Sample records for women attending antenatal

  1. The prevalence and factors contributing to domestic violence among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Lusaka urban clinics in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M D Mwiinga Mtonga

    2010-01-01

    SummaryDomestic violence among pregnant women has many faces in Lusaka, Zambia.Domestic violence among respondents was associated contraction of sexually transmitted infections, loss of pregnancy, bleeding in pregnancy, psychological trauma, divorce and social disharmony.In this study 385 pregnant women were randomly selected and entered into he study.MethodA Cross-sectional Descriptive Study of 385 pregnant women attending six randomly selected Antenatal Clinics in

  2. Prevalence and Patterns of Gender-based Violence and Revictimization among Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Soweto, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin L. Dunkle; Rachel K. Jewkes; Heather C. Brown; Mieko Yoshihama; Glenda E. Gray; James A. McIntyre; Siobán D. Harlow

    Gender-based violence is a key health risk for women globally and in South Africa. The authors analyzed data from 1,395 interviews with women attending antenatal clinics in Soweto, South Africa, between November 2001 and April 2002 to estimate the prevalence of physical\\/sexual partner violence (55.5%), adult sexual assault by nonpartners (7.9%), child sexual assault (8.0%), and forced first intercourse (7.3%).

  3. "I plan to have the HIV test"--predictors of testing intention in women attending a London antenatal clinic.

    PubMed

    Meadows, J; Catalan, J; Gazzard, B

    1993-01-01

    In order to identify which factors predict a parturient womans intention to take up voluntary HIV testing in the antenatal clinic, 318 women were surveyed by anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The strongest predictors of intention to be tested were the perceived benefit of the test to the woman herself, her partner, and the midwife, perceived risk of HIV infection, younger age and being single and having a poor knowledge of the sexual routes of HIV transmission. Health education strategies should therefore concentrate on: (a) increasing the parturient woman's knowledge of HIV transmission which will increase accuracy of perception of risk; and (b) stressing the potential benefits of HIV testing to all antenatal attenders, particularly to those who are older and in long term relationships. PMID:8329479

  4. Brief Report: HIV Testing Among Pregnant Women Who Attend Antenatal Care in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Tenthani, Lyson; Haas, Andreas D; Egger, Matthias; Oosterhout, Joep J Van; Jahn, Andreas; Chimbwandira, Frank; Tal, Kali; Myer, Landon; Estill, Janne; Keiser, Olivia

    2015-08-15

    Malawi adopted the Option B+ strategy in 2011. Its success in reducing mother-to-child transmission depends on coverage and timing of HIV testing. We assessed HIV status ascertainment and its predictors during pregnancy. HIV status ascertainment was 82.3% (95% confidence interval: 80.2 to 85.9) in the pre-Option B+ period and 85.7% (95% confidence interval: 83.4 to 88.0) in the Option B+ period. Higher HIV ascertainment was independently associated with higher age, attending antenatal care more than once, and registration in 2010. The observed high variability of HIV ascertainment between sites (50.6%-97.7%) and over time suggests that HIV test kit shortages and insufficient numbers of staff posed major barriers to reducing mother-to-child transmission. PMID:25950205

  5. Trends in HIV & syphilis prevalence and correlates of HIV infection: results from cross-sectional surveys among women attending ante-natal clinics in Northern Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusufu Kumogola; Emma Slaymaker; Basia Zaba; Julius Mngara; Raphael Isingo; John Changalucha; Patrick Mwidunda; Daniel Kimaro; Mark Urassa

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel surveillance for HIV in ante-natal clinics (ANC) remains the primary method for collecting timely trend data on HIV prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa. We describe prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection and trends over time in HIV prevalence among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANC) in Magu district and Mwanza city, part of Mwanza region in Northern Tanzania.

  6. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care: a cross-sectional study in two hospitals in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bayo, Pontius; Ochola, Emmanuel; Oleo, Caroline; Mwaka, Amos Deogratius

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in two referral hospitals in northern Uganda. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Two tertiary hospitals in a postconflict region in a low-income country. Participants Randomly selected 402 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two referral hospitals. Five women withdrew consent for personal reasons. Data were analysed for 397 participants. Primary outcome Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity. Results Of 397 pregnant women aged 13–43?years, 96.2% were married or cohabiting. 47 (11.8%) tested positive for HBsAg; of these, 7 (14.9%) were HBeAg positive. The highest HBsAg positivity rate was seen in women aged 20?years or less (20%) compared with those aged above 20?years (8.7%), aOR=2.54 (95% CI 1.31 to 4.90). However, there was no statistically significant difference between women with positive HBsAg and those with negative tests results with respect to median values of liver enzymes, haemoglobin level, absolute neutrophil counts and white cell counts. HIV positivity, scarification and number of sexual partners were not predictive of HBV positivity. Conclusions One in eight pregnant women attending antenatal care in the two study hospitals has evidence of hepatitis B infection. A significant number of these mothers are HBeAg positive and may be at increased risk of transmitting hepatitis B infection to their unborn babies. We suggest that all pregnant women attending antenatal care be tested for HBV infection; exposed babies need to receive HBV vaccines at birth. PMID:25387757

  7. How Do Women Prepare for Pregnancy? Preconception Experiences of Women Attending Antenatal Services and Views of Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Judith; Patel, Dilisha; Barrett, Geraldine; Howden, Beth; Copas, Andrew; Ojukwu, Obiamaka; Pandya, Pranav; Shawe, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Main objective To determine the extent to which women plan and prepare for pregnancy. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of pregnant women attending three maternity services in London about knowledge and uptake of preconception care; including a robust measure of pregnancy planning, and phone interviews with a range of health care professionals. Main results We recruited 1173/1288 (90%) women, median age of 32 years. 73% had clearly planned their pregnancy, 24% were ambivalent and only 3% of pregnancies were unplanned. 51% of all women and 63% of those with a planned pregnancy took folic acid before pregnancy. 21% of all women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking alcohol in the 3 months before pregnancy; 48% of smokers and 41% of drinkers reduced or stopped before pregnancy. The 51% of all women who reported advice from a health professional before becoming pregnant were more likely to adopt healthier behaviours before pregnancy [adjusted odds ratios for greatest health professional input compared with none were 2.34 (95% confidence interval 1.54–3.54) for taking folic acid and 2.18 (95% CI 1.42–3.36) for adopting a healthier diet before pregnancy]. Interviews with 20 health professionals indicated low awareness of preconception health issues, missed opportunities and confusion about responsibility for delivery of preconception care. Significance of the findings Despite a high level of pregnancy planning, awareness of preconception health among women and health professionals is low, and responsibility for providing preconception care is unclear. However, many women are motivated to adopt healthier behaviours in the preconception period, as indicated by halving of reported smoking rates in this study. The link between health professional input and healthy behaviour change before pregnancy is a new finding that should invigorate strategies to improve awareness and uptake of pre-pregnancy health care, and bring wider benefits for public health. PMID:25058333

  8. Satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town, Jimma zone, South West Ethiopia; a facility based cross-sectional study triangulated with qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Client satisfaction is essential for further improvement of quality of focused antenatal care and to provide uniform health care services for pregnant women. However, studies on level of client satisfaction with focused antenatal care and associated factors are lacking. So, the purpose of this study is to assess satisfaction with focused antenatal care service and associated factors among pregnant women attending focused antenatal care at health centers in Jimma town. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study involving both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used from Feb 1-30/2013. Three hundred eighty nine pregnant women those come to the health centers were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussion guide was employed to obtain the necessary information for this study. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Logistic regression model was used to compare level of satisfaction by predictors’ variables. Qualitative data was analyzed based on thematic frameworks to support the quantitative results. Result More than half of the respondents (60.4%) were satisfied with the service that they received. As to specific components, most of the respondents (80.7%) were satisfied with interpersonal aspects, and 62.2% were satisfied with organization of health care aspect. Meanwhile, 49.9% of the respondents were not satisfied with technical quality aspect and 67.1% were not satisfied with physical environment aspect. Multivariate logistic regression analysis result showed that type of health center, educational status of mother, monthly income of the family, type of pregnancy and history of stillbirth were the predictors of the level of satisfaction. The study found out that dissatisfaction was high in mothers utilizing service at Jimma health center, in mothers with tertiary educational level, in mothers with average monthly family income >1000birr, in mothers with unplanned pregnancy and in mothers with history of stillbirth. Conclusions Even though greater percentages of women (60.4%) were satisfied with the focused antenatal care service, the level of satisfaction was lower compared to other studies. The investigator recommends that patient feedback should be recognized as a legitimate method of evaluating health services in the health center as a whole. PMID:24646407

  9. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using these services, the services received during antenatal and postnatal care, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java province. Methods A qualitative study was conducted from March to July 2009 in six villages in three districts of West Java province. Twenty focus group discussions (FGDs) and 165 in-depth interviews were carried out involving a total of 295 respondents. The guidelines for FGDs and in-depth interviews included the topics of community experiences with antenatal and postnatal care services, reasons for not attending the services, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods. Results Our study found that the main reason women attended antenatal and postnatal care services was to ensure the safe health of both mother and infant. Financial difficulty emerged as the major issue among women who did not fulfil the minimum requirements of four antenatal care services or two postnatal care services within the first month after delivery. This was related to the cost of health services, transportation costs, or both. In remote areas, the limited availability of health services was also a problem, especially if the village midwife frequently travelled out of the village. The distances from health facilities, in addition to poor road conditions were major concerns, particularly for those living in remote areas. Lack of community awareness about the importance of these services was also found, as some community members perceived health services to be necessary only if obstetric complications occurred. The services of traditional birth attendants for antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care were widely used, and their roles in maternal and child care were considered vital by some community members. Conclusions It is important that public health strategies take into account the availability, affordability and accessibility of health services. Poverty alleviation strategies will help financially deprived communities to use antenatal and postnatal health services. This study also demonstrated the importance of health promotion programs for increasing community awareness about the necessity of antenatal and postnatal services. PMID:20937146

  10. Awareness and knowledge on timing of mother-to-child transmission of HIV among antenatal care attending women in Southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV infection remains a major public health problem and constitutes the most important cause of HIV infection in children under the age of 15 years old. Awareness on MTCT of HIV and knowledge of its timing usually pose a direct effect on utilization of PMTCT services (mainly HIV testing, infant feeding options and antiretroviral use). The objective of this study is to assess pregnant women’s knowledge on timing of MTCT of HIV in Southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in 62 health centers in Southern Ethiopia from February 25 to March 24, 2012. A total of 1325 antenatal care attending women were included in the survey by using a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to identify variables associated with women’s knowledge on timing of MTCT of HIV. Results All interviewed pregnant women were aware of HIV/AIDS transmission, but only 60.7% were aware of the risk of MTCT. The possibility of MTCT during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding was known by 48.4%, 58.6% and 40.7% of the respondents, respectively. The proportion of women who were fully knowledgeable on timing of MTCT was 11.5%. Women’s full knowledge on timing of MTCT was associated with maternal education [AOR?=?3.68, 95% CI: 1.49-9.08], and being government employee [AOR?=?2.50, 95% CI: 1.23- 5.07]. Whereas, there was a negative association between full knowledge of women on timing of MTCT and no offer of information on MTCT/PMTCT by antenatal care (ANC) service provider [AOR?=?0.44, 95% CI: 0.30-0.64], lack of discussion on ANC with male partner [AOR?=?0.30, 95% CI: 0.12-0.72], and lack of discussion on HIV/AIDS with male partner [AOR?=?0.17, 95% CI: 0.07-0.43]. Conclusion There was low awareness and knowledge on timing of MTCT of HIV in this study. Hence, strengthening the level of PMTCT services in ANC settings and devising mechanisms to promote involvement of men in PMTCT services is needed. PMID:24330487

  11. High mobile phone ownership, but low Internet and email usage among pregnant, HIV-infected women attending antenatal care in Johannesburg.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Kate; Schwartz, Sheree R; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Vermund, Sten H; Pettifor, Audrey E

    2015-03-01

    We investigated mobile phone usage amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal services in a primary care clinic in Johannesburg (n?=?50). We conducted a semi-structured interview and asked them about their mobile phone, Internet and email use. The median age of the women was 28 years, 36% had moved one or more times in the past year, and most were employed or recently employed, albeit earning low wages. Nearly all women (94%) reported that they did not share their phone and 76% of the SIM cards were registered to the woman herself. The median time with the current phone was one year (range 1 month-6 years) and the median time with the current phone number was three years (range 1 month-13 years). Even though 42% of the participants were from outside South Africa, they all had mobile phone numbers local to South Africa. About one-third of respondents reported Internet use (30%) and about one-fifth reported using email (18%). Overall, 20% accessed the Internet and 10% accessed email on their mobile phone. Mobile phone interventions are feasible amongst HIV-positive pregnant women and may be useful in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Email and Internet-based interventions may not yet be appropriate. PMID:25586808

  12. Timing of antenatal care for adolescent and adult pregnant women in south-eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully benefit from its preventive and curative services. This study assesses the timing of adult and adolescent pregnant women's first antenatal care visit and identifies factors influencing early and late attendance. Methods The study was conducted in the Ulanga and Kilombero rural Demographic Surveillance area in south-eastern Tanzania in 2008. Qualitative exploratory studies informed the design of a structured questionnaire. A total of 440 women who attended antenatal care participated in exit interviews. Socio-demographic, social, perception- and service related factors were analysed for associations with timing of antenatal care initiation using regression analysis. Results The majority of pregnant women initiated antenatal care attendance with an average of 5 gestational months. Belonging to the Sukuma ethnic group compared to other ethnic groups such as the Pogoro, Mhehe, Mgindo and others, perceived poor quality of care, late recognition of pregnancy and not being supported by the husband or partner were identified as factors associated with a later antenatal care enrolment (p < 0.05). Primiparity and previous experience of a miscarriage or stillbirth were associated with an earlier antenatal care attendance (p < 0.05). Adolescent pregnant women started antenatal care no later than adult pregnant women despite being more likely to be single. Conclusions Factors including poor quality of care, lack of awareness about the health benefit of antenatal care, late recognition of pregnancy, and social and economic factors may influence timing of antenatal care. Community-based interventions are needed that involve men, and need to be combined with interventions that target improving the quality, content and outreach of antenatal care services to enhance early antenatal care enrolment among pregnant women. PMID:22436344

  13. Predictors of skilled attendance at delivery among antenatal clinic attendants in Ghana: a cross-sectional study of population data

    PubMed Central

    Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Ansah, Evelyn K; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Grobbee, Diederick E; Kayode, Gbenga A; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify demographic, maternal and community predictors of skilled attendance at delivery among women who attend antenatal clinic at least once during their pregnancy in Ghana. Design A cross-sectional study using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. We used frequencies for descriptive analysis, ?2 test for associations and logistic regression to identify significant predictors. Predictive models were built with estimation of area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Setting Ghana. Participants A total of 2041 women who had a live birth in the 5?years preceding the survey, and attended an antenatal clinic having a skilled provider, at least once, during the pregnancy. Outcome Skilled attendance at delivery. Results Overall, 60.5% (1235/2041) of women in our study sample reported skilled attendance at delivery. Significant positive associations existed between skilled attendance at delivery and the variables such as maternal educational level, wealth status class, ever use of contraception, previous pregnancy complications and health insurance coverage (p<0.001). Significant predictors of skilled attendance were wealth status class, residency, previous delivery complication, health insurance coverage and religion in a model with AUC (95% CI) of 0.85 (0.83 to 0.88). Conclusions Women less likely to have skilled attendance at delivery can be identified during antenatal care by using data on wealth status class, health insurance coverage, residence, history of previous birth complications and religion, and targeted with interventions to improve skilled attendance at delivery. PMID:25991459

  14. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  15. Surveillance of transmitted HIV type 1 drug resistance among HIV type 1-positive women attending an antenatal clinic in Kakinada, India.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Smita R; Chaturbhuj, Devidas N; Hingankar, Nitin K; Chandrasekhar, Velura; Koppada, Rajasekhar; Datkar, Sharda R; Srikantiah, Padmini; Garg, Renu; Kabra, Sandhya; Haldar, Partha; Reddy, Dandu C S; Bachani, Damodar; Tripathy, Srikanth P; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2011-12-01

    The World Health Organizations HIV Drug Resistance (WHO HIVDR) Threshold survey method was used to assess transmitted HIVDR in newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected primigravida women attending the Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) centers in Kakinada, in whom it is likely that the infection had recently occurred. Out of the 56 consecutively collected eligible specimens, 51 were tested using the ViroSeq RT-PCR method (Abbott Germany) to obtain 47 consecutive sequences for the HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) region. As per the 2009 WHO list of mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIVDR, only one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation was detected at K101E from all specimens tested, suggesting a low prevalence (<5%) of resistance to NNRTIs and no mutations were detected at other sites, suggesting a low prevalence (<5%) of resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and protease inhibitors (PI) drug classes as well. Phylogenetic analysis showed all sequences belonged to HIV-1 subtype C. In the wake of antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up, future evaluation of transmitted HIVDR is essential in Kakinada as well as in other regions of India. PMID:21568760

  16. Rural Indonesia women’s traditional beliefs about antenatal care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Indonesia Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) of 420/100.00 live births remains among the highest in East Asia while coverage of births assisted by skilled providers is still low. Traditional beliefs have been a key factor associated with the choice between midwives or traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the low number of antenatal care visits in rural West Sumatra. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 16 women from rural West Java to describe their perception regarding issues related to traditional beliefs. Focus group discussions provided data for the content analysis. Results The majority of the 16 women interviewed was from Village Dago, West Java and had only an elementary school education. Their ages ranged from 19 to 40 years. Most were multiparous housewives with an income of IDR 918.750 per month, which was lower than the monthly income in West Java (IDR. 1.172.060). Emerging from the focus group discussion were four main themes regarding their pregnancy and traditional beliefs: 1) pregnancy was a normal cycle in women’s life (pregnancy is a natural phenomena, not a sickness; no recognition of danger signs during pregnancy and death of baby or mother during pregnancy was brought about by God’s will); 2) women followed the traditional beliefs (positive motivation to follow the traditional beliefs and fear of not following the traditional beliefs); 3) relying on TBA called paraji rather than midwife (parajis are kind, tolerant and patient and have more experience than midwives; more accessibility than midwives and encouragement of natural birth) and 4) midwives are more secure than paraji; (they use a medical standard of care). Conclusions Women’s beliefs grounded in religion and tradition permeated the village culture making it difficult to counter their long held health practices with practices based on recent advances in health care. Use of TBA in this village was still dominant and women believed that following traditional beliefs led to a healthy pregnancy therefore, they also followed all relatives’ suggestions. Understanding the complexities of local culture is the first step to improving women’s awareness of how to preserve their pregnancy and prevent complications. PMID:23106915

