusters will not receive the intervention package. The final evaluation of the intervention is planned to be completed by October 2014. Primary study output of this study is utilization of SBA services. Secondary study outputs measure the uptake of antenatal care, post natal checkup for mother and baby, availability of transportation for childbirth, operation of emergency fund, improved reception of women at health services, and improved physical security of SBAs. Discussion The intervention package is designed to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by overcoming the barriers related to awareness, finance, transport, security etc. If proven effective, the Ministry of Health has committed to scale up the intervention package throughout the country. Trial registration number ISRCTN78892490.

2014-01-01

98

Cervical screening uptake and abnormalities among women attending sexual health clinics for HIV care.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe cervical screening uptake and assess correlates of screen-detected abnormalities in women attending sexual health services for HIV care. Of 156 women, 115 had documentation of a Pap test at least once in 3 years and 9.6% had an annual Pap test performed. Pap abnormalities were associated with younger age, being born in Sub-Saharan Africa, more recent arrival in Australia, lower CD4 count, detectable viral load, shorter time on antiretroviral therapy and more recent HIV diagnosis. Women accessing sexual health services for HIV care, especially those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, appear to be substantially under-screened and efforts to optimise screening are needed. PMID:25054373

Tilley, Donna M; O'Connor, Catherine C; Adusumilli, Sunil; Smith, Maggie; Marin-Zapata, Clara; Ooi, Catriona; Templeton, David J

2014-07-01

99

Womens' opinions on antenatal care in developing countries: results of a study in Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The results of a qualitative study carried out in four developing countries (Cuba, Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Argentina) are presented. The study was conducted in the context of a randomised controlled trial to test the benefits of a new antenatal care protocol that reduced the number of visits to the doctor, rationalised the application of technology, and improved the

Gustavo Nigenda; Ana Langer; Chusri Kuchaisit; Mariana Romero; Georgina Rojas; Muneera Al-Osimy; José Villar; Jo Garcia; Yagob Al-Mazrou; Hassan Ba'aqeel; Guillermo Carroli; Ubaldo Farnot; Pisake Lumbiganon; José Belizán; Per Bergsjo; Leiv Bakketeig; Gunilla Lindmark

2003-01-01

100

Factors Associated with Four or More Antenatal Care Visits and Its Decline among Pregnant Women in Tanzania between 1999 and 2010  

PubMed Central

In Tanzania, the coverage of four or more antenatal care (ANC 4) visits among pregnant women has declined over time. We conducted an exploratory analysis to identify factors associated with utilization of ANC 4 and ANC 4 decline among pregnant women over time. We used data from 8035 women who delivered within two years preceding Tanzania Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1999, 2004/05 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between all potential factors and utilization of ANC 4; and decline in ANC 4 over time. Factors positively associated with ANC 4 utilization were higher quality of services, testing and counseling for HIV during ANC, receiving two or more doses of SP (Sulphadoxine Pyrimethamine)/Fansidar for preventing malaria during ANC and higher educational status of the woman. Negatively associated factors were residing in a zone other than Eastern zone, never married woman, reported long distance to health facility, first ANC visit after four months of pregnancy and woman's desire to avoid pregnancy. The factors significantly associated with decline in utilization of ANC 4 were: geographic zone and age of the woman at delivery. Strategies to increase ANC 4 utilization should focus on improvement in quality of care, geographic accessibility, early ANC initiation, and services that allow women to avoid pregnancy. The interconnected nature of the Tanzanian Health System is reflected in ANC 4 decline over time where introduction of new programs might have had unintended effects on existing programs. An in-depth assessment of the recent policy change towards Focused Antenatal Care and its implementation across different geographic zones, including its effect on the perception and understanding among women and performance and counseling by health providers can help explain the decline in ANC 4.

Gupta, Shivam; Yamada, Goro; Mpembeni, Rose; Frumence, Gasto; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A.; Stevenson, Raz; Brandes, Neal; Baqui, Abdullah H.

2014-01-01

101

Prevalence of anxiety among women attending a primary care clinic in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background This is the first study investigating anxiety among women attending a primary care clinic in Malaysia. Aim The objective was to determine the factors associated with anxiety among these women. Design This cross-sectional study was conducted in a government-funded primary care clinic in Malaysia. Consecutive female patients attending the clinic during the data-collection period were invited to participate in the study. Method Participants were given self-administered questionnaires, which included the validated Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire (GAD-7) Malay version to detect anxiety. Results Of the 1023 patients who were invited, 895 agreed to participate (response rate 87.5%). The prevalence of anxiety in this study was 7.8%, based on the GAD-7 (score ?8). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that certain stressful life events and the emotional aspect of domestic violence were significantly associated with anxiety (P<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of anxiety among women in this study is similar to that found in other countries. Factors found to be associated with anxiety, especially issues on domestic violence, need to be addressed and managed appropriately.

Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Arroll, Bruce; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

2011-01-01

102

Oral health among antenatal care attendees in Calabar, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to determine the oral health habits, awareness, oral health education and treatment needs among pregnant women who attend the antenatal clinics at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. A total of 252 women at different stages of pregnancy responded to an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. Of those, 238 (94.4%) of the respondents used toothbrush and toothpaste for oral cleaning, while 12 (4.8%) used a combination of toothbrush/toothpaste and local chewing sticks. Two (0.8%) adhered to the use of chewing sticks only. A total of 34 (13.5%) respondents were aware of and used dental services while pregnant; 18 (52.9%) of those who presented with dental complaints during pregnancy had bleeding gums. Based on the level of awareness of the need to attend a dental clinic during pregnancy (26.2%) and the percentage of respondents willing to have a dental examination during pregnancy (83.3%), it is recommended that oral health education be incorporated into the antenatal counselling of pregnant women in Nigeria. PMID:20143972

Bassey, G O; Anyanechi, C E; Ekabua, K J; Ekabua, J E

2010-02-01

103

Oral findings in postmenopausal women attending dental hospital in Western part of India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To know the nature, incidence and severity of oral manifestations occurring in postmenopausal women. Study design: Oral changes were observed in 365 postmenopausal women and 365 age matched male individuals attending the department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. The patients were asked about complaints of dry mouth, taste and breath changes, mucosal and facial pain and were examined for oral changes such as ulceration, white and red lesions. The results obtained from the study were then correlated with various other similar studies. Results: The important oral findings in postmenopausal women were mucosal burning/pain (25.8%), dry mouth (27.1%), altered taste (3.6%), altered breath (6.3%) and facial pain (3.6%). Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) was significantly more common in males (5.5%) as compared to postmenopausal females (1.9%). Conclusion: Results from the present study reveal that oral symptoms are common problems in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal patients showed significantly more oral changes than the control. These changes could be related to the hormone alterations. Therefore, dentists need to refer postmenopausal women with oral symptoms to a gynaecologist for more careful examinations and medical interventions if necessary. Key words:Menopause; postmenopause; xerostomia; pallor; oral changes.

Nidhi, Sinha; Sumita, Kaswan; Farzan, Rahman; Bharati, Doni; Ashok, KP

2013-01-01

104

Predictors of the timing of initiation of antenatal care in an ethnically diverse urban cohort in the UK  

PubMed Central

Background In the UK, women are recommended to engage with maternity services and establish a plan of care prior to the 12th completed week of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for late initiation of antenatal care within an ethnically diverse cohort in East London. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected electronic patient record data from Newham University Hospital NHS Trust (NUHT). All women who attended their antenatal booking appointment within NUHT between 1st January 2008 and 24th January 2011 were included in this study. The main outcome measure was late antenatal booking, defined as attendance at the antenatal booking appointment after 12?weeks (+6?days) gestation. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors. Results Late initiation of antenatal care was independently associated with non-British (White) ethnicity, inability to speak English, and non-UK maternal birthplace in the multivariable model. However, among those women who both spoke English and were born in the UK, the only ethnic group at increased risk of late booking were women who identified as African/Caribbean (aOR: 1.40: 95% CI: 1.11, 1.76) relative to British (White). Other predictors identified include maternal age younger than 20?years (aOR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.13-1.54), high parity (aOR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.77-2.46) and living in temporary accommodation (aOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.35-2.16). Conclusions Socio-cultural factors in addition to poor English ability or assimilation may play an important role in determining early initiation of antenatal care. Future research should focus on effective interventions to encourage and enable these minority groups to engage with the maternity services.

2013-01-01

105

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending a family planning clinic in Papua New Guinea, in the period between April and June 1991. SETTING--The outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Port Moresby General Hospital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, the departments of Dermato-Venereology and Clinical Microbiology of the Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands and the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. PATIENTS--A total of 254 consecutive women who attended the family planning clinic at Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea were enrolled into this study. METHODS--Cervical infections with C trachomatis were diagnosed using the direct immunofluorescent assay (DFA) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum IgM and IgG antibodies directed against C trachomatis were detected using the enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). RESULTS--The prevalence of C trachomatis was 14.6% using the PCR, 9.1% using the DFA and 17.3% when the results of the PCR and the DFA were combined. An elevated IgM titre was observed in 14.2% of the women, whereas 44.1% had an elevated IgG titre. The titres of IgM or IgG were significantly higher in women who were positive using the PCR or the DFA than in those who were negative in both the PCR and the DFA (p = 0.032 and p = 0.0046, respectively). CONCLUSION--Cervical infection by C trachomatis can be considered a major health problem in at least the studied population in Papua New Guinea. The prevalence of C trachomatis infection is at least comparable with that in groups with a high prevalence in industrialized countries. Effective screening and treatment programmes are imperative to combat this problem.

Theunissen, J J; Kariwiga, G; Ossewaarde, J M; van Rijsoort-Vos, J H; Stolz, E; van der Meijden, W I

1995-01-01

106

[Customer satisfaction analysis in women attending an organized mammographic screening. Pilot study at Trento].  

PubMed

Present paper reports on the results of a pilot customer satisfaction study carried out on 1.720 consecutive women (18.7 with spontaneous access) attended senology department (Trento and Borgo) in the context of a organized mammography screening programme, started in October 2000. Data were collected by a questionnarie filled by the women after mammography. 4.3% of the invited women reported the receiving the letter late, 0.9% considered it inaccurate, 7.2% had some problems for getting a new date for test, 1.8% of the whole sample reported some problems for external access and 2.2% for internal access to health facilities; 1.9% perceived waiting room as not friendly. The welcoming by the personnel is judged quite well, only 0.6% complained about it. Trento centre, is more efficient than Borgo. In 21.7% of the cases the mammography has been performed within next 30 minutes of the fixed time and in 7.9% besides that. 36.8% of the whole sample perceived mammography as tiresome and 4.1% as painful. The percentage of women reporting mammography disconforting increase, in Trento sample, according the education level as previously reported. The data about perceived quality are satisfactory, on the whole. Anyway it would be opportune to contain the waiting time. PMID:16353680

Della Sala, W; Tognotti, F; Pellegrini, M; Bernardi, D; Gentilini, M; Piffer, S

2005-01-01

107

Antenatal Diagnosis and Down's Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pamphlet, written for physicians and other health professionals who counsel parents, explain five factors which put women at high risk of giving birth to a child with Down's Syndrome and three antenatal diagnostic techniques. Five factors identified as indicating high risk are advanced maternal age (over 40 years old), a previous child with…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

108

Toxoplasmosis among the pregnant women attending a Saudi maternity hospital: seroprevalence and possible risk factors.  

PubMed

In a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of, and possible risk factors for, Toxoplasma gondii infection in the pregnant women of Saudi Arabia, all of the pregnant Saudi women attending the Al Ahsa Maternity Hospital over a 1-year period were invited to participate. In an interview with each subject, the relevant socio-demographic data and information on housing conditions, previous obstetric history and possible risk factors for Toxoplasma infection (e.g.frequency of consumption of undercooked meat, unwashed raw vegetables and/or unwashed raw fruit, contact with soil, and main sources of drinking water) were collected. Each subject was then checked for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM in commercial ELISA. Of the 554 expectant women investigated, 51.4% were found seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG (indicating chronic infection) and 8.8% for anti-Toxoplasma IgM (indicating acute infection), with 6.1% of the women seropositive for Toxoplasma -specific IgM but seronegative for Toxoplasma-specific IgG. Acute infection was most common among the women who were relatively young, lived in rural areas and had relatively low incomes. The results of a multivariate logistic regression indicated that the significant positive predictors for chronic Toxoplasma infection were increasing age, rural residence, low family income, frequent consumption of undercooked meat, and previous obstetric problems (and/or multiparity). Although of questionable accuracy, the results of the present study revealed a relatively high seroprevalence of (possibly primary) acute Toxoplasma infection in the pregnant women, with the potential for transmission of the parasite to the foetuses. PMID:20863438

Al-Mohammad, H I; Amin, T T; Balaha, M H; Al-Moghannum, M S

2010-09-01

109

Attitudes of Singapore women toward cesarean and vaginal deliveries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the attitude, knowledge, and expectations of Asian pregnant women toward cesarean and vaginal deliveries. Methods: Written questionnaires were given to pregnant women attending the National University Hospital antenatal clinics, and 160 responses were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The participation rate was 65% and 50% of the respondents were Chinese, 20% Indian, 21% Malay, 2%

E. S. Y. Chong; M. Mongelli

2003-01-01

110

[Positive impact of a video and TV documentary on attendance of women to catch-up collective vaccinations and reasons for non-attendance].  

PubMed

The impact of medical documentaries on attendance to immunization sessions is not documented in developing countries. The impact of a video and TV medical documentary on women's vaccination during a catch-up tetanus collective immunization was studied in Cambodia (2002-2004). A medical video documentary produced locally was publicly shown in 10 villages chosen at random among 63 villages to be covered by collective tetanus immunization. In each village where the video was shown, 33 women, older than age 11, were selected at random and questioned about their tetanus vaccination records, to assess if they attended the video and to evaluate their knowledge about tetanus. A second interview was conducted after the first collective vaccination to check their attendance and to record reasons for non-attendance. The same interview was conducted 10 months later, after the documentary was shown on a local TV channel and a second collective tetanus vaccination conducted. Data were collected from 323 (98%) women. Seventy-eight (24%) women saw the video documentary and only eight (2.4%) saw it on TV. Compared to farmers, shopkeepers saw significantly less the documentary (?² of Yates: 5.77,P = 0.016; 95% CI: 0.10 < RR = 0.29 < 0.88) and no home keeper or civil servant attended it. Women of childbearing age with no school education were significantly more attracted by the video documentary (?² of Yates: 5.99,P = 0.01; 95% CI: 1.10 < RR = 1.57 < 2.22) than other childbearing-aged women, although their final immunization coverage was not better. The documentary did not increase the knowledge that contamination for tetanus may come from earth and tools, but not from air and water, and that all ages are at-risk for tetanus, but it increased significantly the knowledge that vaccination can prevent the disease (?² of Yates: 13.98;P = 0.0001; 95% CI: 1.28 < RR = 1.57 < 1.93). Women who saw the video documentary attended the first collective session more often than those who did not (?² of Yates: 11.00; P = 0.0006; 95% CI: 1.23 < RR = 1.51 < 1.84)in spite of their better vaccination status before the immunization, and this was mostly significant for farmers and women more than 45 years of age. Women who saw the documentary either on video or on TV also attended more the second collective session, but not significantly (?² of Yates: 1.23;P = 0.266; 95% CI: 0.91 < RR = 1.23 < 1.66). Forty-nine percent of women had not attended school and the video documentary was re-run twice after the first performance. Women older than 45 years (55%) completely escaped immunization significantly more often than women of childbearing age (35%) (?² of Yates: 17.26;P = 0.00003, 95% CI: 1.53 < RR = 2.13 < 2.97), who did it more often than schoolgirls (2%) (?² of Yates: 9.69;P = 0.002; 95% CI: 0.01 < RR = 0.09 < 0.65). The main reasons for not being vaccinated during catch-up collective tetanus vaccinations were a too short interval between doses according to the WHO schedule (25%), agricultural task (18%), leisure travel (8%), fear of injections (7%), and being completely vaccinated according to the WHO schedule (7%). Only 2% of women were not informed, showing that vaccination was well-publicized. This educational technique should be re-used in all villages during coming catch-up tetanus collective immunizations in Cambodia, mostly in urban contexts where coverage during these sessions is lower. Video is still the best method in rural context if some education is also provided to the audience. According to the WHO schedule, the interval between two catch-up tetanus sessions should be extended to over a year to be able to give booster shots to women who already received three or more tetanus doses. Vaccination of schoolgirls is significantly easier to achieve with the help of the teachers. Vaccinating women aged over 45 should be encouraged as they are at risk of tetanus even in developed Asian countries. PMID:21279494

Painvin, C; Schlumberger, M; Chhem, Dy Bun; Savannarom, Dim; Phong, Phing; Gilberg, S

2011-02-01

111

Effectiveness of earlier antenatal screening for sickle cell disease and thalassaemia in primary care: cluster randomised trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of offering antenatal screening for sickle cell disease and thalassaemia in primary care as a way of facilitating earlier uptake of screening.Design Partial factorial cluster randomised controlled trial.Setting 25 UK general practices from deprived inner city areas.Participants Anonymised data on all pregnant women attending participating practices during a six month period before randomisation and a

Elizabeth Dormandy; Martin Gulliford; Stirling Bryan; Tracy E Roberts; Michael Calnan; Karl Atkin; Jonathan Karnon; Jane Logan; Fred Kavalier; Hilary J Harris; Tracey A Johnston; Elizabeth N Anionwu; Vicki Tsianakas; Patricia Jones; Theresa M Marteau

2010-01-01

112

Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker cadres with little pre-service training. Attention should be paid to the identification of informal practices resulting from individual coping strategies and "street-level bureaucracy" in order to tackle problems before they become part of the organizational culture.

2011-01-01

113

Age and religion selection biases in HIV-1 prevalence data from antenatal clinics in Manicaland, Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Sera from 487 women attending antenatal clinics in two areas of Manicaland were tested for the presence of HIV-1 infection. In the Honde Valley and Rusitu Valley areas, 24,3 pc and 14 pc respectively, were found to be infected. HIV-1 infection was found to be associated with age, marital status and location. Younger women, non-married women and women living in the Honde Valley were all more likely to be infected. There was also a weak association with level of education, with women with secondary education being at greater risk of being infected. The unadjusted overall figures for HIV-1 prevalence from the antenatal clinics were shown to provide a poor indication of the relative levels of prevalence of infection in the two study areas because of differences in the age structure and religious affiliations of the antenatal clinic and study populations. Similar problems may exist in sentinel surveillance data and would distort comparisons between locations and over time, especially during periods of rapid fertility change. In particular, the age bias is liable to exaggerate differences between urban and rural populations in developing societies. Where comparable information is available for the general population and sample sizes permit, this problem may be overcome by collecting basic socio-demographic data on the individuals tested and then applying standardization techniques. In the Honde Valley and Rusitu Valley example, the levels of HIV-1 prevalence after adjusting for age differences are 18,4 pc and 13,2 pc respectively. PMID:8932576

Gregson, S; Zhuwau, T; Anderson, R M; Chimbadzwa, T; Chiwandiwa, S K

1995-11-01

114

Prevalence of human papillomavirus among Croatian women attending regular gynecological visit.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been identified as major risk factor for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer. About 40 HPV viral types are commonly found in the genital tract. Most HPV infections resolve spontaneously, while persistent infection with oncogenic types, namely HPV 16 and 18 is necessary for CIN to occur and progress to cancer. Cervical screening is presently based on the Pap smear that is designed to diagnose precancerous lesions and cervical cancer The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA and to determine HPV types distribution among 361 women attending regular gynecological visit. There were 205 women (29+/-8 years old) without determined abnormal cervical lesions and 156 women (34+/-15 years old) with abnormal Pap smear; low grade squamous intraepitehelial lesions (LSIL, n=69), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, n=72) and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, n=15). HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed by Hybrid Capture 2 assay and additionally by consensus and type-specific primers directed PCR. The overall prevalence of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) in women with abnormal Pap smears was 67.9% (106/156), of which in ASCUS 33.4% (5/15), LSIL 62.3% (43/69) and HSIL 80.6% (58/72). In HPV positive specimens, HPV 16 was found as predominant type in 60.4% cases, followed by HPV 31 (8.5%), HPV 33 (6.6%) and HPV 18 (3.7%). In the group of women without obvious cervical changes the overall hrHPV prevalence was 35.6% with HPV 16 found in 43.8% cases, followed by HPV 31 (17.8%), HPV33 (9.5%) and HPV18 (6.8%). In both study groups, women with and without cervical lesions, the prevalence of HPVof indeterminate type was 14.2% and 13.7%, respectively. Our results indicate that cervical intraepithelial lesions are largely associated with HPV type 16, followed by HPV types 31, 33, 18 and HPV of indeterminate type. Although there is a significant difference in hrHPV DNA prevalence among two groups, no significant differences between particular hrHPV types distribution were observed. PMID:17598508

Grahovac, Maja; Raci?, Ivana; Hadzisejdi?, Ita; Dori?, Amka; Grahovac, Blazenka

2007-04-01

115

Vulval disease in HIV-positive women attending a tertiary vulval dermatology clinic over a five-year period.  

PubMed

There is a paucity of data on vulval disease in HIV-infected women. We describe the spectrum of vulval disease in HIV-infected women attending a tertiary vulval dermatology referral centre over a five-year period. Seven vulval conditions were identified in 14 women. Most were attending for HIV care (n = 12, 86%), and on combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) with a CD4 cell count above 200 cells/µL (n = 9, 64%) at diagnosis. Imiquimod therapy was effective in treating undifferentiated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) - the most common diagnosis. There were no cases of invasive vulval carcinoma. Hypertrophic herpes simplex virus occurred in one woman stable on CART with good immune reconstitution. Clinicians should be vigilant about the spectrum of vulval disease in HIV-infected women and consider genital examination as part of routine care. PMID:23970605

Dosekun, Olamide; Farrugia, Pippa; Lewis, Fiona; Sethi, Gulshan

2013-10-01

116

A survey describing the use of complementary therapies and medicines by women attending a family planning clinic  

PubMed Central

Background Complementary medicines (CMs) are widely used by women. Although, women in Australia are frequent users of CM, few studies have examined their utilisation by women attending a family planning service. The aim of this study was to examine (i) the extent of and type of CM, (ii) women’s views about safety and efficacy, and (iii) the factors influencing women’s decision-making. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample of 221women aged greater than 18 years attending a family planning (FP) service was undertaken over a two week period in Sydney, Australia. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was designed to examine women’s current and previous use of CMs, their attitudes towards safety and effectiveness, the factors influencing their decision-making, and their disclosure of CM use to a FP health professional. Demographic questions were designed to describe the diversity of the participants. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between CM use and demographics. Results Sixty-seven percent of women surveyed were currently using CMs, and 83% reported use during the previous 12 months. Most respondents utilised CMs to maintain their general health or for prevention of ill health. Over 30% of women lacked information to make an informed response to questions examining their views about the safety of CMs. Forty-four percent of participants stated they discussed their use of CMs with their FP providers. The main reason why women did not mention CMs was they did not see the relevance to their consultation (43%). Lower rates of CM use were found for younger women (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.61), and those not completing high school (OR 0.44, 95% 0.20-1.00). Conclusion The use of CM is very common among women attending an Australian FP clinic, however our findings may not be generalisable to all women. We identified a notable gap in women’s awareness of the potential for interactions between CM and prescribed medication. Our findings also emphasise the need for healthcare providers to initiate discussions with clients about their utilisation of CM.

2013-01-01

117

Young pregnant women's views on the acceptability of screening for chlamydia as part of routine antenatal care  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In pregnancy, untreated chlamydia infection has been associated with adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Like most women, pregnant women infected with chlamydia do not report genital symptoms, and are therefore unlikely to be aware of their infection. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of screening pregnant women aged 16-25 years for chlamydia as

Jade E Bilardi; Deborah L De Guingand; Meredith J Temple-Smith; Suzanne Garland; Christopher K Fairley; Sonia Grover; Euan Wallace; Jane S Hocking; Sepehr Tarbrizi; Marie Pirotta; Marcus Y Chen

2010-01-01

118

Assessing the Efficacy of a Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Intervention for Pregnant Women and Male Partners in Urumqi City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the efficacy of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) in an educated cohort of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Urumqi, China. VCT was given to women and their partners (experimental group) or women alone (control group). Both groups were given pre- and post-intervention questionnaires to assess HIV knowledge and willingness to get HIV testing. Multivariate analysis showed

Kaveh Khoshnood; Katherine S. Wilson; Giovanni Filardo; Zhendong Liu; Ng Hon Keung; Zunyou Wu

2006-01-01

119

Pregnant Women after Physical and Sexual Abuse in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of abuse among pregnant women in Germany attending our antenatal outpatient clinic and to observe whether a history of abuse had consequences for women’s feelings about their pregnancy. Methods: 455 women between the 35th and 42nd weeks of gestational age were included and were asked to fill out an

Katharina Jundt; Kristin Haertl; Angelika Knobbe; Ralph Kaestner; Klaus Friese; Ursula M. Peschers

2009-01-01

120

Cultural Congruity, Womanist Identity Attitudes, and Life Satisfaction among African American College Women Attending Historically Black and Predominantly White Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined cultural congruity, womanist identity attitudes, and life satisfaction among 165 African American women attending historically Black and predominantly White colleges and universities. Findings indicate that students at historically Black institutions reported higher levels of cultural congruity and life satisfaction. Womanist identity…

Constantine, Madonna G.; Watt, Sherry K.

2002-01-01

121

The association between timing of initiation of antenatal care and stillbirths: a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background There is renewed interest in stillbirth prevention for lower-middle income countries. Early initiation of and properly timed antenatal care (ANC) is thought to reduce the risk of many adverse birth outcomes. To this end we examined if timing of the first ANC visit influences the risk of stillbirth. Methods We conducted an analysis of a retrospective cohort of women (n?=?34,671) with singleton births in a public perinatal service in Cape Town, South Africa. The main exposure was the gestational age at the first ANC visit. Bivariable analyses examining maternal characteristics by stillbirth status and gestational age at the first ANC visit, were conducted. Logistic regression, adjusting for maternal characteristics, was conducted to determine the risk of stillbirth. Results Of the 34,671 women who initiated ANC, 27,713 women (80%) were retained until delivery. The population stillbirth rate was 4.3 per 1000 births. The adjusted models indicated there was no effect of gestational age at first ANC visit on stillbirth outcomes when analyzed as a continuous variable (aOR 1.01; 95% CI: 0.99-1.04) or in trimesters (2nd Trimester aOR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.39-1.59; 3rd Trimester OR 1.03, 95% CI: 0.50-2.13, both with 1st Trimester as reference category). The findings were unchanged in sensitivity analyses of unobserved outcomes in non-retained women. Conclusion The timing of a woman’s first ANC visit may not be an important determinant of stillbirths in isolation. Further research is required to examine how quality of care, incorporating established, effective biomedical interventions, influences outcomes in this setting.

2014-01-01

122

Antenatal couple counseling increases uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission.  

PubMed

To determine effect of partner involvement and couple counseling on uptake of interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission, women attending a Nairobi antenatal clinic were encouraged to return with partners for voluntary HIV-1 counseling and testing (VCT) and offered individual or couple posttest counseling. Nevirapine was provided to HIV-1-seropositive women and condoms distributed to all participants. Among 2104 women accepting testing, 308 (15%) had partners participate in VCT, of whom 116 (38%) were couple counseled. Thirty-two (10%) of 314 HIV-1-seropositive women came with partners for VCT; these women were 3-fold more likely to return for nevirapine (P = 0.02) and to report administering nevirapine at delivery (P = 0.009). Nevirapine use was reported by 88% of HIV-infected women who were couple counseled, 67% whose partners came but were not couple counseled, and 45%whose partners did not present for VCT (P for trend = 0.006). HIV-1-seropositive women receiving couple counseling were 5-fold more likely to avoid breast-feeding (P = 0.03) compared with those counseled individually. Partner notification of HIV-1-positive results was reported by 138 women (64%) and was associated with 4-fold greater likelihood of condom use (P = 0.004). Partner participation in VCT and couple counseling increased uptake of nevirapine and formula feeding. Antenatal couple counseling may be a useful strategy to promote HIV-1 prevention interventions. PMID:15577420

Farquhar, Carey; Kiarie, James N; Richardson, Barbra A; Kabura, Marjory N; John, Francis N; Nduati, Ruth W; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy A; John-Stewart, Grace C

2004-12-15

123

Psychosocial factors and attendance at a population-based mammography screening program in a cohort of Swedish women  

PubMed Central

Background A better understanding of the factors that influence mammography screening attendance is needed to improve the effectiveness of these screening programs. The objective of the study was to examine whether psychosocial factors predicted attendance at a population-based invitational mammography screening program. Methods Data on cohabitation, social network/support, sense of control, and stress were obtained from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort Study and linked to the Malmö mammography register in Sweden. We analyzed 11,409 women (age 44 to 72) who were free of breast cancer at study entry (1992 to 1996). Mammography attendance was followed from cohort entry to December 31, 2009. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to account for repeated measures within subjects. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Results Among 69,746 screening opportunities there were 5,552 (8%) cases of non-attendance. Higher odds of non-attendance were found among women who lived alone (OR?=?1.47 (1.33-1.63)) or with children only (OR?=?1.52 (1.29-1.81)), had one childbirth (OR?=?1.12 (1.01-1.24)) or three or more childbirths (OR?=?1.34 (1.21-1.48)), had low social participation (OR= 1.21 (1.10-1.31)), low sense of control (OR?=?1.12 (1.02-1.23)), and experienced greater stress (OR?=?1.24 (1.13-1.36)). Conclusions Public health campaigns designed to optimize mammography screening attendance may benefit from giving more consideration of how to engage with women who are less socially involved.

2014-01-01

124

Cardiovascular risk in African American women attending historically Black colleges and universities: the role of dietary patterns and food preferences.  

PubMed

There is a lack of data on the dietary patterns and food preferences of African American women attending historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). African American women have higher death rates from cardiovascular disease than White women, and the initiating events of cardiovascular disease often begin in young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns and food preferences of African American college women, which may act as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A convenience sample of 100 African American women, ages 18 to 40 years, was administered two surveys assessing food preferences and dietary patterns. The majority of the participants (65%) preferred high-fat foods, and most of the participants (87%) consumed more than 30% of their daily caloric intake from fat. There is a definite need for dietary education regarding the impact of dietary fat on cardiovascular health among college students. PMID:21099070

Brown, Sandra Chaisson; Geiselman, Paula J; Broussard, Tracy

2010-11-01

125

Popular Contraceptive Methods in Women Aged 35 Years and Older Attending Health Centers of 4 Cities in Khuzestan Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated risks are higher in late reproductive years. Limited studies have focused on contraceptive choices in these women. The aim of the study was to identify contraceptive choices and their related factors in women 35 years or older attending health centers of Khuzestan province. Objectives Additionally, several line of evidence indicated relationship between increasing maternal age and poor pregnancy outcomes (1, 2). Pregnancies above the age of 35 are accompanied with more risks for complication related to pregnancy as compared to younger women (3-5). Risk of spontaneous abortion is 74.4% in mothers aged 45 years or more. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study 1584 women aged 35 years and older attending public health centers of four cities of Khuzestan were studied. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. Women investigators were recruited for interview and filling the questionnaire. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. Results The mean age of women was 39.8 ± 4.2 years. The most popular contraceptive methods used in this age group were oral contraceptive pills (31.4%), condom (28.1%), and tubal ligation (14.8%). Less effective contraceptive methods were used in 41.5% of women. Significant associations were found between the use of effective methods and literacy of husband (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.91), city of residence (OR = 0, 92, 95%CI: 0.87-0.97), women age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI; 0.94-0.99), and women education (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99) (P < 0.01). Conclusions In spite of risk of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in this age group, about a half of them used less effective contraceptive methods, hence family planning education, and counseling to older women should be a priority in health centers.

Nouhjah, Sedighe; Amiri, Elham; Khodai, Azim; Yazdanpanah, Azar; Nadi Baghu, Maryam

2013-01-01

126

Prevalence of Malaria and Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending a traditional birth center as well as the effect of herbal remedies, gravidity, age, educational background and malaria prevention methods on their prevalence. Methods Blood specimens were collected from 119 pregnant women attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria. Malaria parasitemia was diagnosed by microscopy while anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11 g/dL. Results The prevalence of malaria infection was (OR=4.35 95% CI=1.213, 15.600; p=0.016) higher among primigravidae (92.1%). Pregnant women (38.5%) with tertiary level of education had significantly lower prevalence of malaria infection (p=0.002). Malaria significantly affected the prevalence of anemia (p<0.05). Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies (OR=2.973; 95% CI=1.206, 7.330; p=0.017). The prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia were not affected by malaria prevention methods used by the participants. Conclusion The overall prevalence of malaria infection and anemia observed in this study were 78.9% and 46.2%, respectively. Higher prevalence of malaria infection was associated with primigravidae and lower prevalence with tertiary education of subjects. Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies. There is urgent need to control the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending traditional birth homes.

Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Omoregie, Richard; Odia, Ikponmwosa; Oladeinde, Oladapo Babatunde

2012-01-01

127

The complexity of consent: women's experiences testing for HIV at an antenatal clinic in Durban, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informed consent has historically been a cornerstone to ensuring autonomy during HIV testing. However, recent changes to global guidance on HIV testing have led to substantial debate on what policy provisions are necessary to ensure that consent remains meaningful in the context of testing. Despite disproportionate rates of testing during pregnancy, pregnant women's perspectives on the HIV testing process are

Allison K. Groves; Suzanne Maman; Sibekezelo Msomi; Nduduzo Makhanya; Dhayendre Moodley

2010-01-01

128

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in first-void urine collected from men and women attending a venereal clinic.  

PubMed

Cervical, urethral and first-void urine (FVU) specimens from 196 men and 245 women attending a venereal outpatient clinic were studied by culture and a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (CHLAMYDIAZYME). Confirmatory chlamydial testing by a direct fluorescence assay (DFA) (MICROTRAK) was performed on the sediments of the positive EIA samples from culture-negative patients. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 11% of the men and 12% of the women. Of the women, 67% were positive in both sampling sites and 33% in the cervix only. No further cases were found when a female urethral swab was cultured. All the chlamydia-positive urine samples were obtained from women who were positive in the urethra. The denominator used to calculate sensitivities was the combination of patients with culture- and EIA-positive results which could be confirmed by DFA. The sensitivity of our culture method was 85% for men and 77% for women. In men, the sensitivity of EIA was greater on urine than on urethral specimens (77% vs 62%; p less than 0.1). In women, the sensitivity of EIA on urine was significantly poorer than that on cervical specimens (54% vs 85%, p less than 0.001). The specificity of EIA ranged between 94 and 100%. Our study suggests that it may be worth using FVU in a trial for the diagnosis of genital chlamydial infections in symptomatic men, but not in symptomatic women. PMID:2043357

Genç, M; Stary, A; Bergman, S; Mårdh, P A

1991-05-01

129

Antenatal group care in a midwifery group practice--a midwife' perspective.  

PubMed

The following article describes a midwife's experience in the adaption of the CenteringPregnancy model into her own group practice to provide education and support to the women in her care. Using personal experience and feedback from women and midwifery students the author describes not only the process of group care in her work context but the apparent benefits to women, families', midwifery students and herself. Antenatal group care was so successful for the author that it extended to postnatal group care and student group care, all well attended and sought after groups. This is an exciting and innovative way to provide care for women and families and the author encourages other midwives and group practices to consider how they can adapt and progress similar group care into their own practice. PMID:22464949

Maier, Belinda Jane

2013-03-01

130

Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasmosis among antenatal women in London: a re-examination of risk in an ethnically diverse population  

PubMed Central

Background: Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii in pregnancy can result in miscarriage, hydrocephalus, cerebral calcification and chorioretinitis in the newborn. The objective of our study was to evaluate seroprevalence of and analyse risk factors for toxoplasmosis in antenatal women from 2006 to 2008 in an ethnically diverse population of Central London to re-examine the need for a screening policy. Methods: We performed serum IgG estimations to T. gondii using a commercial kit, and analysed risk factors for acquisition using a questionnaire. Results: Seroprevalence for T. gondii was 17.32% in 2610 samples tested. In all, 67.7% were of UK origin (seroprevalence: 11.9%) and were significantly non-immune to T. gondii (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.31–0.47; P?

Flatt, Andrew

2013-01-01

131

Knowledge, awareness and attitudes about cervical cancer among women attending or not an HIV treatment center in Lao PDR  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is the first female cancer in Lao PDR, a low-income country with no national screening and prevention programs for this human papillomavirus (HPV) associated pathology. HIV-infected women have a higher risk of persistent oncogenic HPV infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge, awareness and attitudes about cervical cancer among Lao women attending or not an HIV treatment center, in order to understand if this attendance had offered an opportunity for information and prevention. Methods A cross-sectional case–control survey was conducted in three provinces of Lao PDR, Vientiane, Luang Prabang and Savannakhet. Cases were 320 women aged 25 to 65, living with HIV and followed in an HIV treatment center. Controls were 320 women matched for age and place of residence, not attending an HIV treatment center. Results Cases had a greater number of sexual partners and used condoms more often than controls. Only 36.6% of women had consulted a gynecologist (47.5% among cases and 25.6% among controls, p < 0.001) and 3.9% had benefited from at least one Pap smear screening (5.6% cases and 2.2% controls, p = 0.02). The average knowledge score was 3.5 on a 0 to 13 scale, significantly higher in cases than in controls (p < 0.0001). Despite having a lower education level and economic status, the women living with HIV had a better knowledge about cervical cancer and were more aware than the controls of the risk of developing such a cancer (35.9% vs. 8.4%, p = 0.0001). The main source of information was healthcare professionals. The main reasons for not undergoing Pap smear were the absence of symptoms and the default of medical injunction for cases, the lack of information and ignorance of screening usefulness for controls. Conclusion In Lao PDR, routine consultation in HIV treatment centers is not enough harnessed to inform women of their high risk of developing cervical cancer, and to perform screening testing and treatment of precancerous lesions. Implementing this cost-effective strategy could be the first step toward a national prevention program for cervical cancer.