  17. Does traditional birth attendant training increase use of antenatal care? A review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Lynn M; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Koblinsky, Marge

    2004-01-01

    A combined narrative review and metanalytic review was conducted to summarize published and unpublished studies completed between 1970 and 2002 on the relationship between traditional birth attendant (TBA) training and increased use of professional antenatal care (ANC). Fifteen studies (n = 15) from 8 countries and 2 world regions were analyzed. There are, to varying degrees, positive associations between TBA training and TBA knowledge of the value and timing of ANC services, TBA behavior in offering advice or assistance to obtain ANC, and compliance and use of ANC services by women cared for by TBAs or living in areas served by TBAs. There is a serious lack of information about TBA training program characteristics. Although the findings cannot be causally attributed to TBA training, the results suggest that training may increase ANC attendance rates by about 38%. This magnitude of improvement could contribute to a reduction in maternal and perinatal mortality in areas where women have access to quality antenatal and emergency obstetric care. There is an urgent need to improve capacity for evaluation and research of the effect of TBA training programs and other factors that influence women's use of ANC services. PMID:15236709

  18. Factors Affecting Antenatal Care Attendance: Results from Qualitative Studies in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Pell, Christopher; Meñaca, Arantza; Were, Florence; Afrah, Nana A.; Chatio, Samuel; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Hamel, Mary J.; Hodgson, Abraham; Tagbor, Harry; Kalilani, Linda; Ouma, Peter; Pool, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to improve maternal and infant health. However, survey data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that women often only initiate ANC after the first trimester and do not achieve the recommended number of ANC visits. Drawing on qualitative data, this article comparatively explores the factors that influence ANC attendance across four sub-Saharan African sites in three countries (Ghana, Kenya and Malawi) with varying levels of ANC attendance. Methods Data were collected as part of a programme of qualitative research investigating the social and cultural context of malaria in pregnancy. A range of methods was employed interviews, focus groups with diverse respondents and observations in local communities and health facilities. Results Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC were often vague. General ideas about pregnancy care – checking the foetus’ position or monitoring its progress – motivated women to attend ANC; as did, especially in Kenya, obtaining the ANC card to avoid reprimands from health workers. Women’s timing of ANC initiation was influenced by reproductive concerns and pregnancy uncertainties, particularly during the first trimester, and how ANC services responded to this uncertainty; age, parity and the associated implications for pregnancy disclosure; interactions with healthcare workers, particularly messages about timing of ANC; and the cost of ANC, including charges levied for ANC procedures – in spite of policies of free ANC – combined with ideas about the compulsory nature of follow-up appointments. Conclusion In these socially and culturally diverse sites, the findings suggest that ‘supply’ side factors have an important influence on ANC attendance: the design of ANC and particularly how ANC deals with the needs and concerns of women during the first trimester has implications for timing of initiation. PMID:23335973

  19. The prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis C infection in antenatal clinic attenders in two regions of England.

    PubMed Central

    Balogun, M. A.; Ramsay, M. E.; Parry, J. V.; Donovan, L.; Andrews, N. J.; Newham, J. A.; Cliffe, S.; Harris, K. A.; Teo, C. G.

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis C infection in women attending antenatal clinics in two regions of England was investigated to inform future surveillance and control measures. Women booking into antenatal care are routinely offered a test for immunity to rubella. Serum residues from these tests were unlinked, anonymized and archived as part of the Unlinked Anonymous Prevalence Monitoring Programme (UAPMP). The serum specimens were tested for anti-HCV using a cost-effective pooling strategy. After taking into account differential sampling from the UAPMP serum archive, the adjusted overall prevalence of anti-HCV was 0.43% (95% CI: 0.32-0.53) in London and 0.21% (95% CI: 0.14-0.28) in the Northern and Yorkshire region. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of amplified HCV RNA identified type 3a as the most common HCV genotype in these antenatal women. The prevalence of anti-HCV in antenatal women in the UK is low and consistent with that expected from injecting drug use. PMID:11218221

  20. The interrelation of HIV, cervical human papillomavirus, and neoplasia among antenatal clinic attenders in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mayaud, P.; Gill, D.; Weiss, H.; Uledi, E.; Kopwe, L.; Todd, J.; ka-Gina, G.; Grosskurth, H.; Hayes, R.; Mabey, D. C.; Lacey, C.

    2001-01-01

    * Died April 2000 Objectives: To determine the prevalence and interrelation of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), HIV, and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among urban antenatal clinic attenders in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: Genital swabs were collected from 660 pregnant women and tested for a range of RTIs and for cervical cytology. Cervical HPV-DNA was detected by PCR and genotyped. HIV and syphilis serologies were performed. Results: HPV prevalence was 34% (209/612 women). Of the 144 typeable samples, 83% were high risk (HR-HPV) oncogenic strains (56% HPV 16 related types). SIL was detected in 43 women (7%), with high grade SIL in 3%. There was a high prevalence of HIV (15%), and of any RTI (83%). Genital warts were detected in 20 women (3%). HPV infection was associated with some behavioural factors (short duration of relationship, single status, not using condoms) and gonorrhoea. There was no overall association between HPV and HIV (OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.6–1.6), but a non-significant trend towards a stronger association with HR-HPV in women aged 15–19 (OR=2.79, 95% CI 0.8–9.5) and women aged ?30 (OR=3.20, 95% CI 0.7–15). SIL was associated with HPV (OR=3.66, 95% CI 1.9–7.0), but not significantly with HIV (OR=1.54, 95% CI 0.7–3.4). Prevalence of SIL was higher among women dually positive for HPV/HIV compared to HPV infection only (21% v 12%), although this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.17). Conclusions: HPV infection was highly prevalent in this young antenatal population. The association of HIV with HR-HPV types in older women may suggest that the principal HIV/HPV interaction in this population is for HIV to upregulate HPV persistence, leading to subsequent development of SIL. Key Words: human papillomavirus; squamous intraepithelial lesion; HIV/AIDS; Africa PMID:11463923

  1. Timing and reasons for coming late for the first antenatal care visit by pregnant women at Mulago hospital, Kampala Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mothers who attend antenatal care late miss the opportunity of early detection of HIV and STDs, malaria and anaemia prophylaxis, health education and treatment or prevention of complications. Whereas many women in Mulago hospital make their first antenatal care visit after 20 weeks of gestation, the reasons for coming late are not documented. The objectives were to determine the gestation age at which pregnant women make their first antenatal care visit and the reasons for late coming. Method The study was conducted in June 2012 among women with a gestation age of more than 20 weeks on their first antenatal care visit. We collected data on gestation age (from weeks of amenorrhea or based on ultrasound scan) and reasons for coming late. Results Four hundred women participated in the study. Their mean age was 25.2 years with a standard deviation of 5.2 years. The majority of the participants were Catholics (n?=?126, 31.5%), they lived in a distance of greater than five kilometers from the hospital (n?=?201, 50.3%) and had attained secondary education (n?=?220, 55.0%). The mean of their weeks of amenorrhea was 27.9 (± 4.6) weeks. The results showed that 291 (72.7%) of the study participants did not know the right gestation age at which a pregnant woman should start attending antenatal care. One hundred and ten (27.5%) agreed that they did not have money for transport to bring them to the hospital while 37 (9.3%) thought that they had to pay for the antenatal care services. Two hundred thirteen (53.3%) reported that they did not have any problem with their current pregnancy and so they saw no reason to come early for antenatal care, even though some of these knew the right gestation age at which they should make their first antenatal care visit. Conclusion Pregnant women who come late for antenatal care in Mulago hospital, Uganda are not well-informed about the right gestation age at which they should make their first antenatal care visit and/or of the importance of early attendance at antenatal care. PMID:23706142

  2. A qualitative study of women's experiences of communication in antenatal care: identifying areas for action.

    PubMed

    Raine, Rosalind; Cartwright, Martin; Richens, Yana; Mahamed, Zuhura; Smith, Debbie

    2010-07-01

    To identify key features of communication across antenatal (prenatal) care that are evaluated positively or negatively by service users. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used to explore communication experiences of thirty pregnant women from diverse social and ethnic backgrounds affiliated to a large London hospital. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Women reported a wide diversity of experiences. From the users' perspective, constructive communication on the part of health care providers was characterised by an empathic conversational style, openness to questions, allowing sufficient time to talk through any concerns, and pro-active contact by providers (e.g. text message appointment reminders). These features created reassurance, facilitated information exchange, improved appointment attendance and fostered tolerance in stressful situations. Salient features of poor communication were a lack of information provision, especially about the overall arrangement and the purpose of antenatal care, insufficient discussion about possible problems with the pregnancy and discourteous styles of interaction. Poor communication led some women to become assertive to address their needs; others became reluctant to actively engage with providers. General Practitioners need to be better integrated into antenatal care, more information should be provided about the pattern and purpose of the care women receive during pregnancy, and new technologies should be used to facilitate interactions between women and their healthcare providers. Providers require communications training to encourage empathic interactions that promote constructive provider-user relationships and encourage women to engage effectively and access the care they need. PMID:19554436

  3. Male Antenatal Attendance and HIV Testing Are Associated with Decreased Infant HIV Infection and Increased HIV Free Survival

    PubMed Central

    Aluisio, Adam; Richardson, Barbra A.; Bosire, Rose; John-Stewart, Grace; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Farquhar, Carey

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between male involvement in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services and infant HIV acquisition and mortality a prospective cohort study was undertaken between 1999 and 2005 in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled and followed with their infants for 1 year with infant HIV DNA testing at birth, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postpartum. Women were encouraged to invite male partners for prevention counseling and HIV testing. Findings Among 456 female participants, 140 (31%) partners attended the antenatal clinic. Eighty-two (19%) of 441 infants tested were HIV infected by one year of age. Adjusting for maternal viral load, vertical transmission risk was lower among women with partner attendance compared to those without (Adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=0.56, 95% CI 0.33–0.98; P=0.042) and among women reporting versus not reporting previous partner HIV testing (aHR=0.52, 95% CI 0.32–0.84; P=0.008). The combined risk of HIV acquisition or infant mortality was lower with male attendance (aHR=0.55, 95% CI 0.35–0.88; P=0.012) and report of prior male HIV testing (aHR=0.58, 95% CI 0.34–0.88; P=0.01) when adjusting for maternal viral load and breastfeeding. Conclusion Including men in antenatal PMTCT services with HIV testing may improve infant health outcomes. PMID:21084999

  4. A prospective observational description of frequency and timing of antenatal care attendance and coverage of selected interventions from sites in Argentina, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Network for Women’s and Children’s Health Research is one of the largest international networks for testing and generating evidence-based recommendations for improvement of maternal-child health in resource-limited settings. Since 2009, Global Network sites in six low and middle-income countries have collected information on antenatal care practices, which are important as indicators of care and have implications for programs to improve maternal and child health. We sought to: (1) describe the quantity of antenatal care attendance over a four-year period; and (2) explore the quality of coverage for selected preventative, screening, and birth preparedness components. Methods The Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR) is a prospective, population-based birth and pregnancy outcomes registry in Global Network sites, including: Argentina, Guatemala, India (Belgaum and Nagpur), Kenya, Pakistan, and Zambia. MNHR data from these sites were prospectively collected from January 1, 2010 – December 31, 2013 and analyzed for indicators related to quantity and patterns of ANC and coverage of key elements of recommended focused antenatal care. Descriptive statistics were generated overall by global region (Africa, Asia, and Latin America), and for each individual site. Results Overall, 96% of women reported at least one antenatal care visit. Indian sites demonstrated the highest percentage of women who initiated antenatal care during the first trimester. Women from the Latin American and Indian sites reported the highest number of at least 4 visits. Overall, 88% of women received tetanus toxoid. Only about half of all women reported having been screened for syphilis (49%) or anemia (50%). Rates of HIV testing were above 95% in the Argentina, African, and Indian sites. The Pakistan site demonstrated relatively high rates for birth preparation, but for most other preventative and screening interventions, posted lower coverage rates as compared to other Global Network sites. Conclusions Results from our large, prospective, population-based observational study contribute important insight into regional and site-specific patterns for antenatal care access and coverage. Our findings indicate a quality and coverage gap in antenatal care services, particularly in regards to syphilis and hemoglobin screening. We have identified site-specific gaps in access to, and delivery of, antenatal care services that can be targeted for improvement in future research and implementation efforts. Trial registration Registration at Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475) PMID:26063483

  5. Attendance and Utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC) Services: Multi-Center Study in Upcountry Areas of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    AkiiBua, Douglas; Aleni, Carol; Chitayi, Michael; Niwaha, Anxious; Kazibwe, Andrew; Sunya, Elizabeth; Mumbere, Eliud W.; Mutesi, Carol; Tukei, Cathy; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nakubulwa, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Globally every year 529,000 maternal deaths occur, 99% of this in developing countries. Uganda has high maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality ratios, typical of many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent findings reveal maternal mortality ratio of 435:100,000 live births and neonatal mortality rate of 29 deaths per 1000 live births in Uganda; these still remain a challenge. Women in rural areas of Uganda are two times less likely to attend ANC than the urban women. Most women in Uganda have registered late ANC attendance, averagely at 5.5 months of pregnancy and do not complete the required four visits. The inadequate utilization of ANC is greatly contributing to persisting high rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in Uganda. This study was set to identify the factors associated with late booking and inadequate utilization of Antenatal Care services in upcountry areas of Uganda. Method Cross-sectional study design with mixed methods of interviewer administered questionnaires, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Data was entered using Epidata and analyzed using Stata into frequency tables using actual tallies and percentages. Ethical approval was sought from SOM-REC MakCHS under approval number “#REC REF 2012-117” before conducting the study. Results A total of four hundred one were enrolled with the majority being in the age group 20 – 24 years (mean age, 25.87 ± 6.26). Health workers played a great role (72.04%), followed by the media (15.46%) and friends (12.50%) in creating awareness about ANC. A significant number of respondents went to TBAs with reasons such as “near and accessible”, “my husband decided”, and “they are the only people I know”. 37.63% of the respondents considered getting an antenatal Card as an importance of ANC. 71 (19.67%) respondents gave a wrong opinion (late) on booking time with reasons like demands at work, no problems during pregnancy, advised by friends, just to get a card, long distance and others didn’t know. Almost half of the respondents never knew the recommended number of visits. Religion, occupation, level of education, and parity were found to influence place of ANC attendance, number of ANC visits and booking time. Husbands were necessary to provide financial support, accompany their wives ANC clinic, and ensure that they complete the visits. But their response was poor due to: fear of routine investigations and constrained economically. Conclusion The study findings show the actual rural setting of ANC services attendance and utilization. Much sensitization has to be done specifically in these rural areas to empower pregnant women and their husbands as to improve ANC attendance and utilization.

  6. Coping strategies as psychological risk factor for antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression among Greek women.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2013-10-01

    A range of psychosocial, medical, and demographic variables may influence pregnant women's psychological status. However the association between coping strategies, anxiety, worries, and depression during pregnancy is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies, antenatal anxiety, pregnancy worries, and depressive symptomatology after controlling for the effects of background variables. The study sample consisted of 163 pregnant women, with gestational age ranging from 11 to 26 weeks, attending antenatal screening at a Greek public hospital. Coping strategies were measured with Brief COPE, pregnancy worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X version), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the univariate analysis, low annual income, unemployment, conception after an IVF treatment, and a previous history of miscarriage were associated with anxiety, depression, and worries. Additionally, almost all coping strategies (denial, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use, acceptance, positive reframing, active coping, and seeking emotional support) were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression. Linear regression analysis showed that only previous history of miscarriage, conception after IVF, as well as denial, behavioral disengagement and acceptance coping strategies were significantly related to anxiety, worries and depressive symptomatology. The risk factors found in this study could help clinicians target anxiety and depression screening to high-risk populations of pregnant women. Provision of adequate training for obstetricians and midwives in the detection and management of anxiety and depression among pregnant women should help to decrease the psychological burden during pregnancy. PMID:23558945

  7. Inequalities in Advice Provided by Public Health Workers to Women during Antenatal Sessions in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhishek; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ram, Faujdar; Ogollah, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Studies have widely documented the socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health related outcomes in developing countries including India. However, there is limited research on the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers on maternal and child health during antenatal visits. This paper investigates the inequalities in advice provided by public health workers to women during antenatal visits in rural India. Methods and Findings The District Level Household Survey (2007–08) was used to compute rich-poor ratios and concentration indices. Binary logistic regressions were used to investigate inequalities in advice provided by public health workers. The dependent variables comprised the advice provided on seven essential components of maternal and child health care. A significant proportion of pregnant women who attended at least four ANC sessions were not advised on these components during their antenatal sessions. Only 51%–72% of the pregnant women were advised on at least one of the components. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities in providing advice were significant and the provision of advice concentrated disproportionately among the rich. Inequalities were highest in the case of advice on family planning methods. Advice on breastfeeding was least unequal. Public health workers working in lower level health facilities were significantly less likely than their counterparts in the higher level health facilities to provide specific advice. Conclusion A significant proportion of women were not advised on recommended components of maternal and child health in rural India. Moreover, there were enormous socioeconomic inequalities. The findings of this study raise questions about the capacity of the public health care system in providing equitable services in India. The Government of India must focus on training and capacity building of the public health workers in communication skills so that they can deliver appropriate and recommended advice to all clients, irrespective of their socioeconomic status. PMID:23028688

  8. Changes in leukocyte, granulocyte and lymphocyte counts following antenatal betamethasone administration to pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kadanali; M. Ingeç; T. Küçüközkan; B. Börekçi; Y. Kumtepe

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes are associated with a mild leukocytosis. However, we have observed a higher maternal leukocyte count after antenatal betamethasone therapy. We planned this study to evaluate the effects of antenatal betamethasone treatment on maternal leukocyte, granulocyte and lymphocyte count. Methods: Forty-six pregnant women with the diagnosis of preterm labor between 28 and 33

  9. The Murri clinic: a comparative retrospective study of an antenatal clinic developed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri) antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Methods A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367) with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414) provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. Results The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy) rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Conclusions Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary services, and working in partnership with community-based providers. Combining multi-agency resources to increase continuity of carer, culturally responsive care, and capacity building, including creating opportunities for Indigenous employment, education, and training is desirable, but challenging. Empirical evidence from our Evaluation provided the leverage for a multi-agency agreement to progress this goal within our catchment area. PMID:23256901

  10. Women as moral pioneers? Experiences of first trimester antenatal screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Williams; Jane Sandall; Gillian Lewando-Hundt; Bob Heyman; Kevin Spencer; Rachel Grellier

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of innovative medical technologies can raise unprecedented ethical, legal and social dilemmas. This is particularly so in the area of antenatal screening, which is dominated by the language of risk and probabilities. Second trimester serum screening for Down's syndrome and neural tube defects has a well-established place in antenatal care. Increasingly, first trimester screening with biochemical and ultrasound

  11. Trends in antenatal care attendance and health facility delivery following community and health facility systems strengthening interventions in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal morbidity and mortality remains high in Uganda; largely due to inadequate antenatal care (ANC), low skilled deliveries and poor quality of other maternal health services. In order to address both the demand and quality of ANC and skilled deliveries, we introduced community mobilization and health facility capacity strengthening interventions. Methods Interventions were introduced between January 2010 and September 2011. These included: training health workers, provision of medical supplies, community mobilization using village health teams, music dance and drama groups and male partner access clubs. These activities were implemented at Kitgum Matidi health center III and its catchment area. Routinely collected health facility data on selected outcomes in the year preceding the interventions and after 21 months of implementation of the interventions was reviewed. Trend analysis was performed using excel and statistical significance testing was performed using EPINFO StatCal option. Results The number of pregnant women attending the first ANC visit significantly increased from 114 to 150 in the first and fourth quarter of 2010 (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.39–2.12) and to 202 in the third quarter of 2011(OR 11.41; 95% CI 7.97–16.34). The number of pregnant women counselled, tested and given results for HIV during the first ANC attendance significantly rose from 92 (80.7%) to 146 (97.3%) in the first and fourth quarter of 2010 and then to 201 (99.5%) in the third quarter of 2011. The number of male partners counseled, tested and given results together with their wives at first ANC visit rose from 13 (16.7%) in the fourth quarter of 2009 to 130 (89%) in the fourth quarter of 2010 and to 180 (89.6%) in the third quarter of 2011. There was a significant rise in the number of pregnant women delivering in the health facility with provision of mama-kits (delivery kits), from 74 (55.2%) to 149 (99.3%) in the second and fourth quarter of 2010. Conclusions Combined community and facility systems strengthening interventions led to increased first ANC visits by women and their partners, and health facility deliveries. Interventions aimed at increasing uptake of maternal health services should address both the demand and availability of quality services. PMID:24134717

  12. Factors associated with self medication practice among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care at governmental health centers in Bahir Dar city administration, Northwest Ethiopia, a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Abeje, Gedefaw; Admasie, Chanie; Wasie, Belaynew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies in different parts of the world indicate that there is high level use of self medication among pregnant women. But there are no scientific evidences on it and factors associated with it in Bahir Dar city administration. The aim of this study was therefore to assess level of self medication and identify factors associated with it among pregnant women attending ANC service at governmental health centers in Bahir Dar city administration. Methods Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 20-July10, 2013. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version16.0. Back ward logistic regression model was used to assess level of association with self medication practice. Results A total of 510 pregnant women were included in the study. Of these, 25.1% reported self-medication during the current pregnancy. Self medication during pregnancy was significantly associated with gravida (AOR= 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4), maternal illness on the date of interview (AOR= 4.8, 95% CI: 2.9-8.0) and location of health facility (AOR= 4.6; 95% CI: 2.9-7.4). Conclusion A considerable proportion of pregnant women practiced self-medication during their pregnancy with modern medications or traditional herbs. Mothers who were multi garvida, who had maternal illness on the date of interview and who were attending antenatal care were more likely to practice self medication.

  13. Understanding why women adopt and sustain home water treatment: insights from the Malawi antenatal care program.

    PubMed

    Wood, Siri; Foster, Jennifer; Kols, Adrienne

    2012-08-01

    In many settings in Africa, social marketing has proven more successful in generating brand recognition for chlorine water treatment products than in promoting their use. To promote household use of one such product in Malawi, WaterGuard, the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Population Services International (PSI) distributed free hygiene kits that included WaterGuard to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in 2007. Follow-up surveys documented a sustained increase in WaterGuard use three years after the initial intervention. In 2010, PATH (www.path.org) conducted qualitative research on the factors motivating women to adopt, sustain, or discontinue use. To provide context, interviews were also conducted with their friends, relatives, and husbands. Interviews revealed that sustained use of WaterGuard does not necessarily imply consistent use. Most respondents reported switching back and forth between WaterGuard and stock chlorine distributed for free by the government, and many treated water seasonally rather than year-round. Qualitative findings suggest that two program strategies strongly influenced women's decisions to adopt, purchase, and continue using WaterGuard. First, positive, ongoing contacts with health care workers, especially during home visits, raised awareness of the need to treat water, encouraged trial use, and supported continuing use. Second, an extended free trial of the product overcame initial cost barriers and allowed women and their families to experience the health benefits of WaterGuard, appreciate its value and relevance to their lives, and get used to its taste. Social support-from like-minded relatives, friends, neighbors, health care workers, husbands, and children-was also a critical factor that promoted consistent, ongoing use of WaterGuard. The findings confirm the importance of interpersonal communication in prompting adoption of household water treatment and suggest that consumers assess the perceived value of a product, not simply its cost. Further research is planned to investigate questions raised about patterns of ongoing use. PMID:22051403

  14. Use of antenatal care, maternity services, intermittent presumptive treatment and insecticide treated bed nets by pregnant women in Luwero district, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kiwuwa, Mpungu S; Mufubenga, Patrobas

    2008-01-01

    Background To reduce the intolerable burden of malaria in pregnancy, the Ministry of Health in Uganda improved the antenatal care package by including a strong commitment to increase distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and introduction of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP) as a national policy in 2000. This study assessed uptake of both ITNs and IPTp-SP by pregnant women as well as antenatal and maternity care use with the aim of optimizing their delivery. Methods 769 post-partum women were recruited from a rural area of central Uganda with perennial malaria transmission through a cross-sectional, community-based household survey in May 2005. Results Of the 769 women interviewed, antenatal clinic (ANC) attendance was high (94.4%); 417 (57.7%) visiting initially during the 2nd trimester, 242 (33.5%) during the 3rd trimester and 266 (37.1%) reporting ? 4 ANC visits. About 537 (71%) and 272 (35.8%) received one or ? 2 IPTp-SP doses respectively. Only 85 (15.8%) received the first dose of IPTp-SP in the 3rd trimester. ITNs were used by 239 (31.3%) of women during pregnancy and 314 (40.8%) delivered their most recent pregnancy outside a health facility. Post-partum women who lacked post-primary education were more likely not to have attended four or more ANC visits (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–9.3). Conclusion These findings illustrate the need to strengthen capacity of the district to further improve antenatal care and maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake. More specific and effective community health strategies to improve effective ANC, maternity services utilization and IPTp-SP uptake in rural communities should be undertaken. PMID:18312682

  15. Health and nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics in Western Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to decreasing maternal mortality in low-resource settings. ANC clinics provide resources to improve nutrition and health knowledge and promote preventive health practices. We sought to compare the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) among women seeking and not-seeking ANC in rural Kenya. Methods Data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Province, Kenya were used. Nutrition knowledge (NKS), health knowledge (HKS), attitude score (AS), and dietary diversity score (DDS) were constructed indices. ?2 test and Student’s t-test were used to compare proportions and means, respectively, to assess the difference in KAP among pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess the impact of the number of ANC visits (none, <4, ?4) on knowledge and practice scores, adjusting for maternal socio-demographic confounders, such as age, gestational age, education level and household wealth index. Results Among the 979 pregnant women in the survey, 59% had attended ANC clinics while 39% had not. The mean (±SD) NKS was 4.6 (1.9) out of 11, HKS was 6.2 (1.7) out of 12, DDS was 4.9 (1.4) out of 12, and AS was 7.4 (2.2) out of 10. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and DDS were not significantly different between ANC clinic attending and non-attending women. Among women who attended ANC clinics, 82.6% received malaria and/or antihelmintic treatment, compared to 29.6% of ANC clinic non-attendees. Higher number of ANC clinic visits and higher maternal education level were significantly positively associated with maternal health knowledge. Conclusions Substantial opportunities exist for antenatal KAP improvement among women in Western Kenya, some of which could occur with greater ANC attendance. Further research is needed to understand multi-level factors that may affect maternal knowledge and practices. PMID:23845074

  16. The WOMB (Women's views of birth) antenatal satisfaction questionnaire: development, dimensions, internal reliability, and validity.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L F

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antenatal services continue to change, stimulated by the Changing Childbirth report. Women's views should be an important component of assessing the quality of such services. To date, no published quantitative multidimensional assessment instrument has been available to measure their satisfaction with care. AIM: To develop a valid, reliable, multidimensional questionnaire to assess quality of antenatal care. METHOD: A multidimensional satisfaction questionnaire was developed using psychometric methods. Following fieldwork to pilot a questionnaire, three successive versions of it were given by midwives to pregnant women in their final trimester in nine trusts in the old South Western region of England. Their replies were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation; internal reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Face, content, and construct validity were all assessed during development. RESULTS: Out of 196 women, 134 (68.4%) returned the pilot questionnaires. One hundred and seventy-two (57.3%) out of 300 women returned version 1 of the WOMB (WOMen's views of Birth) antenatal satisfaction questionnaire proper, 283 (56.6%) out of 500 returned version 2, and 328 (65.6%) out of 500 returned the final development version. This final version consisted of 11 dimensions in addition to a general satisfaction one. These were [Cronbach's alpha]: five related to antenatal clinic characteristics (travelling to clinic [0.75], waiting at clinic [0.90], clinic environment [0.69], timing of appointment [0.78], car parking [0.85]), three 'professional' characteristics (professional competence [0.80], knowing carers [0.79], information provided [0.81]), antenatal classes [0.76], social support from other pregnant women [0.83], checking for the baby's heart beat [0.63]. There were significant moderate correlations (range = 0.24 to 0.77) between individual dimensions and the general satisfaction dimension. Women's dimension scores were significantly related to age, parity, social class, and best educational achievement. CONCLUSION: This multidimensional satisfaction instrument has good face, content, and construct validity, and excellent internal reliability. It could be used to generally assess antenatal services or to screen them to detect areas where further in-depth qualitative enquiry is merited. Its sensitivity to change over time, external reliability, and transferability to non-Caucasian groups needs to be assessed. PMID:10824341

  17. Urban - rural disparities in antenatal care utilization: a study of two cohorts of pregnant women in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of antenatal care (ANC) varies between countries and in different settings within each country. Most previous studies of ANC in Vietnam have been cross-sectional, and conducted in rural areas before the year 2000. This study aims to compare the pattern and the adequacy of ANC used in rural and urban Vietnam following two cohorts of pregnant women. Methods A comparative study with two cohorts comprising totally 2132 pregnant women were followed in two health and demographic surveillance sites, one rural and one urban in Hanoi province, Vietnam. The women were quarterly interviewed using a structured questionnaire until delivery. The primary information obtained was the number and the content of ANC visits. Results Almost all women reported some use of ANC. The average number of visits was much lower in the rural setting (4.4) than in the urban (7.7). In the rural area, 77.2% of women had at least three visits and 69.1% attended ANC during the first trimester. The corresponding percentages for the urban women were 97.2% and 97.2%. Only 20.3% of the rural women compared to 81.1% of the urban women received all core ANC services. As a result, the adequate use of ANC was 5.2 times in the urban than in the rural setting (78.3% compared to 15.2%). Nearly all women received ultrasound examination during pregnancy with a mean value of 6.0 scans per woman in the urban area and 3.5 in the rural. Most rural women used ANC at commune health centres and private clinics while urban women mainly visited public hospitals. Expenditure related to ANC utilization for the urban women was 7.1 times that for the urban women. Conclusion The women in the rural area attended ANC later, had fewer visits and received much fewer services than urban women. The large disparity in ANC adequacy between the two settings suggests special attention for the ANC programme in rural areas focusing on its content. Revision and enforcement of the national guidelines to improve the behaviour and practice of both users and providers are necessary. PMID:21605446

  18. Competing Knowledge Claims in the Provision of Antenatal Care: A Qualitative Study of Traditional Birth Attendants in Rural Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thubelihle Mathole; Gunilla Lindmark; Beth Maina Ahlberg

    2005-01-01

    In this article we examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in their care of women during pregnancy and childbirth, and highlight their views on the training they receive and the application of knowledge they gain. We also discuss the ways women and men reason around the practices of TBAs. Data were generated using focus group discussions and individual

  19. Antenatal and Postnatal Psychopathology Among Women with Current and Past Eating Disorders: Longitudinal Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Abigail; Solmi, Francessca; Bye, Amanda; Taborelli, Emma; Corfield, Freya; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate longitudinal patterns of psychopathology during the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current (C-ED) and past (P-ED) eating disorders. Women were recruited to a prospective longitudinal study: C-ED (n?=?31), P-ED (n?=?29) and healthy control (HC; n?=?57). Anxiety, depression and ED symptoms were measured at four time points: first/second trimester, third trimester, 8?weeks and 6?months postpartum. Linear mixed effects models were used to test for group differences. Women with C-ED and P-ED, in all diagnostic categories, had significantly higher levels of psychopathology at all time points. ED symptoms decreased in the C-ED group, compared with an overall increase in the other two groups but subsequently increased after pregnancy. Overall, depression and state and trait anxiety scores decreased in the C-ED group compared with the HC group throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods. High levels of psychopathology are common throughout the antenatal and postnatal periods among women with current and past ED, and despite some overall reductions, symptoms remain clinically significant. © 2014 The Authors. European Eating Disorders Review published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25345371

  20. The psychological profile of women attending breast-screening tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shulamith Kreitler; Samario Chaitchik; Hans Kreitler

    1990-01-01

    Though the benefits of early detection of breast cancer are generally known, only few women attend breast-screening examinations. The study was designed to gain insight into the problem by exploring the psychological profile of clinic attenders. In order to find out whether there is such a profile, 210 self-referred women were compared with 210 nonattending women, from the same working

  1. Malaria control in Bungoma District, Kenya: a survey of home treatment of children with fever, bednet use and attendance at antenatal clinics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary J. Hamel; Amos Odhacha; Jacquelin M. Roberts; Michael S. Deming

    2001-01-01

    Objective To lay the basis for planning an improved malaria control programme in Bungoma District, Kenya. Methods By means of a cluster sample household survey an investigation was conducted into the home management of febrile children, the use of bednets, and attendance at antenatal clinics. Findings Female carers provided information on 314 recently febrile children under 5 years of age,

  2. Heterogeneous and decreasing HIV prevalence among women seeking antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Behets, Frieda; Edmonds, Andrew; Kitenge, François; Crabbé, François; Laga, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background We examined HIV prevalence trends over 4.5 years among women receiving antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, by geographic location, clinic management and urbanicity. Methods Quarterly proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of pregnant women with HIV positive results were determined using aggregate service provision and uptake data from 22 maternity units that provided vertical HIV prevention services from October 2004 to March 2009. Assuming linearity, proportions were assessed for trend via the Cochran–Armitage test. Multivariable binomial regression was used to describe detailed prevalence trends. Results HIV testing was offered to 220 006 pregnant women; 210 348 (95.6%) agreed to be tested and 191 216 (90.9%) received their results. A total of 3999 women were found to be HIV positive, a prevalence of 1.90% (95% CI: 1.84–1.96%). The median quarterly proportion of women testing positive for HIV was 1.94% (range: 1.44–2.44%). Prevalence was heterogeneous in terms of maternity management, urbanicity and geographic location. Modeling suggested that the overall prevalence dropped from 2.04% (95% CI: 1.92–2.16%) to 1.77% (95% CI: 1.66–1.88%) over 4.5 years, a relative decrease of 13.2% (95% CI: 3.53–22.9%). Trend testing corroborated this decline (P < 0.01). Conclusions The decreasing HIV prevalence among Kinshasa antenatal care seekers is robust and encouraging. The relatively low prevalence and the weak existing healthcare system require prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions that strengthen maternal and child healthcare service delivery. Complacency would be unwarranted: assuming a uniform national crude birth rate of 50/1000 and 1.8% antenatal HIV prevalence, approximately 7000 pregnant HIV infected women in Kinshasa, and 60 000 nationwide, are in need of care and prevention services yearly. PMID:20453017

  3. Antenatal prevention of postnatal depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Buist; D. Westley; C. Hill

    1999-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Twenty three women at risk for postpartum depression were offered ten classes in pregnancy and postpartum, focusing on parenting\\u000a and coping strategies. Twenty one controls attended standard six antenatal classes. Postpartum there were no differences in\\u000a depression scores, however, anxiety was less at six weeks postpartum in the intervention group. Over time both groups had\\u000a reduced numbers and reduced

  4. A meta-synthesis of pregnant women's decision-making processes with regard to antenatal screening for Down syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernie Reid; Marlene Sinclair; Owen Barr; Frank Dobbs; Grainne Crealey