2014-01-01

132

Prevalence and factors associated with use of herbal medicine among women attending an infertility clinic in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Infertility is a public health problem associated with devastating psychosocial consequences. In countries where infertility care is difficult to access, women turn to herbal medicines to achieve parenthood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with herbal medicine use by women attending the infertility clinic. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 260 women attending the infertility clinic at Mulago hospital. The interviewer administered questionnaire comprised socio-demographic characteristics, infertility-related aspects and information on herbal medicine use. The main outcome measure was herbal medicines use for infertility treatment. Determinants of herbal medicine use were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Results The majority (76.2%) of respondents had used herbal medicines for infertility treatment. The mean age of the participants was 28.3 years?±?5.5. Over 80% were married, 59.6% had secondary infertility and 2/3 of the married participants were in monogamous unions. In a multivariable model, the variables that were independently associated with increased use of herbal medicine among infertile patients were being married (OR 2.55, CI 1.24-5.24), never conceived (OR 4.08 CI 1.86-8.96) and infertility for less than 3 years (OR 3.52 CI 1.51-8.821). Factors that were associated with less use of herbal medicine among infertile women were being aged 30 years or less (OR 0.18 CI 0.07-0.46), primary and no education (OR 0.12 CI 0.05-0.46) and living with partner for less than three years (OR 0.39 CI 0.16-0.93). Conclusions The prevalence of herbal medicine use among women attending the infertility clinic was 76.2%. Herbal medicine use was associated with the participants’ age, level of education, marital status, infertility duration, nulliparity, and duration of marriage. Medical care was often delayed and the majority of the participants did not disclose use of herbal medicines to the attending physician. Health professionals should enquire about use of herbal medicines. This may help in educating the patients about the health risks of using herbal medicine and may reduce delays in seeking appropriate care. Collaboration of health professionals with herbal medicine practitioners would help identify the common herbal medicines used for infertility treatment, their potential benefits and harm.

2014-01-01

133

Socio-economic and ethnic group inequities in antenatal care quality in the public and private sector in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Socio-economic inequalities in maternal and child health are ubiquitous, but limited information is available on how much the quality of care varies according to wealth or ethnicity in low- and middle-income countries. Also, little information exists on quality differences between public and private providers. Methods Quality of care for women giving birth in 2004 in Pelotas, Brazil, was assessed by measuring how many of 11 procedures recommended by the Ministry of Health were performed. Information on family income, self-assessed skin colour, parity and type of provider were collected. Results Antenatal care was used by 98% of the 4244 women studied (mean number of visits 8.3), but the number of consultations was higher among better-off and white women, who were also more likely to start antenatal care in the first trimester. The quality of antenatal care score ranged from 0 to 11, with an overall mean of 8.3 (SD 1.7). Mean scores were 8.9 (SD 1.5) in the wealthiest and 7.9 (SD 1.8) in the poorest quintiles (P < 0.001), 8.4 (SD 1.6) in white and 8.1 (SD 1.9) in black women (P < 0.001). Adjusted analyses showed that these differences seemed to be due to attendance patterns rather than discrimination. Mean quality scores were higher in the private 9.3 (SD 1.3) than in the public sector 8.1 (SD 1.6) (P < 0.001); these differences were not explained by maternal characteristics or by attendance patterns. Conclusions Special efforts must be made to improve quality of care in the public sector. Poor and black women should be actively encouraged to start antenatal care early in pregnancy so that they can fully benefit from it. There is a need for regular monitoring of antenatal attendances and quality of care with an equity lens, in order to assess how different social groups are benefiting from progress in health care.

Victora, CG; Matijasevich, A; Silveira, MF; Santos, IS; Barros, AJD; Barros, FC

2010-01-01

134

The acceptability of routine inquiry about domestic violence towards women: a survey in three healthcare settings  

PubMed Central

Background Domestic violence is frequently only disclosed when healthcare staff directly inquire. Healthcare staff worry that inquiry may offend. Aim To identify the characteristics of women who find inquiry about domestic violence by healthcare staff unacceptable. Design of study Anonymous interview based cross-sectional study. Setting Three general practice surgeries, one antenatal clinic and one emergency department in Cambridge, England, with a total of 2306 women attending for health care. Method Cross-sectional survey. Results In total 1452 completed questionnaires were returned; response rate 63%. One hundred and twenty–two women (8.4%) indicated that they found inquiry by healthcare staff unacceptable. Women at the emergency department and GP surgeries were more likely to find inquiry unacceptable (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 9.9) and (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.3 to 11.5) respectively, than in the antenatal clinic. Women at the antenatal clinic reported lower rates of abuse within 1 year than at the emergency department or antenatal clinic. Abuse within 1 year was strongly associated with finding inquiry unacceptable (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.8 to 11.4), but not lifetime abuse (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.5 to 1.9). Conclusions Inquiry about domestic violence by healthcare staff is acceptable to most women. Acceptability is highest in women who have not been abused in the last year and who are attending the antenatal clinic. Women who attend the antenatal clinic have lower rates of abuse within 1 year.

Boyle, Adrian; Jones, Peter B

2006-01-01

135

Mycoplasma genitalium as a Contributor to the Multiple Etiologies of Cervicitis in Women Attending Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium, in women attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic, as well as the frequency of coinfections, and relationship of each organism to cervicitis. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 324 women attending Baltimore City STD Clinics, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium were detected using nucleic acid amplification tests. Demographic characteristics and risk factors were ascertained. Results Overall prevalence of infection with C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium was found to be 11.1%, 4.6%, 15.3%, and 19.2%, respectively. Prevalence in women with cervicitis was 15.8%, 6%, 18.9%, and 28.6% for C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and M. genitalium, respectively. Percentages of coinfections were high. C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were significantly associated with cervicitis in univariate analysis, but only M. genitalium was significantly associated with cervicitis (AOR: 2.5) in multiple logistic regression models. Conclusion Knowledge of the statistical association of M. genitalium with cervicitis in this study increases the need for further confirmation of the etiologic significance of this organism with cervicitis in more diverse populations. The high prevalence merits more study and may have implications for diagnosis and treatment of cervicitis.

Gaydos, Charlotte; Maldeis, Nancy E.; Hardick, Andrew; Hardick, Justin; Quinn, Thomas C.

2010-01-01

136

Antenatal and neonatal antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women and their infants: a review of safety issues.  

PubMed

Specific interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) include antiretroviral therapy, elective caesarean section and avoidance of breastfeeding. Rates of MTCT below 1-2% are now achievable in developed country settings. However, although the vast majority of infants born to HIV infected mothers are protected from acquisition of infection, most are exposed to antiretroviral drugs for which there is only limited information on toxicity. Increasing use of complex and potent combinations of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy, particularly during the period of organogenesis, has raised many questions relating to pregnancy outcome and safety issues for the exposed children, both in the short and longer term. A shorter duration of pregnancy has been reported to be associated with taking protease inhibitors in pregnancy, particularly prolonged and early use, but this has been an inconsistent finding. Risk of congenital abnormalities may be increased with exposure to specific antiretroviral drugs, such as efavirenz, and certain combinations of Pneumonia Pneumocystis Carinii (PCP) prophylaxis and antiretroviral drugs, but there is no evidence of an excess of congenital malformations associated with exposure to zidovudine prophylaxis. Although data from observational studies and follow-up of children enrolled in clinical trials have not shown uninfected, zidovudine-exposed children to be at increased risk of adverse events including cancer in the short- to medium-term, the possibility that they may be at risk of cancer at older ages cannot be excluded. Concerns regarding mitochondrial dysfunction in children with foetal/neonatal exposure to zidovudine have arisen following a report from France of eight uninfected children with mitochondrial dysfunction, of whom two died. However, there is limited additional evidence of clinically evident mitochondrial disease in children exposed to antiretroviral therapy in utero or neonatally, and the absence of any excess mortality in large observational cohort studies of children born to HIV infected women and exposed to antiretroviral drugs is reassuring. PMID:15010553

Thorne, Claire; Newell, Marie-Louise

2003-01-01

137

Women's preference for traditional birth attendants and modern health care practitioners in Akpabuyo community of Cross River State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The proportion of women who patronized traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or modern health care practitioners (MHCPs) was compared, including reasons for their choices. A comparative design was adopted to study 300 respondents selected through a multistage systematic random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was a validated 21-item structured questionnaire. We observed that 75 (25%) patronized and 80 (27%) preferred TBAs, and 206 (69%) patronized and 220 (75%) preferred MHCPs, while 19 (6%) patronized both. The view that TBAs prayed before conducting deliveries was supported by a majority 75 (94%) of the respondents who preferred them. Factors associated with preference for TBAs should be addressed. PMID:23980707

Akpabio, Idongesit I; Edet, Olaide B; Etifit, Rita E; Robinson-Bassey, Grace C

2014-01-01

138

Design and process of the EMA Cohort Study: the value of antenatal education in childbirth and breastfeeding  

PubMed Central

Background Antenatal education (AE) started more than 30 years ago with the purpose of decreasing pain during childbirth. Epidural anaesthesia has achieved this objective, and the value of AE is therefore currently questioned. This article describes the protocol and process of a study designed to assess AE results today. Methods/Design A prospective study was designed in which a cohort of 616 nulliparous pregnant women attending midwife offices of the Basque Health Service were followed for 13 months. Three exposure groups were considered based on the number of AE sessions attended: (a) women attending no session, (b) women attending 1 to 4, and (c) women attending 5 or more sessions. Sociodemographic, personality, and outcome variables related to childbirth and breastfeeding were measured. It was expected 40% of pregnant women not to have participated in any AE session. However, 93% had attended at least one session. This low exposure variability decreased statistical power of the study as compared to the initially planned power. Despite this, there was a greater than 80% power for detecting as significant differences between exposure groups of, for instance, 10% in continuation of breastfeeding at one and a half months and in visits for false labour. Women attending more sessions were seen to have a mean higher age and educational level, and to belong to a higher socioeconomic group (p < 0.01). Follow-up was completed in 99% of participants. Discussion Adequate prior estimation of variability in the exposure under study is essential for designing cohort studies. Sociodemographic characteristics may play a confounding role in studies assessing AE and should be controlled in design and analyses. Quality control during the study process and continued collaboration from both public system midwives and eligible pregnant women resulted in a negligible loss rate.

Paz-Pascual, Carmen; Pinedo, Isabel Artieta; Grandes, Gonzalo; de Gamboa, Gurutze Remiro Fernandez; Hermosilla, Itziar Odriozola; de la Hera, Amaia Bacigalupe; Gordon, Janire Payo; Garcia, Guadalupe Manzano; de Pedro, Magdalena Ureta

2008-01-01

139

Antenatal bartter syndrome.  

PubMed

Antenatal Bartter syndrome is characterized by severe polyhydramnios in mother leading to premature delivery. Antenatal treatment has proven effective to prevent these problems. Postnatally newborns suffer from recurrent episodes of severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance which can lead to fatal outcome. These manifestations are likely to be overlooked and missed under the umbrella of diagnosis of prematurity. This premature newborn with antenatal polyhydramnios had severe manifestations of polyuria, recurrent dehydration, electrolyte derangements and metabolic alkalosis. She was managed accordingly but unfortunately could not survive beyond 4 weeks. PMID:24906263

Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Ejaz A; Khan, Wisal A; Anwar, Viqas; Yaqoob, Asma; Rafiq, Shahid; Azam, Shaheena

2014-05-01

140

Risk factors for gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomonas infections among women attending family planning clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To identify the risk factors for gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomonas infections among low risk women in Nairobi, Kenya. METHOD--In a cross-sectional study, 4,404 women attending two peri-urban family planning clinics between 1989 and 1991 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and examined for signs of sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection. Cervical cultures for gonorrhoea, PAP smear (including microscopy for trichomonas), RPR and HIV testing were done. RESULTS--Positive cervical cultures for gonorrhoea were found in 3.2% of women, positive syphilis serology in 1.9%, and positive trichomonas microscopy in 5.2%. Genital ulcers were found in 1.9% of women. Although unmarried status and reporting more than one sex partner in the previous year were both significantly associated with each disease in the crude analysis, these associations were attenuated after controlling for each other and for other risk factors. The population attributable risks (PARs) for these factors were low (7-16%) owing to the high proportion of cases who were married and monogamous. The majority of women with microbiological evidence of infection had normal pelvic examinations. Clinical diagnostic algorithms for STDs in this population had a low sensitivity and positive predictive value. Nevertheless, a strong association between HIV seropositivity and STDs was observed. CONCLUSION--The low population attributable risks found in this study suggest that behaviour change messages directed to women, particularly if they are married have a low potential for preventing STDs. The poor performance of clinical diagnostic algorithms illustrates the desirability of testing these algorithms in a variety of populations and reinforces the need for low-cost methods of microbiologic diagnosis if populations with relatively low prevalences of these infections are to be included in programmes to diagnose and treat STDs.

Daly, C C; Maggwa, N; Mati, J K; Solomon, M; Mbugua, S; Tukei, P M; Hunter, D J

1994-01-01

141

Contraception matters: indicators of poor usage of contraception in sexually active women attending family planning clinics in Victoria, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Unintended pregnancy (mistimed or unwanted) remains an important health issue for women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with risk of unintended pregnancy in a sample of Victorian women attending family planning clinics. Methods This cross-sectional survey of three Family Planning Victoria Clinics from April to July 2011 recruited women aged 16-50 years with a male sexual partner in the last 3 months, and not intending to conceive. The questionnaire asked about contraceptive behaviours and important factors that influence contraception use (identified from a systematic literature review). Univariate analysis was calculated for the variables of interest for associations with contraceptive use. An overall multivariate model for being at risk for unintended pregnancy (due to inconsistent or ineffective contraceptive use or non-use) was calculated through backward elimination with statistical significance set at <0.05. Results 1006 surveys were analyzed with 96% of women reporting contraception use in the last 3 months. 37% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy due to imperfect use (61% inconsistent users; 31% ineffective methods) or never using contraception (8%). On multivariate analysis, women at risk for unintended pregnancy compared with women not at risk were <25 years old (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7); had no university/postgraduate degree (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4); and had >1 partner in the last 3 months (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.6). These women were dissatisfied with current contraception (OR 2.5, 95% 1.8-3.5); felt “vulnerable” to pregnancy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3.0); were not confident in contraceptive knowledge (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.8); were unable to stop to use contraception when aroused (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9) but were comfortable in speaking to a doctor about contraception (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.1). Conclusion Despite reported high contraceptive usage, nearly 40% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy primarily due to inconsistent contraceptive use and use of ineffective contraception. Strategies for improving consistency of effective contraception use or greater emphasis on long-acting contraception may be needed for certain subpopulations at higher risk for unintended pregnancy.

2012-01-01

142

Assessment of menopausal symptoms among women attending various outreach clinics in South Canara District of India  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Menopausal symptoms experienced by women are known to affect their quality-of-life. The symptoms experienced at menopause are quite variable and their etiology is found to be multifactorial. This study was hence done to assess the pattern and severity of menopausal symptoms and to find out the factors associated with these symptoms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in various outreach clinics of Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. Women in the age group of 40-65 years were included in the study by convenient sampling method. Data regarding menopausal symptom was obtained by interviewing each participant using the menopause rating scale questionnaire. Results: Mean age of the participants were 54.2 ± 7.2 years and mean age of attainment of menopause was 48.4 ± 4.5 years. Mean duration of menopause was found to be 7.5 ± 5.3 years. Commonest symptom reported was joint and muscular discomfort and physical and mental exhaustion seen in 94 (85.4%) participants. The mean number of symptoms reported by participants was 7.6 ± 2.8. Educated women reported significantly more symptoms (F = 2.218, P = 0.047). Somatic and urogenital symptoms were more among perimenopausal women and somatic symptoms were more among postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight (52.7%) participants had one or more severe symptoms. Severe symptoms were most among premenopausal women. Conclusion: The high proportion and severity of menopausal symptoms observed in this study group proves that menopausal symptoms are common and cannot be ignored. More of menopausal clinics are needed for awareness generation, early recognition and treatment of related morbidities.

Joseph, Nitin; Nagaraj, Kondagunta; Saralaya, Vittal; Nelliyanil, Maria; Rao, PP Jagadish

2014-01-01

143

[Accidents and violence among women attended in Sentinel Emergency Services--Brazil, 2009].  

PubMed

Accidents from external causes affect the human population in different ways. This article seeks to analyze emergency care for women who are victims of accidents and violence. Data from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents were analyzed. This study was carried out in 74 emergency units of 23 state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and included 6,965 women aged from 20-59 years. The age groups of 20-39 and 40-59 years were compared for the occurrence of accidents and violence. Accidents were more frequent among young black women (20-39 years) with more than nine years of schooling. The occurrence of violence was also prevalent in young black women but with less schooling. Falls were the most frequent accidents (38.6%), followed by traffic accidents. The occurrence of violence was more frequent in the home (p <0.000) and the mention of alcohol abuse among victims of violence was predominant. The most frequent type of violence was aggression (84.6%), in which the aggressor was male (79.1%) and identified as an intimate partner (44.1%). It is increasingly important that services are able to provide comprehensive and humanized care to the victims of this important public health problem. PMID:22996883

Rodrigues, Celeste de Souza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Godinho, Tatau; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves; Silva, Rurany Ester

2012-09-01

144

Maternal postoperative complications after nonobstetric antenatal surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective Our primary objective is to estimate the occurrence of major maternal 30 day postoperative complications after nonobstetric antenatal surgery. Methods We analyzed the 2005-2009 data files from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program to assess outcomes for pregnant women undergoing nonobstetric antenatal surgery during any trimester of pregnancy as classified by CPT-4 codes. T-tests, ?2, logistic regression and other tests were used to calculate composite 30-day major postoperative complications and associations of preoperative predictors with 30 day postoperative morbidity. Results The most common non-obstetric antenatal surgical procedure among the 1,969 included women was appendectomy (44.0%). The prevalence of composite 30-day major postoperative complications was 5.8% (n=115). This included (not exclusive categories): return to the surgical operating room within 30 days of surgery 3.6%, infectious morbidity 2.0%, wound morbidity 1.4%, 30 day respiratory morbidity 2.0%, venous thromboembolic event morbidity 0.5%, postoperative blood transfusion 0.2%, and maternal mortality 0.25%. Conclusion Major maternal postoperative complications following nonobstetric antenatal surgery were low (5.8%). Maternal postoperative mortality was rare (0.25%).

Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Brousseau, E. Christine; Dick, Madeline A.; Ciarleglio, Maria M.; Lockwood, Charles J.; Pettker, Christian M.

2013-01-01

145

Reproductive Tract Disorders among Afghan Refugee Women Attending Health Clinics in Haripur, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Afghans comprise one of the largest groups of refugees in the world, with the majority living in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify commonly-occurring reproductive tract infections (RTIs), describe knowledge of women about RTIs, and assess physical and behavioural factors contributing to the development of RTIs. Afghan women presenting at Basic Health Units in refugee camps in Haripur, Pakistan, with reproductive health-related complaints, were included in the study (n=634). Data collection included implementation of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, along with a physical examination and laboratory tests. A descriptive analysis was conducted first. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using predetermined themes. Chi-square test was used for determining the possible relationships between a binary outcome and categorical risk factors. Over three-fourths (76.7%) of those who reported to the health clinics with reproductive complaints had an RTI. Nearly half (49.5%) of these women were diagnosed with some form of vaginitis, and 14.7% were diagnosed with clinical suspicion of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Women with cervical prolapse (p=0.033) or who cleansed after intercourse (p=0.002) were more likely to have vaginitis. There was a significant difference (p=0.017) in the prevalence of suspected PID among women who used mud only (11.1%), any water (18.8%), and an old cloth or toilet paper (9.8%) for cleansing after defaecation. Specific physical and behavioural contributors to the high prevalence of RTIs in this population were identified, and recommendations to ameliorate these factors are offered.

Balsara, Z.P.; Wu, I.; Marsh, D.R.; Ihsan, A.T.; Nazir, R.; Owoso, E.; Robinson, C.

2010-01-01

146

A randomised controlled trial comparing two schedules of antenatal visits: the antenatal care project.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare the clinical and psychological effectiveness of the traditional British antenatal visit schedule (traditional care) with a reduced schedule of visits (new style care) for low risk women, together with maternal and professional satisfaction with care. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial. SETTING--Places in south east London providing antenatal care for women receiving shared care and planning to deliver in one of three hospitals or at home. SUBJECT--2794 women at low risk fulfilling the trial's inclusion criteria between June 1993 and July 1994. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Measures of fetal and maternal morbidity, health service use, psychosocial outcomes, and maternal and professional satisfaction. RESULTS--Pregnant women allocated to new style care had fewer day admissions (0.8 v 1.0; P=0.002) and ultrasound scans (1.6 v 1.7; P=0.003) and were less often suspected of carrying fetuses that were small for gestational age (odds ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.99). They also had some poorer psychosocial outcomes; for example, they were more worried about fetal wellbeing antenatally and coping with the baby postnatally, and they had more negative attitudes to their babies, both in pregnancy and postnatally. These women were also more dissatisfied with the number of visits they received (odds ratio 2.50; 2.00 to 3.11). CONCLUSIONS--Patterns of antenatal care involving fewer routine visits for women at low risk may lead to reduced psychosocial effectiveness and dissatisfaction with frequency of visits. The number of antenatal day admissions and ultrasound scans performed may also be reduced. For the variables reported, the visit schedules studied are similar in their clinical effectiveness. Uncertainty remains as to the clinical effectiveness of reduced visit schedules for rare pregnancy problems.

Sikorski, J.; Wilson, J.; Clement, S.; Das, S.; Smeeton, N.

1996-01-01

147

Pragmatic randomized trial of antenatal intervention to prevent post-natal depression by reducing psychosocial risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Social support theory and observational risk factor studies suggest that increased antenatal psychosocial support could prevent post-natal depression. We used empirical knowledge of risk and protective factors for post-natal depression not employed previously in order to develop and evaluate an antenatal preventive intervention. Methods. We conducted a pragmatic randomized controlled trial in antenatal clinics. We screened 1300 primiparous women

T. S. BRUGHA; S. WHEATLEY; N. A. TAUB; A. CULVERWELL; T. FRIEDMAN; P. KIRWAN; D. R. JONES; D. A. SHAPIRO

2000-01-01

148

The Prevalence and Outcome of Asymptomatic Chlamydial Infection Screening Among Infertile Women Attending Gynecological Clinic in Ibadan, South West Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Chlamydial trachomatis infection is the most common cause of tubal infertility among women world-wide. Serological diagnosis of Chlamydial infection that may suggest previous, persistent or on-going infection is now incorporated into routine pre-treatment evaluation of infertile women including assisted conception. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and predictors of asymptomatic Chlamydial infection screening among infertile women and also to compare the screening outcome with findings on hysterosalpingogram (HSG). Subjects and Methods: This was an observational study conducted among 132 infertile women that were attending Adeoyo Maternity Hospital Ibadan. A total volume of 2-3 ml of venous blood was collected for Chlamydia serology using ImmunoComb Bivalent immunoglobulin G kit (Code 50416002) and the results were compared with their HSG. Other information collected was socio-demographics and clinical parameters. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate tests were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0 (Chicago, IL USA) and statistical significance was set at (P < 0.05). Results: A total of 130 women were studied with a mean age of 31.6 years (standard deviation = 4.7). Majority - 72.0% (95/132) - had been infertile for 5 years or less. The prevalence of Chlamydial trachomatis was 20.5% (27/132). Bivariate analysis between the biosocial variables and serology result showed a significant association with education (P < 0.01) and religion (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that Muslim women were 3.6 times more likely than Christians to have positive Chlamydial serology result (95% confidence interval odds ratio = 1.18-11.11). Of those with HSG result (64), the accuracy of the test kit showed low sensitivity - 44.2% (19/43) and negative predictive value 40.0% (16/40) (but, high specificity - 76.2%(16/21), and positive predictive value - 79.2% (19/24). Conclusion: Asymptomatic Chlamydial infection is common among infertile women and it positively predict HSG blockage. The serological test may prove invaluable in predicting the presence of tubal blockage; therefore, prophylactic antibiotics may be justified to be included in their care.

Morhason-Bello, IO; Ojengbede, OA; Oladokun, A; Adedokun, BO; Ajayi, A; Adeyanju, AA; Ogundepo, O; Kareem, OI

2014-01-01

149

Assessment of peer-based and structural strategies for increasing male participation in an antenatal setting in Lilongwe, Malawi.  

PubMed

In sub-Saharan Africa, although male involvement in antenatal care is associated with positive outcomes for HIV-infected women and their infants, men rarely accompany female partners. We implemented a project to increase the number of male partners attending an antenatal clinic at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. We evaluated changes in the proportion of women who came with a partner over three periods. During period 1 (January 2007 - June 2008) there was didactic peer education. During period 2 (July 2008 - September 2009) a peer-led male-involvement drama was introduced into patient waiting areas. During period 3 (October 2009 - December 2009) changes to clinical infrastructure were introduced to make the clinic more male-friendly. The proportion of women attending ANC with a male partner increased from 0.7% to 5.7%, to 10.7% over the three periods. Peer education through drama and male-friendly hospital infrastructure coincided with substantially greater male participation, although further gains are necessary. PMID:25022146

Mphonda, Steve M; Rosenberg, Nora E; Kamanga, Esmie; Mofolo, Innocent; Mwale, Gertrude; Boa, Edson; Mwale, Mwawi; Martinson, Francis; Hoffman, Irving; Hosseinipour, Mina C

2014-06-01

150

High-Grade Cervical Lesions Among Women Attending A Reference Clinic In Brazil: Associated Factors And Comparison Among Screening Methods  

PubMed Central

Background Although screening for cervical cancer is recommended for women in most countries, the incidence of cervical cancer is greater in developing countries. Our goal was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with high-grade lesions/cervical cancer among women attending a reference clinic in Brazil and evaluate the correlation of histology with cytology, colposcopy and the high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) tests. Methods A cross-sectional study of women attending a colposcopy clinic was carried out. The patients were interviewed to collect demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. Specimens were collected for cervical cytology, Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV testing using the Hybrid Capture (HC) and PCR tests. Colposcopy was performed for all patients and biopsy for histology when cell abnormalities or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were present. Results A total of 291 women participated in the study. The median age was 38 years (DIQ: 30–48 years). The prevalence of histologically confirmed high-grade lesions/cervical cancer was 18.2% (95%, CI: 13.8%–22.6%), with 48 (16.5%) cases of CIN-2/CIN-3 and 5 (1.7%) cases of invasive carcinoma. In the final logistic regression model, for ages between 30 and 49 years old [OR?=?4.4 (95%: 1.01–19.04), history of smoking [OR?=?2.4 (95%, CI: 1.14–5.18)], practice of anal intercourse [OR?=?2.4 (95%, CI: 1.10–5.03)] and having positive HC test for HR-HPV [OR?=?11.23 (95%, CI: 4 0.79–26, 36)] remained independently associated with high-grade lesions/cervical cancer. A total of 64.7% of the cases CIN-3\\Ca in situ were related to HPV-16. Non-oncogenic HPV were only found in CIN-1 biopsy results. Compared to histology, the sensitivity of cytology was 31.8%, the specificity 95.5%; the sensitivity of colposcopy for high-grade lesions/cervical cancer was 51.0%, specificity was 91.4% and the concordance with HPV testing was high. Conclusions The results confirm an association of HR-HPV with precursor lesions for cervical cancer. These data emphasize that cytological screening to detect precursor lesions is still important in some regions and that HR-HPV should be included for screening.

Boldrini, Neide T.; Freitas, Luciana B.; Coutinho, Amanda R.; Loureiro, Flavia Z.; Spano, Liliana C.; Miranda, Angelica E.

2014-01-01

151

Chlamydia Positivity Trends Among Women Attending Family Planning Clinics: United States, 2004-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Annual chlamydia screening is recommended for all sexually active women aged <25 years. Substantial limitations exist in ascertaining chlamydia trends. Reported case rates have increased likely due to increased screening and improved test technology. Other data suggest that prevalence has decreased. Methods Data from the Infertility Prevention Project (IPP), a national chlamydia screening program, were used to assess trends in chlamydia positivity from 2004 to 2008 among women aged 15 to 24 years who were tested in family planning clinics reporting data to IPP. Using the clinic as the unit of analysis, a correlated, longitudinal data analysis with a random intercept was conducted among clinics reporting ?3 years of data during the analysis time-frame. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address the impact of various clinic participation levels in addition to the assessment of various correlation structures. Results Over 5 million chlamydia tests were reported to IPP family planning clinics from 2004 to 2008. A majority of tests were conducted among white women (clinic-specific mean: 63.2%, inter-quartile range: 37.6%–91.5%); the clinic-specific mean percent of tests conducted among black women was 17.9% (interquartile range: 0.8%–25.7%). Overall chlamydia positivity from 2004 to 2008 was 7.0%. The odds ratio associated with a single year change (1.00; 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.00) suggested that chlamydia positivity did not change from 2004 to 2008, after controlling for clinic-specific population factors (age, race, test usage, and geography). Conclusions Findings support previous analyses suggesting that chlamydia prevalence is not increasing despite apparent increasing rates based on case reports.

Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Grier, LaZetta; Patzer, Rachel; Weinstock, Hillard; Howards, Penelope P.; Kleinbaum, David

2014-01-01

152

Status of HIV infection among the pregnant women attending in outpatient department.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been spreading rapidly in the developing countries and vertical transmission also taking place. This study has been done to find out the prevalence of HIV infection among the pregnant women, so that necessity of routine screening test can be identified. It is a cross sectional study. Five hundred two pregnant women were included. Three ml venous blood was taken and then HIV screening test was done by ELISA method. All reactive tests were confirmed by Western blot antibody testing. The positive cases were followed up and necessary treatment was given. Delivery was conducted in this hospital. Baby's blood was tested to see vertical transmission after 18 months. Most of the subject were educated housewife, mean age was 25 years. Six (6%) husband was overseas service holder, 12% were smoker and 1.6% had drug addiction. Eight (8%) subject had previous history of blood transfusion and 49% subject or her husband had history of surgery or got parental therapy. 2% subject gave the history of familial disharmony and 2% had multiple sex partners. HIV infection was found in 2 patients (0.4%). Both of them got infection from their husband. One husband was over seas service holder and another one was injecting drug user. For the prevention of spread, reduction of vertical transmission and providing early management to the positive patient all pregnant women should be screened for HIV routinely. PMID:21240164

Khanam, N N; Hussain, M A; Ferdous, J; Kulsum, S U; Alam, H; Chakma, B; Zabin, F

2011-01-01

153

Sex trade among young women attending family-planning clinics in Northern California  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the prevalence and nature of sex trade in a clinic-based sample of young women and to evaluate associations with sexual and reproductive health. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with women aged 16–29 years (n=1277) presenting to family-planning clinics in Northern California, USA. Results Overall, 8.1% of respondents indicated a lifetime history of trading sex for money or other resources. Sex trade was associated with unintended pregnancy (adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.48), multiple abortions (ARR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.19–2.23), STI diagnosis (ARR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.27–1.68), and unwanted sex (vaginal ARR 3.64; 95% CI, 2.39–5.56; anal ARR 4.99; 95% CI, 2.17–11.50). Of the women ever involved in sex trade, 12 (37.3%) reported that their first such experience was before they were 18 years of age. Conclusion Approximately 1 in 12 participants had been involved in sex trade, illustrating the presence of patients with this history within the family-planning clinical setting. Sex trade was associated with multiple indicators of poor sexual and reproductive health. Family-planning clinics may represent an underused mechanism for engaging this high-risk population.

Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

2012-01-01

154

Antenatal exercise in overweight and obese women and its effects on offspring and maternal health: design and rationale of the IMPROVE (Improving Maternal and Progeny Obesity Via Exercise) randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for the offspring and mother. Lifestyle interventions in pregnancy such as antenatal exercise, are proposed to improve both short- and long-term health of mother and child. We hypothesise that regular moderate-intensity exercise during the second half of pregnancy will result in improved maternal and offspring outcomes, including a reduction in birth weight and adiposity in the offspring, which may be protective against obesity in later life. Methods/Design The IMPROVE (Improving Maternal and Progeny Risks of Obesity Via Exercise) study is a two-arm parallel randomised controlled clinical trial being conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Overweight and obese women (BMI ?25 kg/m2) aged 18–40 years, with a singleton pregnancy of <20 weeks of gestation, from the Auckland region, are eligible for the trial. Exclusion criteria are ongoing smoking or medical contra-indications to antenatal exercise. Participants are randomised with 1:1 allocation ratio to either intervention or control group, using computer-generated randomisation sequences in variable block sizes, stratified on ethnicity and parity, after completion of baseline assessments. The intervention consists of a 16-week structured home-based moderate-intensity exercise programme utilising stationary cycles and heart rate monitors, commencing at 20 weeks of gestation. The control group do not receive any exercise intervention. Both groups undergo regular fetal ultrasonography and receive standard antenatal care. Due to the nature of the intervention, participants are un-blinded to group assignment during the trial. The primary outcome is offspring birth weight. Secondary offspring outcomes include fetal and neonatal body composition and anthropometry, neonatal complications and cord blood metabolic markers. Maternal outcomes include weight gain, pregnancy and delivery complications, aerobic fitness, quality of life, metabolic markers and post-partum body composition. Discussion The results of this trial will provide valuable insights on the effects of antenatal exercise on health outcomes in overweight and obese mothers and their offspring. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000932864.

2014-01-01

155

Factors influencing attendance in a structured physical activity program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in an urban setting: a mixed methods process evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women experience higher rates of obesity, chronic disease, and are less active than non-Indigenous Australian women. Lifestyle programs designed to increase physical activity and encourage healthy eating are needed to ameliorate this disparity. The aim of this study was to identify participants’ perceived barriers and enablers to attend group exercise classes as part of a 12-week fitness program. Methods To understand the factors that influence attendance, a mixed method process evaluation was undertaken in which a quantitative measure of attendance in the group exercise classes was used to identify cases for further qualitative investigation. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women aged 18 to 64 years were recruited to a research trial of a fitness program. The 12-week program included two 60-minute group exercise classes per week, and four nutrition education workshops. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at program completion. Participants were stratified by attendance, and interviews from the highest and lowest 25 percentiles analysed. Rigour was strengthened through use of multiple data analysts, member checking and prolonged engagement in the field. Results Analyses of the post-program interviews revealed that participants enrolled in the program primarily for the perceived health benefits and all (with one exception) found the program met their needs and expectations. The atmosphere of classes was positive and comfortable and they reported developing good relationships with their fellow participants and program staff. Low attendees described more barriers to attendance, such as illness and competing work and family obligations, and were more likely to report logistical issues, such as inconvenient venue or class times. Conclusions Attendance to the ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women’s Fitness Program’ was primarily influenced by the participant’s personal health, logistics and competing obligations. Low attendees reported more barriers during the 12-week period and identified fewer enabling factors than high attendees. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000224022

2013-01-01

156

Trends of HIV-1, HIV-2 and dual infection in women attending outpatient clinics in Senegal, 1990-2009  

PubMed Central

Summary We assessed trends in the relative prevalences of HIV-1, HIV-2 and dual HIV-1/HIV-2 infection in 10,321 women attending outpatient clinics in Senegal between 1990 and 2009. The relative prevalence of HIV-1 (defined as the proportion of seropositive subjects having HIV-1) rose sharply from 38% in 1990 until 1993 (P < 0.001), whereupon it continued to rise, but at a slower rate, reaching 72% of HIV infections in 2009. As compared with HIV-1, the relative prevalence of HIV-2 decreased sharply from 54% in 1990 until 1993 (P < 0.001) and continued to decrease at a slower rate through 2009. The relative prevalence of dual infection, as compared with HIV-1, was stable from 1990 to 1993, but decreased slightly thereafter (P < 0.001). These study findings indicate that during the early 1990s, the relative prevalence of HIV-1 increased markedly, while the relative prevalence of HIV-2 decreased and the relative prevalence of dual infection remained stable in Senegal. From 1993 to 2009, the relative prevalence of HIV-1 increased at a slower rate, while the relative prevalences of HIV-2 and dual infection decreased. These results confirm trends in HIV prevalence observed in other West African populations and provide a critical update on HIV transmission risk among women in Senegal.

Heitzinger, K; Sow, P S; Badiane, N M Dia; Gottlieb, G S; N'Doye, I; Toure, M; Kiviat, N B; Hawes, S E

2013-01-01

157

Major depressive disorder and response to citalopram treatment in women attending menopause clinic.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION The authors investigated the prevalence of depressive disorders and response to citalopram among perimenopausal women visiting menopause clinics. METHOD One hundred and eighty-five consecutive outpatients were screened using the short Beck Depression Inventory. A psychiatrist investigated persons who showed medium or severe Beck depression. In the case of DSM-IV major depressive episode, a 6-week open trial with citalopram (20-40 mg daily) was started. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) measured the severity of depression at baseline and at weeks 3 and 6. The primary outcome measure was the rate of responders at weeks 3 and 6 (more than 50% drop in the total HDRS score at weeks 3 and 6 compared to baseline). RESULTS Of the 185 consecutive outpatients screened, 48 (26%) have experienced medium or severe Beck depression, and 37 of them (20%) had DSM-IV major depression. Citalopram was started in 30 patients (daily doses ranged from 20 to 40 mg) and 21 (70%) finished the trial. The rate of responders at week 3 was 7/22 (32%) and at week 6 was 13/21 (62%). CONCLUSIONS Depressive disorders are common among perimenopausal women visiting menopause clinics, and the majority of those with depression respond well to citalopram. Interdisciplinary cooperation is the key point of the detection and follow up of these patients. PMID:24930413

Bels?, Nóra; Kiss, Kitty; Rihmer, Zoltán; Tüzk?, Nándor; Tóth, Sándor János; Paulin, Ferenc

2003-01-01

158

Laparoscopic findings of subfertile women attended in a tertiary level care centre.  