    2009-01-01

    The diffusion of antenatal screening programmes for Down syndrome has triggered much discussion about their powerful potential to enhance pregnant women's autonomy and reproductive choices. Simultaneously, considerable debate has been engendered by concerns that such programmes may directly contribute to the emergence of new and complex ethical, legal and social dilemmas for women. Given such discussion and debate, an examination

  5. Knowledge and perception of human papilloma virus vaccine among the antenatal women in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

    PubMed Central

    Agida, Teddy E.; Akaba, Godwin O.; Isah, Aliyu Y.; Ekele, Bissalla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major health problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. One of the preventive measures is the vaccination of teenagers against oncogenic human papilloma virus. The aim of this study was to find out the level of knowledge mothers possess about these vaccines and their willingness to administer vaccination to their teenage girls. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 255 consecutive women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja. They were given either a self-administered questionnaire or interviewer-administered questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions. Information recorded includes socio-demographic variables, knowledge of cervical cancer, knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines and acceptance of these vaccines for their adolescent girls. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 26.9 years. Over 90% had at least secondary education. A total of 102 (40%) had the knowledge of cancer of the cervix while 153 (60%) had never heard about it. Overall, 236 (92.5%) of them had no idea about the predisposing factors. The study showed that only 23 (9.0%) out of the total respondents had heard about human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. In the same vein, 20 (7.8%) had knowledge about HPV vaccine. Among the respondents, who had the knowledge of HPV and vaccination, 18.2% and 23.4% of them had secondary and tertiary levels of education respectively. Overall, 160 (62.8%) accepted that the vaccines could be administered to their teenage girls. Conclusions: Awareness of cervical cancer, HPV infections, and HPV vaccines is low among antenatal clinic attendees in Gwagwalada, Abuja. However, majority of them would want their girls vaccinated against HPV infections. There is a need for all stakeholders to step up awareness creation for improved HPV vaccination project in Nigeria. PMID:25657489

  6. Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mbada, Chidozie E.; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Arije, Olujide O.; Dada, Olumide O.; Akinwande, Olabisi A.; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Alonge, Ibidun A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

  7. Antenatal screening for carriers of cystic fibrosis: randomised trial of stepwise v couple screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zosia H Miedzybrodzka; Marion H Hall; Jill Mollison; Allan Templeton; Ian T Russell; John C S Dean; Kevin F Kelly; Theresa M Marteau; Neva E Haites

    1995-01-01

    AbstractObjective: To perform a rigorous comparative evaluation of stepwise and couple approaches to antenatal carrier screening for cystic fibrosis.Design: Pragmatic randomised trial.Setting: Hospital antenatal clinic serving a regional population.Subjects: 2002 women (couples) attending for booking antenatal visit at less than 17 weeks' gestation with no family history of cystic fibrosis.Interventions: Offering counselling and carrier testing for cystic fibrosis, either to

  8. Plasma viraemia in HIV-positive pregnant women entering antenatal care in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Landon; Phillips, Tamsin K; Hsiao, Nei-Yuan; Zerbe, Allison; Petro, Gregory; Bekker, Linda-Gail; McIntyre, James A; Abrams, Elaine J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Plasma HIV viral load (VL) is the principle determinant of mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), yet there are few data on VL in populations of pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the distribution and determinants of VL in HIV-positive women seeking antenatal care (ANC) in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods Consecutive HIV-positive pregnant women making their first antenatal clinic visit were recruited into a cross-sectional study of viraemia in pregnancy, including a brief questionnaire and specimens for VL testing and CD4 cell enumeration. Results & discussion Overall 5551 pregnant women sought ANC during the study period, of whom 1839 (33%) were HIV positive and 1521 (85%) were included. Approximately two-thirds of HIV-positive women in the sample (n=947) were not on antiretrovirals at the time of the first ANC visit, and the remainder (38%, n=574) had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) prior to conception. For women not on ART, the median VL was 3.98 log10 copies/mL; in this group, the sensitivity of CD4 cell counts ?350 cells/µL in detecting VL>10,000 copies/mL was 64% and this increased to 78% with a CD4 threshold of ?500 cells/µL. Among women on ART, 78% had VL<50 copies/mL and 13% had VL >1000 copies/mL at the time of their ANC visit. Conclusions VL >10,000 copies/mL was commonly observed in women not on ART with CD4 cell counts >350 cells/µL, suggesting that CD4 cell counts may not be adequately sensitive in identifying women at greatest risk of MTCT. A large proportion of women entering ANC initiated ART before conception, and in this group more than 10% had VL>1000 copies/mL despite ART use. VL monitoring during pregnancy may help to identify pregnancies that require additional clinical attention to minimize MTCT risk and improve maternal and child health outcomes. PMID:26154734

  9. Men's role in women's antenatal health status: evidence from rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mosiur; Islam, Mohammad Touhidul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Reza, Md Shahin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to extend notions of men's role in women's antenatal care (ANC) status in rural Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The analyses were based on response of 480 men aged 15 to 54 years, living with at least 1 child younger than 3 years. Only 27% men accompanied their wives for ANC. Men's perception of actual roles for ANC services was low: 63% approved of women undergoing checkups; 33% discussed their wives' pregnancy with health professionals. Only 18% scored highly on the overall index of knowledge. From multivariate analysis, it was found that the number of men accompanying their wives for ANC was higher among those respondents who were married for the first time in the age-group 25 to 34 years and aged 35 years or more, had their last child at age-group 20 to 24 years or 25 to 34 years, had completed primary or secondary and higher education, and had mass media facilities. PMID:22426562

  10. The utilization of antenatal care among rural-to-urban migrant women in Shanghai:a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improving utilization of antenatal care is a critical strategy for achieving China’s Millennium Development Goal of decreasing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). While overall utilization has increased recently in China, an urban vs. rural disparity in access remains. Here we aim to assess utilization of antenatal care in rural-to-urban migrant women and identify its risk and protective factors. Methods Migrant women who had been living in Shanghai for more than six months, delivered in one of the two study hospitals between August 2009 and February 2010, and provided written consent were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results Of 767 women, 90.1% (691) made at least one antenatal care visit, while 49.7% (381) had adequately utilized antenatal care (i.e., made five or more antenatal care visits). Only 19.7% of women visited an antenatal care center during the first trimester (12 weeks). Women between the ages of 25 and 30 and women older than 30 were more likely than younger women to have adequately utilized antenatal care (AOR=2.2 and 1.9, 95%CI=1.4-3.5 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). Women whose husbands held Shanghai residency status (AOR=4.9, 95%CI=2.2-10.9) or who had more than 10 years of education (AOR=1.8, 95%CI=1.2-2.9), previously experienced a miscarriage or abortion (AOR=2.2, 95%CI=1.3-3.8), had higher household income (AOR=1.6, 95%CI=1.0-2.5) were more likely to have adequately utilized antenatal care. Women from high-income households were also more likely to receive antenatal care during the first 12 weeks (AOR=3.5, 95%CI=1.7-5.5). Conclusions Many migrant women in Shanghai did not receive adequate antenatal care and initiated antenatal care later than the optimal first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Poor antenatal care utilization was associated with low socioeconomic status, education, and certain demographic factors. Tailored health education for both migrant women and their husbands should be strengthened to improve maternal health. Financing supports should be provided to improve the utilization of antenatal care. PMID:23170773

  11. Antenatal lifestyle advice for women who are overweight or obese: LIMIT randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of antenatal dietary and lifestyle interventions on health outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. Design Multicentre randomised trial. We utilised a central telephone randomisation server, with computer generated schedule, balanced variable blocks, and stratification for parity, body mass index (BMI) category, and hospital. Setting Three public maternity hospitals across South Australia. Participants 2212 women with a singleton pregnancy, between 10+0 and 20+0 weeks’ gestation, and BMI ?25. Interventions 1108 women were randomised to a comprehensive dietary and lifestyle intervention delivered by research staff; 1104 were randomised to standard care and received pregnancy care according to local guidelines, which did not include such information. Main outcome measures Incidence of infants born large for gestational age (birth weight ?90th centile for gestation and sex). Prespecified secondary outcomes included birth weight >4000 g, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and gestational diabetes. Analyses used intention to treat principles. Results 2152 women and 2142 liveborn infants were included in the analyses. The risk of the infant being large for gestational age was not significantly different in the two groups (lifestyle advice 203/1075 (19%) v standard care 224/1067 (21%); adjusted relative risk 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.07; P=0.24). Infants born to women after lifestyle advice were significantly less likely to have birth weight above 4000 g (lifestyle advice 164/1075 (15%) v standard care 201/1067 (19%); 0.82, 0.68 to 0.99; number needed to treat (NNT) 28, 15 to 263; P=0.04). There were no differences in maternal pregnancy and birth outcomes between the two treatment groups. Conclusions For women who were overweight or obese, the antenatal lifestyle advice used in this study did not reduce the risk delivering a baby weighing above the 90th centile for gestational age and sex or improve maternal pregnancy and birth outcomes. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12607000161426). PMID:24513442

  12. Antenatal prevalence of fear associated with childbirth and depressed mood in primigravid women

    PubMed Central

    Jaju, Sanjay; Al Kharusi, Lamya; Gowri, Vaidyanathan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the antenatal prevalence of fear of childbirth and its association with depressed mood in low-risk primigravidae in a referral teaching hospital. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in a tertiary referral center catering to three districts in the state of Kerala. This was a cross-sectional study with internal comparison of associated factors. Materials and Methods: Malayalam translation (translation back translation) of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was self-administered by the participants. It was followed by a structured interview based on the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD 10) after which the EPDS scale was scored. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used to compare the presence of fear in women with a EPDS of ? 12 and the association of fear and depression. Results: Fear associated with childbirth was expressed by 17.7% women. The prevalence of depressed mood based on the EPDS (score > 12) was 9.8% but based on the ICD 10 criteria, the prevalence of depression was 8.7%. A significant number of women with depressed mood and clinical depression had fear of childbirth of some sort. Conclusions: A significant number of primigravid women with depressed mood and clinical depression had fear of childbirth of some sort.

  13. Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: a prospective study of chinese women at maternal and child health centres

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Risk factors for postnatal depression (PND) are under-explored in the Chinese populations. There is increasing recognition of the importance of identifying predictive factors during the antenatal period for PND. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for postnatal depression in a community cohort of Chinese women with special focus on the antenatal risk factors. Methods Eight hundred and five Chinese women were interviewed during their third trimester of pregnancy and at around 2 months postnatally. Putative risk factors for PND were collected and the diagnosis of PND was confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The 2-month postnatal depression status was used as the dependent variable for univariate and multivariate analyses against putative risk factors. Results Marital dissatisfaction (Relative Risk = 8.27), dissatisfied relationship with mother-in-law (Relative Risk = 3.93), antenatal depressive symptomatology (Relative Risk = 3.90), and anxiety-prone personality (Relative Risk = 2.14) predicted PND in Chinese women independently. Conclusions Chinese women tend to keep their own feelings and emotions and it is important to monitor Chinese pregnant women with these predictive risk factors so that PND can be identified early. PMID:22436053

  14. Calcidiol and PTH Levels in Women Attending an Osteoporosis Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Haden; G. E. H. Fuleihan; J. E. Angell; N. M. Cotran; M. S. LeBoff

    1999-01-01

    .   We performed a retrospective study of 237 patients attending a specialty osteoporosis practice. Secondary causes for reduced\\u000a bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated in 196 postmenopausal women and 41 premenopausal women; mean age was 56 ? 13.8 years\\u000a (mean ? SD). BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (QDR 1000W\\/2000 Hologic). Levels of intact parathyroid\\u000a hormone (iPTH), calcidiol

  15. Bedouin-Arab women's access to antenatal care at the interface of physical and structural barriers: A pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nora Gottlieb; Ilana Belmaker; Natalya Bilenko; Nadav Davidovitch

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, the Israeli Public Health Services have established eight Maternal-and-Child-Health (MCH) stations in unrecognised Bedouin-Arab villages in South Israel in order to reduce barriers to healthcare.The goals of this pilot study were: (1) to explore the new MCH stations' impact on antenatal care (ANC) accessibility; and (2) to compare access to ANC between women from villages with MCH stations

  16. Frequency and timing of antenatal care in Kenya: explaining the variations between women of different communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Akinyi Magadi; Nyovani Janet Madise; Roberto Nascimento Rodrigues

    2000-01-01

    Appropriate antenatal care is important in identifying and mitigating risk factors in pregnancy but many mothers in the developing world do not receive such care. This paper uses data from the 1993 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey to study the variations in the use of antenatal services in Kenya. The analysis is based on modelling the frequency and timing of

  17. Refugee and Migrant Women's Views of Antenatal Ultrasound on the Thai Burmese Border: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Thwin, May Myo; Ladda Kajeechewa, Honey Moon; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Lwin, Khin Maung; Jones, Caroline; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal ultrasound suits developing countries by virtue of its versatility, relatively low cost and safety, but little is known about women’s or local provider’s perspectives of this upcoming technology in such settings. This study was undertaken to better understand how routine obstetric ultrasound is experienced in a displaced Burmese population and identify barriers to its acceptance by local patients and providers. Methodology/Principal Findings Qualitative (30 observations, 19 interviews, seven focus group discussions) and quantitative methods (questionnaire survey with 644 pregnant women) were used to provide a comprehensive understanding along four major themes: safety, emotions, information and communication, and unintended consequences of antenatal ultrasound in refugee and migrant clinics on the Thai Burmese border. One of the main concerns expressed by women was the danger of childbirth which they mainly attributed to fetal malposition. Both providers and patients recognized ultrasound as a technology improving the safety of pregnancy and delivery. A minority of patients experienced transitory shyness or anxiety before the ultrasound, but reported that these feelings could be ameliorated with improved patient information and staff communication. Unintended consequences of overuse and gender selective abortions in this population were not common. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study are being used to improve local practice and allow development of explanatory materials for this population with low literacy. We strongly encourage facilities introducing new technology in resource poor settings to assess acceptability through similar inquiry. PMID:22514615

  18. Individual-Level Predictors for HIV Testing Among Antenatal Attendees in Lusaka, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Thierman; Benjamin H. Chi; Jens W. Levy; Moses Sinkala; Robert L. Goldenberg; Jeffrey S. A. Stringer

    2006-01-01

    Despite the availability of antiretroviral pro- phylaxis, roughly one-fifth of public-sector antenatal patients decline HIV testing in Lusaka, Zambia. We administered a survey to determine individual-level pre- dictors of HIV testing. Of 1064 antenatal attendees approached after pretest counseling, 1060 (99%) par- ticipated. Of these, 686 (65%) agreed to HIV testing. On bivariate analysis controlling for clinic of attendance, women

  19. Women’s Social Networks and Birth Attendant Decisions: Application of the Network-Episode Model

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Joyce K.; Hruschka, Daniel; Bernard, H. Russell; Sibley, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the association of women's social networks with the use of skilled birth attendants in uncomplicated pregnancy and childbirth in Matlab, Bangladesh. The Network-Episode Model was applied to determine if network structure variables (density / kinship homogeneity / strength of ties) together with network content (endorsement for or against a particular type of birth attendant) explain the type of birth attendant used by women above and beyond the variance explained by women's individual attributes. Data were collected by interviewing a representative sample of 246 women, 18–45 years of age, using survey and social network methods between October and December 2008. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. Results suggest that the structural properties of networks did not add to explanatory value but instead network content or the perceived advice of network members add significantly to the explanation of variation in service use. Testing aggregate network variables at the individual level extends the ability of the individual profile matrix to explain outcomes. Community health education and mobilization interventions attempting to increase demand for skilled attendants need to reflect the centrality of kinship networks to women in Bangladesh and the likelihood of women to heed the advice of their network of advisors with regard to place of birth. PMID:22196965

  20. The Value of Attending a Women's College: Education, Occupation, and Income Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riordan, Cornelius

    1994-01-01

    A study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 compared effects of attendance at a women's college for one to six years (n=125) with attendance at only coeducational colleges (n=1832). Findings indicated significant occupational achievement benefits were realized for each year of attendance at a women's…

  1. Are women and providers satisfied with antenatal care? Views on a standard and a simplified, evidence-based model of care in four developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Langer; José Villar; Mariana Romero; Gustavo Nigenda; Gilda Piaggio; Chusri Kuchaisit; Georgina Rojas; Muneera Al-Osimi; José Miguel Belizán; Ubaldo Farnot; Yagob Al-Mazrou; Guillermo Carroli; Hassan Ba'aqeel; Pisake Lumbiganon; Alain Pinol; Per Bergsjö; Leiv Bakketeig; Jo Garcia; Heinz Berendes

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed women and providers' satisfaction with a new evidence-based antenatal care (ANC) model within the WHO randomized trial conducted in four developing countries. The WHO study was a randomized controlled trial that compared a new ANC model with the standard type offered in each country. The new model of ANC emphasized actions known to be effective in

  2. Testing for the Endogenous Nature between Women's Empowerment and Antenatal Health Care Utilization: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Mohamed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Women's relative lack of decision-making power and their unequal access to employment, finances, education, basic health care, and other resources are considered to be the root causes of their ill-health and that of their children. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the interactive relation between women's empowerment and the use of maternal health care. Two model specifications are tested. One assumes no correlation between empowerment and antenatal care while the second specification allows for correlation. Both the univariate and the recursive bivariate probit models are tested. The data used in this study is EDHS 2008. Factor Analysis Technique is also used to construct some of the explanatory variables such as the availability and quality of health services indicators. The findings show that women's empowerment and receiving regular antenatal care are simultaneously determined and the recursive bivariate probit is a better approximation to the relationship between them. Women's empowerment has significant and positive impact on receiving regular antenatal care. The availability and quality of health services do significantly increase the likelihood of receiving regular antenatal care. PMID:25140310

  3. Safety and efficacy of antenatal milk expressing for women with diabetes in pregnancy: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Della A; Jacobs, Susan; Amir, Lisa H; Davis, Peter; Walker, Susan P; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Donath, Susan M; Moorhead, Anita M; Ford, Rachael; McNamara, Catharine; Aylward, Amanda; Gold, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many maternity providers recommend that women with diabetes in pregnancy express and store breast milk in late pregnancy so breast milk is available after birth, given (1) infants of these women are at increased risk of hypoglycaemia in the first 24?h of life; and (2) the delay in lactogenesis II compared with women without diabetes that increases their infant's risk of receiving infant formula. The Diabetes and Antenatal Milk Expressing (DAME) trial will establish whether advising women with diabetes in pregnancy (pre-existing or gestational) to express breast milk from 36?weeks gestation increases the proportion of infants who require admission to special or neonatal intensive care units (SCN/NICU) compared with infants of women receiving standard care. Secondary outcomes include birth gestation, breastfeeding outcomes and economic impact. Methods and analysis Women will be recruited from 34?weeks gestation to a multicentre, two arm, unblinded randomised controlled trial. The intervention starts at 36?weeks. Randomisation will be stratified by site, parity and diabetes type. Women allocated to the intervention will be taught expressing and encouraged to hand express twice daily for 10?min and keep an expressing diary. The sample size of 658 (329 per group) will detect a 10% difference in proportion of babies admitted to SCN/NICU (85% power, ? 0.05). Data are collected at recruitment (structured questionnaire), after birth (abstracted from medical record blinded to group), and 2 and 12?weeks postpartum (telephone interview). Data analysis: the intervention group will be compared with the standard care group by intention to treat analysis, and the primary outcome compared using ?2 and ORs. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval will be obtained from participating sites. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented to clinicians, policymakers and study participants. Trial registration number Australian Controlled Trials Register ACTRN12611000217909. PMID:25358679

  4. Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Akintujoye, IA

    2012-01-01

    Background In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women’s perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA) services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. Methods A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1) statistical software. Results Almost half (48.8%) of the respondents were in the age group 26–35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6%) of the respondents had been pregnant 2–4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: “taking normal delivery” (56.7%), “providing antenatal services” (16.5%), “performing caesarean section” (13.0%), “providing family planning services” (8.2%), and “performing gynaecological surgeries” (5.6%). About 6/10 (61.0%) respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7%) respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%), normal delivery (36.1%), “special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits” (1.9%), “concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong” (15.1%), and family planning services (1.9%). Reasons for using TBA services were: “TBA services are cheaper” (50.9%), “TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment” (34.0%), “TBA services are closer to my house than hospital services” (13.2%), “TBAs provide more compassionate care than orthodox health workers” (43.4%), and “TBA service is the only maternity service that I know” (1.9%). Approximately 8/10 (79.2%) of the users (past or current) opined that TBA services are effective but could be improved with some form of training (78.3%). More than three-quarters (77.1%) opposed the banning of TBA services. Almost 7/10 (74.8%) users were satisfied with TBA services. Conclusion Study findings revealed a positive perception and use of TBA services by the respondents. This underlines the necessity for TBAs’ knowledge and skills to be improved within permissible standards through sustained partnership between TBAs and health systems. It is hoped that such partnership will foster a healthy collaboration between providers of orthodox and traditional maternity services that will translate into improved maternal and neonatal health outcomes in relevant settings. PMID:22371657

  5. Experiences of expressing and storing colostrum antenatally: A qualitative study of mothers in regional Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Brisbane, Joanna M; Giglia, Roslyn C

    2015-06-01

    This qualitative study explored the experiences and breastfeeding outcomes of a group of mothers who expressed colostrum in the antenatal period. In-depth interviews were conducted over the telephone with 12 women who had attended a unique antenatal lactation clinic appointment at 37 weeks' gestation. Seven main response themes were identified. Most women reflected positively upon their attendance and reported that the experience of expressing colostrum allowed them to become familiar with their breasts and gave them a sense of security by having a supply of colostrum stored for possible use after birth. The main negative emotions reported were a sense of embarrassment at expressing the colostrum, particularly in front of another person, the difficulties with expressing colostrum and in one instance, the physical pain associated with the process. Antenatal expression of colostrum may improve maternal breastfeeding confidence. Further research using long-term records will determine whether this practice improves breastfeeding outcomes. PMID:24154845

  6. Reduction in Preterm Delivery and Neonatal Mortality after the Introduction of Antenatal Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis among HIV-Infected Women with Low CD4 Cell Counts

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Jan; Mwiya, Mwiya; Scott, Nancy; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Kauchali, Shuaib; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Thea, Donald M.; Kuhn, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Background. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis is recommended for subgroups of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults and children to reduce all-cause morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether antenatal cotrimoxazole prophylaxis begun during pregnancy for HIV-infected pregnant women with low CD4 cell counts would affect birth outcomes. Methods. Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was introduced as a routine component of antenatal care for HIV-infected women with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/?L during the course of a trial of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia. Rates of preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality were compared for women with low CD4 cell counts before and after its introduction. Results. Among 255 women with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/?L, the percentage of preterm births (?34 weeks of gestation) was lower (odds ratio [OR], 0.49 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.24-0.98]) after cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was introduced than before; there was a significant decrease in neonatal mortality (9% to 0%; P = .01) and a trend toward increased birth weight (? = 114 g [95% CI, -42 to 271 g]). In contrast, there were no significant changes in these parameters over the same time interval among women with CD4 cell counts ?200 cells/?L. Conclusion. Antenatal provision of cotrimoxazole for HIV-infected pregnant women with low CD4 cell counts may have indirect benefits for neonatal health. PMID:17083035

  7. Quality of antenatal services at the primary care level in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladapo, Olufemi T; Iyaniwura, Christianah A; Sule-Odu, Adewale O

    2008-12-01

    A survey of 452 pregnant women accessing care at first level public health facilities in a local government area in southwest Nigeria was conducted to assess their perspectives on the quality of antenatal care received. Majority of the women expressed satisfaction with the level of expertise and basic technical competence of their careproviders. Less than 30% were pleased with the existing patients' referral mechanisms. At least two-thirds received as much information as desired in salient aspects of antenatal health information needs. Frequency of antenatal visits was "about the same as expected" for 93.6% of the women. The mean reported waiting time before antenatal consultation was 131.1 minutes although 106 (43.3 %) women expected to be attended within 30 minutes of arrival. Approximately two-thirds of women were unhappy about their involvement in decision-making with respect to birth planning and postpartum contraception. Compared to other elements of quality, women were least pleased with constellation of services especially sanitary facilities and number of skilled healthcare providers. On the whole, respondents expressed a high level of overall satisfaction (81.4%) with the care received. The survey indicates that antenatal women may generally express satisfaction with the quality of services despite some inconsistencies between received care and their expectations of the facilities. PMID:19435014

  8. Sexuality Information Seeking and Sexual Function Among Women Attending In-Home Sex Toy Parties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen N. Jozkowski; Vanessa Schick; Debby Herbenick; Michael Reece

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Outside traditional risk-oriented public health campaigns, few sexuality education opportunities exist for adult women, particularly those in partnered relationships, that address issues related to sexual desire and pleasure. Data were collected from 677 women attending in-home sex toy parties to assess whether they sought sexuality-related information at a recent party they attended. Participants reported asking 765 questions at parties.

  9. Continuous glucose monitoring in diabetic women following antenatal corticosteroid therapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Refuerzo, Jerrie S; Garg, Ambica; Rech, Barbara; Ramin, Susan M; Vidaeff, Alex; Blackwell, Sean C

    2012-05-01

    To compare the timing, duration, and severity of corticosteroid-associated hyperglycemia in pregnant women with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). An observational study was conducted of pregnant women with DM and controls who received corticosteroids. Median glucose levels were calculated over 4-hour intervals after the first dose of corticosteroid with a continuous glucose monitor. A glucose level increase of at least 15% above baseline was considered significant. Nine pregnant women participated in this study (six with DM and three without DM). Elevations of glucose levels occurred at hour 20, 44, and 68 in both groups and lasted for up to 4 hours. In those with DM, glucose levels increased 33 to 48%, whereas in those without DM, glucose levels rose 16 to 33%. Several, relatively short episodes of glucose elevation occur in response to corticosteroids, and are more pronounced in diabetic women. PMID:22094918

  10. Effective Antenatal Education: Strategies Recommended by Expectant and New Parents

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Jane; Barclay, Lesley; Cooke, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Antenatal education is a crucial component of antenatal care, yet practice and research demonstrate that women and men now seek far more than the traditional approach of a birth and parenting program attended in the final weeks of pregnancy. Indeed, women and men participating in this study recommended a range of strategies to be provided during the childbearing year, comparable to a “menu in a restaurant.” Their strategies included three program types: “Hearing Detail and Asking Questions,” “Learning and Discussing,” and “Sharing and Supporting Each Other.” The characteristics of each type of program are identified in this article. The actual learning methods the study participants recommended to be incorporated into the programs were “Time to Catch Up and Focus,” “Seeing and Hearing the Real Experience,” “Practicing,” and “Discovering.” PMID:19436529

  11. Religious Attendance Reduces Cognitive Decline Among Older Women With High Levels of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Corsentino, Elizabeth A.; Collins, Nicole; Blazer, Dan G.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that regular attendance at religious functions is associated with less cognitive decline (CD). However, little research has investigated factors that may moderate the religious attendance–CD relationship. The present study examined the effects of gender and depressive symptoms on the relationship between religious attendance and CD. Methods Data were drawn from waves 1 and 2 of the Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly, which were 3 years apart. Participants consisted of a sample of community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older (N = 2,938). Linear regression analyses were conducted controlling for important demographic-, socioeconomic-, and health-related variables. Cognitive functioning was assessed at both waves to examine change in errors over time. Results Greater religious attendance was related to less CD. In addition, there was a three-way interaction between religious attendance, gender, and depressive symptoms in predicting CD. Among women with higher levels of depressive symptoms, those who less frequently attended religious services experienced greater CD than those who more frequently attended religious services. The interaction between attendance and depressive symptoms in men did not reach significance. Conclusions Religious attendance may offer mental stimulation that helps to maintain cognitive functioning in later life, particularly among older depressed women. Given the possible benefits religious attendance may have on cognitive functioning, it may be appropriate in certain instances for clinicians to recommend that clients reengage in religious activities they may have given up as a result of their depression. PMID:19675176

  12. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Intimate Partner Violence Among Pregnant Women Attending Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omolo, Jared; Kamweya, Abel M.; Harder, Valarie S.; Mutai, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women seeking antenatal care. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya amongst randomly selected pregnant women. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Participants self-reported about their own IPV experience (lifetime, 12 months prior to and during index pregnancy) and associated risk factors. Data were analyzed using Epi-info. The mean age of the 300 participants was 23.7 years. One hundred and ten (37 %) of them experienced at least one form of IPV during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common (29 %), followed by sexual (12 %), and then physical (10 %). Women who experienced IPV during pregnancy were more likely to have witnessed maternal abuse in childhood (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI = 1.05–4.89), been in a polygamous union (aOR 2.48, 95 % CI = 1.06–5.8), been multiparous (aOR 1.94, 95 % CI = 1.01–3.32) or had a partner who drank alcohol (aOR 2.32, 95 % CI = 1.21–4.45). Having a partner who attained tertiary education was protective against IPV (aOR 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.16–0.83). We found no association between HIV status and IPV. IPV is common among women seeking antenatal care at Kisumu District Hospital. Health care providers should be alerted to the possibility of IPV during pregnancy in women who witnessed maternal abuse in childhood, are multiparous, polygamous, have a partner who drinks alcohol or has low level education. Screening for IPV, support and referral is urgently needed to help reduce the burden experienced by pregnant women and their unborn babies. PMID:22569943

  13. Risk and Prevalence of Anemia among Women Attending Public and Private Universities.

    PubMed

    Marques, Marcelo Rodrigues; Silva, Lília Maria Monteiro De Oliveira E; Pessoa, Marcia Luiza Dos Santos Beserra; Araújo, Marcos Antônio Da Mota; Moreira-Araújo, Regilda Saraiva Dos Reis

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a global public health problem. Women are known to be more susceptible to anemia; however, no controlled study has yet assessed differences in the prevalence of anemia exclusively among women with higher education. The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of anemia among women attending universities. The hemoglobin concentration of 140 women aged 18 to 45 years old from a private and a public university was measured. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were also collected. The risk of developing anemia was almost threefold higher among the students attending the public university (OR: 2.71; p = .0248). The prevalence of anemia was much higher than in the overall female population (79%). The higher education was not a protective factor for anemia in women when analysed separately from the total population of women. PMID:25976426

  14. Male involvement in antenatal HIV counseling and testing: exploring men's perceptions in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Aarnio, Pauliina; Olsson, Pia; Chimbiri, Agnes; Kulmala, Teija

    2009-12-01

    Antenatal care can act as an excellent tool to improve access to HIV counseling and testing services. This paper investigates an issue that may weaken its potential, namely lack of male involvement. We explored married men's perceptions of HIV in pregnancy and male involvement in antenatal HIV testing and counseling in Southern Malawi through 11 focus group discussions and a cross-sectional survey (n=388). The main findings were that men were largely unaware of available antenatal HIV testing and counseling services, and perceived it overall problematic to attend female-oriented health care. Most men supported provision of antenatal HIV testing. They perceived husbands to participate in the process indirectly through spousal communication, being faithful during pregnancy, and supporting the wife if found HIV-positive. Involvement of husbands was compromised by men's reluctance to learn their HIV status and the threat that HIV poses on marriage. Men stressed the importance of prior spousal agreement of antenatal HIV testing and considered HIV testing without their consent a valid reason for divorce. We suggest that male involvement in antenatal HIV testing requires refocusing of information and health services to include men. To avoid negative social outcomes for women, comprehensive and early involvement of men is essential. PMID:20024733

  15. Delivering at home or in a health facility? health-seeking behaviour of women and the role of traditional birth attendants in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional birth attendants retain an important role in reproductive and maternal health in Tanzania. The Tanzanian Government promotes TBAs in order to provide maternal and neonatal health counselling and initiating timely referral, however, their role officially does not include delivery attendance. Yet, experience illustrates that most TBAs still often handle complicated deliveries. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to describe (1) women’s health-seeking behaviour and experiences regarding their use of antenatal (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC); (2) their rationale behind the choice of place and delivery; and to learn (3) about the use of traditional practices and resources applied by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and how they can be linked to the bio-medical health system. Methods Qualitative and quantitative interviews were conducted with over 270 individuals in Masasi District, Mtwara Region and Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results The results from the urban site show that significant achievements have been made in terms of promoting pregnancy- and delivery-related services through skilled health workers. Pregnant women have a high level of awareness and clearly prefer to deliver at a health facility. The scenario is different in the rural site (Masasi District), where an adequately trained health workforce and well-equipped health facilities are not yet a reality, resulting in home deliveries with the assistance of either a TBA or a relative. Conclusions Instead of focusing on the traditional sector, it is argued that more attention should be paid towards (1) improving access to as well as strengthening the health system to guarantee delivery by skilled health personnel; and (2) bridging the gaps between communities and the formal health sector through community-based counselling and health education, which is provided by well-trained and supervised village health workers who inform villagers about promotive and preventive health services, including maternal and neonatal health. PMID:23448583

  16. Factors associated with four or more antenatal care visits and its decline among pregnant women in Tanzania between 1999 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shivam; Yamada, Goro; Mpembeni, Rose; Frumence, Gasto; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Stevenson, Raz; Brandes, Neal; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2014-01-01

    In Tanzania, the coverage of four or more antenatal care (ANC 4) visits among pregnant women has declined over time. We conducted an exploratory analysis to identify factors associated with utilization of ANC 4 and ANC 4 decline among pregnant women over time. We used data from 8035 women who delivered within two years preceding Tanzania Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1999, 2004/05 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between all potential factors and utilization of ANC 4; and decline in ANC 4 over time. Factors positively associated with ANC 4 utilization were higher quality of services, testing and counseling for HIV during ANC, receiving two or more doses of SP (Sulphadoxine Pyrimethamine)/Fansidar for preventing malaria during ANC and higher educational status of the woman. Negatively associated factors were residing in a zone other than Eastern zone, never married woman, reported long distance to health facility, first ANC visit after four months of pregnancy and woman's desire to avoid pregnancy. The factors significantly associated with decline in utilization of ANC 4 were: geographic zone and age of the woman at delivery. Strategies to increase ANC 4 utilization should focus on improvement in quality of care, geographic accessibility, early ANC initiation, and services that allow women to avoid pregnancy. The interconnected nature of the Tanzanian Health System is reflected in ANC 4 decline over time where introduction of new programs might have had unintended effects on existing programs. An in-depth assessment of the recent policy change towards Focused Antenatal Care and its implementation across different geographic zones, including its effect on the perception and understanding among women and performance and counseling by health providers can help explain the decline in ANC 4. PMID:25036291

  17. Criteria for selective screening of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women attending private gynecology practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Warszawski; L. Meyer; P. Weber

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop a screening strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis in private gynecology practices. Study design: Forty-six gynecologists in the greater Paris area systematically screened all consecutive female attenders during one week. Endocervical swabs were tested by enzyme immunoassay, and, if positive, was further confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody test. Results: Overall (out of 1893 women tested), the chlamydia prevalence was

  18. A Mixed-Method Analysis of African-American Women's Attendance at an HIV Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, R. M.; McKay, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Grounded in a model of service utilization, this study conceptualizes attendance of African-American women at an HIV prevention intervention as associated with influences across three ecological domains--individual, service (program), and social network. First, the texts of responses to semistructured, open-ended elicitation interviews were…

  19. Knowledge of Antioxidants and Breast Cancer Risk Among Women Attending Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Clinics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilisha Burris; Judy Paisley; Marlene Greenberg

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used semistructured interviews to examine the accuracy of knowledge concerning antioxidants and health among a convenience sample of 79 women attending a breast cancer risk assessment clinic. Despite a high level of familiarity (98%) with the word antioxidant, few participants could name more than one of these compounds and most relied on print media (41.6%) and radio\\/TV

  20. Familial breast cancer: a controlled study of risk perception, psychological morbidity and health beliefs in women attending for genetic counselling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Lloyd; M Watson; B Waites; L Meyer; R Eeles; S Ebbs; A Tylee