PubMed

This retrospective study was done in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Bangladesh Medical College hospital during the period of July 2003 to June 2004 in the women suffering from primary and secondary subfertility, who underwent laparoscopy. The aim of this study was to see the laparoscopic findings of internal genitalia and other pelvic structures in subfertile women. The study group comprises 55 cases of which 67.37% of primary and 32.73% were of secondary subfertility. Both the ovaries were normal looking in 41.81% cases. Endometriosis was present in 5.45% of both the ovaries. Corpus luteum was seen in 20% cases on right ovary and in 27.27% cases on left ovary. Laparoscopy shows normal looking fallopian tube in 65.45% cases in right side and 61.81% cases in the left side. Right sided tubal block was in 5.46% and 9.10 % in the left side. Both the tubes were patent in 81.6% cases. PMID:23982536

Deeba, F; Alam, M M; Islam, M R; Matin, A; Khan, R; Ava, N N

2013-07-01

159

Effect of early oral clindamycin on late miscarriage and preterm delivery in asymptomatic women with abnormal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Abnormal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis are associated with amplified risks of late miscarriage and spontaneous preterm delivery. We aimed to establish whether antibiotic treatment early in the second trimester might reduce these risks in a general obstetric population. Methods We screened 6120 pregnant women attending hospital for their first antenatal visit—who were at 12-22 weeks' gestation (mean

Austin Ugwumadu; Isaac Manyonda; Fiona Reid; Phillip Hay

2003-01-01

160

Antenatal and obstetric care in Afghanistan - a qualitative study among health care receivers and health care providers  

PubMed Central

Background Despite attempts from the government to improve ante- and perinatal care, Afghanistan has once again been labeled “the worst country in which to be a mom” in Save the Children’s World’s Mothers’ Report. This study investigated how pregnant women and health care providers experience the existing antenatal and obstetric health care situation in Afghanistan. Methods Data were obtained through one-to-one semi-structured interviews of 27 individuals, including 12 women who were pregnant or had recently given birth, seven doctors, five midwives, and three traditional birth attendants. The interviews were carried out in Kabul and the village of Ramak in Ghazni Province. Interviews were taped, transcribed, and analyzed according to the principles of Giorgi’s phenomenological analysis. Results Antenatal care was reported to be underused, even when available. Several obstacles were identified, including a lack of knowledge regarding the importance of antenatal care among the women and their families, financial difficulties, and transportation problems. The women also reported significant dissatisfaction with the attitudes and behavior of health personnel, which included instances of verbal and physical abuse. According to the health professionals, poor working conditions, low salaries, and high stress levels contributed to this matter. Personal contacts inside the hospital were considered necessary for receiving high quality care, and bribery was customary. Despite these serious concerns, the women expressed gratitude for having even limited access to health care, especially treatment provided by a female doctor. Health professionals were proud of their work and enjoyed the opportunity to help their community. Conclusion This study identified several obstacles which must be addressed to improve reproductive health in Afghanistan. There was limited understanding of the importance of antenatal care and a lack of family support. Financial and transportation problems led to underuse of available care, especially by poorly educated rural women. Patients frequently complained of being treated disrespectfully, and health care providers correspondingly complained about poor working conditions leading to exhaustion and a lack of compassion. Widespread corruption, including the necessity of personal contacts inside hospitals, was also emphasized as an obstacle to equitable antenatal and obstetric health care.

2013-01-01

161

Proposed Framework for Making Focused Antenatal Care Services Accessible: A Review of the Nigerian Setting  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to propose a framework for making antenatal care an effective strategy in reducing the high maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria. On-site visits to five teaching hospitals were carried out between 2006 and 2008 to assess the practice of antenatal care. Group discussions with 200 parturients on their awareness of birth preparedness/complication readiness were conducted, in October, 2008. The findings of this study are discussed in line with the proposed practice of focused antenatal care. The practice of antenatal care in all the hospitals visited was the traditional approach based on earlier European models. Awareness of birth preparedness/complication readiness, by parturients, as a goal-directed intervention during antenatal care was low (21.5%). To reduce maternal deaths through antenatal care, it is critical to link care with detecting and treating causes of maternal mortality by a skilled attendant.

Ekabua, John; Ekabua, Kufre; Njoku, Charles

2011-01-01

162

Proposed framework for making focused antenatal care services accessible: a review of the nigerian setting.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to propose a framework for making antenatal care an effective strategy in reducing the high maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria. On-site visits to five teaching hospitals were carried out between 2006 and 2008 to assess the practice of antenatal care. Group discussions with 200 parturients on their awareness of birth preparedness/complication readiness were conducted, in October, 2008. The findings of this study are discussed in line with the proposed practice of focused antenatal care. The practice of antenatal care in all the hospitals visited was the traditional approach based on earlier European models. Awareness of birth preparedness/complication readiness, by parturients, as a goal-directed intervention during antenatal care was low (21.5%). To reduce maternal deaths through antenatal care, it is critical to link care with detecting and treating causes of maternal mortality by a skilled attendant. PMID:22263112

Ekabua, John; Ekabua, Kufre; Njoku, Charles

2011-01-01

163

mRNA and DNA Detection of Human Papillomaviruses in Women of All Ages Attending Two Colposcopy Clinics  

PubMed Central

Objective HPV infection is a common finding, especially in young women while the majority of infections are cleared within a short time interval. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of HPV DNA and mRNA testing in a population attending colposcopy units of two University hospitals. Methods 1173 liquid based cervical samples from two colposcopy clinics were tested for HPV DNA positivity using a commercial typing kit and HPV E6/E7 mRNA positivity with a flow cytometry based commercial kit. Statistic measures were calculated for both molecular tests and morphological cytology and colposcopy diagnosis according to histology results. Results HPV DNA, high-risk HPV DNA, HPV16 or 18 DNA and HPV mRNA was detected in 55.5%, 50.6%, 20.1% and 29.7% of the cervical smears respectively. Concordance between the DNA and the mRNA test was 71.6% with their differences being statistically significant. Both tests’ positivity increased significantly as lesion grade progressed and both displayed higher positivity rates in samples from women under 30 years old. mRNA testing displayed similar NPV, slightly lower sensitivity but significantly higher specificity and PPV than DNA testing, except only when DNA positivity for either HPV16 or 18 was used. Conclusions Overall mRNA testing displayed higher clinical efficacy than DNA testing, either when used as a reflex test or as an ancillary test combined with morphology. Due to enhanced specificity of mRNA testing and its comparable sensitivity in ages under 25 or 30 years old, induction of mRNA testing in young women could be feasible if a randomized trial verifies these results.

Spathis, Aris; Kottaridi, Christine; Chranioti, Aikaterini; Meristoudis, Christos; Chrelias, Charalambos; Panayiotides, Ioannis G.; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Karakitsos, Petros

2012-01-01

164

Racial Identity Attitudes, Womanist Identity Attitudes, and Self-Esteem in African American College Women Attending Historically Black Single-Sex and Coeducational Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines racial identity attitudes, womanist identity attitudes, and self-esteem of 111 African American college women attending two historically Black higher educational institutions, one coeducational and one single-sex. The major findings indicate that pre-encounter and encounter attitudes of racial and womanist identity are…

Watt, Sherry Kay

2006-01-01

165

Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy: a qualitative study of knowledge, attitudes and practices of district health managers, antenatal care staff and pregnant women in Korogwe District, North-Eastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) is a key intervention in the national strategy for malaria control in Tanzania. SP, the current drug of choice, is recommended to be administered in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy during antenatal care (ANC) visits. To allow for a proper design of planned scaling up of IPT services in Tanzania it is useful to understand the IPTp strategy's acceptability to health managers, ANC service providers and pregnant women. This study assesses the knowledge, attitudes and practices of these groups in relation to malaria control with emphasis on IPTp services. Methods The study was conducted in February 2004, in Korogwe District, Tanzania. It involved in-depth interviews with the district medical officer (DMO), district hospital medical officer in charge and relevant health service staff at two peripheral dispensaries, and separate focus group discussions (FGDs) with district Council Health Management Team members at district level and pregnant women at dispensary and community levels. Results Knowledge of malaria risks during pregnancy was high among pregnant women although some women did not associate coma and convulsions with malaria. Contacting traditional healers and self-medication with local herbs for malaria management was reported to be common. Pregnant women and ANC staff were generally aware of SP as the drug recommended for IPTp, albeit some nurses and the majority of pregnant women expressed concern about the use of SP during pregnancy. Some pregnant women testified that sometimes ANC staff allow the women to swallow SP tablets at home which gives a room for some women to throw away SP tablets after leaving the clinic. The DMO was sceptical about health workers' compliance with the direct observed therapy in administering SP for IPTp due to a shortage of clean water and cups at ANC clinics. Intensified sensitization of pregnant women about the benefits of IPTp was suggested by the study participants as an important approach for improving IPTp compliance. Conclusion The successful implementation of the IPTp strategy in Tanzania depends on the proper planning of, and support to, the training of health staff and sustained sensitization of pregnant women at health facility and community levels about the benefits of IPTp for the women and their unborn babies.

Mubyazi, Godfrey; Bloch, Paul; Kamugisha, Mathias; Kitua, Andrew; Ijumba, Jasper

2005-01-01

166

Individual-level predictors for HIV testing among antenatal attendees in Lusaka, Zambia.  

PubMed

Despite the availability of antiretroviral prophylaxis, roughly one-fifth of public-sector antenatal patients decline HIV testing in Lusaka, Zambia. We administered a survey to determine individual-level predictors of HIV testing. Of 1064 antenatal attendees approached after pretest counseling, 1060 (>99%) participated. Of these, 686 (65%) agreed to HIV testing. On bivariate analysis controlling for clinic of attendance, women younger than 20 years old (adjusted RR [ARR] = 1.14), unmarried (ARR = 1.14), pregnant for the first time (ARR = 1.14), with lower educational attainment (ARR = 1.15), and with lower income (ARR = 1.14) were all more likely to undergo testing. When HIV risk was considered, women with low self-perceived risk were most likely to undergo HIV testing. As risk perception increased, likelihood for testing decreased (P for trend < 0.001). Although not statistically predictive, we identified prevalent community beliefs that may act as barriers to testing. Because individual-level characteristics were only weakly predictive of HIV testing, future work should concentrate on community-level factors. PMID:16845236

Thierman, Sara; Chi, Benjamin H; Levy, Jens W; Sinkala, Moses; Goldenberg, Robert L; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

2006-07-01

167

Repeated courses of antenatal corticosteroids: are there effects on the infant's auditory brainstem responses?  

PubMed

Our objective was to assess the effects of repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatments on the neonatal auditory brainstem response (ABR), a sensitive measure of neonatal brain maturity and auditory function. To achieve this, we performed and blindly evaluated neonatal ABRs on a subset of infants delivering within a multicenter randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing single versus repeated courses of antenatal corticosteroid treatments for women at 23-31 weeks gestation who remained at increased risk for preterm birth. The women were randomly assigned to either the single or the repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatment group. Women in the repeated antenatal corticosteroid group received weekly antenatal corticosteroid treatments until 34 weeks gestation or until they reached a study-determined limited number of courses, whereas women in the single antenatal corticosteroid group received an initial course of corticosteroid followed by weekly placebo injections. We performed ABR testing on their infants prior to discharge. The latencies of waves I, III and V and the peak-to-trough amplitudes of waves I and V were compared between those in the single (n=27) and repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatment (n=24) groups. The majority of repeated antenatal corticosteroid infants (20 of 24) were exposed to ? 4 antenatal corticosteroid treatments. Even though gestational age was similar between our subset of single and repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatment groups, infant birth weight and length and head circumference were significantly smaller in the repeated antenatal corticosteroid group (p <0.05). Despite these differences in birth sizes, there were no significant group differences in the ABR wave latencies or amplitudes. We concluded that our repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatments, in comparison to a single treatment, did not significantly benefit or harm the neonatal ABR despite significant effects on birth size. PMID:20553856

Church, Michael W; Wapner, Ronald J; Mele, Lisa M; Johnson, Francee; Dudley, Donald J; Spong, Catherine Y; Peaceman, Alan M; Moawad, Atef H; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Miodovnik, Menachem

2010-01-01

168

Trends in antenatal HIV prevalence in urban Uganda associated with uptake of preventive sexual behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiological surveillance in Uganda has consistently shown declining HIV prevalence particularly among young antenatal women since the early 1990s, correlated with increased uptake of protective sexual behaviour.Objective: To describe trends in sexual behaviour nationwide and antenatal HIV prevalence from urban sentinel sites in Uganda (1989–2002).Methods: Review of antenatal HIV seroprevalence data from the sentinel surveillance system (1989–2002) and data

W L Kirungi; J Musinguzi; E Madraa; N Mulumba; T Callejja; P Ghys; R Bessinger

2006-01-01

169

Co-Occurring Psychosocial Problems and HIV Risk Among Women Attending Drinking Venues in a South African Township: A Syndemic Approach  

PubMed Central

Background In South Africa, women comprise the majority of HIV infections. Syndemics, or co-occurring epidemics and risk factors, have been applied to understanding HIV risk among marginalized groups. Purpose To apply the syndemic framework to examine psychosocial problems that co-occur among women attending drinking venues in South Africa, and to test how the co-occurrence of these problems may exacerbate risk for HIV infection. Method 560 women from a Cape Town township provided data on multiple psychosocial problems, including food insufficiency, depression, abuse experiences, problem drinking, and sexual behaviors. Results Bivariate associations among the syndemic factors showed a high degree of co-occurrence and regression analyses showed an additive effect of psychosocial problems on HIV risk behaviors. Conclusions These results demonstrate the utility of a syndemic framework to understand co-occurring psychosocial problems among women in South Africa. HIV prevention interventions should consider the compounding effects of psychosocial problems among women.

Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

2012-01-01

170

Antenatal Depression: A Rationale for Studying Exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in pregnancy, or antenatal depression poses unique treatment challenges and has serious consequences for mothers, unborn babies, and families when untreated. This review presents current knowledge on exercise during pregnancy, antidepressant effects of exercise, and the rationale for the specific study of exercise for antenatal depression. Method A systematic literature review was performed using English language articles published in Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1985 to January 2010. Results There is a broad literature supporting the antidepressant effects of exercise, but a paucity of studies specifically for antenatal depression. A small number of observational studies have reported that regular physical activities improve self-esteem and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. To date, there have not been randomized controlled studies of exercise for the treatment of MDD in pregnant women. Conclusions Systematic studies are needed to assess exercise as a treatment alternative for MDD during pregnancy. In consideration of the benefits of exercise for the mother and baby, and the burden of depression, studies are needed to determine the role of exercise for pregnant women with depression.

Shivakumar, Geetha; Brandon, Anna R.; Snell, Peter G.; Santiago-Munoz, Patricia; Johnson, Neysa L.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Freeman, Marlene P.

2010-01-01

171

Assessing the effectiveness of a patient-driven partner notification strategy among pregnant women infected with syphilis in Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAssess the feasibility and acceptability of a patient-led syphilis partner notification strategy among pregnant women with syphilis, their male partners and treatment completion in Bolivia.MethodsIn four provinces, women who had tested positive for syphilis while attending antenatal care visits were recruited to receive a partner notification (PN) intervention on how to notify partners of their positive diagnosis and encourage them

Claudia Díaz Olavarrieta; Jorge Valencia; Kate Wilson; Sandra G García; Freddy Tinajeros; Tahilin Sanchez

2011-01-01

172

Common mental disorders during pregnancy: prevalence and associated factors among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and factors associated with these disorders among pregnant women\\u000a of low socio-economic status (SES) in São Paulo. We performed a cross-sectional study with 831 women in their 20th to 30th\\u000a weeks of pregnancy, who were attending antenatal clinics in primary care in São Paulo, Brazil. CMD were assessed with the\\u000a Clinical

Alexandre Faisal-Cury; Paulo Menezes; Ricardo Araya; Marcelo Zugaib

2009-01-01

173

Ovine Fetal Thymus Response to Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Chorioamnionitis and Antenatal Corticosteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleChorioamnionitis is associated with preterm delivery and involution of the fetal thymus. Women at risk of preterm delivery receive antenatal corticosteroids which accelerate fetal lung maturation and improve neonatal outcome. However, the effects of antenatal corticosteroids on the fetal thymus in the settings of chorioamnionitis are largely unknown. We hypothesized that intra-amniotic exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes involution of the

Elke Kuypers; Jennifer J. P. Collins; Reint K. Jellema; Tim G. A. M. Wolfs; Matthew W. Kemp; Ilias Nitsos; J. Jane Pillow; Graeme R. Polglase; John P. Newnham; Wilfred T. V. Germeraad; Suhas G. Kallapur; Alan H. Jobe; Boris W. Kramer

2012-01-01

174

Awareness of critical danger signs of pregnancy and delivery, preparations for delivery, and utilization of skilled birth attendants in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Maternal mortality in northern Nigeria is among the highest in the world. To understand better the pathways through which the socio-demographic environment affects awareness of obstetric danger signs (i.e., potential problems associated with pregnancy), preparations for delivery, and skilled birth attendance, we conducted a survey of 5,083 women with recent pregnancies in three northern Nigerian states. Only 25% attended antenatal care (ANC), and 91% of all births took place at home. Less than one-third knew three or more danger signs of pregnancy or labor and delivery. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with knowledge of danger signs, but not with knowledge of life-threatening, critical danger signs. Antenatal care visits did not increase knowledge of critical danger signs, but they were associated with skilled birth attendance. Knowledge of critical pregnancy danger signs also was associated with skilled birth attendance. Improving the quality and coverage of ANC will ensure greater awareness of the critical danger signs. Future research is needed to identify creative and innovative ways to strengthen strategies for educating pregnant women about danger signs and in facilitating uptake of delivery services. PMID:23377725

Doctor, Henry V; Findley, Sally E; Cometto, Giorgio; Afenyadu, Godwin Y

2013-02-01

175

Fetal and maternal outcomes in Indo-Asian compared to caucasian women with diabetes in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Maternal and fetal complications are increased when pregnancy is complicated by diabetes, and this may be further influenced by racial and cultural differences. We examined fetal and maternal outcomes in Indo-Asian and Caucasian women attending the same antenatal diabetes service to see if there were any differences. Women with diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2 and gestationally-acquired disease) complicating pregnancy, registered at the combined diabetes/antenatal clinic of this University teaching hospital over the period 1990-1998 were included. Fetal outcomes examined were miscarriage <24 weeks, stillbirths, neonatal deaths up to 28 days of life, perinatal mortality, congenital malformations and size for gestational age. Maternal outcomes examined were rates of caesarean section and vaginal deliveries, and number of pre-term deliveries <37 completed weeks of gestation. Outcomes for Indo-Asian and Caucasian women were similar, with a take-home baby rate of 96% and 92%, respectively. There was no perinatal mortality in Indo-Asian women, who were more likely to have a vaginal delivery and less likely to have a baby large for gestational age. Pregnancies complicated by type 2 diabetes in both groups pose the greatest threat to a successful pregnancy outcome. Indo-Asian and Caucasian women attending the same antenatal diabetes service have comparable outcomes. Attendance for pre-pregnancy care needs to be encouraged to combat the high early pregnancy loss and congenital malformation rate identified, particularly in those with type 2 disease, irrespective of ethnicity. PMID:11110588

Dunne, F P; Brydon, P A; Proffitt, M; Smith, T; Gee, H; Holder, R L

2000-12-01

176

Perinatal depressive symptoms among Arab women in northern Israel.  

PubMed

Perinatal depression, a prevalent condition with negative consequences for the mother, infant and family, has been reported in many countries. This study aimed to assess the scope of depressive symptoms among pregnant and postnatal Israeli Arab women and to identify possible risk factors. Data were collected from a screening program at 58 Mother-Child Health Care clinics in northern Israel from June to December, 2009. Participants included 1,254 pregnant and 2,326 postnatal women. The rate of antenatal depressive symptoms, i.e., a score of ?10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was 20.8%. Women attending clinics with primarily religious or traditional populations had lower rates antenatally than did those described as secular. During the postnatal period 16.3% of the women scored ?10 on the EPDS. The rate of postnatal depressive symptoms was significantly higher among women living in Moslem than Druze communities (EPDS ? 10: 19.0% vs. 13.4%, respectively, P = 0.01). Postnatally, there were no significant differences according to SES cluster, community size, or religious orientation. The rate of antenatal and postnatal depression among Arab women in northern Israel was somewhat higher than that of Jewish Israeli women in the same region, and considerably lower than that of Arab Bedouin women in southern Israel. Given the differences in their life styles and circumstances, health policy authorities should be informed regarding the needs of these various sub-populations. PMID:21735141

Glasser, Saralee; Tanous, Mary; Shihab, Shihab; Goldman, Nofar; Ziv, Arnona; Kaplan, Giora

2012-08-01

177

Why do some women still prefer traditional birth attendants and home delivery?: a qualitative study on delivery care services in West Java Province, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background Trained birth attendants at delivery are important for preventing both maternal and newborn deaths. West Java is one of the provinces on Java Island, Indonesia, where many women still deliver at home and without the assistance of trained birth attendants. This study aims to explore the perspectives of community members and health workers about the use of delivery care services in six villages of West Java Province. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews was conducted in six villages of three districts in West Java Province from March to July 2009. Twenty FGDs and 165 in-depth interviews were conducted involving a total of 295 participants representing mothers, fathers, health care providers, traditional birth attendants and community leaders. The FGD and in-depth interview guidelines included reasons for using a trained or a traditional birth attendant and reasons for having a home or an institutional delivery. Results The use of traditional birth attendants and home delivery were preferable for some community members despite the availability of the village midwife in the village. Physical distance and financial limitations were two major constraints that prevented community members from accessing and using trained attendants and institutional deliveries. A number of respondents reported that trained delivery attendants or an institutional delivery were only aimed at women who experienced obstetric complications. The limited availability of health care providers was reported by residents in remote areas. In these settings the village midwife, who was sometimes the only health care provider, frequently travelled out of the village. The community perceived the role of both village midwives and traditional birth attendants as essential for providing maternal and health care services. Conclusions A comprehensive strategy to increase the availability, accessibility, and affordability of delivery care services should be considered in these West Java areas. Health education strategies are required to increase community awareness about the importance of health services along with the existing financing mechanisms for the poor communities. Public health strategies involving traditional birth attendants will be beneficial particularly in remote areas where their services are highly utilized.

2010-01-01

178

National health insurance, social influence and antenatal care use in Ghana  

PubMed Central

The study explores the importance of social influence and the availability of health insurance on maternal care utilization in Ghana through the use of antenatal care services. A number of studies have found that access to health insurance plays a critical role in women’s decision to utilize antenatal care services. However, little is known about the role that social forces play in this decision. This study uses village-level data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to investigate the effects of health insurance and social influences on the intensity of antenatal care utilization by Ghanaian women. Using GIS information at the village level, we employ a spatial lag regression model in this study. Results indicate that, controlling for a host of socioeconomic and geographical factors, women who have health insurance appear to use more antenatal services than women who do not. In addition, the intensity of antenatal visits appears to be spatially correlated among the survey villages, implying that there may be some social influences that affect a woman’s decision to utilize antenatal care. A reason for this may be that women who benefit from antenatal care through positive pregnancy outcomes may pass this information along to their peers who also increase their use of these services in response. Traditional/Cultural leaders as “gate-keepers” may be useful in the dissemination of maternal health care information. Public health officials may also explore the possibility of disseminating information relating to maternal care services via the mass media.

2013-01-01

179

Comparison of Perinatal Data of Immigrant Women of Turkish Origin and German Women - Results of a Prospective Study in Berlin  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim of the study was to compare obstetrical process indicators and outcomes for German women with women of Turkish origin residing in Germany. Do women of Turkish origin attend antenatal examinations as frequently as non-immigrant women? Are high-risk pregnancies and anemia more common among immigrant women? Are the rates for epidural analgesia (PDA) and combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSE) during delivery the same for immigrant women compared to German women? Are there identifiable differences in the mode of delivery and in perinatal outcomes? Patient Population/Methods: Data were obtained from 3 maternity clinics in Berlin for the period 2011 to 2012. The questionnaires covered socio-demographic factors and information on prenatal care as well as immigration/acculturation. The data obtained from these questionnaires was supplemented by information obtained from the official maternal record of prenatal and natal care (Mutterpass) and perinatal data recorded by the clinic. Results: The response rate was 89.6?%; the data of 1277 women of Turkish origin who had immigrated to Germany or whose family had immigrated and of 2991 non-immigrant women in Germany were included in the study. Regression analysis showed no statistically significant difference in the number of antenatal examinations between immigrant and non-immigrant women. Women of Turkish origin born in Germany had a significantly higher risk of postpartum anemia. PDA/CSE rate, arterial umbilical cord pH and 5-minute Apgar scores did not differ. The incidence of cesarean sections (elective and secondary) was significantly lower in the population of immigrant women of Turkish origin. Conclusion: Outcomes for most perinatal parameters were comparable for immigrant and non-immigrant women. These results indicate that the achieved standards of antenatal care and medical care during pregnancy are similar for Turkish immigrant women compared to non-immigrant women in maternity clinics in Berlin. The higher rates of anemia among immigrant women should be targeted by preventive measures.

David, M.; Borde, T.; Brenne, S.; Ramsauer, B.; Henrich, W.; Breckenkamp, J.; Razum, O.

2014-01-01

180

Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values < 0.05 was considered significant and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used for the odds ratio. Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining actual HIV testing. This low explanatory power of TPB was mainly due to the large proportion of low intenders that ended up being tested contrary to their intention before entering the antenatal clinic. PMTCT programs should strengthen women's intention through social approval and information that testing will provide positive consequences for them. However, women's rights to opt-out should be emphasized in any attempt to improve the PMTCT programs.

2011-01-01

181

The antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta.  

PubMed

The incidence of placental attachment disorders continues to increase with rising caesarean section rates. Antenatal diagnosis helps in the planning of location, timing and staffing of delivery. In at-risk women grey-scale ultrasound is quite sensitive, although colour ultrasound is the most predictive. Magnetic resonance imaging can add information in some limited instances. Patients who have had a previous caesarean section could benefit from early (before 10 weeks) visualisation of the implantation site. Current data refer only to placentas implanted in the lower anterior uterine segment, usually over a caesarean section scar. PMID:24373591

Comstock, C H; Bronsteen, R A

2014-01-01

182

Antenatal Testing - A Reevaluation  

PubMed Central

In August 2007, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institutes of Health Office of Rare Diseases, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American Academy of Pediatrics cosponsored a 2-day workshop to reassess the body of evidence supporting antepartum assessment of fetal well-being, identify key gaps in the evidence, and formulate recommendations for further research. Participants included experts in obstetrics and fetal physiology, and representatives from relevant stakeholder groups and organizations. This article is a summary of the discussions at the workshop, including synopses of oral presentations on the epidemiology of stillbirth and fetal neurological injury, fetal physiology, techniques for antenatal monitoring, and maternal and fetal indications for monitoring. Finally, a synthesis of recommendations for further research compiled from three breakout workgroups is presented.

Signore, Caroline; Freeman, Roger K.; Spong, Catherine Y.

2009-01-01

183

Understanding delayed access to antenatal care: a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote timely antenatal care for all women.

2014-01-01

184

Controversies in antenatal corticosteroid treatment.  

PubMed Central

QUESTION: I am following up a former preterm infant, born at 29 weeks' gestation after premature labour. This infant had a relatively benign hospital course and when discharged was not thought to have any complications of prematurity. Despite this, at 1 year old his neurologic examination is abnormal: head circumference is on the 3rd percentile for age (weight on the 25th percentile), and he has increased tone in his lower legs and a moderate developmental delay. His discharge letter indicated that he was exposed antenatally to many doses of dexamethasone. Could this have adversely influenced his neurologic outcome? ANSWER: Antenatal steroids are proven therapy for preventing respiratory distress syndrome and decrease both morbidity and mortality associated with prematurity. Use of multiple doses of antenatal steroids might adversely affect neurologic outcome. There is insufficient evidence to support routine use of multiple doses of antenatal steroids when delivery of a preterm infant is anticipated.

Klinger, G.; Koren, G.

2000-01-01

185

Pulmonary tuberculosis among women with cough attending clinics for family planning and maternal and child health in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis (TB) case detection in women has remained low in developing world. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of smear positive TB among women with cough regardless of the duration attending family Planning (FP) and Maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in Dar es Salaam. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in all three municipal hospitals of Dar es Salaam, between October 2007 and June 2008. All women with cough attending FP and MCH clinics were screened for TB by smear microscopy. Pearson chi-square was used to compare group difference for categorical variables. Risk factors for smear positive were estimated by logistics regression with 95% confidence intervals (CI) given for odds ratios indicating statistically significant relationship if the CI did not include one. Results We enrolled a total of 749 TB suspects. Five hundred and twenty nine patients (70.6%) were from MCH clinics. Mean (SD) age was 27.6 (5.2) years. A total of 616 (82.2%) patients were coughing for less than two weeks as compared to 133 (17.8%), who coughed for two or more weeks. Among 616 TB suspects, 14 (2.3%) were smear positive TB patients, and of the 133 who had coughed for two or more weeks, 13 (9.8%) were smear positive TB patients. Risk factors associated with smear positive results were having attended more than one visit to any facility prior to diagnosis (OR = 6.8; 95%CI 2.57–18.0) and having HIV/AIDS (OR = 4.4; 95%CI 1.65–11.96). Long duration of cough was not a risk factor for being smear positive (OR = 1.6; 95%CI 0.59–4.49). Conclusion The proportion of smear positive TB patients among women with cough attending MCH and FP was 3.8%. Visits to any health facility prior to Diagnosis and HIV infection were risk for having a smear positive TB.

Ngadaya, Esther S; Mfinanga, Godfrey S; Wandwalo, Eliud R; Morkve, Odd

2009-01-01

186

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in the Colombo district, Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

Background: In Sri Lanka little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection. Objective was to determine the prevalence of CT in female patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in the Colombo district. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out for the prevalence of CT in all female patients (n = 168) more than 18 years of age, attending two STD clinics in the Colombo district from January to May 2012. Endocervical swabs were collected and tested for CT using the Amplicor CT/NG polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: Prevalence of CT in females attending the STD clinics in the Colombo district was 8.3%. Mean age of those infected with CT was 32.9 years (SD ± 8.2). Majority of females with CT infections were Sinhalese and married. There was no significant association with age, ethnicity or being married or not. Females who did not attend school, or had their education only up to Grade 5 were significantly found to have six times the risk of having CT infection (95% CI = 1.8-22.6). A significant association was found with number of sexual partners but not with commercial sex work or past history of STD. Conclusions: Prevalence of CT was moderately high in this population. PMID:24739832

Mangalika, Gunasekera Henadira Appuhamilage Kamani; Cankanamge, Silva Koththigoda; Priyadarshana, Dhammike; Shamini, Prathapan; Sujatha, Mananwatte; Geeganage, Weerasinghe; Nalaka, Abeygunasekera

2014-01-01

187

Survey of the Attitude to, the Knowledge and the Practice of Contraception and Medical Abortion in Women Who Attended a Family Planning Clinic  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the attitude to, the knowledge and practice of contraception and medical abortion in women attending the family planning clinic at the mvj medical college , hosakote , Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: Between 1st of August, 2011 and 31st of July, 2012 200 women attending family planning clinic of the mvj medical college, hosakote, Bangalore India of which 105 requested for medical termination of pregnancy (mtp), 95 for family planning advice, were interrogated on a structured questionnaire. The age of women ranged in between 20-45 years, 71 (35.5%) were illiterate, 30 (15%) had primary school education and 99 (49.5%) had diplomas from high school and above. Patients were grouped into low and high socio-economic status according to modified kuppuswamy socio-economic status scale: (i). upper class, (ii). Upper middle class, (iii). Middle class, (iv). Lower middle class, (v). lower class.consent of both husband and wife was taken. They were counseled about the various contraceptives available and allowed to choose whichever suited them best. Results: Among the 200 women 85 (42%) did not use contraception; 51 (25.5 %) were on the barrier method; 49 (18.31%) used intrauterine devices (iud); 12 (6%) used oral pills and and 3 (1.5%) used other methods. the request for mtp was on grounds of unplanned pregnancy in 55.25% cases or failure of contraception in 44.7%. there was no eugenic indication of the women, 3 (1.5%) had heard about emergency contraceptives, however none had used them; 20 (10%) had heard of medical abortion and 12 (6%) had previously undergone mtp with satisfaction. the various methods of contraception accepted by the women post abortion were ocps by 11 (10.47%), iuds by 54 (51.5%) and female sterilization by 26 (24.71%). in the other group, 23 (24.2%) had iuds removed and reinserted; 37.8% had iuds inserted; 26 (27.36%) women underwent sterilization operation; and 6 (6.31%) had iuds removed opting for pregnancy. statistical analysis was done using spss software (Chicago) with ?2 test taking p value of 0.05 as significant. Conclusion: There is lack of awareness of emergency contraception and medical abortion in the women community under study.

K.M., Umashankar; M.N., Dharmavijaya; Kumar D.E., Jayanta; K., Kala; Nagure, Abed Gulab; Ramadevi

2013-01-01

188

The association between fecal incontinence and sexual activity and function in women attending a tertiary referral center  

PubMed Central

Introduction and hypothesis To determine whether fecal incontinence (FI) is associated with sexual activity and to compare sexual function in women with and without FI. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of all new patients seen in an academic urogynecology clinic. Women who reported fecal incontinence, as defined by loss of fecal material on the Wexner scale, were compared with those without fecal incontinence. We compared sexual activity and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire-12 (PISQ-12) scores between groups. Results In our population of women with pelvic floor disorder, 588 women reported FI compared with 527 who did not. On multivariate analysis, FI was not associated with sexual activity status, but was associated with worsened PISQ-12 scores (p<0.001). PISQ-12 item analysis found that women with FI reported more dyspareunia, fear, and avoidance of sexual activity with greater partner problems (all p <0.05) than women without FI. Conclusions Women with FI were as likely to engage in sexual relations as women without FI; however, sexually active women with FI had poorer sexual function than those without FI.

Cichowski, Sara B.; Komesu, Yuko M.; Dunivan, Gena C.; Rogers, Rebecca G.

2013-01-01

189

Uptake of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling among women attending an urban sexually transmitted disease clinic in South Africa – missed opportunities for early diagnosis of HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the uptake of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) among women attending an urban sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in South Africa. From July 2005 to June 2006, women were offered HIV testing following group information and education on HIV and STDs in the clinic waiting area. Of those who were provided with education, information, and offered

Ayesha B. M. Kharsany; Quarraisha Abdool Karim; Salim S. Abdool Karim

2010-01-01

190

Is antenatal care preparing mothers to care for their newborns? A community-based cross-sectional study among lactating women in Masindi, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal mortality has remained resistant to change in the wake of declining child mortality. Suboptimal newborn care practices are predisposing factors to neonatal mortality. Adherence to four ANC consultations is associated with improved newborn care practices. There is limited documentation of this evidence in sub-Saharan Africa where suboptimal newborn care practices has been widely reported. Methods Structured interviews were held with 928 women having children under-five months old at their homes in Masindi, Uganda, from October-December 2011. Four/more ANC consultations (sufficient ANC) was considered the exposure variable. Three composite variables (complete cord care, complete thermal care and complete newborn vaccination status) were derived by combining related practices from a list of recommended newborn care practices. Logistic regression models were used to assess for associations. Results One in five women 220(23.7%) were assessed to practice complete cord care. Less than ten percent 57(6.1%) were considered to practice complete thermal care and 611(65.8%) were assessed to have complete newborn vaccination status. Application of substance on the cord 744 (71.6%) and early bathing 816 (87.9%) were main drivers of sub-optimal newborn care practices. Multivariable logistic models did not demonstrate significant association between four/more ANC consultations and complete cord care, complete thermal care or complete newborn vaccination status. Secondary or higher education was associated with complete cord care [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 2.72; 95% CI: 1.63-4.54] and complete newborn vaccination [aOR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.04-1.82]. Women who reported health facility delivery were more likely to report complete thermal care [aOR: 3.63; 95% CI: 2.21-5.95] and newborn vaccination [aOR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.23-2.75], but not complete cord care. Having the first baby was associated with complete thermal care [aOR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.24-3.23]. Conclusion Results confirm suboptimal newborn care practices in Masindi. Despite being established policy, adherence to four or more ANC consultations was not associated with complete cord care, complete thermal care or complete newborn vaccination. This finding has important implications for the implementation of focused ANC to improve newborn care practices. Future ANC interventions should focus on addressing application of substance on the cord and early bathing of the baby during the immediate neonatal period.