    1996-01-01

    The present study set out to evaluate perceptions of risk, psychological morbidity and health behaviours in women with a family history of breast cancer who have attended genetic counselling and determine how these differ from general population risk women. Data were collected from 62 genetic counselees (cases) attending the Royal Marsden and Mayday University Hospital genetic counselling services and 62

  1. Predictors of the timing of initiation of antenatal care in an ethnically diverse urban cohort in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the UK, women are recommended to engage with maternity services and establish a plan of care prior to the 12th completed week of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for late initiation of antenatal care within an ethnically diverse cohort in East London. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected electronic patient record data from Newham University Hospital NHS Trust (NUHT). All women who attended their antenatal booking appointment within NUHT between 1st January 2008 and 24th January 2011 were included in this study. The main outcome measure was late antenatal booking, defined as attendance at the antenatal booking appointment after 12?weeks (+6?days) gestation. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors. Results Late initiation of antenatal care was independently associated with non-British (White) ethnicity, inability to speak English, and non-UK maternal birthplace in the multivariable model. However, among those women who both spoke English and were born in the UK, the only ethnic group at increased risk of late booking were women who identified as African/Caribbean (aOR: 1.40: 95% CI: 1.11, 1.76) relative to British (White). Other predictors identified include maternal age younger than 20?years (aOR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.13-1.54), high parity (aOR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.77-2.46) and living in temporary accommodation (aOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.35-2.16). Conclusions Socio-cultural factors in addition to poor English ability or assimilation may play an important role in determining early initiation of antenatal care. Future research should focus on effective interventions to encourage and enable these minority groups to engage with the maternity services. PMID:23642084

  2. [Effect of antenatal gymnastics on childbirth: a study on 50 sedentary women in the Republic of Benin during the second and third quarters of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Lawani, Mohamed Mansourou; Alihonou, Eusèbe; Akplogan, Barnabé; Poumarat, Georges; Okou, Laurence; Adjadi, Nafissath

    2003-01-01

    Antenatal gymnastics is a form of non-pharmacological childbirth preparation methods. It helps maintain rachidian statics and to relieve painful syndromes (joints, lumbar pains) during pregnancy. It also helps correct gravidic problems (leg cramps, back ache, weight increase, etc.). It is both a physical and psychological training method in accordance with the natural mechanisms of childbirth, implying personal involvement on the part of the parturient. Fifty (50) pregnant women of Benin (apart from pathological pregnancies) divided into two groups of 25 subjects (experimental group) and 25 subjects (control group) voluntarily took part in the study after having given their written assent. Each involved subject is paired with a counterpart of control following the same criteria: age of the gestante, parity, characteristic of the pelvis. Subjects aged from 17 to 42 trained twice a week with a minimum of 24 hours rest between two sessions; the training period intensity of exercise is limited to 60% of the maximum heart frequency and each training session lasts 45 min. The results show a lower number of caesareans and a significant lower number of untorn perineas in the experimental group. Apgar scores are also statistically higher in the children of trained women. This study confirms that sedentary pregnant women without any medical counter-indications (repetitive miscarriages, premature births, placenta praevia, cervical gaping, cardiac diseases, hypertension, narrow pelvis) can participate in antenatal gymnastics at a moderated rhythm, for their own benefit and that of their babies. Muscular force improvement (quality of the abdominal pushing), psychological control (absence of stress and panic), and good body form, can be noticed in trained mothers. However, abnormal presentation of baby, fetal suffering and the inherent characteristics of the pelvis (narrow) are factors requiring a caesarean. On the whole, antenatal gymnastics is an effective non-pharmacological means to avoid complications in childbirth. This method might be one of the solutions which could benefit pregnant women in Africa, considering its low cost compared to the exorbitant cost of medicines and hospitalisation. PMID:15047441

  3. Increasing institutional deliveries among antenatal clients: effect of birth preparedness counselling.

    PubMed

    Soubeiga, Dieudonné; Sia, Drissa; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-12-01

    The World Health Organization recommends birth and emergency preparedness (BEP) as essential components of the Focused Antenatal Care model. The purpose of providing BEP messages to women during their antenatal visits is to increase the use of skilled attendance at childbirth. However, the effectiveness of this component has not yet been clearly established in routine contexts. This retrospective cohort study examined the association between exposing women to BEP messages during antenatal visits and the use of the skilled attendance at childbirth in two rural districts of Burkina Faso (Koupela and Dori). The study included 456 antenatal care users in 30 rural health centres in these two districts. Data were collected using modified questionnaires from the Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Gynecology and Obstetrics and from demographic and health surveys. Logistic regression was performed with a model of generalized estimating equation to adjust for clustered effects. In the Koupela district, where the rate of institutional deliveries (80%) was relatively high, the use of BEP messages was not associated with an increase in institutional deliveries. In contrast, in the district of Dori, where the rate of institutional deliveries (47%) was lower, messages regarding danger signs [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.93; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.07, 3.49] and cost of care (AOR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.09, 4.22) were associated with an increased probability of institutional births. Based on these results, it appears that birth and emergency preparedness messages provided during antenatal visits may increase the use of skilled attendance (increase the rate of institutional births) in areas where institutional births are low. Therefore, it is important to adapt the content of the messages to meet the particular needs of the users in each locality. Furthermore, BEP counselling should be implemented in health facilities. PMID:24270519

  4. A cluster randomized implementation trial to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by women for childbirth: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nepal is on track to achieve MDG 5 but there is a huge sub-national disparity with existing high maternal mortality in western and hilly regions. The national priority is to reduce this disparity to achieve the goal at sub-national level. Evidences from developing countries show that increasing utilization of skilled attendant at birth is an important indicator for reducing maternal death. Further, there is a very low utilization during childbirth in western and hilly regions of Nepal which clearly depicts the barriers in utilization of skilled birth attendants. So, there is a need to overcome the identified barriers to increase the utilization thereby decreasing the maternal mortality. The hypothesis of this study is that through a package of interventions the utilization of skilled birth attendants will be increased and hence improve maternal health in Nepal. Method/Design This study involves a cluster randomized controlled trial involving approximately 5000 pregnant women in 36 clusters. The 18 intervention clusters will receive the following interventions: i) mobilization of family support for pregnant women to reach the health facility, ii) availability of emergency funds for institutional childbirth, iii) availability of transport options to reach a health facility for childbirth, iv) training to health workers on communication skills, v) security provisions for SBAs to reach services 24/24 through community mobilization; 18 control clusters will not receive the intervention package. The final evaluation of the intervention is planned to be completed by October 2014. Primary study output of this study is utilization of SBA services. Secondary study outputs measure the uptake of antenatal care, post natal checkup for mother and baby, availability of transportation for childbirth, operation of emergency fund, improved reception of women at health services, and improved physical security of SBAs. Discussion The intervention package is designed to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by overcoming the barriers related to awareness, finance, transport, security etc. If proven effective, the Ministry of Health has committed to scale up the intervention package throughout the country. Trial registration number ISRCTN78892490. PMID:24646123

  5. Human papillomavirus infection in women attended at a cervical cancer screening service in Natal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo; de Vasconcellos Meissner, Rosely; Bezerra, Laelson Freire; de Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros; Fernandes, José Veríssimo

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed cervical specimens of 202 women, aged 15 to 64 years, attended at Luis Antonio Hospital, Natal, Brazil, to determine the prevalence of HPV and identify the more frequent genotypes and risk factors for HPV infection in women attended at a cervical cancer screening service. Two specimens were collected from each patient: one for cytological examination and the other to detect HPV DNA by PCR, and typing by dot blot hybridization. A total of 54.5% of the sample had normal cytology and 45.5% had cytological alterations. HPV was detected in 24.5% of the cytologically normal women and in 59.8% of those with altered cytology. Both single and double HPV infection increased the likelihood of cytological alterations. Thirteen types of HPV were identified, most of which were high risk. HPV 16 was the most prevalent single-type infection, followed by HPV 58. The most frequent double infection was the association between HPV 56 and 57. The prevalence of HPV in cytologically normal women was greater than that reported for countries on all the continents except Africa. The inverse was observed in women with cytological alterations. The distribution of HPV types was similar to that described for the Americas, with some differences. Multiple sexual partners was the only risk factor showing an association with the presence of HPV infection. PMID:24031268

  6. Reproductive characteristics and post-abortion health consequences in women undergoing illegal and legal abortion in Maputo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Machungo; Giovanni Zanconato; Staffan Bergström

    1997-01-01

    In the Maputo Central Hospital 103 women undergoing induced legal abortion (LA), 103 women with confirmed, recent illegal abortion (IA), and 100 randomly recruited antenatal clinic (AC) attenders were compared in order to find characteristic features regarding obstetric history, reproductive performance and contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practice. Women with IA were younger, had almost never undergone LA, had more often

  7. Sexuality Information Seeking and Sexual Function among Women Attending In-Home Sex Toy Parties Sexuality Information Seeking and Sexual Function among Women Attending In-Home Sex Toy Parties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen N. Jozkowski; Vanessa Schick; Debby Herbenick; Michael Reece

    2012-01-01

    Outside traditional risk-oriented public health campaigns, few sexuality education opportunities exist for adult women, particularly those in partnered relationships, that address issues related to sexual desire and pleasure. Data were collected from 677 women attending in-home sex toy parties to assess whether they sought sexuality-related information at a recent party they attended. Participants reported asking 765 questions at parties. The

  8. Report of spontaneous and persistent genital arousal in women attending a sexual health clinic.

    PubMed

    Garvey, L J; West, C; Latch, N; Leiblum, S; Goldmeier, D

    2009-08-01

    The frequency of spontaneous genital arousal (GA) and persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) in women is unknown. The aim of this study was to conduct an anonymous survey to assess the frequency and nature of spontaneous GA and PGAD in women attending a walk-in sexual health clinic in London. Female patients completed a questionnaire, which included demographic information, medical, psychiatric and gynaecology history, the hospital anxiety and depression scale, and a somatization scale. Patients were then asked to complete three questions regarding spontaneous and persistent GA. Any patient with one or more symptoms then answered questions about the distress, intensity and duration of sensations. Ninety-six subjects participated. The mean age was 28.97 years. Thirty-two women (33.3%) answered 'yes' to at least one question regarding spontaneous or persistent GA and six women (6.3%) women answered 'yes' to all three questions. Only one subject fulfilled all five diagnostic criteria for PGAD. In conclusion, women report a high rate of spontaneous GA in the absence of desire or excitement. This has not been well described previously. A small proportion of women report multiple features of spontaneous and persistent GA, with chronicity over years, but without distress in most cases. Larger studies are needed. PMID:19625580

  9. Identifying intimate partner violence when screening for health and lifestyle issues among women attending general practice.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Kelsey L; O'Doherty, Lorna O; Astbury, Jill; Gunn, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a common but under-recognised issue for women attending primary care. There is a lack of studies looking at women's comfort to discuss and openness to getting help for health issues, including fear of a partner, in primary care. Female patients (aged 16-50 years) attending 55 general practitioners (GPs) in Victoria, Australia were mailed a brief survey that screened for health and lifestyle issues, comfort to discuss these issues and intention to get help in primary care. Needing physical activity and smoking were the issues women were most comfortable to discuss; followed by difficulty controlling what and/or how much is eaten, feeling down, depressed, hopeless or worried, and use of drugs or alcohol. Women were least comfortable to discuss fear of a partner and least likely to seek help for it from the GP or primary care nurse. However, as with the other issues, acceptability of being asked in a survey was high. All health and lifestyle issues predicted fear of a partner. Primary care practitioners should be aware of this complex major public health issue especially when carrying out preventive health care. PMID:22950858

  10. Antenatal and Delivery Services in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: Care-seeking and Experiences Reported by Women in a Household-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Feinstein, Lydia; Mupenda, Bavon; Duvall, Sandra; Chalachala, Jean Lambert; Edmonds, Andrew; Behets, Frieda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Increasing coverage of quality reproductive health services, including prevention of mother-to-child transmission services, requires understanding where and how these services are provided. To inform scale-up, we conducted a population-based survey in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods Stratified two-stage cluster sampling was used to select women ?18 years old who had been pregnant within the prior three years. Participants were interviewed about their reproductive healthcare utilization and impressions of services received. Results We interviewed 1221 women, 98% of whom sought antenatal care (ANC). 78% of women began ANC after the first trimester and 22% reported <4 visits. Reasons for choosing an ANC facility included reputation (51%), friendly/accessible staff (39%), availability of comprehensive services (29%), medication access (26%), location (26%), and cost (21%). Most women reported satisfactory treatment by staff, but 47% reported that the ANC provider ignored their complaints, 23% had difficulty understanding responses to their questions, 22% wanted more time with the provider, 21% wanted more privacy, and 12% felt uncomfortable asking questions. Only 56% reported someone talked to them about HIV/AIDS. Strongest predictors of seeking inadequate ANC included low participant and partner education and lack of certain assets. Only 32% of women sought postnatal care. Some results varied by health zone. Conclusions Scaling-up interventions to improve reproductive health services should include broad-based health systems strengthening and promote equitable access to quality ANC, delivery, and postnatal services. Personal and structural-level barriers to seeking ANC need to be addressed, with consideration given to local contexts. PMID:23964667

  11. Disease prevalence in women attending the STD clinic in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India.

    PubMed

    Divekar, A A; Gogate, A S; Shivkar, L K; Gogate, S; Badhwar, V R

    2000-01-01

    Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its association with other STD causing organisms. Three hundred and thirty-six consecutive women (female sex workers (FSWs) and married contacts), attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Mumbai, were screened for N. gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Per speculum examination was performed and clinical signs were recorded. Symptoms perceived by the women were also recorded. The mean age for married contacts, FSWs and gonorrhoea-positive women was 27.9, 29.7 and 27.5, respectively. 9.7% of the women were positive for N. gonorrhoeae, 23.2% were chlamydia-positive and 5.9% had trichomoniasis. N. gonorrhoeae was isolated more frequently from FSWs as compared to the married contacts. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among women with multiple sex partners (FSWs) (P<0.001). Gonococcal infection is significantly associated with the presence of HIV. A significant association between sexual habits and prevalence of gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and HIV was observed. The prevalence of gonorrhoea over 1988 to 1996 remained approximately the same. PMID:10667900

  12. Racial origin, sexual lifestyle, and genital infection among women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic in London (1992)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Evans; P. D. Kell; R. A. Bond; K. D. MacRae

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare variables of sexual behaviour and incidence of genital infections among women of different racial origins and lifestyles. DESIGN: A prospective cross sectional study of sexual behaviour reported by a standardised self administered questionnaire in new patients who presented for screening and diagnosis. SETTING: A genitourinary medicine clinic in west London. SUBJECTS: 1084 consecutive women newly attending in

  13. Antenatal Depression is Not Associated with Low-Birth Weight: A Study from Urban Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Nusrat; Munshi, Tariq; Jafri, Farhat; Husain, Meher; Parveen, Asia; Saeed, Qamar; Tomenson, Barbara; Naeem, Farooq; Chaudhry, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low-birth weight (LBW) (<2500?g) is considered to be a leading cause of cognitive impairment and physical disabilities in children. Incidence of LBW in South Asia has been reported to be as high as 33%. We investigated the association between antenatal depression and LBW in an urban community, in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1357 pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited into the study. They were screened for antenatal depression with Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Self-reporting questionnaire was also used to measure psychological distress. Birth weights of 763 newborns were obtained from the hospital records. Results: We did not find a significant association between antenatal depression and LBW (odds ratio 0.881, 95%CI 0.732–1.060) in mothers attending a charity run hospital in an urban setting in Pakistan. Conclusion: Antenatal depression is not associated with LBW in this urban population in Pakistan. However, the prevalence of depression is high during pregnancy. There is a need to develop culturally adapted psychosocial interventions to address the high rates of depression for this population group. PMID:25540627

  14. Overall adequacy of antenatal care in Oman: secondary analysis of national reproductive health survey data, 2008.

    PubMed

    El Aty, M A Abd; Meky, F A; Morsy, M; El Sayed, M K

    2014-12-01

    Despite the good health status of women and children in Oman, there are still some gaps to be filled. This study explored the adequacy of antenatal care (ANC) utilization of Omani ever-married women and the sociodemographic and health service determinants of adequate and sufficient ANC. In a secondary analysis of a national dataset (N = 1852 women), the percentages of women who had 4+ ANC visits, attended ANC in the 1st trimester and received care by trained personnel were 96.8%, 74.9% and 99.1% respectively. Overall adequacy of ANC (use and sufficiency of recommended basic services) for the surveyed women was 53.8%. After adjustment of other covariates, being pregnant with the 1st baby was the only significant predictor of overall adequacy of ANC (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.6-3.2). Greater awareness of the need for adequate ANC is required for mothers with more than one baby. PMID:25664516

  15. When Life Got in the Way: How Danish and Norwegian Immigrant Women in Sweden Reason about Cervical Screening and Why They Postpone Attendance

    PubMed Central

    Azerkan, Fatima; Widmark, Catarina; Sparén, Pär; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tillgren, Per; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden have an increased risk of cervical cancer compared to Swedish-born women. In addition, Danish and Norwegian immigrant women follow the national recommendations for attendance at cervical screening to much lesser extent than Swedish-born women. The aim of this study was to explore how Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden reason about attending cervical screening, focusing on women’s perceptions as to why they and their compatriots do not attend. Methods Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with Danish and Norwegian immigrant women living in Stockholm. The women were between 26 and 66 years of age at the time of the FGDs, and were aged between <1 and 48 years old when they immigrated to Sweden. A FGD guide was used, which included questions related to cervical screening, and obstacles and motivators to attend cervical screening. The FGDs were tape recorded and transcribed, and the results analysed according to the principles of qualitative content analysis. Results The main theme was “Women have a comprehensive rationale for postponing cervical screening, yet do not view themselves as non-attenders”. Investigation of women’s rationale for non-attendance after being invited to cervical screening revealed some complex reasons related to immigration itself, including competing needs, organisational and structural factors and differences in mentality, but also reasons stemming from other factors. Postponing attendance at cervical screening was the category that linked all these factors as the reasons to why women did not attend to cervical screening according to the recommendations of the authorities. Conclusions The rationale used to postpone cervical screening, in combination with the fact that women do not consider themselves to be non-attenders, indicates that they have not actively taken a stance against cervical screening, and reveals an opportunity to motivate these women to attend. PMID:26158449

  16. The Effect of Maternal BMI on Neonatal Outcome in Women Receiving a Single Course of Antenatal Corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    HASHIMA, Jason N; Lai, Yinglei; Wapner, Ronald J.; Sorokin, Yoram; Dudley, Donald J.; Peaceman, Alan; Spong, Catherine Y.; Iams, Jay D.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Harper, Margaret; Caritis, Steve N.; Varner, Michael; Miodovnik, Menachem; Mercer, Brian M.; Thorp, John M.; O'Sullivan, Mary J.; Ramin, Susan M.; Carpenter, Marshall; Rouse, Dwight J.; Sibai, Baha

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of maternal body mass index (BMI) on the incidence of neonatal prematurity morbidities in those who receive corticosteroids. STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a trial of corticosteroids in women at risk for preterm birth. Women receiving a single course of corticosteroids were classified by their pre-pregnancy BMI (<25 and ? 25) and compared on a composite outcome comprised of several neonatal morbidities, and on each individual outcome. RESULTS: Of 183 eligible women, 96 (52.5%) had a BMI < 25 and 87 (47.5%) had a BMI ? 25. The composite outcome occurred more frequently in the BMI ? 25 group (28.7%), compared with those with a BMI < 25 (18.8%), although this was not statistically significant (odds ratio 1.75; 95% confidence interval 0.83-3.72). BMI was not associated with outcomes after adjusting for confounding. CONCLUSION: Maternal BMI did not affect neonatal prematurity morbidities in those receiving corticosteroids. PMID:20022589

  17. Factors associated with non-attendance, opportunistic attendance and reminded attendance to cervical screening in an organized screening program: a cross-sectional study of 12,058 Norwegian women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo T Hansen; Silje S Hukkelberg; Tor Haldorsen; Tormod Eriksen; Gry B Skare; Mari Nygård

    2011-01-01

    Background  Cervical cancer incidence and mortality may be reduced by organized screening. Participant compliance with the attendance\\u000a recommendations of the screening program is necessary to achieve this. Knowledge about the predictors of compliance is needed\\u000a in order to enhance screening attendance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The Norwegian Co-ordinated Cervical Cancer Screening Program (NCCSP) registers all cervix cytology diagnoses in Norway and\\u000a individually reminds women who

  18. Assessing Readiness to Lose Weight among Obese Women Attending the Nutrition Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Ghannadiasl, Fatemeh; Mahdavi, Reza; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Assessing individual’s readiness to change and targeting the inter­vention to the level of readiness may improve successful weight loss rates. This study aimed to assess readiness for weight loss in obese women using the trans theoretical model. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 volunteer apparently healthy obese women, in Ardabil, Iran. Participants completed the translated and validated University of Rhode Island Change Assessment questionnaire in their first visit. Subjects were categorized into one of the stages of change based on the highest of four z-transformed scale scores. The readiness to change score was calculated. Results: More than half of the participants were in early stages of weight loss and 24.5% were in the action stage. The readiness score in the precontemplation stage was significantly lower than the other stages, but no significant difference was observed among the contemplation, action and maintenance stages. The significant correlation was observed between the stages of change and waist-to-hip ratio (r=0.33, P<0.05). Conclusion: Obese women attending the nutrition clinic are in different stages to change for weight loss. Understanding person specific stages of change ori­entates the dietitian to use the most appropriate counseling strategies. Hence the stages and readiness to change should be considered before implementing any intervention in clinical settings for optimal outcomes. PMID:25097834

  19. Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies Among African American Women Attending an Urban STI Clinic.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Heidi E; McCaul, Mary E; Norris, Jeanette; Valliant, Julia D; Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Chander, Geetanjali

    2015-06-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for HIV/STI acquisition. Sex-related alcohol expectancies (SRAEs) may partially account for alcohol-related risky sexual behaviors. Using qualitative interviews we explored the link between alcohol use and risky sex among 20 African American women attending an STI clinic who had consumed four or more alcoholic drinks per drinking day (binge drinking) and/or reported vaginal or anal sex while under the influence of alcohol. Four SRAEs emerged, which we named drink for sexual desire, drink for sexual power, drink for sexual excuse, and drink for anal sex. While the desire SRAE has been documented, this study identified three additional SRAEs not currently assessed by expectancy questionnaires. These SRAEs may contribute to high-risk sex when under the influence of alcohol and suggests the importance of developing integrated alcohol-sexual risk reduction interventions for high-risk women. PMID:25110958

  20. Intravaginal Cleansing among Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Kingston, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Carter, M; Gallo, M; Anderson, C; Snead, MC; Wiener, J; Bailey, A; Costenbader, E; Legardy-Williams, J; Hylton-Kong, T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although common worldwide, intravaginal cleansing is associated with poor health outcomes. We sought to describe intravaginal cleansing among women attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Jamaica. Methods We examined intravaginal cleansing (“washing up inside the vagina”, douching, and products or materials used) among 293 participants in a randomized trial of counselling messages at an STI clinic in Kingston. We focussed on information on intravaginal cleansing performed in the 30 days and three days preceding their baseline study visit. We describe reported cleansing behaviours and used logistic regression to identify correlates of intravaginal cleansing. Results Fifty-eight per cent of participants reported intravaginal cleansing in the previous 30 days, and 46% did so in the three days before baseline. Among those who cleansed in the previous 30 days, 88% reported doing so for hygiene unrelated to sex, and three-fourths reported generally doing so more than once per day. Soap (usually with water) and water alone were the most common products used for washing; commercial douches or detergents were reported infrequently. Intravaginal cleansing in the three days before the baseline visit was positively associated with having more than one sex partner in the previous three months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1, 3.2), and negatively associated with experiencing itching in the genital area at baseline (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4, 1.0). Conclusions A large proportion of women attending STI clinics in Jamaica engage in frequent intravaginal cleansing, indicating a need for clinicians to discuss this topic with them accordingly. PMID:24171329

  1. A survey describing the use of complementary therapies and medicines by women attending a family planning clinic

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Complementary medicines (CMs) are widely used by women. Although, women in Australia are frequent users of CM, few studies have examined their utilisation by women attending a family planning service. The aim of this study was to examine (i) the extent of and type of CM, (ii) women’s views about safety and efficacy, and (iii) the factors influencing women’s decision-making. Methods A cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample of 221women aged greater than 18 years attending a family planning (FP) service was undertaken over a two week period in Sydney, Australia. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was designed to examine women’s current and previous use of CMs, their attitudes towards safety and effectiveness, the factors influencing their decision-making, and their disclosure of CM use to a FP health professional. Demographic questions were designed to describe the diversity of the participants. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between CM use and demographics. Results Sixty-seven percent of women surveyed were currently using CMs, and 83% reported use during the previous 12 months. Most respondents utilised CMs to maintain their general health or for prevention of ill health. Over 30% of women lacked information to make an informed response to questions examining their views about the safety of CMs. Forty-four percent of participants stated they discussed their use of CMs with their FP providers. The main reason why women did not mention CMs was they did not see the relevance to their consultation (43%). Lower rates of CM use were found for younger women (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.61), and those not completing high school (OR 0.44, 95% 0.20-1.00). Conclusion The use of CM is very common among women attending an Australian FP clinic, however our findings may not be generalisable to all women. We identified a notable gap in women’s awareness of the potential for interactions between CM and prescribed medication. Our findings also emphasise the need for healthcare providers to initiate discussions with clients about their utilisation of CM. PMID:24025479

  2. Antenatal group care in a midwifery group practice--a midwife' perspective.

    PubMed

    Maier, Belinda Jane

    2013-03-01

    The following article describes a midwife's experience in the adaption of the CenteringPregnancy model into her own group practice to provide education and support to the women in her care. Using personal experience and feedback from women and midwifery students the author describes not only the process of group care in her work context but the apparent benefits to women, families', midwifery students and herself. Antenatal group care was so successful for the author that it extended to postnatal group care and student group care, all well attended and sought after groups. This is an exciting and innovative way to provide care for women and families and the author encourages other midwives and group practices to consider how they can adapt and progress similar group care into their own practice. PMID:22464949

  3. Barriers to skilled birth attendance: a survey among mothers in rural Gambia.

    PubMed

    Lerberg, Priya Miriam; Sundby, Johanne; Jammeh, Abdou; Fretheim, Atle

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional survey were to identify the most important barriers for use of skilled attendance during childbirth by women in rural Gambia. We also assessed information received during antenatal care, preparations made prior to childbirth, and experiences and perceptions that may influence the use of skilled birth attendance in rural Gambia. The most frequently stated barriers for giving birth in a health facility were not having enough time to go (75%), and lack of transport (29%). The majority of the women (83%) stated that they preferred having a health worker attending their childbirth. More than seventy percent of the participants gave birth attended by a traditional birth attendant, but only 27% had intended to give birth at home. Sixty-four percent had made advance arrangements for the childbirth. Only 22% were informed about expected time of birth during antenatal care. Our findings suggest that the participants hold the knowledge and motivation that is necessary if practices are to be changed. Interventions aiming at ensuring timely transport of women to health facilities seem key to increased use of skilled birth attendants. PMID:24796167

  4. Popular Contraceptive Methods in Women Aged 35 Years and Older Attending Health Centers of 4 Cities in Khuzestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nouhjah, Sedighe; Amiri, Elham; Khodai, Azim; Yazdanpanah, Azar; Nadi Baghu, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated risks are higher in late reproductive years. Limited studies have focused on contraceptive choices in these women. The aim of the study was to identify contraceptive choices and their related factors in women 35 years or older attending health centers of Khuzestan province. Objectives Additionally, several line of evidence indicated relationship between increasing maternal age and poor pregnancy outcomes (1, 2). Pregnancies above the age of 35 are accompanied with more risks for complication related to pregnancy as compared to younger women (3-5). Risk of spontaneous abortion is 74.4% in mothers aged 45 years or more. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study 1584 women aged 35 years and older attending public health centers of four cities of Khuzestan were studied. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. Women investigators were recruited for interview and filling the questionnaire. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. Results The mean age of women was 39.8 ± 4.2 years. The most popular contraceptive methods used in this age group were oral contraceptive pills (31.4%), condom (28.1%), and tubal ligation (14.8%). Less effective contraceptive methods were used in 41.5% of women. Significant associations were found between the use of effective methods and literacy of husband (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.91), city of residence (OR = 0, 92, 95%CI: 0.87-0.97), women age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI; 0.94-0.99), and women education (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99) (P < 0.01). Conclusions In spite of risk of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in this age group, about a half of them used less effective contraceptive methods, hence family planning education, and counseling to older women should be a priority in health centers. PMID:24693364

  5. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing: Evidence from a community-based study in Northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV testing for pregnant women is an important component for the success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). A lack of antenatal HIV testing results in loss of benefits for HIV-infected mothers and their children. However, the provision of unnecessary repeat tests at a very late stage of pregnancy will reduce the beneficial effects of PMTCT and impose unnecessary costs for the individual woman as well as the health system. This study aims to assess the number and timing of antenatal HIV testing in a low-income setting where PMTCT programmes have been scaled up to reach first level health facilities. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV testing. Results The prevalence of women who lacked HIV testing among the study group was 10% while more than half of the women tested had had more than two tests during pregnancy. The following factors were associated with the lack of antenatal HIV test: having two children (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4), living in a remote rural area (aOR 7.8, 95% CI 3.4-17.8), late antenatal care attendance (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-10.1) and not being informed about PMTCT at their first antenatal care visits (aOR 7.4, 95% CI 2.6-21.1). Among women who had multiple tests, 80% had the second test after 36 weeks of gestation. Women who had first ANC and first HIV testing at health facilities at primary level were more likely to be tested multiple times (OR 2.9 95% CI 1.9-4.3 and OR = 4.7 95% CI 3.5-6.4), respectively. Conclusions Not having an HIV test during pregnancy was associated with poor socio-economic characteristics among the women and with not receiving information about PMTCT at the first ANC visit. Multiple testing during pregnancy prevailed; the second tests were often provided at a late stage of gestation. PMID:21439043

  6. Families at Risk: Home and Car Smoking Among Pregnant Women Attending a Low-Income, Urban Prenatal Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Northrup, Thomas F.; Hutchinson, Maria S.; Pedroza, Claudia; Blackwell, Sean C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) has been identified as a distinct risk factor for adverse obstetric and gynecological outcomes. This study examined the prevalence of SHSe reduction practices (i.e., home and car smoking bans) among pregnant women in a large U.S. prenatal clinic serving low-income women. Methods: Pregnant women (N = 820) attending a university-based, urban prenatal clinic in Houston, Texas, completed a prenatal questionnaire assessing bans on household and car smoking and a qualitative urine cotinine test as part of usual care. Data were collected from April 2011 to August 2012. Results: Nearly one-third (n = 257) of the sample reported at least 1 smoker living in the home. About a quarter of the women in the full sample did not have a total smoking ban in their home and car. Within smoking households, 44% of the pregnant women reported smoking, 56% reported smoking by another household member, and in 26% of smoking households both the pregnant woman and at least one other person were smoking. Only 43% of women with a household smoker reported a total ban on smoking, with higher rates among Hispanic women. Smoking bans were less common when the pregnant women smoked, when more than 1 smoker resided in the home, and when pregnant with her first child. Conclusions: SHSe among low-income pregnant women is high, and interventions to raise awareness and increase the establishment of smoking bans in homes and cars are warranted. PMID:24692668

  7. Consumption of alcoholic beverages among pregnant urban Ugandan women.

    PubMed

    Namagembe, Imelda; Jackson, Leila W; Zullo, Melissa D; Frank, Scott H; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Sethi, Ajay K

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization estimated alcohol consumption in Uganda to be one of the highest in the world. We examined alcohol consumption among Ugandan women prior to and after learning of pregnancy. We developed a screening algorithm using factors that predicted alcohol consumption in this study. In 2006, we surveyed 610 women attending antenatal care at the national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda about consumption of traditional and commercial alcoholic beverages before and after learning of pregnancy. Predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy were examined and a practical screening algorithm was developed for use in antenatal clinics. One hundred eighty women (30%) drank alcohol at least monthly before learning of their pregnancy. Among these women, almost one-third reported usual consumption of at least one beverage type at quantities that equal binging levels for women. Overall, 151 women (25%) consumed alcohol after learning of pregnancy. Commercial beverages, particularly beer, were consumed more often than traditional drinks. A two-stage screening algorithm asking women about their religion, male partner or friends' drinking, and any lifetime drinking predicted self-reported consumption of alcohol during pregnancy with 97% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Alcohol consumption among pregnant Ugandan women attending antenatal care is high. A feasible screening algorithm can help providers target education and counseling to women who are likely drinking during pregnancy. Given the preference for commercial alcoholic beverages, it is recommended that labels be placed prominently on bottled alcoholic beverages warning of the adverse effects of consuming alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:19629663

  8. Infant Feeding among Women Attending an Immunisation Clinic at a Tertiary Health Institution in Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatiregun, A. A.; Abegunde, V. O.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal characteristics can affect a mother's decision to breastfeed. This study used a cross-sectional design to assess maternal variables and infant feeding patterns among nursing mothers attending an immunisation clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 264 mothers who consecutively attended the immunisation clinic and met certain inclusion…

  9. Psychological well-being and the dyadic relationship of Chinese menopausal women (and their spouses) attending hormone replacement clinics.

    PubMed

    Lam, P M; Cheung, G W Y; Shek, D T L; Lee, D T S; Haines, C; Chung, T K H

    2004-04-01

    This survey examined the general health and the marital relationship of 122 Chinese menopausal women and their spouses attending hormone replacement clinics. Climacteric symptoms of the participants were assessed by the modified Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS). The psychological well-being of the participants and their spouses was assessed by the 12-item Chinese General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and their marital quality was assessed by the Chinese Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). The GCS scores of our cohort were significantly higher than that of a community-based sample of menopausal Chinese women. About one-third of the participants and one-fifth of their spouses suffered from reduced psychological well-being. Although the DAS total scores of the participants and their spouses were comparable to those of the adjusted couples in a younger population, the affectional DAS subscores were significantly lower. The GCS scores of the menopausal women were significantly positively correlated with their GHQ scores but negatively correlated with their DAS scores. In summary, the menopausal women attending the hormonal replacement clinics, especially those with more dimacteric symptoms, suffered from significant psychiatric morbidity and marital maladjustment. The psychological dimension of the menopause should never be neglected. PMID:15293892

  10. TOXOPLASMOSIS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE AMONG PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN ATTENDED IN PUBLIC HEALTH UNITS IN NITERÓI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Patricia Riddell; de Moura, Fernanda Loureiro; Bastos, Otílio Machado Pereira; de Mattos, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Leles, Daniela; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2014-01-01

    The present study conducted a toxoplasmosis-related knowledge level survey with 400 pregnant and puerperal women attended in public health units in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Only 111 (27.8%) women claimed to know about the disease. Most of them (n = 289; 72.2%) had never heard about toxoplasmosis nor knew how to prevent the infection by Toxoplasma gondii. A significant difference (p = 0.013) regarding the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG was observed between women who claimed to know about the disease and those who had never heard about it. These results highlight the importance of a systematic serological screening process for toxoplasmosis, as well as the importance of primary prevention by accurate information during prenatal care, an important Public Health action to be implemented. PMID:25229225

  11. Assessment of Peer-Based and Structural Strategies for Increasing Male Participation in an Antenatal Setting in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Mphonda, Steve M.; Rosenberg, Nora E.; Kamanga, Esmie; Mofolo, Innocent; Mwale, Gertrude; Boa, Edson; Mwale, Mwawi; Martinson, Francis; Hoffman, Irving; Hosseinipour, Mina C.