2014-01-01

191

Prevalence of human papillomavirus in women attending cervical screening in the UK and Ireland: new data from northern Ireland and a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

There is substantial international variation in human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence; this study details the first report from Northern Ireland and additionally provides a systematic review and meta-analysis pooling the prevalence of high-risk (HR-HPV) subtypes among women with normal cytology in the UK and Ireland. Between February and December 2009, routine liquid based cytology (LBC) samples were collected for HPV detection (Roche Cobas® 4800 [PCR]) among unselected women attending for cervical cytology testing. Four electronic databases, including MEDLINE, were then searched from their inception till April 2011. A random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate a pooled HR-HPV prevalence and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). 5,712 women, mean age 39 years (±SD 11.9 years; range 20-64 years), were included in the analysis, of which 5,068 (88.7%), 417 (7.3%) and 72 (1.3%) had normal, low, and high-grade cytological findings, respectively. Crude HR-HPV prevalence was 13.2% (95% CI, 12.7-13.7) among women with normal cytology and increased with cytological grade. In meta-analysis the pooled HR-HPV prevalence among those with normal cytology was 0.12 (95% CIs, 0.10-0.14; 21 studies) with the highest prevalence in younger women. HPV 16 and HPV 18 specific estimates were 0.03 (95% CI, 0.02-0.05) and 0.01 (95% CI, 0.01-0.02), respectively. The findings of this Northern Ireland study and meta-analysis verify the prevalent nature of HPV infection among younger women. Reporting of the type-specific prevalence of HPV infection is relevant for evaluating the impact of future HPV immunization initiatives, particularly against HR-HPV types other than HPV 16 and 18. PMID:23161367

Anderson, Lesley; O'Rorke, Michael; Jamison, Jackie; Wilson, Robbie; Gavin, Anna

2013-02-01

192

Poor glycemic control in younger women attending Malaysian public primary care clinics: findings from adults diabetes control and management registry  

PubMed Central

Background Women of reproductive age are a group of particular concern as diabetes may affect their pregnancy outcome as well as long-term morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the clinical profiles and glycemic control of reproductive and non-reproductive age women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in primary care settings, and to determine the associated factors of poor glycemic control in the reproductive age group women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using cases reported by public primary care clinics to the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry from 1st January to 31st December 2009. All Malaysian women aged 18 years old and above and diagnosed with T2D for at least 1 year were included in the analysis. The target for glycemic control (HbA1c < 6.5%) is in accordance to the recommended national guidelines. Both univariate and multivariate approaches of logistic regression were applied to determine whether reproductive age women have an association with poor glycemic control. Results Data from a total of 30,427 women were analyzed and 21.8% (6,622) were of reproductive age. There were 12.5% of reproductive age women and 18.0% of non-reproductive age women that achieved glycemic control. Reproductive age group women were associated with poorer glycemic control (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.8). The risk factors associated with poor glycemic control in the reproductive age women were being of Malay and Indian race, longer duration of diabetes, patients on anti-diabetic agents, and those who had not achieved the target total cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion Women with T2D have poor glycemic control, but being of reproductive age was associated with even poorer control. Health care providers need to pay more attention to this group of patients especially for those with risk factors. More aggressive therapeutic strategies to improve their cardiometabolic control and pregnancy outcome are warranted.

2013-01-01

193

Domestic violence among women attending the Forensic Medicine Institute Marcala, Department of La Paz, Honduras, June 2007 to November 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn Honduras in 2008 were made 6.572 domestic violence complaints. At the Marcala Forensic Medicine Institute (IML), the leading injury cause complaint by women is domestic violence; the IML covers 10 municipalities, 57 833 women (51%). No previous studies, being necessary to determine the domestic violence prevalence, epidemiological characterisation, injury types and identify the aggressor–victim relationship.Materials and MethodsA series of

E E Lopez

2010-01-01

194

Geospatial analyses to identify clusters of adverse antenatal factors for targeted interventions  

PubMed Central

Background Late antenatal care and smoking during pregnancy are two important factors that are amenable to intervention. Despite the adverse health impacts of smoking during pregnancy and the health benefits of early first antenatal visit on both the mother and the unborn child, substantial proportions of women still smoke during pregnancy or have their first antenatal visit after 10 weeks gestation. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of geospatial methods in identifying communities at high risk of smoking during pregnancy and timing of the first antenatal visit, for which targeted interventions may be warranted, and more importantly, feasible. Methods The Perinatal Data Collection, from 1999 to 2008 for south-western Sydney, were obtained from the New South Wales Ministry of Health. Maternal addresses at the time of delivery were georeferenced. A spatial scan statistic implemented in SaTScan was then used to identify statistically significant spatial clusters of women who smoked during pregnancy or women whose first antenatal care visit occurred at or after 10 weeks of pregnancy. Results Four spatial clusters of maternal smoking during pregnancy and four spatial clusters of first antenatal visit occurring at or after 10 weeks were identified in our analyses. In the maternal smoking during pregnancy clusters, higher proportions of mothers, were aged less than 35 years, had their first antenatal visit at or after 10 weeks and a lower proportion of mothers were primiparous. For the clusters of increased risk of late first antenatal visit at or after 10 weeks of gestation, a higher proportion of mothers lived in the most disadvantaged areas and a lower proportion of mothers were primiparous. Conclusion The application of spatial analyses provides a means to identify spatial clusters of antenatal risk factors and to investigate the associated socio-demographic characteristics of the clusters.

2013-01-01

195

Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involutional," "child abuse," "child neglect," "domestic violence," "family," "marital adjustment," "family health," "newborn health," "child health," "physical illness," "social support," "psychosocial risk," "prediction," "risk factors," "obstetrics" and "prenatal care." Further articles were identified from bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 370 articles identified through the search, 118 were included for review. Studies were included if they examined the association between psychosocial risk factors and the outcomes of interest. Articles were excluded if they were reviews of poor quality or they had one or more of the following features: insufficient description of the sample, a high attrition rate, a lack of standardized outcome measures, outcomes other than the ones of interest or results that had already been reported in a previous study. DATA EXTRACTION: The strength of evidence of each study was evaluated. On the basis of the evidence, each risk factor was assigned a rating of the strength of its association with each of the postpartum outcomes. The ratings were class A (good evidence of association), class B (fair evidence) and class C (no clear evidence). Of the 129 antenatal psychosocial risk factors studied, 15 were found to have a class A association with at least one of the postpartum outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Child abuse and abuse of the mother by her partner were most strongly correlated (class A evidence) with a history of lack of social support, recent life stressors, psychiatric disturbance in the mother and an unwanted pregnancy. Child abuse was also strongly associated with a history of childhood violence in the mother or her partner, previous child abuse by the mother's partner, a poor relationship between the mother and her parents, low self-esteem in the mother and lack of attendance at prenatal classes. Postpartum abuse of the mother was also associated with a history of abuse of the mother, prenatal care not started until the third trimester and alcohol or drug abuse by the mother or her partner (class A evidence). Child abuse had a fair (class B) association with poor marital adjustment or satisfaction, current or past abuse of the mother and alcohol or drug abuse by the mother or her partner. There was class B evidence supporting an association between abuse of the mother and poor marital adjustment, traditional sex-role expectations, a history of childhood violence in the mother or her partner and low self-esteem in the mother. Postpartum depression was most strongly associated with poor marital adjustment, recent life stressors, antepartum depression (class A evidence), but was also associated with lack of social support, abuse of the mother and a history of psychiatric disorder in the mother (class B evidence). Marital dysfunction was associated with poor marital adjustment before the birth and traditional sex-role expectations (class A evidence), and physical illness was correlated with recent life stressors (class B evidence). CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial risk factors during the antenatal period may herald postpartum morbidity. Research is required to determine whether detection of these risk factors may lead to interventions that improve postpartum family outcomes.

Wilson, L M; Reid, A J; Midmer, D K; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D E

1996-01-01

196

Factors Associated with Symptomatic Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: A Study among Women Attending a Primary Healthcare Clinic in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background: Symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common problems leading women to seek advice in primary healthcare facilities. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the associations between some hypothesized factors and the presence of symptomatic VVC. Subjects and Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 90 women diagnosed with symptomatic VVC and 108 women without symptomatic VVC were recruited when attending Umlazi D clinic, a primary health clinic in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between June 2011 and December 2011. Confirmed symptomatic VVC was determined by Gram stain and microbiological culture of vaginal swabs. For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women, HIV ribonucleic acid load in plasma and genital fluid was determined by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (BioMerieux, Lyon, France). CD4 counts were obtained from patients’ medical records. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 (SPSS Inc.; Chicago, IL, USA). Multiple logistic regression models were used to exclude univariate confounders. All tests were two-sided and a P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: A total of 90% (81/90) of patients with symptomatic VVC complained of vulval itching, soreness and vaginal discharge when compared to 75.9% (82/108) of patients without symptomatic VVC (P < 0.01). Whilst pregnancy was independently associated with symptomatic VVC (P < 0.01), the latter was inversely related to Nugent's scores (P < 0.01). When compared with HIV negative women, the odds for symptomatic VVC increased among women with HIV-associated immunocompromise (CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm3, P < 0.001), significantly shedding HIV in their genital tracts (P = 0.04), with plasma HIV load > 1000 copies/mL (P < 0.001). There was a significant negative association between the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy and the presence of symptomatic VVC in HIV-infected women (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Although symptomatic VVC is not classified as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related condition, HIV-related immune compromised women and particularly those who are anti-retroviral therapy-naïve are likely to develop symptomatic VVC.

Apalata, T; Longo-Mbenza, B; Sturm, AW; Carr, WH; Moodley, P

2014-01-01

197

Daily Maternal Counting of Fetal Movement as an Antenatal Screening Test. Part I. A Review  

PubMed Central

The author reviews use of maternal counting of fetal movements as an antenatal screening test. This test appears to be a sensitive indicator of fetal well-being and a useful method for preventing inexplicable stillbirths. Evidence suggests that it should be considered a routine antenatal screening test for all pregnant women, and not just for those at high risk for perinatal morbidity and mortality. Screening should begin at 28 weeks gestation.

Swanson, Richard W.

1988-01-01

198

Effect of removing user fees on attendance for curative and preventive primary health care services in rural South Africa.  

PubMed Central

User fees are used to recover costs and discourage unnecessary attendance at primary care clinics in many developing countries. In South Africa, user fees for children aged under 6 years and pregnant women were removed in 1994, and in 1997 all user fees at all primary health care clinics were abolished. The intention of these policy changes was to improve access to health services for previously disadvantaged communities. We investigated the impact of these changes on clinic attendance patterns in Hlabisa health district. Average quarterly new registrations and total attendances for preventive services (antenatal care, immunization, growth monitoring) and curative services (treatment of ailments) at a mobile primary health care unit were studied from 1992 to 1998. Regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether trends were statistically significant. There was a sustained increase in new registrations (P = 0.0001) and total attendances (P = 0.0001) for curative services, and a fall in new registrations (P = 0.01) and total attendances for immunization and growth monitoring (P = 0.0002) over the study period. The upturn in demand for curative services started at the time of the first policy change. The decreases in antenatal registrations (P = 0.07) and attendances (P = 0.09) were not statistically significant. The number of new registrations for immunization and growth monitoring increased following the first policy change but declined thereafter. We found no evidence that the second policy change influenced underlying trends. The removal of user fees improved access to curative services but this may have happened at the expense of some preventive services. Governments should remain vigilant about the effects of new health policies in order to ensure that objectives are being met.

Wilkinson, D.; Gouws, E.; Sach, M.; Karim, S. S.

2001-01-01

199

Mycoplasma genitalium infection in women attending an STI clinic: diagnostic specimen type, co-infections, and predictors  

PubMed Central

In female sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) was more frequently detected using vaginal (53/73) versus endocervical (43/73) specimens. In women without other STIs, MG detection (N=44) was associated with age? 22 years (odds ratio (OR) 2.53, P=0.006) and clinical evidence of cervicitis (OR 2.11, P=0.03).

Mobley, Victoria L.; Hobbs, Marcia M.; Lau, Karen; Weinbaum, Barbara S.; Getman, Damon K.; Sena, Arlene C.

2012-01-01

200

Nutritional habits in the light of general health behaviours of pregnant women.  

PubMed

introduction and objective. Teaching pregnant women behaviours connected with care for one's health condition and a healthy lifestyle is crucial in perinatal care. Desired health behaviours, including nutritional habits, play an important role in the health of the mother, as well as the proper development of the foetus. The aim of the presented study was to analyse the subjective assessment of nutritional habits in the light of general health behaviours of pregnant women. materials and method. Research was conducted on a sample of 81 women in Szczecin. The methodological basis for investigation was Juczy?ski's Health Behaviour Inventory (HBI). General index of intensity of health behaviours (GIIHB) was calculated by adding the results for all the 24 statements included in the HBI. Four categories of health behaviours were analysed separately: proper nutritional habits, preventive behaviours, positive thinking and health practices. The study presents the analysis of proper nutritional habits (PNH) in the light of GIIHB of women attending antenatal classes. results. Results indicate that the PNH of pregnant women displays a positive correlation with their GIIHB (r=0.654; p<0.05). It is also shown that the PNH (r=0.26, p<0.05) and GIIHB (r=0.35; p<0.05) are related to the age of pregnant women participating in antenatal classes. conclusions. Research indicates the need for education of pregnant women, initiatives and campaigns aimed at propagating and promoting proper health behaviours, including nutritional behaviours. There is a positive relationship between the PNH of women participating in antenatal classes and their GIIHB. Such measures should be addressed to women regardless of whether they participate in antenatal classes or not, and regardless of their age or level of education. PMID:24959803

Krzepota, Justyna; Putek-Szel?g, Ewa

2014-06-10

201

Implementation of evidence-based antenatal care in Mozambique: a cluster randomized controlled trial: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Antenatal care (ANC) reduces maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality directly through the detection and treatment of pregnancy-related illnesses, and indirectly through the detection of women at increased risk of delivery complications. The potential benefits of quality antenatal care services are most significant in low-resource countries where morbidity and mortality levels among women of reproductive age and neonates are higher. WHO developed an ANC model that recommended the delivery of services scientifically proven to improve maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of an intervention designed to increase the use of the package of evidence-based services included in the WHO ANC model in Mozambique. The primary hypothesis is that the intervention will increase the use of evidence-based practices during ANC visits in comparison to the standard dissemination channels currently used in the country. Methods This is a demonstration project to be developed through a facility-based cluster randomized controlled trial with a stepped wedge design. The intervention was tailored, based on formative research findings, to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. The intervention includes four components: the provision of kits with all necessary medicines and laboratory supplies for ANC (medical and non-medical equipment), a storage system, a tracking system, and training sessions for health care providers. Ten clinics were selected and will start receiving the intervention in a random order. Outcomes will be computed at each time point when a new clinic starts the intervention. The primary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending the first ANC visit, and secondary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending second and higher ANC visits as well as the attitude of midwives in relation to adopting the practices. This demonstration project is pragmatic in orientation and will be conducted under routine conditions. Discussion There is an urgent need for effective and sustainable scaling-up approaches of health interventions in low-resource countries. This can only be accomplished by the engagement of the country’s health stakeholders at all levels. This project aims to achieve improvement in the quality of antenatal care in Mozambique through the implementation of a multifaceted intervention on three levels: policy, organizational and health care delivery levels. The implementation of the trial will probably require a change in accountability and behaviour of health care providers and we expect this change in ‘habits’ will contribute to obtaining reliable health indicators, not only related to research issues, but also to health care outcomes derived from the new health care model. At policy level, the results of this study may suggest a need for revision of the supply chain management system. Given that supply chain management is a major challenge for many low-resource countries, we envisage that important lessons on how to improve the supply chain in Mozambique and other similar settings, will be drawn from this study. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry database. Identification number: PACTR201306000550192.

2014-01-01

202

Effectiveness of Antenatal Clinics to Deliver Intermittent Preventive Treatment and Insecticide Treated Nets for the Control of Malaria in Pregnancy in Mali: A Household Survey  

PubMed Central

Background WHO recommends intermittent-preventive-treatment (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and insecticide-treated-nets (ITNs) to prevent malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa, however uptake remains unacceptably low. We evaluated the effectiveness of antenatal clinics (ANC) to deliver two doses of IPTp and ITNs to pregnant women in Segou district, Mali. Methods We used household data to assess the systems effectiveness of ANC to deliver IPTp and ITNs to pregnant women and used logistic regression to identify predictors of ANC attendance, receipt of IPTp and ITN use during pregnancy, and the impact on community effectiveness. Results Of 81% of recently pregnant women who made at least one ANC visit, 59% of these attended during the eligible gestational age for IPTp. Of these, 82% reported receiving one dose of SP and 91% attended ANC again, of whom 66% received a second dose, resulting in a cumulative effectiveness for 2-dose IPTp of 29%, most of whom used an ITN (90%). Cumulative effectiveness of 2-dose SP by directly observed therapy (DOT) was very low (6%). ITN use was 92%, and ANC was the main source (81%). Reported and ANC-card data showed some doses of SP are given to women in their first trimester. Women were less likely to receive two doses by DOT if they were married (OR 0.10; CI 0.03, 0.40), or lived <5 km from the health facility (OR 0.34; CI 0.14, 0.83). A high household person-LLIN ratio predicted low ITN use in pregnant women (OR 0.16; CI 0.04, 0.55). Conclusion Our findings suggest poor adherence by health workers to provision of IPTp by eligible gestational age and DOT, contributing to low effectiveness of this strategy in this setting. ITN delivery and use among women was substantially higher. Efforts to improve health worker adherence to IPTp guidelines are needed to improve service delivery of IPTp.

Hill, Jenny; Kayentao, Kassoum; Toure, Mahamoudou; Diarwara, Sory; Bruce, Jane; Smedley, James; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Kuile, Feiko O. ter.; Webster, Jayne

2014-01-01

203

Antenatal screening for candidiasis, trichomoniasis, and gonorrhoea.  

PubMed Central

Gonorrhoea was not found to be a problem in antenatal patients. It was found in only one out of 625 women, thus confirming other British surveys which do not agree with the North American figures. Candidiasis is commoner than trichomoniasis (27.4 and 4.7 per cent. prevalence respectively) and culture of a high vaginal swab is more effective as a means of diagnosis than a cervical cytology smear. The two conditions seldom occur together. The detection rate for Candida increases with gestation, but not with age, parity, or premarital and extramarital conception. The species isolated was predominantly Candida albicans. Trichomonads are detected in culture of a high vaginal swab more often than in a cervical cytology smear. Detection does not increase with age, parity, or gestation, but does increase with premarital and extramarital conception. It is difficult to diagnose clinically the cause of vaginal discharge in a pregnant woman.

Sparks, R A; Williams, G L; Boyce, J M; Fitzgerald, T C; Shelley, G

1975-01-01

204

Physical Activity Levels in Women Attending Breast Screening, Receiving Chemotherapy and Post-Breast Cancer Treatment; A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background: A lack of physical activity (PA) is a well-recognised risk factor in the development of breast cancer (BC) and evidence-base research on the impact of PA on BC survival is consolidating. However, evidence reveals that BC survivors have low levels of PA, suggesting the need of targeted interventions to enhance the PA behaviour of BC survivors. Unfortunately, there is lack of data from the UK about the PA behaviours of women at various stages of diagnosis and treatment of BC. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess PA levels in women at different stages of BC pathway. Patients and Methods: A convenient sample of patients was selected at various stages of presentation and treatment of BC. Patients attending for breast screening for NHSBSP (n = 188), post-operative patients attending for chemotherapy (n = 41) and BC patients within one year’s post-treatment (n = 80) were invited to take part in this cross-sectional study. Results: Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of a chemotherapy participant not meeting PA guidelines (i.e., being in the low activity category) were three times higher than the odds of a NHSBPS attendee not meeting PA guidelines, and compared to post-treatment participants, the chemotherapy patient’s odds of not meeting PA guidelines was four times higher. The odds of NHSBPS attendees being in the high activity category compared to the moderate category were three times higher than that of a post-treatment participant. Conclusions: The current study suggests the need to establish robust PA interventions to enhance the PA behaviour of breast cancer survivors.

Lahart, Ian M.; Metsios, George S.; Nevill, Alan M.; Carmichael, Amtul R.

2014-01-01

205

Mycoplasma genitalium infection in women attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic: diagnostic specimen type, coinfections, and predictors.  

PubMed

In female sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees, Mycoplasma genitalium was more frequently detected using vaginal (53/73) versus endocervical (43/73) specimens. In women without other sexually transmitted infections, M. genitalium detection (N = 44) was associated with age ?22 years (odds ratio, 2.53; P = 0.006) and clinical evidence of cervicitis (odds ratio, 2.11; P = 0.03). PMID:22902666

Mobley, Victoria L; Hobbs, Marcia M; Lau, Karen; Weinbaum, Barbara S; Getman, Damon K; Seña, Arlene C

2012-09-01

206

Antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a synthesis of recent literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum nonpsychotic depression is the most common complication of childbearing, affecting approximately 10–15% of women and, as such, represents a considerable health problem affecting women and their families. This systematic review provides a synthesis of the recent literature pertaining to antenatal risk factors associated with developing this condition. Databases relating to the medical, psychological, and social science literature were searched

Emma Robertson; Sherry Grace; Tamara Wallington; Donna E Stewart

2004-01-01

207

Stigma and Attitudes towards Antenatal Depression and Antidepressant Use during Pregnancy in Healthcare Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depression in pregnancy or antenatal depression (AD) occurs in approximately one in five women, with potentially deleterious effects to the mother and fetus. People are encouraged to get treatment for depression; however, pregnant women can experience stigma when they reach out for help with depression. Research indicates that healthcare…

Gawley, Laura; Einarson, Adrienne; Bowen, Angela

2011-01-01

208

Reproductive decision-making and periconception practices among HIV-positive men and women attending HIV services in Durban, South Africa.  

PubMed

Understanding reproductive decisions and periconception behavior among HIV-discordant couples is important for designing risk reduction interventions for couples who choose to conceive. In-depth interviews were conducted to explore reproductive decision-making and periconception practices among HIV-positive women with recent pregnancy (n = 30), and HIV-positive men (n = 20), all reporting partners of negative or unknown HIV-status, and attending HIV services in Durban, South Africa. Transcripts were coded for categories and emergent themes. Participants expressed strong reasons for having children, but rarely knew how to reduce periconception HIV transmission. Pregnancy planning occurred on a spectrum ranging from explicitly intended to explicitly unintended, with many falling in between the two extremes. Male fertility desire and misunderstanding serodiscordance contributed to HIV risk behavior. Participants expressed openness to healthcare worker advice for safer conception and modified risk behavior post-conception, suggesting the feasibility of safer conception interventions which may target both men and women and include serodiscordance counseling and promotion of contraception. PMID:22038045

Matthews, Lynn T; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Giddy, Janet; Kaida, Angela; Smit, Jennifer A; Ware, Norma C; Bangsberg, David R

2013-02-01

209

In-vitro fertilization, gamete donation and surrogacy: perceptions of women attending an infertility clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Infertility affects 20% of couples in Nigeria. Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) offered in Nigeria include in-vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete donation and surrogacy. This cross-sectional questionnaire study aimed at assessing the acceptability of ART to women seeking infertility treatment at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Of the 307 respondents, 58.3% were aware of IVF and 59.3% would accept it as treatment; 35.2% would accept donor eggs and 24.7% would accept donor sperms-a smaller proportion anticipated acceptability by their husbands. Thirty five percent were aware of surrogacy, 37.8% would accept it as treatment; most preferring a stranger as a surrogate. Most felt surrogates should not be paid. Acceptance of ART was associated with older age, longer duration of infertility, previous failed treatment and women without other children. As chances of successful pregnancy are improved in younger individuals, counselling towards overcome barriers to accepting gamete donation and surrogacy should be instituted early. PMID:25022149

Bello, Folasade A; Akinajo, Opeyemi R; Olayemi, Oladapo

2014-06-01

210

Using targeted vouchers and health equity funds to improve access to skilled birth attendants for poor women: a case study in three rural health districts in Cambodia  

PubMed Central

Background In many developing countries, the maternal mortality ratio remains high with huge poor-rich inequalities. Programmes aimed at improving maternal health and preventing maternal mortality often fail to reach poor women. Vouchers in health and Health Equity Funds (HEFs) constitute a financial mechanism to improve access to priority health services for the poor. We assess their effectiveness in improving access to skilled birth attendants for poor women in three rural health districts in Cambodia and draw lessons for further improvement and scaling-up. Methods Data on utilisation of voucher and HEF schemes and on deliveries in public health facilities between 2006 and 2008 were extracted from the available database, reports and the routine health information system. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions and key informant interviews. We examined the trend of facility deliveries between 2006 and 2008 in the three health districts and compared this with the situation in other rural districts without voucher and HEF schemes. An operational analysis of the voucher scheme was carried out to assess its effectiveness at different stages of operation. Results Facility deliveries increased sharply from 16.3% of the expected number of births in 2006 to 44.9% in 2008 after the introduction of voucher and HEF schemes, not only for voucher and HEF beneficiaries, but also for self-paid deliveries. The increase was much more substantial than in comparable districts lacking voucher and HEF schemes. In 2008, voucher and HEF beneficiaries accounted for 40.6% of the expected number of births among the poor. We also outline several limitations of the voucher scheme. Conclusions Vouchers plus HEFs, if carefully designed and implemented, have a strong potential for reducing financial barriers and hence improving access to skilled birth attendants for poor women. To achieve their full potential, vouchers and HEFs require other interventions to ensure the supply of sufficient quality maternity services and to address other non-financial barriers to demand. If these conditions are met, voucher and HEF schemes can be further scaled up under close monitoring and evaluation.

2010-01-01

211

Factors influencing the use of antenatal care in rural West Sumatra, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Background Every year, nearly half a million women and girls needlessly die as a result of complications during pregnancy, childbirth or the 6 weeks following delivery. Almost all (99%) of these deaths occur in developing countries. The study aim was to describe the factors related to low visits for antenatal care (ANC) services among pregnant women in Indonesia. Method A total of 145 of 200 married women of reproductive age who were pregnant or had experienced birth responded to the questionnaire about their ANC visits. We developed a questionnaire containing 35 items and four sections. Section one and two included the women's socio demographics, section three about basic knowledge of pregnancy and section four contained two subsections about preferences about midwives and preferences about Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA) and the second subsections were traditional beliefs. Data were collected using a convenience sampling strategy during July and August 2010, from 10 villages in the Tanjung Emas. Multiple regression analysis was used for preference for types of providers. Results Three-quarter of respondents (77.9%) received ANC more than four times. The other 22.1% received ANC less than four times. 59.4% received ANC visits during pregnancy, which was statistically significant compared to multiparous (p = 0.001). Women who were encouraged by their family to receive ANC had statistically significant higher traditional belief scores compared to those who encouraged themselves (p = 0.003). Preference for TBAs was most strongly affected by traditional beliefs (p < 0.001). On the contrary, preference for midwives was negatively correlated with traditional beliefs (p < 0.001). Conclusions Parity was the factor influencing women's receiving less than the recommended four ANC visits during pregnancy. Women who were encouraged by their family to get ANC services had higher traditional beliefs score than women who encouraged themselves. Moreover, traditional beliefs followed by lower income families had the greater influence over preferring TBAs, with the opposite trend for preferring midwives. Increased attention needs to be given to the women; it also very important for exploring women's perceptions about health services that they received.

2012-01-01

212

Diagnosis by AMPLICOR PCR of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in urine samples from women and men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics.  

PubMed Central

Screening of urine specimens from men for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by a commercial PCR assay (AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test; Roche Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Branchburg, N.J.) is a sensitive and specific noninvasive diagnostic assay. Since screening of women for C. trachomatis infection with the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test has been limited to use with endocervical swab specimens, we conducted an evaluation of the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test for the detection of C. trachomatis using female urine samples and compared the results of those obtained by in vitro culture and PCR of endocervical swab specimens. For 713 men we compared the performance of AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test with urine specimens with that of culture of urethral specimens. For specimens that were PCR positive and culture negative, two additional tests were used to resolve the discrepancies: direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) of sediment from a spun endocervical specimen culture vial and major outer membrane protein-based PCR of the sediment from the endocervical specimen culture vial. Of 525 urine specimens from females, 67 (12.8%) were PCR positive, and 41 (7.8%) endocervical specimens from the 525 women were culture positive. After resolution of the discrepancies, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 93.3%, whereas the sensitivity of endocervical swab specimen culture was 67.3%. Of 468 female endocervical swab specimens, 47 (10.0%) had a positive PCR result and 33 (7.0%) were culture positive. The resolved sensitivity of the endocervical swab specimen PCR was 86%. Of 415 matched female urine and endocervical swab specimens, there were 49 confirmed infections; 30 (61.2%) specimens were positive by culture of the endocervical swab specimen, 40 (81.6%) were positive by confirmed endocervical swab specimen PCR, 43 (87.8%) were positive by confirmed urine PCR, and all 49 (100%) were positive by either endocervical swab specimen PCR or urine PCR. For men, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 88%, and the sensitivity of culture was only 50.7%. These results indicate that urine PCR is highly sensitive for the detection of C. trachomatis in both women and men and provides a noninvasive technique for routine screening for chlamydial infection.

Quinn, T C; Welsh, L; Lentz, A; Crotchfelt, K; Zenilman, J; Newhall, J; Gaydos, C

1996-01-01

213

Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic  

PubMed Central

Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This “proof of principle” study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia antibodies are detectable in easier to obtain, noninvasive, vaginal mucosa samples and relate to current or past infection. Methods. We compared outcomes of Chlamydia IgG and IgA antibody tests in serum and vaginal mucosal swabs in (a) 77 women attending a fertility clinic, of whom 25 tested positive for serum-IgG and (b) 107 women visiting an STI centre, including 30 Chlamydia PCR-positive subjects. Results. In the STI clinic, active Chlamydia infections were linked to serum-IgG and serum-IgA (P < 0.001) and mucosa-IgA (P < 0.001), but not mucosa-IgG. In the fertility clinic, mucosa-IgG had stronger correlations with serum-IgG (P = 0.02) than mucosa-IgA (P = 0.06). Women with tubal pathology or Chlamydia history more commonly had serum-IgG and mucosa-IgA (both P < 0.001), whereas this link was weaker for mucosa-IgG (P = 0.03). Conclusion. Chlamydia IgG and IgA are detectable in vaginal mucosal material. Serum-IgG had stronger associations with current or past infections. Mucosa-IgA also showed associations with (past) infection and complications. IgA presence in vaginal mucosa warrants further epidemiological studies.

van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; Land, Jolande A.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Morre, Servaas A.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.

2014-01-01

214

Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic.  

PubMed

Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This "proof of principle" study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia antibodies are detectable in easier to obtain, noninvasive, vaginal mucosa samples and relate to current or past infection. Methods. We compared outcomes of Chlamydia IgG and IgA antibody tests in serum and vaginal mucosal swabs in (a) 77 women attending a fertility clinic, of whom 25 tested positive for serum-IgG and (b) 107 women visiting an STI centre, including 30 Chlamydia PCR-positive subjects. Results. In the STI clinic, active Chlamydia infections were linked to serum-IgG and serum-IgA (P < 0.001) and mucosa-IgA (P < 0.001), but not mucosa-IgG. In the fertility clinic, mucosa-IgG had stronger correlations with serum-IgG (P = 0.02) than mucosa-IgA (P = 0.06). Women with tubal pathology or Chlamydia history more commonly had serum-IgG and mucosa-IgA (both P < 0.001), whereas this link was weaker for mucosa-IgG (P = 0.03). Conclusion. Chlamydia IgG and IgA are detectable in vaginal mucosal material. Serum-IgG had stronger associations with current or past infections. Mucosa-IgA also showed associations with (past) infection and complications. IgA presence in vaginal mucosa warrants further epidemiological studies. PMID:24757446

van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Land, Jolande A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Morré, Servaas A; van der Sande, Marianne A B

2014-01-01

215

Validation of the multi-dimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) and the relationship between social support, intimate partner violence and antenatal depression in Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Lack of social support is an important risk factor for antenatal depression and anxiety in low- and middle-income countries. We translated, adapted and validated the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) in order to study the relationship between perceived social support, intimate partner violence and antenatal depression in Malawi. Methods The MSPSS was translated and adapted into Chichewa and Chiyao. Five hundred and eighty-three women attending an antenatal clinic were administered the MSPSS, depression screening measures, and a risk factor questionnaire including questions about intimate partner violence. A sub-sample of participants (n?=?196) were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to diagnose major depressive episode. Validity of the MSPSS was evaluated by assessment of internal consistency, factor structure, and correlation with Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) score and major depressive episode. We investigated associations between perception of support from different sources (significant other, family, and friends) and major depressive episode, and whether intimate partner violence was a moderator of these associations. Results In both Chichewa and Chiyao, the MSPSS had high internal consistency for the full scale and significant other, family, and friends subscales. MSPSS full scale and subscale scores were inversely associated with SRQ score and major depression diagnosis. Using principal components analysis, the MSPSS had the expected 3-factor structure in analysis of the whole sample. On confirmatory factor analysis, goodness–of-fit indices were better for a 3-factor model than for a 2-factor model, and met standard criteria when correlation between items was allowed. Lack of support from a significant other was the only MSPSS subscale that showed a significant association with depression on multivariate analysis, and this association was moderated by experience of intimate partner violence. Conclusions The MSPSS is a valid measure of perceived social support in Malawi. Lack of support by a significant other is associated with depression in pregnant women who have experienced intimate partner violence in this setting.

2014-01-01

216

Health insurance for the poor decreases access to HIV testing in antenatal care: evidence of an unintended effect of health insurance reform in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV was added to standard antenatal care (ANC) in 2000 for Colombians enrolled in the two national health insurance schemes, the ‘subsidized regime’ (covering poor citizens) and the ‘contributory regime’ (covering salaried citizens with incomes above the poverty threshold), which jointly covered 80% of the total Colombian population as of 2007. This article examines integration of HIV testing in ANC through the relationship between ordering an HIV test with the type of health insurance, including lack of health insurance, using data from the nationally representative 2005 Colombia Demographic and Health Survey. Overall, health-care providers ordered an HIV test for only 35% of the women attending ANC. We regressed the order of an HIV test during ANC on health systems characteristics (type of insurance and type of ANC provider), women’s characteristics (age, wealth, educational attainment, month of pregnancy at first antenatal visit, HIV knowledge, urban vs. rural residence and sub-region of residence) and children’s characteristics (birth order and birth year). Women enrolled in the subsidized regime were significantly less likely to be offered and receive an HIV test in ANC than women without any health insurance (adjusted odds ratio = 0.820, P < 0.001), when controlling for the other independent variables. Wealth, urban residence, birth year of the child and the type of health-care provider seen during the ANC visit were significantly associated with providers ordering an HIV test for a woman (all P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that enrolment in the subsidized regime reduced access to HIV testing in ANC. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms through which the potential effect of health insurance coverage on HIV testing in ANC occurs and to examine whether enrolment in the subsidized regime has affected access to other essential health services.

Ettenger, Allison; Barnighausen, Till; Castro, Arachu

2014-01-01

217

Antenatal screening for haemoglobinopathies in primary care: a whole system participatory action research project  

PubMed Central

Background The usual system for antenatal screening for haemoglobinopathies permits termination only late in the second trimester of pregnancy. Aim To evaluate a system where pregnant women are screened in general practice, and to develop a model of care pathway or whole system research able to bring into view unexpected effects of health service innovation. Design of study A whole system participatory action research approach was used. Six purposefully chosen general practices screened women who attended with a new pregnancy. Data of gestational age of screening were compared with two control groups. Qualitative data were gathered through workshops, interviews and feedback to the project steering group. At facilitated annual workshops participants from all parts of the care pathway produced a consensus about the meaning of the data as a whole. Setting Six general practices in north London. Method A whole system participatory action research approach allowed stakeholders from throughout the care pathway to pilot the innovation and reflect on the meaning and significance of quantitative and qualitative data. Results The gestational age of screening in general practice was 4.1 weeks earlier (95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.41 to 4.68) than in hospital clinics (P<0.001), and 2.9 weeks earlier (95% CI = 2.07 to 3.65) than in community midwife clinics (P<0.001). However, only 35% of pregnant women in the study were screened in the practices. Changes required throughout the whole care pathway make wider implementation more difficult than at first realised. The cost within general practice is greater than initially appreciated owing to a perceived need to provide counselling about other issues at the same time. Practitioners considered that other ways of early screening should be explored, including preconceptual screening. The research approach was able to bring into view unexpected effects of the innovation, but health workers were unfamiliar with the participatory processes. Conclusion Antenatal screening for haemoglobinopathies in general practice lowers the gestational age at which an at-risk pregnancy can be identified. However, widespread implementation of such screening may be too difficult.

Thomas, Paul; Oni, Lola; Alli, Mabel; St Hilaire, Judith; Smith, Alma; Leavey, Conan; Banarsee, Ricky

2005-01-01

218

Comparison of human papillomavirus detections in urine, vulvar, and cervical samples from women attending a colposcopy clinic.  

PubMed

While urine-based sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) is being explored as a simple and noninvasive approach for cervical cancer screening, data comparing HPV genotyping in urine and those in cellular sampling of the cervix and vulva, and their correlation with rigorously confirmed cervical disease status, are sparse. We performed HPV genotyping on voided-urine and clinician-collected vulvar and cervical samples from 72 women undergoing colposcopy. Although urine-based HPV carcinogenic HPV detection was lower (58.3%) than cervical (73.6%) and vulvar (72.1%) detection (P = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively), the agreement of urine HPV with cervical and vulvar HPV was moderate (kappa = 0.55) and substantial (kappa = 0.62), respectively. Urine-based carcinogenic HPV detection had a clinical sensitivity of 80.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60.7 to 93.5) and a specificity of 53.3% (95% CI = 37.9 to 68.3) for diagnosing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3 (CIN2/3) on histology; 90.0% of CIN3 was positive for urine HPV. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity values for vulvar sampling were 92% (95% CI = 74 to 99) and 40.5% (95% CI = 25.6 to 56.7), and those for cervical sampling were 96.2% (95% CI = 80.4 to 99.9) and 40% (95% CI = 25.7 to 55.7), respectively. HPV16 was the most common carcinogenic genotype detectable in 25% of urine, 33.8% of vulvar, and 31.9% of cervical samples overall, with prevalence increasing with cervical disease grade, regardless of the sampling method. Stronger cervical HPV PCR signal strengths were associated with increased frequency of urine HPV detection. In summary, the relatively lower detection rates but comparable clinical performance of urine-based HPV sampling underscore the need for larger studies to evaluate urine-based sampling for cervical cancer screening, epidemiologic studies, and postvaccination HPV disease surveillance. PMID:24197879

Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Gravitt, Patti E; Dunn, S Terence; Brown, David; Allen, Richard A; Eby, Yolanda J; Smith, Katie; Zuna, Rosemary E; Zhang, Roy R; Gold, Michael A; Schiffman, Mark; Walker, Joan L; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas

2014-01-01

219

Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detections in Urine, Vulvar, and Cervical Samples from Women Attending a Colposcopy Clinic  

PubMed Central

While urine-based sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) is being explored as a simple and noninvasive approach for cervical cancer screening, data comparing HPV genotyping in urine and those in cellular sampling of the cervix and vulva, and their correlation with rigorously confirmed cervical disease status, are sparse. We performed HPV genotyping on voided-urine and clinician-collected vulvar and cervical samples from 72 women undergoing colposcopy. Although urine-based HPV carcinogenic HPV detection was lower (58.3%) than cervical (73.6%) and vulvar (72.1%) detection (P = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively), the agreement of urine HPV with cervical and vulvar HPV was moderate (kappa = 0.55) and substantial (kappa = 0.62), respectively. Urine-based carcinogenic HPV detection had a clinical sensitivity of 80.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60.7 to 93.5) and a specificity of 53.3% (95% CI = 37.9 to 68.3) for diagnosing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3 (CIN2/3) on histology; 90.0% of CIN3 was positive for urine HPV. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity values for vulvar sampling were 92% (95% CI = 74 to 99) and 40.5% (95% CI = 25.6 to 56.7), and those for cervical sampling were 96.2% (95% CI = 80.4 to 99.9) and 40% (95% CI = 25.7 to 55.7), respectively. HPV16 was the most common carcinogenic genotype detectable in 25% of urine, 33.8% of vulvar, and 31.9% of cervical samples overall, with prevalence increasing with cervical disease grade, regardless of the sampling method. Stronger cervical HPV PCR signal strengths were associated with increased frequency of urine HPV detection. In summary, the relatively lower detection rates but comparable clinical performance of urine-based HPV sampling underscore the need for larger studies to evaluate urine-based sampling for cervical cancer screening, epidemiologic studies, and postvaccination HPV disease surveillance.

Gravitt, Patti E.; Dunn, S. Terence; Brown, David; Allen, Richard A.; Eby, Yolanda J.; Smith, Katie; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Zhang, Roy R.; Gold, Michael A.; Schiffman, Mark; Walker, Joan L.; Castle, Philip E.; Wentzensen, Nicolas

2014-01-01

220

The impact of including husbands in antenatal health education services on maternal health practices in urban Nepal: results from a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational studies suggest that including men in reproductive health interventions can enhance positive health outcomes. A random- ized controlled trial was designed to test the impact of involving male partners in antenatal health education on maternal health care utili- zation and birth preparedness in urban Nepal. In total, 442 women seeking antenatal services during second trimester of pregnancy were randomized

Britta C. Mullany; S. Becker; M. J. Hindin

2007-01-01

221

Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Argentinean women attending two different hospitals prior to the implementation of the National vaccination program  

PubMed Central

Cervarix vaccine was included in the National Immunization Program of Argentina in 2011 but data about the local distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women exposed to the virus are scarce. This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence and type distribution of HPV infection in unvaccinated women attending routine gynaecological screening in two public hospitals located in Buenos Aires and Santa Fe, Argentina. Socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and co-factors information was obtained from all participants (Buenos Aires, n=429; Santa Fe, n=433). Cervicovaginal swabs were tested with an MY11/09 primer-based assay and with the CUT primer system targeting mucosal/cutaneous HPVs. Participants from Buenos Aires showed significantly higher rates of HPV infection (52.4% vs. 40.6%), of multiple infections (24.2% vs. 16.4%), and of low-risk (20.3% vs. 13.9%) and high-risk types (44.1% vs. 33.3%) than those from Santa Fe. HPV-66 (Buenos Aires: 17%) and HPV-16 (Santa Fe: 8.5%) were the most prevalent types. Novel HPV-66 putative subtype and variants were identified. Vaccine types 16 and 18 were frequent (Buenos Aires: 13.5%; Santa Fe F: 10.2%) but few participants had co-infections with both (Buenos Aires: 1.4%; Santa Fe: 0.2%). A common risk factor for HPV infection was having a new sexual partner in the last year (Buenos Aires: OR 2.53, p<0.001; Santa Fe: OR 1.85, p=0.04). This study provides valuable baseline data for future assessment of the impact of massive vaccination in Argentina and it underlines the use of additional HPV testing strategies, such as the CUT system, for surveillance and vaccinology.

Chouhy, Diego; D'Andrea, Ruben Mamprin; Iglesias, Mercedes; Messina, Analia; Ivancovich, Juan J.; Cerda, Belen; Galimberti, Diana; Bottai, Hebe; Giri, Adriana A.

2012-01-01

222

HIV Awareness and Risk Behavior among Pregnant Women in Mateete, Uganda (2010)  

PubMed Central

Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate current knowledge, risk behavior, and attitudes among pregnant women in Mateete, Uganda. Methods. We collected 100 questionnaires and performed 20 interviews among women who attended antenatal care. Findings. All the women had heard about HIV/AIDS, and 92% were aware of mother-to-child transmission. The women overestimated the risk of achieving the virus since 45% believed in transmission by mosquitoes and 44% by kissing. Many pointed out that married women as a group were infected more often because of unfaithful partners who refused to use condoms during sex. Conclusion. The women were well aware of the routes of HIV transmission. Schools and governmental campaigns have played an important role in educating people about the disease but there is still a great need to reach out to people in rural areas with both health care and correct information.

Sandqvist, Josefin; Wahlberg, Johanna; Muhumuza, Elly; Andersson, Rune

2011-01-01

223

Using the community-based health planning and services program to promote skilled delivery in rural Ghana: socio-demographic factors that influence women utilization of skilled attendants at birth in Northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is enormous. In Ghana the maternal mortality ratio was 350 per 100,000 live births in 2010. Skilled birth attendance has been shown to reduce maternal deaths and disabilities, yet in 2010 only 68% of mothers in Ghana gave birth with skilled birth attendants. In 2005, the Ghana Health Service piloted an enhancement of its Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) program, training Community Health Officers (CHOs) as midwives, to address the gap in skilled attendance in rural Upper East Region (UER). The study determined the extent to which CHO-midwives skilled delivery program achieved its desired outcomes in UER among birthing women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional household survey with women who had ever given birth in the three years prior to the survey. We employed a two stage sampling techniques: In the first stage we proportionally selected enumeration areas, and the second stage involved random selection of households. In each household, where there is more than one woman with a child within the age limit, we interviewed the woman with the youngest child. We collected data on awareness of the program, use of the services and factors that are associated with skilled attendants at birth. Results A total of 407 households/women were interviewed. Eighty three percent of respondents knew that CHO-midwives provided delivery services in CHPS zones. Seventy nine percent of the deliveries were with skilled attendants; and over half of these skilled births (42% of total) were by CHO-midwives. Multivariate analyses showed that women of the Nankana ethnic group and those with uneducated husbands were less likely to access skilled attendants at birth in rural settings. Conclusions The implementation of the CHO-midwife program in UER appeared to have contributed to expanded skilled delivery care access and utilization for rural women. However, women of the Nankana ethnic group and uneducated men must be targeted with health education to improve women utilizing skilled delivery services in rural communities of the region.

2014-01-01

224

Delay in termination of pregnancy among unmarried adolescents and young women attending a tertiary hospital abortion clinic in Trivandrum, Kerala, India.  

PubMed

Unwed pregnancy among adolescents is a disturbing event in Indian belief-systems, and very young motherhood limits girls' social, economic and educational prospects. Girls who seek abortions are always at higher risk for delay in care seeking; this paper looks at the reasons why. It reports the experiences of 34 unmarried adolescent girls and young women, aged 10-24 years, who obtained induced abortion from a tertiary care abortion clinic over a period of seven months in 2004. Ten were below 19 years of age, the rest were 20-24 years. Only eight of the 34 pregnancies were <12 weeks. The reasons for delay were fear of disclosure, lack of any support system and scarcity of resources. In 30 cases, the decision to terminate was made jointly with family members, especially the mother. Only half knew about contraception, of whom two used condoms. Only two of the partners accompanied the girl to the abortion clinic and another two offered some financial support. Because of the conflict between wanting to have sex and feeling guilty about it, these young people experienced terrible distress in the course of unwanted pregnancy. Comparing the adolescents who attended the clinic in 2004 with those we have seen in 2012-2013, the paper shows that as regards the essentials, much has remained the same. PMID:23684207

Sowmini C V

2013-05-01

225

Use of antenatal corticosteroids prior to preterm birth in four South East Asian countries within the SEA-ORCHID project  

PubMed Central

Background There is strong evidence supporting the use of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk of preterm birth to promote fetal lung maturation and reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. This audit aimed to assess the use of antenatal corticosteroids prior to preterm birth in the nine hospitals in four South East Asian countries participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive Health in Developing Countries (SEA-ORCHID) Project. Method We reviewed the medical records of 9550 women (9665 infants including 111 twins and two triplets) admitted to the labour wards of nine hospitals in four South East Asian countries during 2005. For women who gave birth before 34 weeks gestation we collected information on women's demographic and pregnancy background, the type, dose and use of corticosteroids, and key birth and infant outcomes. Results Administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women who gave birth before 34 weeks gestation varied widely between countries (9% to 73%) and also between hospitals within countries (0% to 86%). Antenatal corticosteroids were most commonly given when women were between 28 and 34 weeks gestation (80%). Overall 6% of women received repeat doses of corticosteroids. Dexamethasone was the only type of antenatal corticosteroid used. Women receiving antenatal corticosteroids compared with those not given antenatal corticosteroids were less likely to have had a previous pregnancy and to be booked for birth at the hospital and almost three times as likely to have a current multiple pregnancy. Exposed women were less likely to be induced and almost twice as likely to have a caesarean section, a primary postpartum haemorrhage and postpartum pyrexia. Infants exposed to antenatal corticosteroids compared with infants not exposed were less likely to die. Live born exposed infants were less likely to have Apgar scores of < 7 at five minutes and less likely to have any lung disease. Conclusion In this survey the use of antenatal corticosteroids prior to preterm birth varied between countries and hospitals. Evaluation of the enablers and barriers to the uptake of this effective antenatal intervention at individual hospitals is needed.

Pattanittum, Porjai; Ewens, Melissa R; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; McDonald, Steven J; Crowther, Caroline A

2008-01-01

226

Health insurance for the poor decreases access to HIV testing in antenatal care: evidence of an unintended effect of health insurance reform in Colombia.  

PubMed

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV was added to standard antenatal care (ANC) in 2000 for Colombians enrolled in the two national health insurance schemes, the 'subsidized regime' (covering poor citizens) and the 'contributory regime' (covering salaried citizens with incomes above the poverty threshold), which jointly covered 80% of the total Colombian population as of 2007. This article examines integration of HIV testing in ANC through the relationship between ordering an HIV test with the type of health insurance, including lack of health insurance, using data from the nationally representative 2005 Colombia Demographic and Health Survey. Overall, health-care providers ordered an HIV test for only 35% of the women attending ANC. We regressed the order of an HIV test during ANC on health systems characteristics (type of insurance and type of ANC provider), women's characteristics (age, wealth, educational attainment, month of pregnancy at first antenatal visit, HIV knowledge, urban vs. rural residence and sub-region of residence) and children's characteristics (birth order and birth year). Women enrolled in the subsidized regime were significantly less likely to be offered and receive an HIV test in ANC than women without any health insurance (adjusted odds ratio = 0.820, P < 0.001), when controlling for the other independent variables. Wealth, urban residence, birth year of the child and the type of health-care provider seen during the ANC visit were significantly associated with providers ordering an HIV test for a woman (all P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that enrolment in the subsidized regime reduced access to HIV testing in ANC. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms through which the potential effect of health insurance coverage on HIV testing in ANC occurs and to examine whether enrolment in the subsidized regime has affected access to other essential health services. PMID:23598426

Ettenger, Allison; Bärnighausen, Till; Castro, Arachu

2014-05-01

227

The prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral infections among pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background: Viral hepatitis during pregnancy is associated with high risk of maternal complications and has become a leading cause of foetal death. Aims: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral infections among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Patients and Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study that included 5760 pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic of the hospital during the periods of October 2009 - October 2010. Relevant data was gathered and women having history of previous liver diseases, diabetes and pre-eclamptic toxemia were excluded from the study. Rapid diagnostic test kits were used to screen for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies. Results: 720 (12.5%) and 206 (3.6%) out of 5,760 pregnant women included in the study were found to be positive for Serum antibodies to hepatitis B and C respectively. 33 (0.57%) were found to have mixed infections of hepatitis B and C. None of the expected risk factors had significant outcome. Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) among pregnant women in this study area is of intermediate endemicity (12.5%).

Ugbebor, Ose; Aigbirior, Moses; Osazuwa, Favour; Enabudoso, Ehigha; Zabayo, Omorogbe

2011-01-01

228

Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females: the effect of bipolarity on depressive symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background This cross-sectional study sought to identify factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, and bipolarity. Methods Eighty-four pregnant women were recruited to complete questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms, and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. Results Nineteen participants (22.6%) had positive Mood Disorder Questionnaire scores, suggesting the presence of bipolarity, and were significantly more likely to score high on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Antenatal depression was associated with bad marital communication and marital dissatisfaction. Conclusion These results suggest that spousal interactions play a significant role in antenatal depression, and pregnant women with bipolarity may be more depressed than those without bipolarity.

Park, Chul Min; Seo, Hye-Jin; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Hong, Seong-Chul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Hur, Min Hee; Song, Jae Min

2014-01-01

229

Differences in timely antenatal care between first and second-generation migrants in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

To assess whether there are differences in the timing of first antenatal care visit between 1st and 2nd-generation migrants, and if so, how such differences could be explained. The study has been conducted in the framework of Generation R Study, a multi-ethnic population-based study conducted in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The study population consists of 845 women of the six largest ethnic groups. Data were derived from the electronic antenatal charts of the participating midwives and from written questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses have been carried out to investigate whether difference could be explained by need, predisposing and enabling factors. More first than second generation women enter antenatal care after 14 weeks of pregnancy (28.1 vs. 18.7 %). Women who were not likely to adopt healthy behaviour regarding pregnancy-such as timely taking folic acid-equally were not inclined to enter antenatal care early in pregnancy. The role of Dutch language mastery was limited. Given our results, first generation women are less likely to receive timely health educational advice or to benefit from screening opportunities than second generation women. Future studies should pay more attention to adequate assessment of proficiency of the host language. PMID:23702785

Choté, Anushka A; Koopmans, Gerrit T; de Groot, Christianne J M; Hoefman, Renske J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Mackenbach, Johan P; Trappenburg, Margo; Foets, Marleen

2014-08-01

230

Antenatal and perinatal predictors of infant mortality in rural Malawi  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—The slow pace in the reduction of infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa has partially been attributed to the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To facilitate early interventions, antenatal and perinatal predictors of 1st year mortality were identified in a rural community in southern Malawi.?METHODS—A cohort of 733 live born infants was studied prospectively from approximately 24 gestation weeks onwards. Univariate analysis was used to determine relative risks for infant mortality after selected antenatal and perinatal exposures. Multivariate modelling was used to control for potential confounders.?FINDINGS—The infant mortality rate was 136 deaths/1000 live births. Among singleton newborns, the strongest antenatal and perinatal predictors of mortality were birth between May and July, maternal primiparity, birth before 38th gestation week, and maternal HIV infection. Theoretically, exposure to these variables accounted for 22%, 22%, 17%, and 15% of the population attributable risk for infant mortality, respectively.?INTERPRETATION—The HIV epidemic was an important but not the main determinant of infant mortality. Interventions targetting the offspring of primiparous women or infants born between May and July or prevention of prematurity would all have considerable impact on infant survival.??

Vaahtera, M.; Kulmala, T.; Ndekha, M.; Koivisto, A.; Cullinan, T.; Salin, M.; Ashorn, P.

2000-01-01

231

Evaluation of the quality of antenatal care using electronic health record information in family medicine clinics of Mexico City  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of the quality of antenatal care (ANC) using indicators should be part of the efforts to improve primary care services in developing countries. The growing use of the electronic health record (EHR) has the potential of making the evaluation more efficient. The objectives of this study were: (a) to develop quality indicators for ANC and (b) to evaluate the quality of ANC using EHR information in family medicine clinics (FMCs) of Mexico City. Methods We used a mixed methods approach including: (a) in-depth interviews with health professionals; (b) development of indicators following the RAND-UCLA method; (c) a retrospective cohort study of quality of care provided to 5342 women aged 12–49 years who had completed their pregnancy in 2009 and attended to at least one ANC visit with their family doctor. The study took place in four FMCs located in Mexico City. The source of information was the EHR. SAS statistical package served for programing and performing the descriptive statistical analysis. Results 14 ANC quality indicators were developed. The evaluation showed that 40.6% of women began ANC in the first trimester; 63.5% with low-risk pregnancy attended four or more ANC visits; 4.4% were referred for routine obstetric ultrasound, and 41.1% with vaginal infection were prescribed metronidazole. On average, the percentage of recommended care that women received was 32.7%. Conclusions It is feasible to develop quality indicators suitable for evaluating the quality of ANC using routine EHR data. The study identified the ANC areas that require improvement; which can guide future strategies aimed at improving ANC quality.

2014-01-01

232

Knowledge and utilization of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in primary health care centers in rural southwest, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment for prevention of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a key component of malaria control strategy in Nigeria and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the drug of choice. Despite the evidence of the effectiveness of IPTp strategy using SP in reducing the adverse effects of malaria during pregnancy the uptake and coverage in Nigeria is low. This study set

Stella O Akinleye; Catherine O Falade; Ikeoluwapo O Ajayi

2009-01-01

233

Antenatal and maternal health care utilization: evidence from northeastern states of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role played by the various socio-economic and community level factors in determining the antenatal and maternal health care utilization pattern using the data from the National Family Health Survey carried out in India in 1998\\/99. Our analysis document that autonomy enjoyed by women and exposure to media has a significant impact on maternal heath care utilization

Anindita Chakrabarti; Kausik Chaudhuri

2007-01-01

234

Effects of Antenatal Betamethasone on Human Fetal Branch Pulmonary Artery Flow Velocity Waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effect of antenatal betamethasone on fetal branch pulmonary artery flow velocity waveforms. Methods: Betamethasone 12 mg i.m. in 2 injections 24 h apart was given to 25 pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery. Pulsatility (PI) and resistance (RI) indexes were measured at the proximal, middle and distal segments of the fetal pulmonary artery before and

José L. Bartha; Marta Largo-Heinrich; María J. Machado; Fernando González-Bugatto; Blas Hervías-Vivancos

2008-01-01

235

Infant feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs predict antenatal intention among first-time mothers in queensland.  

PubMed

Abstract Aim: This study assessed infant feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among women from Queensland, Australia, in their first pregnancy. Antenatal feeding intention in this group was described, and the hypothesis was tested that antenatal knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about infant feeding are associated with antenatal intention for the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding for the infant's first year. Subjects and Methods: The Feeding Queensland Babies Study is a prospective survey of infant feeding attitudes and behaviors among first-time mothers in Queensland, Australia. Data on infant feeding knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and intention were collected antenatally, and an Infant Feeding Attitudes Score was calculated. Results: Although 85% of respondents endorsed breastfeeding as most appropriate for infants, 11% valued formula feeding equally. Intention to give any breastmilk during the first weeks was 98%, but it fell to 18% during the second year. More than one-quarter of women reported intention to introduce foods other than breastmilk before 5 months of infant age. The infant feeding attitudes and beliefs score correlated positively with feeding intention for breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary solids. Conclusions: Enhancing women's knowledge of recommendations and their understanding of breastfeeding's specific benefits and the reasons for recommended scheduling of feeding transitions may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and duration and the age-appropriate introduction of complementary solids. Communication of detailed feeding recommendations for the infant's first year and specific information about the health benefits of breastfeeding should be a goal of healthcare providers working with pregnant women. PMID:24840853

Newby, Ruth; Brodribb, Wendy; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W

2014-06-01

236

Antenatal maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome: results of a demonstration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To assess the implementation of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome in practice, using individual risk estimates based on maternal age and the three serum markers: alpha fetoprotein, unconjugated oestriol, and human chorionic gonadotrophin. DESIGN--Demonstration project of Down's syndrome screening; women with a risk estimate at term of 1 in 250 or greater were classified as \\

N. J. Wald; A. Kennard; J. W. Densem; H. S. Cuckle; T. Chard; L. Butler

1992-01-01

237

Alcohol brief interventions in Scottish antenatal care: a qualitative study of midwives' attitudes and practices  

PubMed Central

Background Infants exposed to alcohol in the womb are at increased risk of experiencing health problems. However, mixed messages about the consequences of prenatal alcohol consumption have resulted in inconsistent attitudes and practices amongst some healthcare practitioners. Screening and alcohol brief interventions (ABIs) can reduce risky drinking in various clinical settings. Recently, a program of screening and ABIs have been implemented in antenatal care settings in Scotland. However, current evidence suggests that midwives’ involvement in alcohol brief interventions activities is patchy. This study explored midwives’ attitudes and practices regarding alcohol screening and ABIs in order to understand why they are relatively underutilized in antenatal care settings compared to other clinical settings. Methods This was a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews with 15 midwives and a focus group with a further six midwifery team leaders (21 participants in total) in Scotland. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Midwives were positive about their involvement in the screening and ABI program. However, they were not completely convinced about the purpose and value of the screening and ABIs in antenatal care. In the midst of competing priorities, the program was seen as having a low priority in their workload. Midwives felt that the rapport between them and pregnant women was not sufficiently established at the first antenatal appointment to allow them to discuss alcohol issues appropriately. They reported that many women had already given up drinking or were drinking minimal amounts prior to the first antenatal appointment. Conclusions Midwives recognised the important role they could play in alcohol intervention activities in antenatal care. As the majority of women stop consuming alcohol in pregnancy, many will not need an ABI. Those who have not stopped are likely to need an ABI, but midwives were concerned that it was this group that they were most likely to alienate by discussing such concerns. Further consideration should be given to pre-pregnancy preventative measures as they are more likely to reduce alcohol-exposed pregnancies.

2014-01-01

238

Antenatal Education as Perceived by Health Professionals  

PubMed Central

This article aims to identify the learning needs of expectant and new parents for antenatal education as perceived by health professionals. In Australia, antenatal education programs are predominantly designed by health professionals, and recent research has challenged the efficacy of this approach. The data collected from 73 health professionals, reported here, demonstrates that their perceptions of the concerns and interests of expectant and new parents were divided into three interrelated categories: “need to know…what's happening,” “they won't listen,” and “balanced information.” The health professional ideas for improving antenatal education were limited and identified a reluctance to change practice.

Svensson, Jane; Barclay, Lesley; Cooke, Margaret

2007-01-01

239

Fertility Intent and Contraceptive Decision-making among HIV Positive and Negative Antenatal Clinic Attendees in Durban, South Africa  

PubMed Central

We explored contraceptive decision-making among South African antenatal clinic attendees, fertility intent post-HIV diagnosis, and women’s experiences at government health facilities. Data are from in-depth interviews with HIV negative and HIV positive women. We interviewed women in Zulu; interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated. We conducted qualitative analyses of interviews. Women were the dominant decision-makers about contraceptive use, whether they involved their partners or not. A majority of women obtained a contraceptive method at a government facility; however, several women were unable to attain sterilizations. Women were presented with limited contraceptive options and were not always able to access services.

Marlow, Heather M.; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K.; Moodley, Daya

2014-01-01

240

HIV testing for patients attending general medical services: concise guidelines.  

PubMed

Traditionally, HIV testing has been confined to those accessing departments of genitourinary medicine (GUM). Blood donors, and more recently women attending for antenatal care, also undergo routine HIV testing. As more testing is undertaken in non-GUM settings there is a need to ensure standardisation of practice irrespective of where it is performed. These guidelines are a summary of the recommendations from the full document, which is available from the website of the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH), the specialist society for genitourinary medicine. The full guidelines offer recommendations on when to consider testing for HIV, set out the diagnostic tests available, give methods for increasing the uptake of testing, suggest information to be given before and after testing and explain insurance issues and health promotion principles in the context of HIV testing. The document is aimed primarily at people aged 16 years or older presenting to doctors in general medicine (and its subspecialties). Specific guidelines on testing for those under 16 are available. PMID:15139731

Rogstad, Karen E

2004-01-01

241

Evaluation of anaemia in booked antenatal mothers during the last trimester.  

PubMed

Background and Aim: Anaemia occurring during pregnancy is an important public health problem in developing countries. In India, anaemia is one of the most common causes of maternal death, accounting for 20% of total maternal deaths. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating anaemia among booked antenatal mothers during the last trimester, its possible impact on pregnancy and its outcome in antenatal mothers, visiting antenatal clinic in a teaching tertiary care hospital at Pondicherry, India. Material and Methods: This hospital based, descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Clinical Pathology and Pharmacology at Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College Hospital in Pondicherry, India. Socio-economic and gestational status data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire from booked antenatal mothers in third trimester. Venous blood was collected for the estimation of Haemoglobin by using Sahli's Haemoglobinometer and morphological typing of anaemia was estimated by using Leishmann Stain peripheral blood smears. The women were followed-up till delivery and their antenatal, neonatal and other birth outcomes were recorded. Results: Seventy five booked antenatal women, aged 19 - 40 years, with gestational ages of 27- 40 weeks, were recruited for the study. We observed that among 75 antenatal mothers, the Haemoglobin level was less than 10grams% in 83% cases and that it was more than 10 grams% in 17% cases. Iron deficiency anaemia and dimorphic anaemia were recorded in 37% and 19% of the women respectively. High percentage of anaemia was noted in women of higher age group (23-27 years), in those with multi-parity (55%) and low educational levels (100%) and in mothers of low socio-economic status (100%). In the pregnancy outcomes, 85% and 60% anaemic mothers reported maternal and foetal complications respectively. Conclusion: In spite of regular antenatal visits in third trimester, maternal anaemia is still high and it is often associated with low education status, socio-economic status and multi-parity, based on our study. There is a need of health education programmes with respect to haematinics compliance and adequate intake of iron rich diet during pregnancy, to be strengthened for safe maternal and foetal outcomes. PMID:24392379

Amel Ivan, Erli; A, Mangaiarkkarasi

2013-11-01

242

Evaluation of Anaemia in Booked Antenatal Mothers During the Last Trimester  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim: Anaemia occurring during pregnancy is an important public health problem in developing countries. In India, anaemia is one of the most common causes of maternal death, accounting for 20% of total maternal deaths. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating anaemia among booked antenatal mothers during the last trimester, its possible impact on pregnancy and its outcome in antenatal mothers, visiting antenatal clinic in a teaching tertiary care hospital at Pondicherry, India. Material and Methods: This hospital based, descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Clinical Pathology and Pharmacology at Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College Hospital in Pondicherry, India. Socio–economic and gestational status data was collected with the help of structured questionnaire from booked antenatal mothers in third trimester. Venous blood was collected for the estimation of Haemoglobin by using Sahli’s Haemoglobinometer and morphological typing of anaemia was estimated by using Leishmann Stain peripheral blood smears. The women were followed-up till delivery and their antenatal, neonatal and other birth outcomes were recorded. Results: Seventy five booked antenatal women, aged 19 - 40 years, with gestational ages of 27– 40 weeks, were recruited for the study. We observed that among 75 antenatal mothers, the Haemoglobin level was less than 10grams% in 83% cases and that it was more than 10 grams% in 17% cases. Iron deficiency anaemia and dimorphic anaemia were recorded in 37% and 19% of the women respectively. High percentage of anaemia was noted in women of higher age group (23–27 years), in those with multi–parity (55%) and low educational levels (100%) and in mothers of low socio–economic status (100%). In the pregnancy outcomes, 85% and 60% anaemic mothers reported maternal and foetal complications respectively. Conclusion: In spite of regular antenatal visits in third trimester, maternal anaemia is still high and it is often associated with low education status, socio-economic status and multi-parity, based on our study. There is a need of health education programmes with respect to haematinics compliance and adequate intake of iron rich diet during pregnancy, to be strengthened for safe maternal and foetal outcomes.

Amel Ivan, Erli; A., Mangaiarkkarasi

2013-01-01

243

Do Malawian women critically assess the quality of care? A qualitative study on women's perceptions of perinatal care at a district hospital in Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Malawi has a high perinatal mortality rate of 40 deaths per 1,000 births. To promote neonatal health, the Government of Malawi has identified essential health care packages for improving maternal and neonatal health in health care facilities. However, regardless of the availability of health services, women’s perceptions of the care is important as it influences whether the women will or will not use the services. In Malawi 95% of pregnant women receive antenatal care from skilled attendants, but the number is reduced to 71% deliveries being conducted by skilled attendants. The objective of this study was to describe women’s perceptions on perinatal care among the women delivered at a district hospital. Methods A descriptive study design with qualitative data collection and analysis methods. Data were collected through face-to-face in-depth interviews using semi-structured interview guides collecting information on women’s perceptions on perinatal care. A total of 14 in depth interviews were conducted with women delivering at Chiradzulu District Hospital from February to March 2011. The women were asked how they perceived the care they received from health workers during antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum. They were also asked about the information they received during provision of care. Data were manually analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Two themes from the study were good care and unsatisfactory care. Subthemes under good care were: respect, confidentiality, privacy and normal delivery. Providers’ attitude, delay in providing care, inadequate care, and unavailability of delivery attendants were subthemes under unsatisfactory care. Conclusions Although the results show that women wanted to be well received at health facilities, respected, treated with kindness, dignity and not shouted at, they were not critical of the care they received. The women did not know the quality of care to expect because they were not well informed. The women were not critical of the care they received because they were not aware of the standard of care. Instead they had low expectations. Health workers have a responsibility to inform women and their families about the care that women should expect. There is also a need for standardization of the antenatal information that is provided.

2012-01-01

244

Disparities in the use of antenatal care service in Ethiopia over a period of fifteen years  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about factors contributing to inequities in antenatal care use in Ethiopia. We aimed to assess inequities in the use of antenatal care on the basis of area of residence, administrative region, economic status and education. Methods This study was based on data from repeated cross-sectional surveys carried out by Measure Demographic and Health Survey and Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia. The surveys were conducted in February-June 2000, April-August 2005, and December 2010-June 2011. The surveys employed a cluster sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of 15–49 year-old women. The main outcome variable was at least one antenatal care visit for the last live birth in the 5 years preceding the surveys. Statistical analysis was completed by applying the sampling weights in order to consider the complex sampling design. Results A total of 7978, 7307 and 7908 weighted number of women participated in the three surveys, respectively. The rate of antenatal care coverage in Ethiopia has increased from 26.8% in 2000 to 42.7% in 2011. The odds of antenatal care use were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.7-3.2, p?women from urban areas than those from rural areas at the three time points, respectively. The odds ratio of antenatal care use among women with secondary or higher education compared with women of no education increased from 2.6 (95% CI: 2.0-3.4, p?women from the richest households at the three time points were 2.7 (95% CI: 2.1-3.6, p?antenatal care highlight the need to put more resources to poor households, rural areas, and disadvantage regions. We suggest further study to understand additional factors for the deep unmet need in rural areas and some regions of Ethiopia.

2013-01-01

245

Wealth and antenatal care use: implications for maternal health care utilisation in Ghana  

PubMed Central

The study investigates the effect of wealth on maternal health care utilization in Ghana via its effect on Antenatal care use. Antenatal care serves as the initial point of contact of expectant mothers to maternal health care providers before delivery. The study is pivoted on the introduction of the free maternal health care policy in April 2005 in Ghana with the aim of reducing the financial barrier to the use of maternal health care services, to help reduce the high rate of maternal deaths. Prior to the introduction of the policy, studies found wealth to have a positive and significant influence on the use of Antenatal care. It is thus expected that with the policy, wealth should not influence the use of maternal health care significantly. Using secondary data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey, the results have revealed that wealth still has a significant influence on adequate use of Antenatal care. Education, age, number of living children, transportation and health insurance are other factors that were found to influence the use of Antenatal care in Ghana. There also exist considerable variations in the use of Antenatal care in the geographical regions and between the rural and urban dwellers. It is recommended that to improve the use of Antenatal care and hence maternal health care utilization, some means of support is provided especially to women within the lowest wealth quintiles, like the provision and availability of recommended medication at the health center; secondly, women should be encouraged to pursue education to at least the secondary level since this improves their use of maternal health services. Policy should also target mothers who have had the experience of child birth on the need to use adequate Antenatal care for each pregnancy, since these mothers tend to use less antenatal care for subsequent pregnancies. The regional disparities found may be due to inaccessibility and unavailability of health facilities and services in the rural areas and in some of the regions. The government and other service providers (NGOs, religious institutions and private providers) may endeavor to improve on the distribution of health facilities, human resources, good roads and necessary infrastructure among other things in order to facilitate easy access to health care providers especially for the rural dwellers.

2012-01-01

246

Antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms are differentially associated with early childhood weight and adiposity  

PubMed Central

Summary Antenatal depression is associated with small for gestational age, but few studies have examined associations with weight during childhood. Similarly few studies address whether antenatal and postpartum depression differentially affect child weight. Among 838 mother-child dyads in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study, we examined relationships of antenatal and postpartum depression with child weight and adiposity. We assessed maternal depression at mid-pregnancy and 6 months postpartum with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (score >13 indicating probable depression). We assessed child outcomes at age 3 years: body mass index (BMI) z-score, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), sum of subscapular (SS) and triceps (TR) skinfold thickness (SS+TR) for overall adiposity, and SS:TR ratio for central adiposity. Sixty-nine (8.2%) women experienced antenatal depression and 59 (7.0%) postpartum depression. Mean (SD) outcomes at age 3 were: BMI z-score, 0.45 (1.01); SS+TR, 16.72 (4.03) mm; SS:TR, 0.64 (0.15). In multivariable models, antenatal depression was associated with lower child BMI z-score (-0.24 [95% confidence interval: -0.49, 0.00]), but higher SS:TR (0.05 [0.01, 0.09]). There was no evidence of a dose-response relation between antenatal depression and these outcomes. Postpartum depression was associated with higher SS+TR (1.14 [0.11, 2.18]). In conclusion, whereas antenatal depression was associated with smaller size and central adiposity at age 3 years, postpartum depression was associated with higher overall adiposity.

Ertel, Karen A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gillman, Matthew W.

2014-01-01

247

How much time is available for antenatal care consultations? Assessment of the quality of care in rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Many women in Sub-Saharan African countries do not receive key recommended interventions during routine antenatal care (ANC) including information on pregnancy, related complications, and importance of skilled delivery attendance. We undertook a process evaluation of a successful cluster randomized trial testing the effectiveness of birth plans in increasing utilization of skilled delivery and postnatal care in Ngorongoro district, rural Tanzania, to document the time spent by health care providers on providing the recommended components of ANC. Methods The study was conducted in 16 health units (eight units in each arm of the trial). We observed, timed, and audio-recorded ANC consultations to assess the total time providers spent with each woman and the time spent for the delivery of each component of care. T-test statistics were used to compare the total time and time spent for the various components of ANC in the two arms of the trial. We also identified the topics discussed during the counselling and health education sessions, and examined the quality of the provider-woman interaction. Results The mean total duration for initial ANC consultations was 40.1 minutes (range 33-47) in the intervention arm versus 19.9 (range 12-32) in the control arm p < 0.0001. Except for drug administration, which was the same in both arms of the trial, the time spent on each component of care was also greater in the intervention health units. Similar trends were observed for subsequent ANC consultations. Birth plans were always discussed in the intervention health units. Counselling on HIV/AIDS was also prioritized, especially in the control health units. Most other recommended topics (e.g. danger signs during pregnancy) were rarely discussed. Conclusion Although the implementation of birth plans in the intervention health units improved provider-women dialogue on skilled delivery attendance, most recommended topics critical to improving maternal and newborn survival were rarely covered.

2011-01-01

248

Individual and local level factors and antenatal care use in Colombia: a multilevel analysis.  

PubMed

This paper examined the association between individual and local level factors and the number of antenatal care visits completed by women in Colombia using data from the 2010 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey and multilevel logistic regression models. Our findings suggest that, in addition to maternal socioeconomic status, contextual factors influence whether pregnant women complete the minimum recommended number of antenatal care visits. These factors include: level of women's autonomy in the community, regional inequalities and access barriers caused by distance (OR = 0.057), costs of services (OR = 0.035), and/or a lack of confidence in doctors (OR = 0.036). Our results highlight the existence of inequalities in access to antenatal care and the importance of considering the local context in the design of effective maternal care policies in Colombia. Furthermore, our findings regarding individual factors corroborate the evidence from other countries and offer new insights into the association between local level factors and number of antenatal care visits. PMID:24936823

Osorio, Ana María; Tovar, Luis Miguel; Rathmann, Katharina

2014-05-01

249

Use of an action-orientated record for antenatal screening.  

PubMed

Early referral for hospital delivery is important to reduce the risks during pregnancy and labor for 90% of the women in rural areas. Therefore, Tanzania has improved a record card for antenatal screening that would detect labor complications, indicate appropriate action, emphasize preventive treatment for pregnancy complications, and record labor outcome. A patient's obstetric history is obtained and the patient is examined with consideration given to height and limp or polio leg. Patients with raised blood pressure, signs of pre-eclamptic toxemia, or severe anemia are referred to the hospital and if breech, transverse lie, or twins are suspected, the patient is booked for a hospital delivery. Prevention of anemia, malaria, and neonatal tetanus are emphasized. Of 13,410 women screened, a height factor of 146 cm or less accounted for 41.6% of all risk factors, and 81% of all risk factors were detected from the patient's history and height measurement. By using the new antenatal cards there was a higher detection rate of risk cases an when used by different health workers, there was over 95% agreement in findings compared to 68% using the old cards. PMID:302047

Essex, B J; Everett, V J

1977-07-01

250

Assessing the efficacy of a voluntary HIV counseling and testing intervention for pregnant women and male partners in Urumqi City, China.  

PubMed

This study investigated the efficacy of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) in an educated cohort of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Urumqi, China. VCT was given to women and their partners (experimental group) or women alone (control group). Both groups were given pre- and post-intervention questionnaires to assess HIV knowledge and willingness to get HIV testing. Multivariate analysis showed that all women improved significantly in HIV knowledge between baseline and follow-up. Moreover, HIV knowledge was significantly associated with HIV testing willingness. At follow-up, women in the control and experimental groups were 6.8 and 7.9 times more willing to receive HIV testing than at baseline, respectively. VCT seems effective in this cohort of educated pregnant women. PMID:16897353

Khoshnood, Kaveh; Wilson, Katherine S; Filardo, Giovanni; Liu, Zhendong; Keung, Ng Hon; Wu, Zunyou

2006-11-01

251

Why do women prefer home births in Ethiopia?  

PubMed Central

Background Skilled attendants during labor, delivery, and in the early postpartum period, can prevent up to 75% or more of maternal death. However, in many developing countries, very few mothers make at least one antenatal visit and even less receive delivery care from skilled professionals. The present study reports findings from a region where key challenges related to transportation and availability of obstetric services were addressed by an ongoing project, giving a unique opportunity to understand why women might continue to prefer home delivery even when facility based delivery is available at minimal cost. Methods The study took place in Ethiopia using a mixed study design employing a cross sectional household survey among 15–49 year old women combined with in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Results Seventy one percent of mothers received antenatal care from a health professional (doctor, health officer, nurse, or midwife) for their most recent birth in the one year preceding the survey. Overall only 16% of deliveries were assisted by health professionals, while a significant majority (78%) was attended by traditional birth attendants. The most important reasons for not seeking institutional delivery were the belief that it is not necessary (42%) and not customary (36%), followed by high cost (22%) and distance or lack of transportation (8%). The group discussions and interviews identified several reasons for the preference of traditional birth attendants over health facilities. Traditional birth attendants were seen as culturally acceptable and competent health workers. Women reported poor quality of care and previous negative experiences with health facilities. In addition, women’s low awareness on the advantages of skilled attendance at delivery, little role in making decisions (even when they want), and economic constraints during referral contribute to the low level of service utilization. Conclusions The study indicated the crucial role of proper health care provider-client communication and providing a more client centered and culturally sensitive care if utilization of existing health facilities is to be maximized. Implications of findings for maternal health programs and further research are discussed.

2013-01-01

252

Why some women fail to give birth at health facilities: a qualitative study of women's perceptions of perinatal care from rural Southern Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Despite Malawi government’s policy to support women to deliver in health facilities with the assistance of skilled attendants, some women do not access this care. Objective The study explores the reasons why women delivered at home without skilled attendance despite receiving antenatal care at a health centre and their perceptions of perinatal care. Methods A descriptive study design with qualitative data collection and analysis methods. Data were collected through face-to-face in-depth interviews using a semi- structured interview guide that collected information on women’s perception on perinatal care. A total of 12 in- depth interviews were conducted with women that had delivered at home in the period December 2010 to March 2011. The women were asked how they perceived the care they received from health workers before, during, and after delivery. Data were manually analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Onset of labor at night, rainy season, rapid labor, socio-cultural factors and health workers’ attitudes were related to the women delivering at home. The participants were assisted in the delivery by traditional birth attendants, relatives or neighbors. Two women delivered alone. Most women went to the health facility the same day after delivery. Conclusions This study reveals beliefs about labor and delivery that need to be addressed through provision of appropriate perinatal information to raise community awareness. Even though, it is not easy to change cultural beliefs to convince women to use health facilities for deliveries. There is a need for further exploration of barriers that prevent women from accessing health care for better understanding and subsequently identification of optimal solutions with involvement of the communities themselves.

2013-01-01

253

Social support and antenatal depression in extended and nuclear family environments in Turkey: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Social support is strongly implicated in the aetiology of perinatal mental disorder: particularly the quality of the marital and family environment. Family structures are important under-researched potential modifiers. Turkey offers particular advantages for research in this area because of long-standing coexistence of Western and Middle Eastern family structures. We aimed to investigate associations between the quality of key relationships and depression in women in their third trimester of pregnancy, and the extent to which these associations were modified by family structure. Method Women attending antenatal clinics in their third trimester were recruited from urban and rural settings in Ankara. A nuclear family structure was defined as a wife and husband living alone or with their children in the same household, whereas a traditional/extended family structure was defined if another adult was living with the married couple in the same household. Depression was ascertained using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and social support was assessed by the Close Person Questionnaire with respect to the husband, mother and mother-in-law. Social support was compared between participants with/without case-level depression on the EPDS in linear regression models adjusted for relevant covariates, then stratified by nuclear/traditional family structure. Results Of 772 women approached, 751 (97.3%) participated and 730 (94.6%) had sufficient data for this analysis. Prevalence of case-level depression was 33.1% and this was associated with lower social support from all three family members but not with traditional/nuclear family structure. The association between depression and lower emotional support from the husband was significantly stronger in traditional compared to nuclear family environments. Conclusions Lower quality of relationships between key family members was strongly associated with third trimester depression. Family structure modified the association but, contrary to expectations, spousal emotional support was a stronger correlate of antenatal depression in traditional rather than nuclear family settings. Previous psychiatric history was not formally ascertained and the temporal relationship between mood state and social support needs to be clarified.

2011-01-01

254

A preliminary survey of Atopobium vaginae in women attending the Dunedin gynaecology out-patients clinic: is the contribution of the hard-to-culture microbiota overlooked in gynaecological disorders?  

PubMed

Preliminary studies have indicated that the recently described bacterium Atopobium vaginae may have an association with bacterial vaginosis (BV). Fifty-five women attending the gynaecology out-patient's clinic were tested for the presence of this micro-organism, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus and Bacteroides species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays. The frequency of detection was 40%. PCR detection of Gardnerella vaginalis with A. vaginae, occurred in 50% of A. vaginae-positive cases. Due to the high detection rate of A. vaginae we believe that it is important to determine whether this and other hard-to-culture microorganisms have a role in gynaecological disorders. PMID:16171487

Burton, Jeremy P; Chilcott, Chris N; Al-Qumber, Mohammed; Brooks, Heather J L; Wilson, Don; Tagg, John R; Devenish, Celia

2005-10-01

255

Impact on Infants' Cognitive Development of Antenatal Exposure to Iron Deficiency Disorder and Common Mental Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and common mental disorders (CMD) on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. Methods A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12–20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb <11 g/dL and serum ferritin <15 ng/mL. CMD symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam validation. Infant cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Ed. Path analyses were performed to determine the direct and indirect, partly or fully mediated, causal effects of the antenatal exposures. Results A total of 497 pregnant women were recruited, of those 378 women provided complete data which were included in the analyses. Statistically significant direct adverse effects of persistent antenatal IDA (estimated difference of ?11.62 points; 95% CI ?23.01 to ?0.22) and antenatal CMD (?4.80 points; 95% CI: ?9.40 to ?0.20) on infant Bayley cognitive scores at six months were found. Higher birthweight, household wealth, and self-rated sufficient supply of breastmilk were associated with higher cognitive scores. Maternal age >30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants’ Bayley cognitive scores. Conclusions These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries.

Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane

2013-01-01

256

Is attendant at delivery associated with the use of interventions to prevent postpartum hemorrhage at home births? The case of Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality in Bangladesh, the majority of which is due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), blood loss of 500 mL or more. Many deaths due to PPH occur at home where approximately 77% of births take place. This paper aims to determine whether the attendant at home delivery (i.e. traditional birth attendant (TBA) trained on PPH interventions, TBA not trained on interventions, or lay attendant) is associated with the use of interventions to prevent PPH at home births. Methods Data come from operations research to determine the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of scaling-up community-based provision of misoprostol and an absorbent delivery mat in rural Bangladesh. Analyses were done using data from antenatal care (ANC) cards of women who delivered at home without a skilled attendant (N?=?66,489). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of using the interventions. Results Overall, 67% of women who delivered at home without a skilled provider used misoprostol and the delivery mat (the interventions). Women who delivered at home and had a trained TBA present had 2.72 (95% confidence interval, 2.15-3.43) times the odds of using the interventions compared to those who had a lay person present. With each additional ANC visit (maximum of 4) a woman attended, the odds of using the interventions increased 2.76 times (95% confidence interval, 2.71-2.81). Other sociodemographic variables positively associated with use of the interventions were age, secondary or higher education, and having had a previous birth. Conclusion Findings indicate that trained TBAs can have a significant impact on utilization of interventions to prevent PPH in home births. ANC visits can be an important point of contact for knowledge transfer and message reinforcement about PPH prevention.

2014-01-01

257

[Antenatal form of Bartter's syndrome].  

PubMed

Six cases of tubular disorder of antenatal onset responsible for biological manifestations characteristic of Bartter syndrome and severe hypercalciuria are reported. In all six cases, severe hydramnios occurred during pregnancy between the 26th and 28th week after the last menstrual period. All six patients were born prematurely; gestational age ranged from 20 to 35 weeks. Major polyuria with dehydration occurred immediately after birth. The amounts of water and sodium needed to compensate urinary losses ranged from 280 to 370 ml/kg/day and 25 to 43 mmol/kg/d, respectively, during the first two postnatal months. Decreased serum potassium levels and increased plasma levels of renin and aldosterone were seen in all six patients. Increased urinary excretion of calcium was evidenced during the first postnatal week in three cases. Urinary calcium excretion in the six patients ranged from 15 to 30 mg/kg/d. Nephrocalcinosis developed in all six patients and two patients developed urinary lithiasis. One patient died at one month of age from necrotizing enteropathy. The five remaining patients gradually developed severe growth failure with measurements between 4 and 5.5 SDs below the mean. These five patients had evidence of hyperparathyroidism including increased serum levels of parathyroid hormone (5/5), increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity (4/5), and roentgenographic bone changes (1/5). Ionized calcium assays performed in three of the five patients disclosed low values (range 1.25-1.47 mmol/l; mean = 1.35; normal values = 1.42-1.62), although total serum calcium levels were normal or high (range 2.16-2.98 mmol/l; mean 2.61; normal values = 2.45-2.65) probably as a result of chronic dehydration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8457138

Deschenes, G; Burguet, A; Guyot, C; Hubert, P; Garabedian, M; Dechaux, M; Loirat, C; Broyer, M

1993-02-01

258

High Prevalence Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by Polymerase Chain Reaction in Endocervical Samples of Infertile Women Attending University Hospital in Manaus-Amazonas, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We established for the first time the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Manaus Amazonas Brazil using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Methods: 106 women were studied at a public university hospital fertility clinic for infertility problems correlated with chlamydia infection. Social-economic and clinical information was obtained before medical examination to obtain samples for the

Norma Suely de Lima Freitas; Cristina Maria Borborema-Santos; Dária Barroso Serrão das Neves; Cintia Mara Costa de Oliveira; Júnia Raquel Dutra Ferreira; Spartaco Astolfi-Filho

2011-01-01

259

Effectiveness of Antenatal Clinics to Deliver Intermittent Preventive Treatment and Insecticide Treated Nets for the Control of Malaria in Pregnancy in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria in pregnancy can have devastating consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the WHO prevention strategy for sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent-preventive-treatment (IPTp) with two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and insecticide-treated-nets (ITNs) in pregnancy is low. We analysed household survey data to evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal clinics (ANC) to deliver IPTp and ITNs to pregnant women in Nyando district, Kenya. Methods We assessed the systems effectiveness of ANC to deliver IPTp and ITNs to pregnant women and the impact on low birthweight (LBW). Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of receipt of IPTp and ITN use during pregnancy. Results Among 89% of recently pregnant women who attended ANC at least once between 4–9 months gestation, 59% reported receiving one dose of SP and 90% attended ANC again, of whom 57% received a second dose, resulting in a cumulative effectiveness for IPTp of 27%, most of whom used an ITN (96%). Overall ITN use was 89%, and ANC the main source (76%). Women were less likely to receive IPTp if they had low malaria knowledge (0.26, 95% CI 0.08–0.83), had a child who had died (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14–0.95), or if they first attended ANC late (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.06–0.67). Women who experienced side effects to SP (OR 0.18, CI 0.03–0.90) or had low malaria knowledge (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.11–5.43) were less likely to receive IPTp by directly observed therapy. Ineffective delivery of IPTp reduced its potential impact by 231 LBW cases averted (95% CI 64–359) per 10,000 pregnant women. Conclusion IPTp presents greater challenges to deliver through ANC than ITNs in this setting. The reduction in public health impact on LBW resulting from ineffective delivery of IPTp is estimated to be substantial. Urgent efforts are required to improve service delivery of this important intervention.

Hill, Jenny; Dellicour, Stephanie; Bruce, Jane; Ouma, Peter; Smedley, James; Otieno, Peter; Ombock, Maurice; Kariuki, Simon; Desai, Meghna; Hamel, Mary J.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne

2013-01-01

260

"It's better for me to drink, at least the stress is going away": Perspectives on alcohol use during pregnancy among South African women attending drinking establishments.  

PubMed

The Western Cape of South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) globally. Reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority for this region, but insight into the experiences of women who drink during pregnancy is lacking. Convenience sampling in alcohol-serving venues was used to identify women who were currently pregnant (n = 12) or recently post-partum (n = 12) and reported drinking during the pregnancy period. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between April and August 2013. Interviews explored drinking narratives, with textual data analyzed for themes related to factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy. All but one woman reported her pregnancy as unplanned. The majority sustained or increased drinking after pregnancy recognition, with patterns typically including multiple days of binge drinking per week. Analysis of the textual data revealed five primary factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy: 1) women used alcohol as a strategy to cope with stressors and negative emotions, including those associated with pregnancy; 2) women drank as a way to retain social connection, often during a difficult period of life transition; 3) social norms in women's peer groups supported drinking during pregnancy; 4) women lacked attachment to the pregnancy or were resistant to motherhood; and 5) women were driven physiologically by alcohol addiction. Our data suggest that alcohol-serving settings are important sites to identify and target women at risk of drinking during pregnancy. Intervention approaches to reduce alcohol use during pregnancy should include counseling and contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies, mental health and coping interventions targeting pregnant women, peer-based interventions to change norms around perinatal drinking, and treatment for alcohol dependence during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that innovative interventions that go beyond the boundaries of the health care system are urgently needed to address FASD in this region. PMID:24997441

Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Choi, Karmel W; Velloza, Jennifer; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J

2014-09-01

261

Factors associated with reproductive health care utilization among Ghanaian women  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigates factors determining the timing of antenatal care (ANC) visit and the type of delivery assistant present during delivery among a national representative sample of Ghanaian women. Method Data for the study was drawn from the women questionnaire (N=4,916) of the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey among 15–49-years-old women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors determining the type of delivery assistance and timing of ANC visit for live births within five years prior to the survey. Results Majority of Ghanaian women attended ANC visit (96.5%) but many (42.7%) did so late (after the first trimester), while 36.5% had delivery without the assistance of a trained personnel (30.6%) or anyone (5.9%). Age (OR=1.5, CI=1.1-1.9, OR for 25-34-year-olds compared to 15-24-year-olds), religion (OR=1.8, CI=1.2-2.8, OR for Christians versus Traditional believers) wealth index (OR=2.6, CI=1.7-3.8, OR for the richest compared to the poorest) were independently associated with early ANC visit. Likewise, age, place of residence, education and partner’s education were associated with having a delivery assisted by a trained assistant. Also, Christians (OR=1.8, CI=1.1-3.0) and Moslems (OR=1.9, CI=1.1-3.3) were more likely to have trained delivery assistants compared to their counterparts who practised traditional belief. Furthermore, the richer a woman the more likely that she would have delivery assisted by a trained personnel (OR=8.2, CI= 4.2-16.0, OR for the richest in comparison to the poorest). Conclusions Despite the relatively high antenatal care utilisation among Ghanaian women, significant variations exist across the socio-demographic spectrum. Furthermore, a large number of women failed to meet the WHO recommendation to attend antenatal care within the first trimester of pregnancy. These findings have important implications for reducing maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters by the year 2015.

2012-01-01

262

The Effect of Health-Facility Admission and Skilled Birth Attendant Coverage on Maternal Survival in India: A Case-Control Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Research in areas of low skilled attendant coverage found that maternal mortality is paradoxically higher in women who seek obstetric care. We estimated the effect of health-facility admission on maternal survival, and how this effect varies with skilled attendant coverage across India. Methods/Findings Using unmatched population-based case-control analysis of national datasets, we compared the effect of health-facility admission at any time (antenatal, intrapartum, postpartum) on maternal deaths (cases) to women reporting pregnancies (controls). Probability of maternal death decreased with increasing skilled attendant coverage, among both women who were and were not admitted to a health-facility, however, the risk of death among women who were admitted was higher (at 50% coverage, OR?=?2.32, 95% confidence interval 1.85–2.92) than among those women who were not; while at higher levels of coverage, the effect of health-facility admission was attenuated. In a secondary analysis, the probability of maternal death decreased with increasing coverage among both women admitted for delivery or delivered at home but there was no effect of admission for delivery on mortality risk (50% coverage, OR?=?1.0, 0.80–1.25), suggesting that poor quality of obstetric care may have attenuated the benefits of facility-based care. Subpopulation analysis of obstetric hemorrhage cases and report of ‘excessive bleeding’ in controls showed that the probability of maternal death decreased with increasing skilled attendant coverage; but the effect of health-facility admission was attenuated (at 50% coverage, OR?=?1.47, 0.95–1.79), suggesting that some of the effect in the main model can be explained by women arriving at facility with complications underway. Finally, highest risk associated with health-facility admission was clustered in women with education 8 years. Conclusions The effect of health-facility admission did vary by skilled attendant coverage, and this effect appears to be driven partially by reverse causality; however, inequitable access to and possibly poor quality of healthcare for primary and emergency services appears to play a role in maternal survival as well.

Montgomery, Ann L.; Fadel, Shaza; Kumar, Rajesh; Bondy, Sue; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat

2014-01-01

263

Antenatal education and postnatal support strategies for improving rates of exclusive breast feeding: randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate whether antenatal breast feeding education alone or postnatal lactation support alone improves rates of exclusive breast feeding compared with routine hospital care.Design Randomised controlled trial.Setting A tertiary hospital in Singapore.Participants 450 women with uncomplicated pregnancies.Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were rates of exclusive breast feeding at discharge from hospital and two weeks, six weeks, three months, and

Lin-Lin Su; Yap-Seng Chong; Yiong-Huak Chan; Yah-Shih Chan; Doris Fok; Kay-Thwe Tun; Faith S P Ng; Mary Rauff

2007-01-01

264

The impact and use of written leaflets as a counselling alternative in mass antenatal HIV screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-test counselling has been seen as a pre-requisite for HIV screening. As HIV moves into the heterosexual community, the role of HIV screening in ante-natal care has increased. As vertical transmission is the major contributor to perinatal infection HIV screening of pregnant women has become a reality. The pregnant population comprises large numbers, the practical difficulties of routine pre-test counselling

L. Sherr; B. Hedge

1990-01-01

265

Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC) sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations,

Brian D Rice; Jörg Bätzing-Feigenbaum; Victoria Hosegood; Frank Tanser; Caterina Hill; Till Barnighausen; Kobus Herbst; Tanya Welz; Marie-Louise Newell

2007-01-01

266

What is, must be best: A research note on conservative or deferential responses to antenatal care provision  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a study of innovations in antenatal care it was found that overall levels of satisfaction with care were high. Pregnant women appeared to assume that whatever arrangements they had experienced were the best arrangements possible and to be negative about innovations until they had experienced them. This response, which may be due to conservatism or deference, is examined in

Maureen Porter; Sally Macintyre

1984-01-01

267

Maternal and Fetal Outcome of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Attending BIRDEM Hospital.  

PubMed

Gestational diabetes mellitus, most of which progress to type-2 diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide. Identification of gestational diabetes and control of glucose can reduce such complications and improve maternal and neonatal health. A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted to find out maternal and fetal outcome of gestational diabetes from January to July 2011. Data were collected from 109 gestational diabetes mothers attending Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM) hospital for delivery. Study revealed that gestational diabetes was more common among mothers aged >25 years old and multiparaous women. Mean gestational age of diagnosis was 16.82±9.54 weeks. Sixty eight (68%) mothers were diagnosed before 20 weeks of gestation and more than 90% mothers with gestational diabetes delivered by caesarean section. Mean pregnancy weight gain was 6.8±1.18kg. Adverse maternal outcome observed in 24% cases and adverse fetal outcome was present in 34% cases. In univariate analysis weeks of delivery and fasting blood sugar were statistically significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Babies born to mothers with only diet restriction had less birth weight than mothers with insulin therapy. Pregnancy thought to be the most vulnerable stage of women's life and protecting her health along with her fetus during this period yields a positive impact on the health of future generation. Particular attention should be given during antenatal period to initiate screening programme and treatment protocol for gestational diabetic mothers. PMID:24858157

Sajani, T T; Rahman, M T; Karim, M R

2014-04-01

268

Stigma and attitudes towards antenatal depression and antidepressant use during pregnancy in healthcare students.  

PubMed

Depression in pregnancy or antenatal depression (AD) occurs in approximately one in five women, with potentially deleterious effects to the mother and fetus. People are encouraged to get treatment for depression; however, pregnant women can experience stigma when they reach out for help with depression. Research indicates that healthcare professionals hold stigma against patients who experience mental health conditions, including depression. The public, as well as healthcare professionals may have negative attitudes towards antidepressant use during pregnancy, despite evidence that many antidepressants are relatively safe for use in pregnancy. The objective of this project was to determine what knowledge and opinions healthcare students may hold towards antenatal depression and its treatment, and whether further knowledge and experience lessened the stigma. Medical, pharmacy, and nursing students (n = 309) were given a scenario regarding a woman with AD based on Corrigan's Attribution Questionnaire and asked seven questions based on the scenario that assessed their level of stigma and questions related to treatment. Each student group demonstrated some stigma towards the woman and all groups lacked knowledge regarding treatment of AD. Overall, the nursing students were the most stigmatizing of the three groups. The study demonstrates that healthcare students hold stigma towards people with mental health problems, including pregnant depressed women. It points to a need to increase education about antenatal depression and its treatment. PMID:21431361

Gawley, Laura; Einarson, Adrienne; Bowen, Angela

2011-12-01

269

Inadequacy of nutrients intake among pregnant women in the Deep South of Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background The deep south of Thailand is an area which has been affected by violence since 2004, yet the concurrent coverage of antenatal care has remained at over 90%. Our study aimed to describe the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinics in hospitals in the study area and assess factors associated with nutrient inadequacy. Methods Pregnant women from four participating hospitals located in lower southern Thailand were surveyed during January-December 2008. Nutrient intake was estimated based on information provided by the women on the amount, type and frequency of various foods eaten. Logistic regression was used to assess individual and community factors associated with inadequate nutrient intake, defined as less than two thirds of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Results The prevalence of carbohydrate, protein, fat, calories, calcium, phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, retinol, niacin, vitamin C, folic acid and iodine inadequacy was 86.8%, 59.2%, 78.0%, 83.5%, 55.0%, 29.5%, 45.2%, 85.0%, 19.2%, 3.8%, 43.2%, 0.8%, 0.0% and 0.8%, respectively. Maternal age, education level, gestational age at enrolment and pre-pregnancy body mass index and level of violence in the district were significantly associated with inadequacy of carbohydrate, protein, phosphorus, iron, thiamine and niacin intake. Conclusions Nutrient intake inadequacy among pregnant women was common in this area. Increasing levels of violence was associated with nutrient inadequacy in addition to individual factors.

2010-01-01

270

Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in Vellore region.  

PubMed

All pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a large hospital in Vellore, India (Christian Medical College Hospital) were screened for HIV infection between October 1987 and June 1992. A total of 36,953 blood samples were thus screened and 20 infected women were identified. Among these 18 women had acquired HIV infection from their husbands, who were also detected to be HIV infected. While these 18 women were monogamous, all the husbands had multiple sex partners. Two of the 20 women in this series were commercial sex workers. Among the 20, 17 (85%) women belonged to low socio-economic status, while three were from well-to-do families, with the husbands being businessmen or teachers. As the overall prevalence (0.054%) of HIV infection among pregnant women was relatively high and equal to or higher than many States in the USA and in areas outside London in the UK, the authors recommend that strict universal precautions be instituted in all obstetric practice in India. PMID:8144202

John, T J; Bhushan, N; Babu, P G; Seshadri, L; Balasubramanium, N; Jasper, P

1993-11-01

271

Self-Defining as Sexually Abused and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Women Attending an STD Clinic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as…

Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

2011-01-01

272

HIV-1 Genetic Diversity in Antenatal Cohort, Canada  

PubMed Central

We studied HIV genetic diversity in a cohort of 127 pregnant, HIV-infected women who received prenatal care at Sainte-Justine Hospital in Montreal, Canada, between 1999 and 2003. Clade assignments were derived by phylogenetic analysis of amplified pol sequences. Genotyping was successful in 103 of 127 women, 59 (57.3%) of whom were infected with clade B HIV-1, and 44 (42.7%) with nonclade B viruses, including subtypes A, C, D, F, G, and H. Four sequences remained unassigned. Forty-three of 44 women infected with non-clade B viruses were newcomers from sub-Saharan Africa, and subtype identity was consistent with those circulating in their countries of origin. These results highlight the epidemiologic importance of non-B HIV-1 in antenatal populations in a large North American urban center, underscore the influence of population movements on clade intermixing, and identify a group of patients who could be targeted for surveillance and drug therapy followup.

Akouamba, Bertine S.; Viel, Janique; Charest, Hugues; Merindol, Natacha; Samson, Johanne; Lapointe, Normand; Brenner, Bluma G.; Lalonde, Richard; Harrigan, P. Richard; Boucher, Marc

2005-01-01

273

Significance of IgG-Avidity in Antenatal Rubella Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Objective A descriptive study was carried out to determine the significance of IgG-affinity in the serological diagnosis of rubella infections in pregnancy. Materials and methods A total of 92 pregnant women who had never received antirubella vaccines were recruited by simple random selection and did not exceed 24 weeks of gestation were recruited from the antenatal clinics of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. Rubella virus-specific IgG, IgG-affinity and IgM were tested, using the Indirect ELISA methods. Results IgG-Affinity tests showed that 2 (2.2%) out of the 92 pregnant women, who were in their first and second trimester pregnancies respectively, had primary Rubella infections, while 1 (1.1%) primigravidae had a re-infection with rubella virus. It was also discovered that out of the 13 multigravid subjects that reported to have lost previous pregnancies, 2 (15.4%) cases may have been due to rubella infections that occurred during organogenesis. Conclusion Although the isolation of the whole virus or the viral nucleic material is the best basis for diagnosis, IgG-affinity is a proven supplementary serological diagnosis, to distinguish reinfection or viral persistence from primary exposure for prompt and accurate diagnosis. This is necessary for proper counselling of pregnant women especially in low economies where molecular diagnosis may not be affordable.

Agbede, Olajide Olubunmi; Olatinwo, Abdul Wahab Olanrewaju

2013-01-01

274

Project genesis: self-reported religiosity and spirituality and sexual risk-taking in young African-American women attending a historically African-American college.  

PubMed

This pilot study explored the relationship between self-reported religiosity, spirituality, and sexual risk-taking. The participants were a convenience sample of (N = 100) female students attending a historically African-American college (HBCU) in the south. On this predominantly female campus, students completed an anonymous health-risk survey, plus additional items, to measure their religiosity and spirituality. Correlation analysis revealed that although these students reported a high degree of religiosity and spirituality, these characteristics did not predict a decrease in sexual risk-taking behavior. Over six million new cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including the human papilloma virus (HPV), are projected in young Americans despite primary prevention measures. Although no predictive relationships were noted, self-reported spirituality or religiosity were not protective factors against high-risk sexual behavior. These findings are relevant to developing effective interventions in this population in order to decrease STI/HPV rates. PMID:21888148

Thomas, Tami L; Freeman, Arin

2011-07-01

275

Caste and maternal health care service use among rural Hindu women in Maitha, Uttar Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the association between caste and maternal health care service use among rural Hindu women in India. We analyzed data from the Morbidity and Performance Assessment, a population-based cross-sectional study, for 482 Hindu women who were pregnant during January 1998 to January 1999 in Maitha, Uttar Pradesh, India. Maternal health care service use among both upper and lower caste women was very low. Upper caste women were almost three times more likely to use antenatal care (odds ratio [OR] = 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-5.30), tetanus toxoid (OR = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.48-4.21), and contraceptives (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.28-5.54) and almost five times (OR = 4.77; 95% CI, 1.81-12.54) more likely to have a trained birth attendant compared to the lower caste women. Caste was a significant determinant of tetanus toxoid use and trained birth attendant even after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Besides caste, maternal literacy was the one sociodemographic factor that was significantly associated with the use of all maternal health care services. Information dissemination and awareness generation can improve the use of subsidized maternal health care services among women of all caste groups. PMID:18761290

Saroha, Ekta; Altarac, Maja; Sibley, Lynn M

2008-01-01

276

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). Conclusion The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method.

Kamel, Remah M

2013-01-01

277

Protein supplementation and dietary behaviours of resistance trained men and women attending commercial gyms: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy  

PubMed Central

Background It is anecdotally recognized that commercial gym users assume supplements in order to improve performance or health. However, dietary behaviours of people and athletes attending commercial gyms have been poorly studied. The exact amount and frequency of dietary supplements consumption are still needed to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to understand the quantity and quality of food intake, as well as dietary supplementation in people attending commercial gyms. Secondly to compare the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire was administered to 561 subjects, 207 from the city centre (CC) and 354 from the suburbs (SB) of Palermo, Italy. Frequency of protein supplements use and association with dietary behaviours were investigated. Subsequently, the frequency distribution was used for demographic assessment. Results Frequency of protein consumption was similar in both groups (30% for CC and 28.8% for SB). Males show greater consumption percentages than females (30.5% in males and 6.9% in females). Milk and chicken are the most frequently consumed foods. Data show that non-supplement users (NSU) consume significantly more snacks and bakery products than supplement users (SU) (P?

2014-01-01

278

An empirical evaluation of a psychoanalytic theory of mothering orientation: implications for the antenatal prediction of postnatal depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine (a) whether women's antenatal expectations of childbirth, their future baby and early motherhood vary in line with Raphael?Leff's Facilitator–Reciprocator–Regulator model of mothering orientation, and (b) whether a Regulator orientation confers greater relative risk for early postnatal depression. A sociodemographically representative sample of 205 primiparous women completed a maternal orientation measure and the General Health

H. M. Sharp; R. Bramwell

2004-01-01

279

Prevalence of syphilis among antenatal clinic attendees in Karachi: Imperative to begin universal screening in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Objectives Sexually transmitted infections are thought by some to be rare in socially conservative Muslim countries. Little is known about prevalence of syphilis in Pakistani women from the general population. We determined syphilis prevalence in a multi-center cross-sectional study of low risk pregnant women in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We administered a structured questionnaire and obtained a blood sample for syphilis serology (rapid plasma reagin test with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay confirmation) from all women giving informed consent over six weeks in 2007. Results The prevalence of confirmed syphilis was less than one percent (0.9%; 95%CI: 0.4, 1.8) in a sample size of 800 women recruited from three urban sites (?1% refusal rate). Women who lived in an area where male drug use is prevalent (Ibrahim Hyderi Hospital) had 1% (1.5%) higher prevalence rates than women from the other two sites 0.5%. Conclusions We documented higher-than-expected syphilis seroprevalence rates in a low risk population of antenatal clinic attendees in Pakistan. Bridge populations for syphilis may include drug users, who are usually married, and Hijras or their clients. Hijras are transgender and/or transvestite men who may provide sex for money to men. In accordance with our results, the national policy for syphilis control in Pakistan should be modified to include universal syphilis screening in antenatal clinics with subsequent partner notification.

Shah, SA; Kristensen, S; Memon, MA; Usman, G; Ghazi, A; John, R; Sathiakumar, N; Vermund, SH

2013-01-01

280

Behaviour of pregnant women towards the use of prenatal care services: a comparative study between China and the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

PubMed

The present study aims to highlight and describe the elements of difference and/or similarity between China (Changchun) and the Democratic Republic of Congo (Kinshasa) concerning the behaviour of pregnant women in the use of prenatal care services. A cross-sectional investigation with a self-designed survey was carried out from September 2011 to March 2012 among pregnant women attending antenatal visits in Changchun and Kinshasa. Sixty pregnant women of childbearing age, with an uncomplicated pregnancy, attending prenatal visits in two hospitals and two community care centres were eligible for the study. Data were analysed using SPSS 13.0 software. Kinshasa 86.6% vs. Changchun 26.6% of pregnant women attended prenatal health education. In Changchun none of the responders (0%) have received tetanus vaccine, whereas in Kinshasa 90% were vaccinated against tetanus. Kinshasa 73.3% vs. Changchun 23.3% of pregnant women confirmed that they have performed the HIV test. The elements of difference found in our results were statistically significant P < 0.05. Prenatal health education can help pregnant women to have an appropriate awareness and improve their behaviour in the use of prenatal care services. PMID:24090299

Sabine, Kabuyaya K; Li, Wentao; Jose, Mulwahali Wambale

2013-09-01

281

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Mediate the Relationship Between Traumatic Experiences and Drinking Behavior Among Women Attending Alcohol-Serving Venues in a South African Township  

PubMed Central

Objective: South Africa has high rates of traumatic experiences and alcohol abuse or dependence, especially among women. Traumatic experiences often result in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and PTSD has been associated with hazardous drinking. This article examines the relationship between traumatic events and hazardous drinking among women who patronized alcohol-serving venues in South Africa and examines PTSD as a mediator of this relationship. Method: A total of 560 women were recruited from a Cape Town township. They completed a computerized assessment that included alcohol consumption, history of traumatic events, and PTSD symptoms. Mediation analysis examined whether PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between the number of traumatic event categories experienced (range: 0–7) and drinking behavior. Results: The mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score in the sample was 12.15 (range: 0–34, SD = 7.3), with 70.9% reaching criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT ? 8). The mean PTSD score was 36.32 (range: 17–85, SD = 16.3), with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist with 20.9% meeting symptom criteria for PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version ? 50). Endorsement of traumatic experiences was high, including adult emotional (51.8%), physical (49.6%), and sexual (26.3%) abuse; childhood physical (35.0%) and sexual (25.9%) abuse; and other types of trauma (83%). All categories of traumatic experiences, except the “other” category, were associated with hazardous drinking. PTSD symptoms mediated 46% of the relationship between the number of traumatic categories experienced and drinking behavior. Conclusions: Women reported high rates of hazardous drinking and high levels of PTSD symptoms, and most had some history of traumatic events. There was a strong relationship between traumatic exposure and drinking levels, which was largely mediated by PTSD symptoms. Substance use interventions should address histories of trauma in this population, where alcohol may be used in part to cope with past traumas.

Watt, Melissa H.; Ranby, Krista W.; Meade, Christina S.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Kalichman, Seth C.

2012-01-01

282

Factors associated with antenatal care adequacy in rural and urban contexts-results from two health and demographic surveillance sites in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Antenatal Care (ANC) is universally considered important for women and children. This study aims to identify factors, demographic, social and economic, possibly associated with three ANC indicators: number of visits, timing of visits and content of services. The aim is also to compare the patterns of association of such factors between one rural and one urban context in northern Vietnam. Methods Totally 2,132 pregnant women were followed from identification of pregnancy until birth in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS). Information was obtained through quarterly face to face interviews. Results Living in the rural area was significantly associated with lower adequate use of ANC compared to living in the urban area, both regarding quantity (number and timing of visits) and content. Low education, living in poor households and exclusively using private sector ANC in both sites and self employment, becoming pregnant before 25 years of age and living in poor communities in the rural area turned out to increase the risk for overall inadequate ANC. High risk pregnancy could not be demonstrated to be associated with ANC adequacy in either site. The medical content of services offered was often inadequate, in relation to the national recommendations, especially in the private sector. Conclusion Low education, low economic status, exclusive use of private ANC and living in rural areas were main factors associated with risk for overall inadequate ANC use as related to the national recommendations. Therefore, interventions focussing on poor and less educated women, especially in rural areas should be prioritized. They should focus the importance of early attendance of ANC and sufficient use of core services. Financial support for poor and near poor women should be considered. Providers of ANC should be educated and otherwise influenced to provide sufficient core services. Adherence to ANC content guidelines must be improved through enhanced supervision, particularly in the private sector.

2012-01-01

283

Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated-Herpes Virus (KSHV) Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Factors previously associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) transmission in Africa include sexual, familial, and proximity to river water. We measured the seroprevalence of KSHV in relation to HIV, syphilis, and demographic factors among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Methods We tested for antibodies to KSHV lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73 antigens in 1740 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics who contributed blood to the "National HIV and Syphilis Sero-Prevalence Survey - South Africa, 2001". Information on HIV and syphilis serology, age, education, residential area, gravidity, and parity was anonymously linked to evaluate risk factors for KSHV seropositivity. Clinics were grouped by municipality regions and their proximity to the two main river catchments defined. Results KSHV seropositivity (reactive to either lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73) was nearly twice that of HIV (44.6% vs. 23.1%). HIV and syphilis seropositivity was 12.7% and 14.9% in women without KSHV, and 36.1% and 19.9% respectively in those with KSHV. Women who are KSHV seropositive were 4 times more likely to be HIV positive than those who were KSHV seronegative (AOR 4.1 95%CI: 3.4 - 5.7). Although, women with HIV infection were more likely to be syphilis seropositive (AOR 1.8 95%CI: 1.3 - 2.4), no association between KSHV and syphilis seropositivity was observed. Those with higher levels of education had lower levels of KSHV seropositivity compared to those with lower education levels. KSHV seropositivity showed a heterogeneous pattern of prevalence in some localities. Conclusions The association between KSHV and HIV seropositivity and a lack of common association with syphilis, suggests that KSHV transmission may involve geographical and cultural factors other than sexual transmission.

2010-01-01

284

Antenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis: current postnatal management.  

PubMed

The issue of antenatal hydronephrosis has become a routine component for the care of a pregnant woman despite limited evidence of a clinical benefit. The genitourinary tract represents the most commonly detected organ system with identified abnormalities, with antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH), being the most notable and common finding. ANH represents a spectrum, with most cases being a trivial and inconsequential finding on maternal fetal ultrasound. However, there is a correlation with increased grades of ANH being associated with increased severity of urinary tract pathology. Most patients can be managed expectantly with appropriate evaluation commenced postnatally based on severity of ANH and proper parental counseling and education. The purpose of this review was to assess current literature and guidelines pertaining to ANH and incorporate our practical interpretations of their significance. PMID:23325322

Davenport, Michael T; Merguerian, Paul A; Koyle, Martin

2013-03-01

285

Where There Are (Few) Skilled Birth Attendants  

PubMed Central

Recent efforts to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries have focused primarily on two long-term aims: training and deploying skilled birth attendants and upgrading emergency obstetric care facilities. Given the future population-level benefits, strengthening of health systems makes excellent strategic sense but it does not address the immediate safe-delivery needs of the estimated 45 million women who are likely to deliver at home, without a skilled birth attendant. There are currently 28 countries from four major regions in which fewer than half of all births are attended by skilled birth attendants. Sixty-nine percent of maternal deaths in these four regions can be attributed to these 28 countries, despite the fact that these countries only constitute 34% of the total population in these regions. Trends documenting the change in the proportion of births accompanied by a skilled attendant in these 28 countries over the last 15-20 years offer no indication that adequate change is imminent. To rapidly reduce maternal mortality in regions where births in the home without skilled birth attendants are common, governments and community-based organizations could implement a cost-effective, complementary strategy involving health workers who are likely to be present when births in the home take place. Training community-based birth attendants in primary and secondary prevention technologies (e.g. misoprostol, family planning, measurement of blood loss, and postpartum care) will increase the chance that women in the lowest economic quintiles will also benefit from global safe motherhood efforts.

Prata, Ndola; Rowen, Tami; Bell, Suzanne; Walsh, Julia; Potts, Malcolm

2011-01-01

286

Antenatal detection of congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital heart disease is an important cause of mortality in infancy. Most lesions detected antenatally are identified because of an abnormal 18–20-week scan, approximately 10% being found on a specialist scan for a known risk factor. Conditions that can be seen in the four-chamber view are most likely to be detected. The spectrum of heart disease is therefore different from

Denise Kitchiner

2004-01-01

287

Nutrition, mental health and violence: from pregnancy to postpartum Cohort of women attending primary care units in Southern Brazil - ECCAGE study  

PubMed Central

Background Woman's nutritional status, before and during pregnancy, is a strong determinant of health outcomes in the mother and newborn. Gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention increases risk of overweight or obesity in the future and they depend on the pregestational nutritional status and on food consumption and eating behavior during pregnancy. Eating behavior during pregnancy may be the cause or consequence of mood changes during pregnancy, especially depression, which increases likelihood of postpartum depression. In Brazil, a study carried out in the immediate postpartum period found that one in three women experienced some type of violence during pregnancy. Violence and depression are strongly associated and both exposures during pregnancy are associated with increased maternal stress and subsequent harm to the infant. The main objectives of this study are: to identify food intake and eating behaviors patterns; to estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders and the experience of violence during and after pregnancy; and to estimate the association between these exposures and infant's health and development. Methods/Design This is a cohort study of 780 pregnant women receiving care in 18 primary care units in two cities in Southern Brazil. Pregnant women were first evaluated between the 16th and 36th week of pregnancy at a prenatal visit. Follow-up included immediate postpartum assessment and around the fifth month postpartum. Information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, living circumstances, food intake, eating behaviors, mental health and exposure to violence, and on infant's development and anthropometrics measurements. Discussion This project will bring relevant information for a better understanding of the relationship between exposures during pregnancy and how they might affect child development, which can be useful for a better planning of health actions aiming to enhance available resources in primary health care.

2010-01-01

288

Are marginalized women being left behind? A population-based study of institutional deliveries in Karnataka, India  

PubMed Central

Background While India has made significant progress in reducing maternal mortality, attaining further declines will require increased skilled birth attendance and institutional delivery among marginalized and difficult to reach populations. Methods A population-based survey was carried out among 16 randomly selected rural villages in rural Mysore District in Karnataka, India between August and September 2008. All households in selected villages were enumerated and women with children 6 years of age or younger underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire on antenatal care and institutional delivery. Results Institutional deliveries in rural areas of Mysore District increased from 51% to 70% between 2002 and 2008. While increasing numbers of women were accessing antenatal care and delivering in hospitals, large disparities were found in uptake of these services among different castes. Mothers belonging to general castes were almost twice as likely to have an institutional birth as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. Mothers belonging to other backward caste or general castes had 1.8 times higher odds (95% CI: 1.21, 2.89) of having an institutional delivery as compared to scheduled castes and tribes. In multivariable analysis, which adjusted for inter- and intra-village variance, Below Poverty Line status, caste, and receiving antenatal care were all associated with institutional delivery. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that while the Indian Government has made significant progress in increasing antenatal care and institutional deliveries among rural populations, further success in lowering maternal mortality will likely hinge on the success of NRHM programs focused on serving marginalized groups. Health interventions which target SC/ST may also have to address both perceived and actual stigma and discrimination, in addition to providing needed services. Strategies for overcoming these barriers may include sensitization of healthcare workers, targeted health education and outreach, and culturally appropriate community-level interventions. Addressing the needs of these communities will be critical to achieving Millennium Development Goal Five by 2015.

2012-01-01

289

Knowledge and practices on malaria treatment measures among pregnant women in Abeokuta, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The knowledge and practices on malaria treatment measures were assessed among 1400 pregnant women in semi-urban and rural communities (Akomoje, Iberekodo, Osiele and Sabopapamaru) of Abeokuta, Nigeria in 2006. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and focus group discussions. The largest proportion (41%) of the respondents was in the age group 21-25years. About three quarters (74%) of the women were multigravids. Sixty-five percent of the women had between three to four episodes of malaria per year. According to the respondents, symptoms associated with malaria in pregnancy included abdominal pains and foetal weakness due to reduced kicks (53%), body pains and headaches (27%) and anaemia (20%). Sixty-eight percent of the pregnant women utilized herbs for treating symptoms associated with malaria due to its effectiveness and suitability and not due to financial constraint or lack of access to health facility. Though most women utilized herbs, 32% relied more on the use of antimalarials. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was the preferred antimalarial during pregnancy at the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Only 15% of the women were using insecticide treated mosquito nets for personal protection. The majority (77%) of respondents used nylon net to screen their windows off mosquitoes. Since malaria poses adverse effect on the mother and developing foetus, health education becomes very essential to the traditional birth attendants and the women who patronize them. Pregnant women who attend traditional birth homes should be encouraged to also attend orthodox antenatal clinics, in order to receive proper and adequate treatment against malaria for themselves and the foetus. PMID:19402584

Sam-Wobo, S O; Akinboroye, T; Anosike, J C; Adewale, B

2008-10-01

290

Rational case management of malaria with a rapid diagnostic test, Paracheck Pf(R), in antenatal health care in Bangui, Central African Republic  

PubMed Central

Background Both treatment and prevention strategies are recommended by the World Health Organization for the control of malaria during pregnancy in tropical areas. The aim of this study was to assess use of a rapid diagnostic test for prompt management of malaria in pregnancy in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods A cohort of 76 pregnant women was screened systematically for malaria with ParacheckPf® at each antenatal visit. The usefulness of the method was analysed by comparing the number of malaria episodes requiring treatment in the cohort with the number of prescriptions received by another group of pregnant women followed-up in routine antenatal care. Results In the cohort group, the proportion of positive ParacheckPf® episodes during antenatal clinics visits was 13.8%, while episodes of antimalarial prescriptions in the group which was followed-up routinely by antenatal personnel was estimated at 26.3%. Hence, the relative risk of the cohort for being prescribed an antimalarial drug was 0.53. Therefore, the attributable fraction of presumptive treatment avoided by systematic screening with ParacheckPf® was 47%. Conclusions Use of a rapid diagnostic test is useful, affordable and easy for adequate treatment of malaria in pregnant women. More powerful studies of the usefulness of introducing the test into antenatal care are needed in all heath centres in the country and in other tropical areas.

2012-01-01

291

Explaining ethnic differences in late antenatal care entry by predisposing, enabling and need factors in The Netherlands. The Generation R Study.  

PubMed

Despite compulsory health insurance in Europe, ethnic differences in access to health care exist. The objective of this study is to investigate how ethnic differences between Dutch and non-Dutch women with respect to late entry into antenatal care provided by community midwifes can be explained by need, predisposing and enabling factors. Data were obtained from the Generation R Study. The Generation R Study is a multi-ethnic population-based prospective cohort study conducted in the city of Rotterdam. In total, 2,093 pregnant women with a Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, Cape Verdean, Antillean, Surinamese Creole and Surinamese Hindustani background were included in this study. We examined whether ethnic differences in late antenatal care entry could be explained by need, predisposing and enabling factors. Subsequently, logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent role of explanatory variables in the timing of antenatal care entry. The main outcome measure was late entry into antenatal care (gestational age at first visit after 14 weeks). With the exception of Surinamese-Hindustani women, the percentage of mothers entering antenatal care late was higher in all non-Dutch compared to Dutch mothers. We could explain differences between Turkish (OR = 0.95, CI: 0.57-1.58), Cape Verdean (OR = 1.65. CI: 0.96-2.82) and Dutch women. Other differences diminished but remained significant (Moroccan: OR = 1,74, CI: 1.07-2.85; Dutch Antillean OR 1.80, CI: 1.04-3.13). We found that non-Dutch mothers were more likely to enter antenatal care later than Dutch mothers. Because we are unable to explain fully the differences regarding Moroccan, Surinamese-Creole and Antillean women, future research should focus on differences between 1st and 2nd generation migrants, as well as on language barriers that may hinder access to adequate information about the Dutch obstetric system. PMID:20533083

Choté, A A; Koopmans, G T; Redekop, W K; de Groot, C J M; Hoefman, R J; Jaddoe, V W V; Hofman, A; Steegers, E A P; Mackenbach, J P; Trappenburg, M; Foets, M

2011-08-01

292

Prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis C and HIV-1 infections among pregnant women in Central Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recommended. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for HCV and HIV infection among pregnant women who attended prenatal care under the coverage of public health in Central Brazil. Methods Screening and counselling for HIV and HCV infections was offered free of charge to all pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) in the public health system, in Goiania city (~1.1 million inhabitants) during 2004–2005. Initial screening was performed on a dried blood spot collected onto standard filter paper; positive or indeterminate results were confirmed by a second blood sample. HCV infection was defined as a positive or indeterminate sample (EIA test) and confirmed HCV-RNA technique. HIV infection was defined according to standard criteria. Factors associated with HIV and HCV infections were identified with logistic regression. The number needed to screen (NNS) to prevent one case of infant HIV infection was calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. Results A total of 28,561 pregnant women were screened for HCV and HIV-1 in ANC. Mean maternal age was 23.9 years (SD = 5.6), with 45% of the women experiencing their first pregnancy. Prevalence of HCV infection was 0.15% (95% CI 0.11%–0.20%), and the risk increased with age (p < 0.01). The prevalence of anti-HIV infection was 0.09% (95% CI 0.06%–0.14%). Black women had a 4.9-fold (95% CI 1.42–16.95) greater risk of HIV-1 infection compared to non-black women. NNS to prevent one case of infant HIV infection ranged from 4,141 to 13,928. Conclusion The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were low among pregnant women, with high acceptability rates in the opt-in strategy in primary care. Older maternal age was a risk factor for HCV and antenatal HCV testing does not fulfill the requirements for screening recommendation. The finding of higher risk of HIV-1 infection among black women despite being in consonance with the HIV-1 ethnic pattern in some American regions cannot be ruled out to be a surrogate marker of socio-economic condition.

2009-01-01

293

Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women in Southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Birth preparedness and complication preparedness (BPACR) is a key component of globally accepted safe motherhood programs, which helps ensure women to reach professional delivery care when labor begins and to reduce delays that occur when mothers in labor experience obstetric complications. Objective This study was conducted to assess practice and factors associated with BPACR among pregnant women in Aleta Wondo district in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was conducted in 2007, on a sample of 812 pregnant women. Data were collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS for windows version 12.0.1. The women were asked whether they followed the desired five steps while pregnant: identified a trained birth attendant, identified a health facility, arranged for transport, identified blood donor and saved money for emergency. Taking at least two steps was considered being well-prepared. Results Among 743 pregnant women only a quarter (20.5%) of pregnant women identified skilled provider. Only 8.1% identified health facility for delivery and/or for obstetric emergencies. Preparedness for transportation was found to be very low (7.7%). Considerable (34.5%) number of families saved money for incurred costs of delivery and emergency if needed. Only few (2.3%) identified potential blood donor in case of emergency. Majority (87.9%) of the respondents reported that they intended to deliver at home, and only 60(8%) planned to deliver at health facilities. Overall only 17% of pregnant women were well prepared. The adjusted multivariate model showed that significant predictors for being well-prepared were maternal availing of antenatal services (OR?=?1.91 95% CI; 1.21–3.01) and being pregnant for the first time (OR?=?6.82, 95% CI; 1.27–36.55). Conclusion BPACR practice in the study area was found to be low. Effort to increase BPACR should focus on availing antenatal care services.

Hailu, Mesay; Gebremariam, Abebe; Alemseged, Fissehaye; Deribe, Kebede

2011-01-01

294

Herbal medicine use during pregnancy in a group of Australian women  

PubMed Central

Background There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a public tertiary maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Secondary aims were to explore why women took the herbal medicine, where they received advice, what form the supplements took and if they perceived the supplements to be helpful. Methods Consecutive pregnant women were approached in the antenatal clinic and the birth centre at around 36–38 weeks gestation. A questionnaire was developed and self-administered in English, as well as being translated into the four most common languages of women attending the hospital: Cantonese, Vietnamese, Turkish and Arabic. Back translation into English was undertaken by different professional translators to verify accuracy of both words and concepts. Data collected included demographic information, model of pregnancy care and herbal supplement use. Descriptive statistics were used initially, with stratified and regression analysis to compare sub-groups. Results Of 705 eligible women, 588 (83%) agreed to participate. Of these, 88 (15%) completed the questionnaire in a language other than English. Thirty-six percent of women took at least one herbal supplement during the current pregnancy. The most common supplements taken were raspberry leaf (14%), ginger (12%) and chamomile (11%). Women were more likely to take herbal supplements if they were older, tertiary educated, English speaking, non-smokers and primiparous. Conclusion Use of herbal supplements in pregnancy is likely to be relatively high and it is important to ascertain what supplements (if any) women are taking. Pregnancy care providers should be aware of the common herbal supplements used by women, and of the evidence regarding potential benefits or harm.

Forster, Della A; Denning, Angela; Wills, Gemma; Bolger, Melissa; McCarthy, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

295

Preparation for pain management during childbirth: the psychological aspects of coping strategy development in antenatal education.  

PubMed

During childbirth, in addition to or in place of analgesia, women manage pain using a range of coping strategies. Antenatal education provides an opportunity prior to birth to help women to prepare for an often painful event. However, this is usually carried out with little reference to the literature regarding psychological factors which influence the experience of pain. This review seeks to consider how recent developments in psychological knowledge could enhance care. Areas identified include range of coping strategies and factors influencing their efficacy and implementation. This draws on both the literature on management of acute pain in other scenarios and the limited literature related to childbirth related pain. The following recommendations for systematic evaluation in the context of antenatal education are made: (i) Increase the range of coping strategies currently utilized to include cognitive based strategies. (ii) Help women to identify and understand the nature of their own coping styles and preferences, including any unhelpful patterns of pain catastrophizing. (iii) Help women to develop their own unique set of coping strategies for labor. (iv) Strengthen feelings of coping self-efficacy by practice in class and reinforcement by the class teacher. (v) Develop implementation intentions which account for the changing context of childbirth and (vi) Actively develop prompting and reinforcement of use of identified coping strategies by birth partners. PMID:19709792

Escott, Diane; Slade, Pauline; Spiby, Helen

2009-11-01

296

Inadequate Knowledge of Neonatal Danger Signs among Recently Delivered Women in Southwestern Rural Uganda: A Community Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Early detection of neonatal illness is an important step towards improving newborn survival. Every year an estimated 3.07 million children die during their first month of life and about one-third of these deaths occur during the first 24 hours. Ninety-eight percent of all neonatal deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries like Uganda. Inadequate progress has been made globally to reduce the amount of neonatal deaths that would be required to meet Millennium Development Goal 4. Poor knowledge of newborn danger signs delays care seeking. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge of key newborn danger signs among mothers in southwestern Uganda. Methods Results from a community survey of 765 recently delivered women were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Six key danger signs were identified, and spontaneous responses were categorized, tabulated, and analyzed. Results Knowledge of at least one key danger sign was significantly associated with being birth prepared (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.3). Birth preparedness consisted of saving money, identifying transportation, identifying a skilled birth attendant and buying a delivery kit or materials. Overall, respondents had a poor knowledge of key newborn danger signs: 58.2% could identify one and 14.8% could identify two. We found no association between women attending the recommended number of antenatal care visits and their knowledge of danger signs (adjusted OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8–1.4), or between women using a skilled birth attendant at delivery and their knowledge of danger signs (adjusted OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9–1.7). Conclusions Our findings indicate the need to enhance education of mothers in antenatal care as well as those discharged from health facilities after delivery. Further promotion of birth preparedness is encouraged as part of the continuum of maternal care.

Sandberg, Jacob; Odberg Pettersson, Karen; Asp, Gustav; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Agardh, Anette

2014-01-01

297

Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early

Bronwyn Leigh; Jeannette Milgrom

2008-01-01

298

Antenatal Ultrasound and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated antenatal ultrasound (U/S) exposure as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), comparing affected singleton children and control children born 1995-1999 and enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente health care system. Among children with ASD (n = 362) and controls (n = 393), 13% had no antenatal exposure to U/S examinations;…

Grether, Judith K.; Li, Sherian Xu; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Croen, Lisa A.

2010-01-01

299

The management of antenatal venous thromboembolism in the UK and Ireland: a prospective multicentre observational survey.  

PubMed

This prospective observational study reports on 126 women from 25 UK centres with image-proven antenatal venous thromboembolism (VTE), 62% deep vein thrombosis and 38% pulmonary embolism. Thrombophilia screening was of limited benefit except to identify antithrombin deficiency. Sixteen (13%) patients had previous VTE, all but one was related to previous pregnancy or combined oral contraceptive and 12 received no thromboprophylaxis in the index pregnancy, the other four thus received inadequate low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) doses. Treatment was with dalteparin in 25%, enoxaparin in 47%, tinzaparin in 25% and unfractionated heparin alone in 3%. 66% of patients received once-daily LMWH. Anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) monitoring was performed at 90% of centres, with a wide range of target values. Thus current management of antenatal VTE, despite widely diverse clinical practice, appeared effective and safe, for there were no recurrent events and postpartum haemorrhage was not increased when compared to known rates. Larger studies are required to confirm this. The need for twice as opposed to once daily LMWH and for anti-Xa monitoring is questioned by this study. The importance of clinical risk assessment and adherence to the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists guidelines on antenatal thromboprophylaxis, with adequate LMWH dosing is confirmed. PMID:17916101

Voke, Jennifer; Keidan, Jane; Pavord, Sue; Spencer, Neil H; Hunt, Beverley J

2007-11-01

300

Between life and death: exploring the sociocultural context of antenatal mental distress in rural Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of antenatal common mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa compared to high-income countries is poorly understood. This qualitative study explored the sociocultural context of antenatal mental distress in a rural Ethiopian community. Five focus group discussions and 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively sampled community stakeholders. Inductive analysis was used to develop final themes. Worry about forthcoming delivery and fears for the woman’s survival were prominent concerns of all participants, but only rarely perceived to be pathological in intensity. Sociocultural practices such as continuing physical labour, dietary restriction, prayer and rituals to protect against supernatural attack were geared towards safe delivery and managing vulnerability. Despite strong cultural norms to celebrate pregnancy, participants emphasised that many pregnancies were unwanted and an additional burden on top of pre-existing economic and marital difficulties. Short birth interval and pregnancy out of wedlock were both seen as shameful and potent sources of mental distress. The notion that pregnancy in traditional societies is uniformly a time of joy and happiness is misplaced. Although antenatal mental distress may be self-limiting for many women, in those with enduring life difficulties, including poverty and abusive relationships, poor maternal mental health may persist.

Whitley, Rob; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Alem, Atalay; Prince, Martin

2010-01-01

301

Antenatal psychosomatic programming to reduce postpartum depression risk and improve childbirth outcomes: a randomized controlled trial in Spain and France  

PubMed Central

Background Postpartum depression (PPD) and poor childbirth outcomes are associated with poverty; these variables should be addressed by an adapted approach. The aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of an antenatal programme based on a novel psychosomatic approach to pregnancy and delivery, regarding the risk of PPD and childbirth outcomes in disadvantaged women. Methods A multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial comparing a novel to standard antenatal programme. Primary outcome was depressive symptoms (using EPDS) and secondary outcome was preterm childbirth (fewer 37 weeks). The sample comprised 184 couples in which the women were identified to be at PPD risk by validated interview. The study was conducted in three public hospitals with comparable standards of perinatal care. Women were randomly distributed in to an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG), and evaluated twice: during pregnancy (T1) and four weeks post-partum (T2). At T2, the variables were compared using the chi square test. Data analysis was based on intention to treat. The novel programme used the Tourné psychosomatic approach focusing on body awareness sensations, construction of an individualized childbirth model, and attachment. The 10 group antenatal sessions each lasted two hours, with one telephone conversation between sessions. In the control group, the participants choose the standard model of antenatal education, i.e., 8 to 10 two-hour sessions focused on childbirth by obstetrical prophylaxis. Results A difference of 11.2% was noted in postpartum percentages of PPD risk (EPDS ? 12): 34.3% (24) in EG and 45.5% (27) in CG (p = 0.26). The number of depressive symptoms among EG women decreased at T2 (intragroup p = 0.01). Premature childbirth was four times less in EG women: three (4.4%) compared to 13 (22.4%) among CG women (p = 0.003). Birth weight was higher in EG women (p = 0.01). Conclusions The decrease of depressive symptoms in women was not conclusive. However, because birth weight was higher and the rate of preterm childbirth was lower in the EG, our results suggest that the psychosomatic approach may be more helpful to the target population than the standard antenatal programs.

2014-01-01

302

Revised guidelines on management of antenatal hydronephrosis  

PubMed Central

Widespread antenatal screening has resulted in increased detection of anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract. The present guidelines update the recommendations published in 2000. Antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) is transient and resolves by the third trimester in almost one-half cases. The presence of oligohydramnios and additional renal or extrarenal anomalies suggests significant pathology. All patients with ANH should undergo postnatal ultrasonography; the intensity of subsequent evaluation depends on anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the renal pelvis and/or Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) grading. Patients with postnatal APD exceeding 10 mm and/or SFU grade 3-4 should be screened for upper or lower urinary tract obstruction and vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). Infants with VUR should receive antibiotic prophylaxis through the first year of life, and their parents counseled regarding the risk of urinary tract infections. The management of patients with pelviureteric junction or vesicoureteric junction obstruction depends on clinical features and results of sequential ultrasonography and radionuclide renography. Surgery is considered in patients with increasing renal pelvic APD and/or an obstructed renogram with differential renal function <35-40% or its subsequent decline. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of prenatal intervention, frequency of follow-up investigations and indications for surgery in these patients.

Sinha, A.; Bagga, A.; Krishna, A; Bajpai, M.; Srinivas, M.; Uppal, R.; Agarwal, I.

2013-01-01

303

The prevalence and clinical presentation of antenatal depression in rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Although the prevalence of depression is similar in pregnant, postpartum and non-pregnant women, the onset of new depression is higher during the perinatal period. Women of low-income, and those living in low and middle income countries, are known to be at particularly high risk. Early identification and treatment of antenatal depression may improve pregnancy outcomes and could serve as an early indicator of postnatal depression. Culturally sensitive and accurate diagnostic tools are urgently needed. Methods A consecutive series of 109 pregnant women were recruited in the third trimester at a primary health clinic, in a rural part of South Africa, with a high HIV prevalence. A cross sectional assessment of depression was completed using a structured clinical interview method and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Qualitative data on women's descriptions of depressive symptoms was also collected. The aim was to examine the prevalence of depression and to better understand the presentation of depressive symptomatology in this population. Results Prevalence of depression was high, 51/109 (47%), with over half of the depressed women 34/51(67%) reporting episode duration greater than two months. 8/51 reported a prior history of depression. Women used psychological language to describe symptoms and, as a result, standardised diagnostic tools were culturally sensitive. Somatic pregnancy symptoms were frequently reported, but did not overestimate depression. Both HIV positive (27/51) and HIV negative (24/51) women were at risk of being depressed. Limitations The study is limited by the small sample size and possible attrition biases. Conclusion Antenatal depression is high and clinical presentation is similar to high income countries. Standardised diagnostic tools are culturally sensitive and adequate for early detection.

Rochat, Tamsen Jean; Tomlinson, Mark; Barnighausen, Till; Newell, Marie-Louise; Stein, Alan

2011-01-01

304

Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Fighting for Equality on All Fronts" (Fromont); "Three Questions for Mrs. Lucille Caron"; "Women Shoulder the Burden of Cambodia's Economy" (Roess); and "Renewing Their Relationship with the Land" (Mehra-Kerpelman). (SK)

Fromont, Michel; And Others

1994-01-01

305

Prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration of the anticoagulated blood specimens were determined using standard techniques. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11g/dl for pregnant women and <12g/dl for non-pregnant women. Results: Pregnancy was not a risk factor for acquiring HIV infection (pregnant vs. non-pregnant: 10.2% vs. 13.8%; OR=0.713, 95% CI=0.407, 1.259, P = 0.247). The prevalence of HIV was significantly (P = 0.005 and P = 0.025) higher in the age group 10-20 years and 21 – 30 years among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Pregnancy was a risk factor for acquiring anemia (OR=1.717, 95% CI=1.179, 2.500, P = 0.006). Only the age of pregnant women significantly (P = 0.004) affected the prevalence of anemia inversely. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women were 10.2% and 49.3% respectively. Pregnancy was associated with anemia. Interventions by appropriate agencies are advocated to reduce associated sequelae.

Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Phil, Richard Omoregie M.; Olley, Mitsan; Anunibe, Joshua A.

2011-01-01

306

Siblings and Gender Differences in African-American College Attendance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in college enrollment growth rates for African-American men and women have resulted in a large gender gap in college attendance. This paper shows that, controlling for spurious correlation with unobserved variables, having more college-educated older siblings raises rather than lowers the likelihood of college attendance for…

Loury, Linda Datcher

2004-01-01

307

Antenatal supplementation with micronutrients and biochemical indicators of status and subclinical infection in rural Nepal1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previously we showed that women in rural Nepal experience multiple micronutrient deficiencies in early pregnancy. Objective: This study examined the effects of daily antenatal mi- cronutrientsupplementationonchangesinthebiochemicalstatusof several micronutrients during pregnancy. Design: In Nepal, we conducted a randomized controlled trial in which4combinationsofmicronutrients(folicacid,folicacidiron, folic acid iron zinc, and a multiple micronutrient supplement containingfolicacid,iron,zinc,and11othernutrients)plusvitamin A, or vitamin A alone as a control,

Parul Christian; Tianan Jiang; Subarna K Khatry; Steven C LeClerq; Sharada R Shrestha; Keith P West Jr

308

The Impact of Including Husbands in Antenatal Health Education Services on Maternal Health Practices in Urban Nepal: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observational studies suggest that including men in reproductive health interventions can enhance positive health outcomes. A randomized controlled trial was designed to test the impact of involving male partners in antenatal health education on maternal health care utilization and birth preparedness in urban Nepal. In total, 442 women seeking…

Mullany, Britta C.; Becker, S.; Hindin, M. J.

2007-01-01

309

Initial Feasibility and Acceptability of a Comprehensive Intervention for Methamphetamine-Using Pregnant Women in South Africa  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a women-focused intervention addressing methamphetamine use and HIV sexual risk among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. A two-group randomized pilot study was conducted, comparing a women-focused intervention for methamphetamine use and related sexual risk behaviors to a psychoeducational condition. Participants were pregnant women who used methamphetamine regularly, had unprotected sex in the prior month, and were HIV-negative. Primary maternal outcomes were methamphetamine use in the past 30 days, frequency of unprotected sexual acts in the past 30 days, and number of antenatal obstetrical appointments attended. Primary neonatal outcomes were length of hospital stay, birth weight, and gestational age at delivery. Of the 57 women initially potentially eligible, only 4 declined to participate. Of the 36 women who were eligible and enrolled, 92% completed all four intervention sessions. Women in both conditions significantly reduced their methamphetamine use and number of unprotected sex acts. Therefore, delivering comprehensive interventions to address methamphetamine use and HIV risk behaviors among methamphetamine-using pregnant women is feasible in South Africa. Further testing of these interventions is needed to address methamphetamine use in this vulnerable population.

Jones, Hendree E.; Myers, Bronwyn; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Gebhardt, Stefan; Theron, Gerhard B.; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

2014-01-01

310

Initial feasibility and acceptability of a comprehensive intervention for methamphetamine-using pregnant women in South Africa.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a women-focused intervention addressing methamphetamine use and HIV sexual risk among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa. A two-group randomized pilot study was conducted, comparing a women-focused intervention for methamphetamine use and related sexual risk behaviors to a psychoeducational condition. Participants were pregnant women who used methamphetamine regularly, had unprotected sex in the prior month, and were HIV-negative. Primary maternal outcomes were methamphetamine use in the past 30 days, frequency of unprotected sexual acts in the past 30 days, and number of antenatal obstetrical appointments attended. Primary neonatal outcomes were length of hospital stay, birth weight, and gestational age at delivery. Of the 57 women initially potentially eligible, only 4 declined to participate. Of the 36 women who were eligible and enrolled, 92% completed all four intervention sessions. Women in both conditions significantly reduced their methamphetamine use and number of unprotected sex acts. Therefore, delivering comprehensive interventions to address methamphetamine use and HIV risk behaviors among methamphetamine-using pregnant women is feasible in South Africa. Further testing of these interventions is needed to address methamphetamine use in this vulnerable population. PMID:24829904

Jones, Hendrée E; Myers, Bronwyn; O'Grady, Kevin E; Gebhardt, Stefan; Theron, Gerhard B; Wechsberg, Wendee M

2014-01-01

311

Antenatal Maternal Emotional Distress and Duration of Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) We sought to prospectively study the association between antenatal emotional distress and gestational length at birth as well as preterm birth. Study Design We followed up 40,077 primiparous women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Emotional distress was reported in a short form of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (SCL-5) at 17 and 30 weeks of gestation. Gestational length at birth, obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, was used as continuous (gestational length in days) and categorized (early preterm (22–31 weeks) and late preterm (32–36 weeks) versus term birth (?37 weeks)) outcome, using linear and logistic regression analysis, respectively. Births were divided into spontaneous and provider-initiated. Results Of all women, 7.4% reported emotional distress at 17 weeks, 6.0% at 30 weeks and 5.1% had a preterm birth. All measurements of emotional distress at 30 weeks were significantly associated with a reduction of gestational length, in days, for provider-initiated births at term. Emotional distress at 30 weeks showed a reduced duration of pregnancy at birth of 2.40 days for provider-initiated births at term. An increase in emotional distress from 17 to 30 weeks was associated with a reduction of gestational length at birth of 2.13 days for provider-initiated births at term. Sustained high emotional distress was associated with a reduction of gestational length at birth of 2.82 days for provider-initiated births. Emotional distress did not increase the risk of either early or late preterm birth. Conclusion Emotional distress at 30 weeks, an increase in emotional distress from 17 to 30 weeks and sustained high levels of emotional distress were associated with a reduction in gestational length in days for provider-initiated term birth. We found no significant association between emotional distress and the risk of preterm birth.

Lukasse, Mirjam; Helbig, Anne; Benth, Jurate Saltyte; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

2014-01-01

312

Attitudes to routine HIV counselling and testing, and knowledge about prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional survey among antenatal attendees  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: HIV testing rates have exceeded 90% among the pregnant women at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital in Mbale District, eastern Uganda, since the introduction of routine antenatal counselling and testing for HIV in June 2006. However, no documented information was available about opinions of pregnant women in eastern Uganda about this HIV testing approach. We therefore conducted a study to

Robert Byamugisha; James K Tumwine; Grace Ndeezi; Charles AS Karamagi; Thorkild Tylleskär

2010-01-01

313

Nutritional Factors Associated with Anaemia in Pregnant Women in Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to assess the relative contribution of iron, folate, and B12 deficiency to anaemia in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. In total, 146 pregnant women, who attended two antenatal clinics in Gombe, Nigeria, were recruited into the study. The majority (54%) of the women were in the third trimester. Blood samples were obtained for determination of haematocrit and for measurement of serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine. Malaria was present in 15 (9.4%) women. Based on a haemoglobin value of <105 g/L, 44 (30%) women were classified as anaemic. The major contributing factor to anaemia was iron deficiency based on the serum concentration of ferritin (<10 ng/mL). The mean homocysteine concentration for all subjects was 14.1 ?mol/L, and homocysteine concentrations were inversely correlated with concentrations of folate and vitamin B12. The serum homocysteine increased markedly at serum vitamin B12 levels below 250 pmol/L. The most common cause of anaemia in the pregnant women in northern Nigeria was iron deficiency, and the elevated concentrations of homocysteine were most likely due to both their marginal folate and vitamin B12 status.

VanderJagt, Dorothy J.; Brock, Hugh S.; Melah, George S.; El-Nafaty, Aliyu U.; Crossey, Michael J.

2007-01-01

314

Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women: High seroprevalence and risk factors in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, as well as the proportion of acutely infected and risk factors in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods Thirty maternities in Kinshasa were randomly selected and women attending antenatal consultation were invited to participate. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about known risk factors (age, meat consumption, contact with soil, and presence of cat) and a venous blood sample was taken. Sera were analysed for total immunoglobulins (Ig) by VIDAS Toxo Competition using Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay. IgM was determined by VIDIA Toxo IgM and IgG avidity by VIDAS Toxo IgG avidity. Results A total of 781 women were included. Median age was 28 years old (IQR: 8.5). And 627 women (80.3%; 95% CI: 77.5-83.1) were found to be positive to total Ig and 17 out of 387 (4.4%; 95% CI: 2.3-6.4) were positive to IgM. IgG avidity was low for 2 (11.8%) women, intermediate for 2 (11.8%) and high for 13 women (76.4%). There was no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and any risk factors assessed. Conclusion In Kinshasa, toxoplasmosis endemicity is highly prevalent. One woman out of twenty five had a recent toxoplasmosis infection and 20% were not protected against primo-infection, indicating a need for measures to prevent and control toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.

Yobi, Doudou; Piarroux, Renaud; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Franck, Jacqueline; Situakibanza, Hypolite; Muhindo, Hypolite; Mitashi, Patrick; Inocencio da Luz, Raquel Andreia; Van Sprundel, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Lutumba, Pascal

2014-01-01

315

The combined antenatal corticosteroids and vitamin K therapy for preventing periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage in premature newborns less than 35 weeks gestation.  

PubMed

We prospectively evaluated whether combined antenatal corticosteroid and vitamin K administration have any benefit, over and above that of corticosteroid or vitamin K used alone, in reducing the frequency and the degree of PIVH in premature newborns less than 35 weeks' gestation. All of these 280 pregnant women were randomly allocated into five groups according to the in-patient sequence. Group A (vitamin K1 group) including 38 pregnant women (40 newborns) received antenatal intramuscular or intravenously injection of vitamin K1 10 mg per day for 2-7 days. Group B (single dose corticosteroid group) including 57 pregnant women (63 newborns) received antenatal intramuscular or intravenously injection of dexamethasone 10 mg per day for 1 day. Group C (two dose corticosteroid group) including 62 pregnant women (70 newborns) received antenatal intramuscular or intravenously injection of dexamethasone 10 mg per day for 2 days. Group D (combined using dexamethasone and vitamin K1) including 41 pregnant women (44 newborns) received dexamethasone 10 mg per day for 1 day and vitamin K110 mg per day for 2-7 days. Control group, including 82 pregnant women (87 newborns) were received neither dexamethasone nor vitamin K1 injection. The results showed PIVH was diagnosed in 17 of 40 (42.5%) in Group A, 34 of 63 (54.0%) in Group B, 36 of 70 (51.4%) in Group C, 14 of 44 (31.8%) in Group D, and 57 of 87 (65.2%) in control infants (p = 0.004). More infants in the control group had grade III or IV intracranial hemorrhage after birth (p = 0.049). After antenatal supplement of dexamethasone and vitamin K1, both the total incidence of PIVH and the frequency of severe PIVH decreased significantly. The total and severe incidence of PIVH in Group B (single doses dexamethasone) and Group C (two courses dexamethasone) there were no significant difference. It showed that after antenatal supplement of dexamethasone and vitamin K1, both the total incidence of PIVH and the frequency of severe PIVH decreased significantly, and combined antenatal corticosteroid and vitamin K administration have much benefit, over and above that of corticosteroid or vitamin K used alone. PMID:16751657

Liu, Jing; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Jin-hui; Chen, Yan-hua; Qin, Gui-lian

2006-10-01

316

The Effect of Intermittent Antenatal Iron Supplementation on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Rural Viet Nam: A Cluster Randomised Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Anemia affects over 500 million women, and in pregnancy is associated with impaired maternal and infant outcomes. Intermittent antenatal iron supplementation is an attractive alternative to daily dosing; however, the impact of this strategy on infant outcomes remains unclear. We compared the effect of intermittent antenatal iron supplementation with daily iron supplementation on maternal and infant outcomes in rural Viet Nam. Methods and Findings This cluster randomised trial was conducted in Ha Nam province, Viet Nam. 1,258 pregnant women (<16 wk gestation) in 104 communes were assigned to daily iron–folic acid (IFA), twice weekly IFA, or twice weekly multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation. Primary outcome was birth weight. Mean birth weight was 3,148 g (standard deviation 416). There was no difference in the birth weights of infants of women receiving twice weekly IFA compared to daily IFA (mean difference [MD] 28 g; 95% CI ?22 to 78), or twice weekly MMN compared to daily IFA (MD ?36.8 g; 95% CI ?82 to 8.2). At 32 wk gestation, maternal ferritin was lower in women receiving twice weekly IFA compared to daily IFA (geometric mean ratio 0.73; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.80), and in women receiving twice weekly MMN compared to daily IFA (geometric mean ratio 0.62; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.68), but there was no difference in hemoglobin levels. Infants of mothers who received twice weekly IFA had higher cognitive scores at 6 mo of age compared to those who received daily IFA (MD 1.89; 95% CI 0.23 to 3.56). Conclusions Twice weekly antenatal IFA or MMN did not produce a clinically important difference in birth weight, when compared to daily IFA supplementation. The significant improvement in infant cognitive outcomes at 6 mo of age following twice weekly antenatal IFA requires further exploration, and provides additional support for the use of intermittent, rather than daily, antenatal IFA in populations with low rates of iron deficiency. Trial registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 12610000944033 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Hanieh, Sarah; Ha, Tran T.; Simpson, Julie A.; Casey, Gerard J.; Khuong, Nguyen C.; Thoang, Dang D.; Thuy, Tran T.; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Tran, Thach D.; Tuan, Tran; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

2013-01-01

317

A pilot randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for antenatal depression  

PubMed Central

Background Few trials have evaluated the effectiveness of psychological treatment in improving depression by the end of pregnancy. This is the first pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) looking at treating depression by the end of pregnancy. Our aim was to assess the feasibility of delivering a CBT intervention modified for antenatal depression during pregnancy. Methods Women in North Bristol, UK between 8–18 weeks pregnant were recruited through routine contact with midwives and randomised to receive up to 12 sessions of individual CBT in addition to usual care or to continue with usual care only. Women were eligible for randomisation if they screened positive on a 3-question depression screen used routinely by midwives and met ICD-10 criteria for depression assessed using the clinical interview schedule – revised version (CIS-R). Two CBT therapists delivered the intervention. Follow-up was at 15 and 33 weeks post-randomisation when assessments of mental health were made using measures which included the CIS-R. Results Of the 50 women assessed for the trial, 36 met ICD-10 depression criteria and were randomised: 18 to the intervention and 18 to usual care. Thirteen of the 18 (72%) women who were allocated to receive the intervention completed 9 or more sessions of CBT before the end of pregnancy. Follow-up rates at 15 and 33 weeks post-randomisation were higher in the group who received the intervention (89% vs. 72% at 15 weeks and 89% vs. 61% at 33 weeks post-randomisation). At 15 weeks post-randomisation (the end of pregnancy), there were more women in the intervention group (11/16; 68.7%) who recovered (i.e. no longer met ICD-10 criteria for depression), than those receiving only usual care (5/13; 38.5%). Conclusions This pilot trial shows the feasibility of conducting a large RCT to assess the effectiveness of CBT for treating antenatal depression before the end of pregnancy. The intervention could be delivered during the antenatal period and there was some evidence to suggest that it could be effective. Trial registration ISRCTN44902048

2013-01-01

318

Women Students at Coeducational and Women's Colleges: How Do Their Experiences Compare?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the experiences of women attending women's colleges with those of women attending coeducational institutions. Analyses of data from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) from random samples of female first-year and senior students from 26 women's colleges and 264 other four-year institutions were conducted. Women at…

Kinzie, Jillian L.; Thomas, Auden D.; Palmer, Megan M.; Umbach, Paul D.; Kuh, George D.

2007-01-01

319

DEVELOP students attend conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Last month, Madeline Brozen and Jason Jones of the DEVELOP Program at John C. Stennis Space Center joined members from the program's national office at Langley Research Center to attend the Southern Growth Policies Board annual conference in Biloxi. Pictured are (l to r): Karen Allsbrook, Jonathan Gleason, Gov. Haley Barbour, Madeline Brozen, Lindsay Rogers and Tracey Silcox.

2009-01-01

320

Maternal adverse effects of different antenatal magnesium sulphate regimens for improving maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Antenatal magnesium sulphate, widely used in obstetrics to improve maternal and infant outcomes, may be associated with adverse effects for the mother sufficient for treatment cessation. This systematic review aimed to quantify maternal adverse effects attributed to treatment, assess how adverse effects vary according to different regimens, and explore women’s experiences with this treatment. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched from their inceptions to July 2012 for studies of any design that reported on maternal adverse effects associated with antenatal magnesium sulphate given to improve maternal or infant outcomes. Primary outcomes were life-threatening adverse effects of treatment (death, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest). For randomised controlled trials, data were meta-analysed, and risk ratios (RR) pooled using fixed-effects or random-effects models. For non-randomised studies, data were tabulated by design, and presented as RR, odds ratios or percentages, and summarised narratively. Results A total of 143 publications were included (21 randomised trials, 15 non-randomised comparative studies, 32 case series and 75 reports of individual cases), of mixed methodological quality. Compared with placebo or no treatment, magnesium sulphate was not associated with an increased risk of maternal death, cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest. Magnesium sulphate significantly increased the risk of 'any adverse effects’ overall (RR 4.62, 95% CI 2.42-8.83; 4 trials, 13,322 women), and treatment cessation due to adverse effects (RR 2.77; 95% CI 2.32-3.30; 5 trials, 13,666 women). Few subgroup differences were observed (between indications for use and treatment regimens). In one trial, a lower dose regimen (2 g/3 hours) compared with a higher dose regimen (5 g/4 hours) significantly reduced treatment cessation (RR 0.05; 95% CI 0.01-0.39, 126 women). Adverse effect estimates from studies of other designs largely supported data from randomised trials. Case reports supported an association between iatrogenic overdose of magnesium sulphate and life-threatening consequences. Conclusions Appropriate administration of antenatal magnesium sulphate was not shown to be associated with serious maternal adverse effects, though an increase in 'minor’ adverse effects and treatment cessation was shown. Larger trials are needed to determine optimal regimens, achieving maximal effectiveness with minimal adverse effects, for each antenatal indication for use. Vigilance in the use of magnesium sulphate is essential for women’s safety.

2013-01-01

321

HIV testing among pregnant women living with HIV in India: are private healthcare providers routinely violating women's human rights?  

PubMed Central

Background In India, approximately 49,000 women living with HIV become pregnant and deliver each year. While the government of India has made progress increasing the availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services, only about one quarter of pregnant women received an HIV test in 2010, and about one-in-five that were found positive for HIV received interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Methods Between February 2012 to March 2013, 14 HIV-positive women who had recently delivered a baby were recruited from HIV positive women support groups, Government of India Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers, and nongovernmental organizations in Mysore and Pune, India. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine their general experiences with antenatal healthcare; specific experiences around HIV counseling and testing; and perceptions about their care and follow-up treatment. Data were analyzed thematically using the human rights framework for HIV testing adopted by the United Nations and India’s National AIDS Control Organization. Results While all of the HIV-positive women in the study received HIV and PMTCT services at a government hospital or antiretroviral therapy center, almost all reported attending a private clinic or hospital at some point in their pregnancy. According to the participants, HIV testing often occurred without consent; there was little privacy; breaches of confidentiality were commonplace; and denial of medical treatment occurred routinely. Among women living with HIV in this study, violations of their human rights occurred more commonly in private rather than public healthcare settings. Conclusions There is an urgent need for capacity building among private healthcare providers to improve standards of practice with regard to informed consent process, HIV testing, patient confidentiality, treatment, and referral of pregnant women living with HIV.

2014-01-01

322

Early Antenatal Care: Does It Make a Difference to Outcomes of Pregnancy Associated with Syphilis? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Despite an increase in the proportion of women who access antenatal care, mother-to-child transmission of syphilis continues to be a consequence of undiagnosed, untreated, or inadequately treated maternal syphilis. We reviewed evidence on the optimal timing of antenatal interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of syphilis and its associated adverse outcomes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature. English-language articles were included if they (1) reported the gestational age at which the mother was screened or tested for syphilis; (2) reported on pregnancy outcome. No publication date limits were set. Results We identified a total of 1,199 publications, of which 84 were selected for further review and five were included. All showed a lower prevalence of any adverse outcome among women who received an intervention (to include screening and treatment) in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy compared to the third trimester. The overall odds ratio for any adverse outcome was 2.24 (95% CI 1.28, 3.93). All sub-analyses by type of outcome presented important heterogeneity between studies, except for those studies reporting an infected infant (odds ratio 2.92, 95% CI 0.66, 12.87; I2?=?48.2%, p?=?0.165). Conclusions Our review has shown that the timing of antenatal care interventions makes a significant difference in the risk of having an adverse outcome due to syphilis. Women who sought care in the first two trimesters of their pregnancy, and received the appropriate intervention, were more likely to have a healthy infant, compared to women screened and treated in the third trimester. Encouraging ALL pregnant women to seek care in the first two trimesters of their pregnancy should be a priority for health programmes. For interventions to be effective within these health programmes, health systems and community engagement programmes need to be strengthened to enable pregnant women to seek antenatal care early.

Hawkes, Sarah J.; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Broutet, Nathalie

2013-01-01

323

Participation of traditional birth attendants in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in two rural districts in Zimbabwe: a feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is among the key HIV prevention strategies in Zimbabwe. A decrease in use of antenatal care (ANC) services with an increase in home deliveries is affecting the coverage of PMTCT interventions in a context of accelerated economic crisis. The main objective was to evaluate acceptability and feasibility of reinforcing the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in family and child health services through their participation in PMTCT programmes in Zimbabwe. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was undertaken using multistage cluster sampling in two rural districts through interviews and focus group discussions among women who delivered at home with a TBA, those who had an institutional delivery and TBAs. Results 45% of TBAs interviewed knew the principles of PMTCT and 8% delivered a woman with known HIV-positive status in previous year. Of the complete package of PMTCT services, more than 75% of TBAs agreed to participate in most activities with the exception of performing a blood test (17%), accompanying new-borns to closest health centre to receive medication (15%) and assisting health centres in documentation of the link ANC-PMTCT services (18%). Women who delivered at home were less likely to have received more than one ANC service or have had contact with a health centre compared to women who delivered in a health centre (91.0% vs 72.6%; P < 0.001). Also, 63.6% of the women who delivered in a health centre had the opportunity to choose the place of delivery compared to 39.4% of women who delivered at home (P < 0.001). More than 85% of women agreed that TBAs could participate in all activities related to a PMTCT programme with the exception of performing a blood test for HIV. Concerns were highlighted regarding confidentiality of the HIV-serostatus of women. Conclusion Although the long-term goal of ANC service delivery in Zimbabwe remains the provision of skilled delivery attendance, PMTCT programmes will benefit from complementary approaches to prevent missed opportunities. TBAs are willing to expand their scope of work regarding activities related to PMTCT. There is a need to reinforce their knowledge on MTCT prevention measures and better integrate them into the health system.

Perez, Freddy; Aung, Khin Devi; Ndoro, Theresa; Engelsmann, Barbara; Dabis, Francois

2008-01-01

324

Safety of artemether-lumefantrine in pregnant women with malaria: results of a prospective cohort study in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Safety data regarding exposure to artemisinin-based combination therapy in pregnancy are limited. This prospective cohort study conducted in Zambia evaluated the safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in pregnant women with malaria. Methods Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were assigned to groups based on the drug used to treat their most recent malaria episode (AL vs. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP). Safety was assessed using standard and pregnancy-specific parameters. Post-delivery follow-up was six weeks for mothers and 12 months for live births. Primary outcome was perinatal mortality (stillbirth or neonatal death within seven days after birth). Results Data from 1,001 pregnant women (AL n = 495; SP n = 506) and 933 newborns (AL n = 466; SP n = 467) showed: perinatal mortality (AL 4.2%; SP 5.0%), comprised of early neonatal mortality (each group 2.3%), stillbirths (AL 1.9%; SP 2.7%); preterm deliveries (AL 14.1%; SP 17.4% of foetuses); and gestational age-adjusted low birth weight (AL 9.0%; SP 7.7%). Infant birth defect incidence was 1.8% AL and 1.6% SP, excluding umbilical hernia. Abortions prior to antenatal care could not be determined: abortion occurred in 4.5% of women treated with AL during their first trimester; none were reported in the 133 women exposed to SP and/or quinine during their first trimester. Overall development (including neurological assessment) was similar in both groups. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure to AL in pregnancy, including first trimester, is not associated with particular safety risks in terms of perinatal mortality, malformations, or developmental impairment. However, more data are required on AL use during the first trimester.

2010-01-01

325

Couples' voluntary counselling and testing and nevirapine use in antenatal clinics in two African capitals: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background With the accessibility of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) services in sub-Saharan Africa, more women are being tested for HIV in antenatal care settings. Involving partners in the counselling and testing process could help prevent horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of couples' voluntary counseling and testing (CVCT) in antenatal care and to measure compliance with PMTCT. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted over eight months at two public antenatal clinics in Kigali, Rwanda, and Lusaka, Zambia. A convenience sample of 3625 pregnant women was enrolled. Of these, 1054 women were lost to follow up. The intervention consisted of same-day individual voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) and weekend CVCT; HIV-positive participants received nevirapine tablets. In Kigali, nevirapine syrup was provided in the labour and delivery ward; in Lusaka, nevirapine syrup was supplied in pre-measured single-dose syringes. The main outcome measures were nurse midwife-recorded deliveries and reported nevirapine use. Results In eight months, 1940 women enrolled in Kigali (984 VCT, 956 CVCT) and 1685 women enrolled in Lusaka (1022 VCT, 663 CVCT). HIV prevalence was 14% in Kigali, and 27% in Lusaka. Loss to follow up was more common in Kigali than Lusaka (33% vs. 24%, p = 0.000). In Lusaka, HIV-positive and HIV-negative women had significantly different loss-to-follow-up rates (30% vs. 22%, p = 0.002). CVCT was associated with reduced loss to follow up: in Kigali, 31% of couples versus 36% of women testing alone (p = 0.011); and in Lusaka, 22% of couples versus 25% of women testing alone (p = 0.137). Among HIV-positive women with follow up, CVCT had no impact on nevirapine use (86-89% in Kigali; 78-79% in Lusaka). Conclusions Weekend CVCT, though new, was feasible in both capital cities. The beneficial impact of CVCT on loss to follow up was significant, while nevirapine compliance was similar in women tested alone or with their partners. Pre-measured nevirapine syrup syringes provided flexibility to HIV-positive mothers in Lusaka, but may have contributed to study loss to follow up. These two prevention interventions remain a challenge, with CVCT still operating without supportive government policy in Zambia.

2010-01-01

326

Impact on informed choice of offering antenatal sickle cell and thalassaemia screening in primary care: a randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives Offering antenatal sickle cell and thalassaemia (SCT) screening early in pregnancy can maximize the range of post-screening choices available, however these benefits should not be obtained at the expense of informed choice.  This study examined whether offering this screening in primary care at the time of pregnancy confirmation compromises women making informed choices. Design Partial factorial, cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting 25 general practices in two socially deprived UK areas. Participants 464 pregnant women offered antenatal SCT screening. Intervention Practices were randomly allocated to offer pregnant women screening:  i) in primary care at time of pregnancy confirmation, with parallel partner testing (n = 191), ii) in primary care at time of pregnancy confirmation, with sequential partner testing (n = 158), or iii) in secondary care by midwives, with sequential partner testing (standard care, n = 115). Main outcome Informed choice – a classification based on attitudes, knowledge and test uptake. Results 91% of woman underwent screening. About a third (30.6%) made an informed choice to accept or decline screening: 34% in primary care parallel group; 23.4% in primary care sequential and 34.8% in secondary care sequential. Allowing for adjustments, rates of informed choice did not vary by intervention group: secondary care versus primary care with parallel partner testing OR 1.07 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.02); secondary care versus primary care with sequential partner testing OR 0.67 (95% CI 0.36 to 1.25).  Uninformed choices were generally attributable to poor knowledge (65%). Conclusion Offering antenatal SCT screening in primary care did not reduce the likelihood that women made informed choices. Rates of informed choice were low and could be increased by improving knowledge.

Brown, Katrina; Dormandy, Elizabeth; Reid, Erin; Gulliford, Martin; Marteau, Theresa

2011-01-01

327

Antenatal screening for mother to child infections in immigrants and residents: the case of toxoplasmosis in northern Italy.  

PubMed

In Italy, serological screening is recommended to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis as part of the antenatal care protocol. Our study investigates (1) adherence to screening among Italian and migrant women and (2) specific T. gondii seroprevalence among hospitalized puerperas in Brescia and Udine, in northern Italy. All migrants (Group B) and a random Italian sample (Group A) filled in a questionnaire. Serological screening was rated as adequate when performed before conception or by the 12th week of gestation, and periodically repeated during pregnancy whenever negative. Nine hundred and twenty-two (922) puerperas were enrolled (Group A: 743; Group B: 179). Mean gestational age at first antenatal visit was 9.3 week, significantly more delayed in migrants (11.2w vs 8.9w; P < 0.0001). Toxoplasmosis was mentioned as a potential vertically transmitted infection by 380/922 (41.2%), but only by 13.4% of migrants (P < 0.0001). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG-Ab tested positive in 319/892 (35.8%), while the information was missing for 9 and 21 women resulted untested. Patients from northern Africa had an higher (AOR 3.63%; P = 0.002), while Asian patients a lower (AOR 0.33; P = 0.045) probability of being immune. A late screening was recorded in 115/848 (13.6%) women (Group A: 9.35%; Group B: 31.9%; P < 0.0001) and 82.1% of eligible migrants were not correctly monitored for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. A late toxoplasma serological test in migrant women precludes the timely application of preventive measure and may represent an indicator of suboptimal antenatal care. PMID:20140516

Tomasoni, Lina Rachele; Sosta, Elena; Beltrame, Anna; Rorato, Giada; Bigoni, Sara; Frusca, Tiziana; Zanardini, Cristina; Driul, Lorenza; Magrini, Francesca; Viale, Pierluigi; Castelli, Francesco

2010-12-01

328

75 FR 61860 - Advisory Committee on Women Veterans; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...readjustment counseling, women Veterans' legislative issues, special health initiatives, women Veterans' research, rural health, and homeless initiatives for women Veterans. Interested persons may attend, appear before, or file...

2010-10-06

329

Strategies to Improve Child Immunization via Antenatal Care Visits in India: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have examined the empirical evidence concerning the influence of demographic and socio-economic factors influencing child immunization, but no documentation is available which shows the actual impact of antenatal care (ANC) visits on subsequent child immunization. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the net impact of ANC visits on subsequent utilization of child immunization after removing the presence of selection bias. Nationwide data from India’s latest National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005–06 is used for the present study. The analysis has been carried out in the two separate models, in the first model 1–2 ANC visit and in the second model three or more ANC visits has been compared with no visit. We have used propensity score matching method with a counterfactual model that assesses the actual ANC visits effect on treated (ANC visits) and untreated groups (no ANC visit), and have employed Mantel-Haenszel bounds to examine whether result would be free from hidden bias or not. Using matched sample analysis result shows that child immunization among the groups of women who have completed 1–2 ANC visits and those who had more than two visits was about 13 percent and 19 percent respectively, higher than the group of women who have not made any ANC visit. Findings of nearest neighbor matching with replacement method, which completely eliminated the bias, indicate that selection bias present in data set leads to overestimates the positive effects of ANC visits on child immunization. Result based on Mantel-Haenszel bounds method suggest that if around 19 percent bias would be involved in the result then also we could observe the true positive effect of 1–2 ANC visits on child immunization. This also indicates that antenatal clinics are the conventional platforms for educating pregnant women on the benefits of child immunization.

Dixit, Priyanka; Dwivedi, Laxmi Kant; Ram, Faujdar

2013-01-01

330

Relationship between professional antenatal care and facility delivery: an assessment of Colombia.  

PubMed

The determinants of maternal and child health have been the recurrent topics of study in developing countries. Using the Demographic and Health Survey (2010) of Colombia, this study aimed to identify the determinants for professional antenatal care and institutional delivery, taking into account the interdependence of these two decisions, which we consider using a bivariate probit model. This study found that when certain factors affecting both the decision to seek prenatal care and giving birth in a hospital are neglected, the results of the estimates are inefficient. Estimates show that the effects of education, parity, regional location and economic status on institutional delivery tend to be underestimated in a univariate probit model. The results indicate that economic status, level of education, parity and medical-insurance affiliation influenced the joint likelihood of accessing professional antenatal care and delivering in a health facility. An important finding is that mothers with a higher level of education are 9 percentage points more likely to access these two health services compared with mothers who are illiterate. Another observed finding is the regional disparities. The evidence indicates that mothers in the Pacific Region, the poorest region of Colombia, are 6 percentage points less likely to access such services. Thus, the results indicate that the Colombian health policy should emphasize increasing the level of schooling of mothers and establish health facilities in the poorest regions of the country to ensure that women in need are provided with social health insurance. PMID:23735737

Trujillo, Juan C; Carrillo, Bladimir; Iglesias, Wilman J

2014-07-01

331

Ovine Fetal Thymus Response to Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Chorioamnionitis and Antenatal Corticosteroids  

PubMed Central

Rationale Chorioamnionitis is associated with preterm delivery and involution of the fetal thymus. Women at risk of preterm delivery receive antenatal corticosteroids which accelerate fetal lung maturation and improve neonatal outcome. However, the effects of antenatal corticosteroids on the fetal thymus in the settings of chorioamnionitis are largely unknown. We hypothesized that intra-amniotic exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes involution of the fetal thymus resulting in persistent effects on thymic structure and cell populations. We also hypothesized that antenatal corticosteroids may modulate the effects of LPS on thymic development. Methods Time-mated ewes with singleton fetuses received an intra-amniotic injection of LPS 7 or 14 days before preterm delivery at 120 days gestational age (term?=?150 days). LPS and corticosteroid treatment groups received intra-amniotic LPS either preceding or following maternal intra-muscular betamethasone. Gestation matched controls received intra-amniotic and maternal intra-muscular saline. The fetal intra-thoracic thymus was evaluated. Results Intra-amniotic LPS decreased the cortico-medullary (C/M) ratio of the thymus and increased Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mRNA and CD3 expression indicating involution and activation of the fetal thymus. Increased TLR4 and CD3 expression persisted for 14 days but Foxp3 expression decreased suggesting a change in regulatory T-cells. Sonic hedgehog and bone morphogenetic protein 4 mRNA, which are negative regulators of T-cell development, decreased in response to intra-amniotic LPS. Betamethasone treatment before LPS exposure attenuated some of the LPS-induced thymic responses but increased cleaved caspase-3 expression and decreased the C/M ratio. Betamethasone treatment after LPS exposure did not prevent the LPS-induced thymic changes. Conclusion Intra-amniotic exposure to LPS activated the fetal thymus which was accompanied by structural changes. Treatment with antenatal corticosteroids before LPS partially attenuated the LPS-induced effects but increased apoptosis in the fetal thymus. Corticosteroid administration after the inflammatory stimulus did not inhibit the LPS effects on the fetal thymus.

Kuypers, Elke; Collins, Jennifer J. P.; Jellema, Reint K.; Wolfs, Tim G. A. M.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Nitsos, Ilias; Pillow, J. Jane; Polglase, Graeme R.; Newnham, John P.; Germeraad, Wilfred T. V.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kramer, Boris W.

2012-01-01

332

Postnatal evaluation of infants with an abnormal antenatal renal sonogram  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Antenatally detected renal abnormalities are frequently encountered. Recommended postnatal evaluation of these infants has evolved to minimize invasive testing while maximizing detection of significant abnormalities. Recent findings There is a low rate of detectable renal abnormalities in infants with a normal postnatal sonogram at 4–6 weeks of age. Routine prophylactic antibiotics are not indicated in infants with isolated antenatal hydronephrosis. Infants with a multicystic dysplastic kidney and a normal contralateral kidney on renal ultrasound do not require further evaluation. Parents of these children should be counseled on symptoms of urinary tract infections to allow prompt diagnosis. Summary All infants with abnormalities on antenatal sonogram should undergo postnatal evaluation with a sonogram after birth and at 4–6 weeks of age. Further evaluation can be safely limited when the postnatal sonogram is normal at 6 weeks of age.

Becker, Amy M.

2009-01-01

333

Utilization of maternal health services among young women in Kenya: Insights from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003  

PubMed Central

Background Use of maternal health services is an effective means for reducing the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in places where the general health status of women is poor. This study was guided by the following objectives: 1) To determine the relationship between timing of first antenatal care (ANC) visit and type of delivery assistance 2) To establish the determinants of timing of first ANC visit and type delivery assistance. Methods Data used were drawn from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with a focus on young women aged 15-24. The dependent variables were: Timing of first ANC visit coded as "None"; "Late" and "Early", and type of delivery assistance coded as "None"; "Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA)" and "Skilled professional". Control variables included: education, household wealth, urban-rural residence, ethnicity, parity, age at birth of the last child and marital status. Multivariate ordered logistic regression model was used. Results The study results show that place of residence, household wealth, education, ethnicity, parity, marital status and age at birth of the last child had strong influences on timing of first ANC visit and the type of delivery assistance received. The major finding is an association between early timing of the first ANC visit and use of skilled professionals at delivery. Conclusion This study confirms that timing of first antenatal care is indeed an important entry point for delivery care as young women who initiated antenatal care early were more likely to use skilled professional assistance at delivery than their counterparts who initiated ANC late. The results indicate that a large percentage of young pregnant women do not seek ANC during their first trimester as is recommended by the WHO, which may affect the type of assistance they receive during delivery. It is important that programs aimed at improving maternal health include targeting young women, especially those from rural areas, with low levels of education, higher parity and from poor households, given their high risk during pregnancy. The finding that a considerably high proportion of young women use TBAs as opposed to use of skilled professionals is baffling and calls for further research.

2011-01-01

334

Maternal health care amid political unrest: the effect of armed conflict on antenatal care utilization in Nepal.  

PubMed

Armed conflicts, which primarily occur in low- and middle-income countries, have profound consequences for the health of affected populations, among them a decrease in the utilization of maternal health care services. The quantitative relationship between armed conflict and maternal health care utilization has received limited attention in the public health literature. We evaluate this relationship for a particular type of health care service, antenatal care, in Nepal. Using count regression techniques, household survey data and sub-national conflict data, we find a negative correlation between the number of antenatal care visits and incidents of conflict-related violence within a respondent's village development committee. Specifically, we find that under high-intensity conflict conditions women receive between 0.3 and 1.5 fewer antenatal care check-ups. These findings imply that maternal health care utilization is partially determined by characteristics of the social environment (e.g. political instability) and suggest health care providers need to revise maternal health strategies in conflict-affected areas. Strategies may include decentralization of services, maintaining neutrality among factions, strengthening community-based health services and developing mobile clinics. PMID:22773608

Price, James I; Bohara, Alok K

2013-05-01

335

Staff-related access deficit and antenatal care coverage across the NUTS level 1 regions of Turkey.  

PubMed

At the heart of each health system, the workforce is central to advancing health. The World Health Organization has identified a threshold in workforce density below which high coverage of essential interventions, including those necessary to meet the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), is very unlikely. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has launched a similar indicator -staff related access deficit- using Thailand's health care professional density as a benchmark. The aim of this study is to assess the staff-related access deficit of the population across the 12 NUTS 1 level regions of Turkey. The main hypothesis is that staff-related access deficit has a correlation with and predicts the gap in antenatal care coverage (percentage of women unable to access to antenatal care) across different regions. Staff-related access deficit, as a threshold indicator, seems to have a linear relationship with the antenatal care coverage gap. The known inequalities in the distribution of the health care workforce among different regions of Turkey were put forward once more in this study using the SRA indicator. The staff-related access deficit indicator can be easily used to monitor the status of distributional inequalities of the health care workforce at different sub-national levels in the future. PMID:21375148

Yardim, Mahmut S

2010-01-01

336

A Rare Case of Oropharyngeal Teratoma Diagnosed Antenatally with MRI  

PubMed Central

Oropharyngeal teratomas are extremely rare congenital tumors and have an incidence rate of one in 35,000-200,000 newborn babies/neonates. Oropharyngeal teratomas may cause life threatening airway obstruction to a newborn. Early diagnosis with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is essential to plan management. Here, we present a rare case of oropharyngeal true teratoma diagnosed with MRI antenatally in a fetus at 34 weeks of gestation in a 25-year-old female who was being evaluated for polyhydraminos. We found MRI to be more helpful for antenatal diagnosis, counseling, and management than ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT).

Manchali, Murali Mohan; Sharabu, Chandrahasa; Latha, Meher; Kumar, Leela

2014-01-01

337

Socio-Demographic Determinants of Maternal Health-Care Service Utilization Among Rural Women in Anambra State, South East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Although, antenatal care (ANC) attendance in sub Saharan Africa is high, however this does not always translate into quality ANC care service utilization. Aim: This study therefore is aimed at exploring pattern of maternal health (MH) services utilization and the socio-demographic factors influencing it in Anambra State, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 310 women of reproductive age with a previous history of gestation attending ANC services between September, 2007 and August, 2008 in selected Primary Health Centers in Anambra State were studied. Responses were elicited from the study participants using a pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA). Association between socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of utilization of ANC and delivery services was measured using ?2-test, Regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with utilization of MH services. P < 0.05 was assumed to be significant. Results: Use of health facility was 293 (97.0%) and 277 (92,7%) out 302 women for ANC and delivery services respectively. Most women attended their first ANC consultation during the preceding pregnancy was after the first trimester and about 31% (94/298) of them had <4 ANC visits prior to delivery. Socio-demographic factors were found to be significantly associated with places where MH care services are accessed. Parity was found to be associated with timing of ANC booking and number of ANC attendance (?2 = 9.49, P = 0.05). Odds of utilizing formal health facility for MH services were found to be significantly associated with increasing age (P < 0.01) and educational status of mothers (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The study revealed high maternal service utilization and 10% fetal loss, hence the need to address the gaps of late ANC booking and low ANC visits.

Emelumadu, OF; Ukegbu, AU; Ezeama, NN; Kanu, OO; Ifeadike, CO; Onyeonoro, UU

2014-01-01

338

The incidence of gonorrhoea in urban Rhodesian Black women.  

PubMed

The incidence of gonorrhoea in urban Black women seen in an antenatal clinic, a gynaecological clinic and a family planning clinic, was studied. Swabs taken from the urethra, endocervix and rectum were cultured by means of the Clinicult system. The overall incidence of gonorrhoea was 9.7%. In the antenatal clinic the incidence was 2%, in the gynaecological clinic it was 11% and in the family planning clinic it was 12%. PMID:416504

Weissenberger, R; Robertson, A; Holland, S; Hall, W

1977-12-31

339

Home birth attendants in low income countries: who are they and what do they do?  

PubMed Central

Background Nearly half the world’s babies are born at home. We sought to evaluate the training, knowledge, skills, and access to medical equipment and testing for home birth attendants across 7 international sites. Methods Face-to-face interviews were done by trained interviewers to assess level of training, knowledge and practices regarding care during the antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum periods. The survey was administered to a sample of birth attendants conducting home or out-of-facility deliveries in 7 sites in 6 countries (India, Pakistan, Guatemala, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and Zambia). Results A total of 1226 home birth attendants were surveyed. Less than half the birth attendants were literate. Eighty percent had one month or less of formal training. Most home birth attendants did not have basic equipment (e.g., blood pressure apparatus, stethoscope, infant bag and mask manual resuscitator). Reporting of births and maternal and neonatal deaths to government agencies was low. Indian auxilliary nurse midwives, who perform some home but mainly clinic births, were far better trained and differed in many characteristics from the birth attendants who only performed deliveries at home. Conclusions Home birth attendants in low-income countries were often illiterate, could not read numbers and had little formal training. Most had few of the skills or access to tests, medications and equipment that are necessary to reduce maternal, fetal or neonatal mortality.

2012-01-01

340

Do antepartum herpes simplex virus cultures predict intrapartum shedding for pregnant women with recurrent disease?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine antenatal screening as a predictor of intrapartum shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and to determine its usefulness in guiding the appropriate route of delivery for patients with recurrent HSV in pregnancy. METHODS: A population of 198 pregnant women with a history of recurrent genital HSV were cultured in the last weeks of their pregnancy by specially-trained personnel and intrapartum by their delivering attendants. RESULTS: Of cultures from a total of 906 antenatal visits, 17% were culture positive, with an asymptomatic shedding rate of 3.4%. Asymptomatic shedding occurred in 12.6% of women. Over the 8-week antepartum period, viral culture-positivity rates for each visit ranged from 11% to 19.5%. This provided an expected delivery culture-positivity rate of 15.3%. However, actual intrapartum viral culture positivity occurred in only three of 191 women (1.5%; P < 0.001). Because previous studies have suggested antepartum culture positivity fails to predict intrapartum viral shedding, evaluations, including cultures, as well as predictive values for subsequent culture positivities, were determined under the supervision of an infectious disease specialist. Under these conditions, positive predictive values were 59% when the interval between visits was 2 days, but only 19% when days between visits were >2 (P < 0.0001). No cases of neonatal herpes were seen in this population, although cesarean deliveries were performed in 31% of the patient population, with genital herpes as the indication for 56% of those. CONCLUSIONS: Antepartum serial screening by viral culture is not predictive of an infant's risk of intrapartum viral exposure when conducted at weekly intervals. However, more frequent assessments of patients can be predictive of an infant's exposure risk to HSV; for patients with frequent recurrent disease near term or primary infection in pregnancy, frequent late antepartum screening may be appropriate.

Garland, S M; Lee, T N; Sacks, S

1999-01-01

341

Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in pregnant Sudanese women  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemiology of viral hepatitis during pregnancy is essential for health planners and programme managers. While much data exist concerning viral hepatitis during pregnancy in many African countries, no proper published data are available in Sudan. Aim The study aimed to investigate the sero-prevalance and the possible risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among antenatal care attendants in central Sudan. Methods During 3 months from March–June 2006, sera were collected from pregnant women at Umdurman Maternity Hospital in Sudan, and they were tested for markers of hepatitis B virus (HBVsAg) and HCV. Results HBVsAg was detected in 41 (5.6%) out 728 women, Anti-HCV was detected in 3 (0.6%) out of 423 women, all of them were not aware of their condition. Age, parity, gestational age, residence, history of blood transfusion, dental manipulations, tattooing and circumcision did not contribute significantly to increased HBVsAg sero-positivity. Conclusion Thus 5.6% of pregnant women were positive for HBVsAg irrespective of their age, parity and socio-demographic characteristics. There was low prevalence of Anti-HCV.

Elsheikh, Rasha M; Daak, Ahmed A; Elsheikh, Mohamed A; Karsany, Mubarak S; Adam, Ishag

2007-01-01

342

Congenital Afibrinogenemia presenting as antenatal intracranial bleed: a case report  

PubMed Central

Congenital afibrinogenemia is a very rare inherited coagulation disorder, characterized by virtual absence of plasma fibrinogen (factor I). There are only about 250 cases reported in the world literature [1]. We describe a case of congenital afibrinogenemia which presented as an antenatally detected intracranial bleed.

2010-01-01

343

Repeated antenatal corticosteroids: Size at birth and subsequent development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to study the effects of repeated antenatal corticosteroids on birth size, growth, and development in preterm infants. Study Design: This observational study followed up for 3 years a prospective geographic cohort in the state of Western Australia of 477 singleton infants born at <33 weeks' gestation. Results: Birth weight ratio decreased with increasing number of corticosteroid

Noel P. French; Ronald Hagan; Sharon F. Evans; Maryellen Godfrey; John P. Newnham

1999-01-01

344