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, although male involvement in antenatal care is associated with positive outcomes for HIV-infected women and their infants, men rarely accompany female partners. We implemented a project to increase the number of male partners attending an antenatal clinic at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. We evaluated changes in the proportion of women who came with a partner over three periods. During period 1 (January 2007 – June 2008) there was didactic peer education. During period 2 (July 2008 – September 2009) a peer-led male-involvement drama was introduced into patient waiting areas. During period 3 (October 2009 – December 2009) changes to clinical infrastructure were introduced to make the clinic more male-friendly. The proportion of women attending ANC with a male partner increased from 0.7% to 5.7% to 10.7% over the three periods. Peer education through drama and male-friendly hospital infrastructure coincided with substantially greater male participation, although further gains are necessary. PMID:25022146

  12. Is antenatal antibody screening worthwhile in Chinese?

    PubMed

    Wong, K F; Tse, K T; Lee, A W; Mak, C S; So, C C

    1997-06-01

    A total of 1997 pregnant women were screened during their first antenatal visit for irregular antibodies for the prevention of haemolytic disease of the newborn. Patient sera were tested against a panel of group O screen cells including one with the expression of Miltenberger determinants GP.Mur. 17 women (0.85%) had irregular antibodies of which four were of potential clinical significance, including one with anti-D, two with anti-E and one with anti-D, anti-E and anti-G. Although antenatal antibody screening is mandatory in Western populations, our results suggest that this may not be necessary in the Chinese population except for those who are Rh D-negative or who have a history of haemolytic disease of the newborn. PMID:9217197

  13. Knowledge, awareness and attitudes about cervical cancer among women attending or not an HIV treatment center in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the first female cancer in Lao PDR, a low-income country with no national screening and prevention programs for this human papillomavirus (HPV) associated pathology. HIV-infected women have a higher risk of persistent oncogenic HPV infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge, awareness and attitudes about cervical cancer among Lao women attending or not an HIV treatment center, in order to understand if this attendance had offered an opportunity for information and prevention. Methods A cross-sectional case–control survey was conducted in three provinces of Lao PDR, Vientiane, Luang Prabang and Savannakhet. Cases were 320 women aged 25 to 65, living with HIV and followed in an HIV treatment center. Controls were 320 women matched for age and place of residence, not attending an HIV treatment center. Results Cases had a greater number of sexual partners and used condoms more often than controls. Only 36.6% of women had consulted a gynecologist (47.5% among cases and 25.6% among controls, p < 0.001) and 3.9% had benefited from at least one Pap smear screening (5.6% cases and 2.2% controls, p = 0.02). The average knowledge score was 3.5 on a 0 to 13 scale, significantly higher in cases than in controls (p < 0.0001). Despite having a lower education level and economic status, the women living with HIV had a better knowledge about cervical cancer and were more aware than the controls of the risk of developing such a cancer (35.9% vs. 8.4%, p = 0.0001). The main source of information was healthcare professionals. The main reasons for not undergoing Pap smear were the absence of symptoms and the default of medical injunction for cases, the lack of information and ignorance of screening usefulness for controls. Conclusion In Lao PDR, routine consultation in HIV treatment centers is not enough harnessed to inform women of their high risk of developing cervical cancer, and to perform screening testing and treatment of precancerous lesions. Implementing this cost-effective strategy could be the first step toward a national prevention program for cervical cancer. PMID:24602191

  14. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India

    PubMed Central

    Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study design: Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition status and Treatment needs. Results: The overall caries prevalence was 87%. Mean caries experience differed significantly among women in various trimesters, it was found to be 3.59 and 3.00 in 1st and 2nd trimester subjects respectively while it was greatest (4.13) among those in 3rd trimester. One surface filling was the most predominant treatment need. Age and occupation of husband explained a variance of 6.8% and 4.2% for decayed and filled components respectively while the only predictor for missing teeth and DMFT that explained a variance of 9.6% and 5.7% respectively was trimester of pregnancy. Conclusions: Dental caries experience and the need for one surface restoration increased with age. Trimester of pregnancy was a significant predictor for missing teeth and DMFT, while decayed teeth and filled teeth were influenced by age and socio-economic level respectively. Key words:Dental caries, treatment needs, pregnant, age, trimester. PMID:24455060

  15. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    PubMed Central

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not significantly better than a single intervention in initiating or increasing BF duration. However, in one trial a combined BF education significantly reduced nipple pain and trauma. One study compared different combinations of interventions. There was a marginally significant increase in exclusive BF at six months in women receiving a booklet plus video plus lactation consultation (LC) compared with the booklet plus video only. Two studies compared multiple methods of BF education versus routine care. The combination of BF booklet plus video plus LC was significantly better than routine care for exclusive BF at three months. Authors’ conclusions Because there were significant methodological limitations and the observed effect sizes were small, it is not appropriate to recommend any antenatal BF education. There is an urgent need to conduct RCTs study with adequate power to evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education. PMID:22071830

  16. Motivations and reasons for women attending a Breast Self-Examination training program: A qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rea-Jeng Yang; Lian-Hua Huang; Yeu-Sheng Hsieh; Ue-Lin Chung; Chiun-Sheng Huang; Herng-Dar Bih

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a major threat to Taiwanese women's health. Despite the controversy surrounding the effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE) in reducing mortality, BSE is still advocated by some health departments. The aim of the study is to provide information about how women decide to practice BSE and their experiences through the training process. Sixty-six women aged 27-50 were

  17. STDs in women attending family planning clinics: A case study in Addis Ababa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Elizabeth Duncan; Gerard Tibaux; Helmut Kloos; Andrée Pelzer; Letebirhan Mehari; Peter L. Perine; John Peutherer; Hugh Young; Yasmin Jamil; Sohrab Darougar; Inga Lind; Karin Reimann; Peter Piot; Erwin Roggen

    1997-01-01

    For cultural reasons modern contraception has been slow to gain acceptance in Ethiopia. Knowledge about contraception and abortion is still limited in many family and community settings in which it is socially disapproved. By 1990 only 4% of Ethiopian females aged 15–49 used contraception. Little is known of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence in family planning (FP) attenders in Africa

  18. Prevaccination Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Types in Women Attending at Cervical Cancer Screening in Belgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Arbyn; Ina Benoy; Cindy Simoens; Johannes Bogers; Philippe Beutels; Christophe Depuydt

    Introduction: Before the introduction of vaccination against human papillomaviruses (HPV) as a new strategy of combating cervical cancer, it is required to describe the baseline prevalence of HPV infection as well as the distribution of the different HPV types in the population and among women with cervical lesions. Materials and Methods: Approximately 10,000 liquid cervical cell samples from women, resident

  19. Reduced Levels of Plasma Kisspeptin During the Antenatal Booking Visit Are Associated With Increased Risk of Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, C. N.; Abbara, A.; Izzi-Engbeaya, C.; Comninos, A. N.; Harvey, R. A.; Gonzalez Maffe, J.; Sarang, Z.; Ganiyu-Dada, Z.; Padilha, A. I.; Dhanjal, M.; Williamson, C.; Regan, L.; Ghatei, M. A.; Bloom, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Kisspeptin is a recently identified hormone encoded by the KISS1 gene, playing a critical role in human reproduction. Plasma kisspeptin levels rise dramatically during normal pregnancy due to placental synthesis, which implicates it as a potential tool for assessing risks of pregnancy complications. No previous prospective study has investigated the association between plasma kisspeptin and risk of miscarriage. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether a single plasma kisspeptin or serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) measurement in asymptomatic women attending their booking antenatal visit is associated with miscarriage. Design: This was a prospective cohort study. Setting: The study was conducted at a tertiary obstetric center. Participants: A total of 993 asymptomatic pregnant women with a gestation of 6 weeks or longer attending routine antenatal booking visit were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012. Main Outcome Measures: Plasma kisspeptin and serum hCG were measured during the antenatal booking visit. Pregnancy outcome was recorded prospectively. Results: Plasma kisspeptin correlated with gestation (r2 = 0.57; P < .0001). Gestational age-corrected (multiples of median) plasma kisspeptin was 60.4% lower (P < .001), and multiples of median-hCG was 36.1% lower (P < .001) in women later diagnosed with miscarriage compared with women without miscarriage. Increased plasma kisspeptin was associated with reduced miscarriage risk, even after adjusting for age, body mass index, gestational age, smoking, and blood pressure [odds ratio 0.13 (95% confidence interval 0.08–0.22), P = .0001]. Kisspeptin had a higher diagnostic performance for miscarriage than hCG (receiver-operator characteristic-area under the curve 0.899 ± 0.025 plasma kisspeptin; 0.775 ± 0.040, serum hCG, P < .01 vs plasma kisspeptin). Conclusion: Our data suggest for the first time that a single plasma kisspeptin measurement taken during the antenatal booking visit provides a potential novel marker for identifying asymptomatic pregnant women at a gestation of 6 weeks or greater at increased risk of miscarriage. PMID:25127195

  20. Patterns of use of a maternal mental health service in a low-resource antenatal setting in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Baron, Emily; Field, Sally; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Honikman, Simone

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of perinatal common mental disorders in South Africa is high, yet little is known about mental health service use among pregnant and postnatal women. This paper reports on pregnant women's patterns of use of a counselling service at a primary level obstetric facility in Cape Town, South Africa, between January 2010 and December 2011. It investigates whether these are associated with demographics, severity and risk of depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 3311) were screened for psychological distress using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at their first antenatal visit. Risk factors for antenatal depression were assessed using a 11-item checklist. Questionnaires were self-administered, but some participants required assistance. Participants scoring positive (?13) on the EPDS were offered referral to on-site, individual counselling, and assigned to one of three groups according to their service use: declined referral; accepted referral and attended counselling sessions; and accepted referral but defaulted all appointments. Consent to participate was received by 3437 (96.4%) participants who were offered screening, of which 627 (18.9%) screened positive on the EPDS. Of these, 363 (57.9%) attended counselling. Both bivariate analyses and regression analyses revealed that age and risk factor assessment score were associated with screening positive on the EPDS. Odds ratios (OR) for accepting counselling were OR = 0.94 (95% CI = 0.92-0.97) for gestation, OR = 1.27 (95% CI = 1.15-1.39) for EPDS score and OR = 0.48 (95% CI = 0.23-0.99) for reporting three or more risk factors. OR for attending counselling were, for age: OR = 1.06 (95% CI = 1.00-1.12) and for reporting three or more risk factors: OR = 0.60 (95% CI = 0.37-0.97). While the majority of women with psychological distress accessed the counselling service provided, strategies to increase service use of younger pregnant women specifically are required. PMID:25328059

  1. Mediators of the Relation Between Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Mona; Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes, including sexual risk behavior. This cross-sectional study explored mediators of the relationship between IPV and risky sexual behavior in 717 women recruited from an STD clinic. Methods Participants were recruited from a public STD clinic in upstate New York as part of a randomized control trial (RCT) that was designed to evaluate several sexual risk reduction interventions. They completed an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview in a private room. Results Among these women, 18% reported IPV in the past 3 months and 57% reported lifetime experience of IPV. Recent IPV was associated with greater sexual risk as measured by more episodes of unprotected sex (overall and with a steady partner). Although IPV was associated with depressive symptoms and drug use before sex, these variables did not mediate the relationship between IPV and sexual risk behavior. Conclusions The results indicate that IPV is common among women who attend an STD clinic and warrants increased attention. Research is needed to better understand the pathways linking IPV and HIV risk in women to optimize the design of effective interventions. PMID:21258269

  2. Stillbirth history and Toxoplasma gondii infection in women attending public health centers in a northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C.; Pacheco-Vega, S. J.; Salcedo-Jaquez, M.; Sánchez-Anguiano, L. F.; Hernández-Tinoco, J.; Rábago-Sánchez, E.; Centeno-Tinoco, M. M.; Flores-Garcia, I. D.; Ramos-Nevarez, A.; Cerrillo-Soto, S. M.; Guido-Arreola, C. A.; Beristain-García, I.; Liesenfeld, O.; Berumen-Segovia, L. O.; Saenz-Soto, L.; Sifuentes-Álvarez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Through a cross-sectional study design, 150 women attending public health centers with a history of stillbirths were examined for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in Durango City, Mexico. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the women with stillbirth history. Of the 150 women (mean age: 32.09 ± 9.16 years) studied, 14 (9.3%) had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and six (42.9%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with high frequency (4–7 days a week) of eating meat (OR = 5.52; 95% CI: 1.48–20.59; P = 0.01), history of lymphadenopathy (OR = 4.52; 95% CI: 1.14–17.82; P = 0.03), and history of surgery (OR = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.04–72.15; P = 0.04). This is the first study on the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in women with a history of stillbirths in Mexico. The association of T. gondii exposure with a history of surgery warrants for further research. Risk factors for T. gondii infection found in the present survey may help to design optimal educational programs to avoid T. gondii infection. PMID:26185685

  3. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Angelica E; Pinto, Valdir M; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15-24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7-10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR=4.70 (95% CI: 1.63-13.56, p=0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR=5.15 (95% CI: 1.15-23.25, p=0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil. PMID:25181400

  4. Contraception matters: indicators of poor usage of contraception in sexually active women attending family planning clinics in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy (mistimed or unwanted) remains an important health issue for women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with risk of unintended pregnancy in a sample of Victorian women attending family planning clinics. Methods This cross-sectional survey of three Family Planning Victoria Clinics from April to July 2011 recruited women aged 16-50 years with a male sexual partner in the last 3 months, and not intending to conceive. The questionnaire asked about contraceptive behaviours and important factors that influence contraception use (identified from a systematic literature review). Univariate analysis was calculated for the variables of interest for associations with contraceptive use. An overall multivariate model for being at risk for unintended pregnancy (due to inconsistent or ineffective contraceptive use or non-use) was calculated through backward elimination with statistical significance set at <0.05. Results 1006 surveys were analyzed with 96% of women reporting contraception use in the last 3 months. 37% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy due to imperfect use (61% inconsistent users; 31% ineffective methods) or never using contraception (8%). On multivariate analysis, women at risk for unintended pregnancy compared with women not at risk were <25 years old (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.7); had no university/postgraduate degree (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4); and had >1 partner in the last 3 months (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.6). These women were dissatisfied with current contraception (OR 2.5, 95% 1.8-3.5); felt “vulnerable” to pregnancy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3.0); were not confident in contraceptive knowledge (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.8); were unable to stop to use contraception when aroused (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9) but were comfortable in speaking to a doctor about contraception (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.1). Conclusion Despite reported high contraceptive usage, nearly 40% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy primarily due to inconsistent contraceptive use and use of ineffective contraception. Strategies for improving consistency of effective contraception use or greater emphasis on long-acting contraception may be needed for certain subpopulations at higher risk for unintended pregnancy. PMID:23259407

  5. Quality of Child-Parent Attachment Moderates the Impact of Antenatal Stress on Child Fearfulness

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, K; Sarkar, P; Glover, V; O'Connor, TG

    2009-01-01

    Background Animal studies have shown that prenatal stress has persisting effects on several aspects of offspring development; more recent studies show that this effect may be eliminated by positive postnatal rearing. Human studies of prenatal anxiety/stress are now also beginning to document links between antenatal stress/anxiety and behavioural and cognitive development of the child; however, there is no human evidence as to whether the early caregiving environment moderates the effect of antenatal anxiety/stress on child outcomes. Methods Antenatal and postnatal measures of stress were collected on 123 women who were recruited from an antenatal clinic. Laboratory-based assessment of the children's cognitive development and fearfulness were assessed when the children were aged 17 months. In addition, child-parent attachment quality was assessed using the Strange Situation. Results Attachment classification moderated the link between antenatal stress and observed fearfulness. The effect of antenatal stress on fearfulness was most accentuated in children with an Insecure/Resistant attachment classification; the significant antenatal stress X attachment classification interaction held after controlling for postnatal stress and obstetric, social and demographic factors. Attachment did not moderate the effects of antenatal anxiety on cognitive development. Discussion These findings provide the first human evidence that postnatal parenting may moderate the adverse effects of antenatal stress. These results raise developmental questions about the timing and effect of interventions to reduce the adverse effects of antenatal stress exposure. PMID:19017025

  6. Pregnancy, Alcohol Intake, and Intimate Partner Violence among Men and Women Attending Drinking Establishments in a Cape Town, South Africa Township

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H.; Pieterse, Desiree; Pipitan, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Background The highest rates of fetal alcohol syndrome worldwide can be found in South Africa. Particularly in impoverished townships in the Western Cape, pregnant women live in environments where alcohol intake during pregnancy has become normalized and interpersonal violence (IPV) is reported at high rates. For the current study we sought to examine how pregnancy, for both men and women, is related to alcohol use behaviors and IPV. Methods We surveyed 2,120 men and women attending drinking establishments in a township located in the Western Cape of South Africa. Results Among women 13% reported being pregnant, and among men 12.2% reported their partner pregnant. For pregnant women, 61% reported attending the bar that evening to drink alcohol and 26% reported both alcohol use and currently experiencing IPV. Daily or almost daily binge drinking was reported twice as often among pregnant women than non-pregnant women (8.4% vs. 4.2%). Men with pregnant partners reported the highest rates of hitting sex partners, forcing a partner to have sex, and being forced to have sex. High rates of alcohol frequency, consumption, binge drinking, and problematic drinking were reported across the entire sample. In general, experiencing and perpetrating IPV were associated with alcohol use among all participants except for men with pregnant partners. Conclusions Alcohol use among pregnant women attending shebeens is alarmingly high. Moreover, alcohol use appears to be an important factor in understanding the relationship between IPV and pregnancy. Intensive, targeted, and effective interventions for both men and women are urgently needed to address high rates of drinking alcohol among pregnant women who attend drinking establishments. PMID:21744297

  7. Screening pregnant women for group B streptococcal colonization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Madani; G. K. Harding; M. Helewa; M. J. Alfa

    1998-01-01

    Summary  The recovery rates of group B streptococcus (GBS) from anorectal swabs (RS) and vaginal swabs (VS) that were enriched were\\u000a compared to the routine method to determine the optimal procedure. Separate RS and VS were collected from women attending\\u000a antenatal clinics. RS and VS were placed in 2 ml enrichment and selective broth. Swabs were inoculated onto colistin\\/nalidixic\\u000a acid agar

  8. Adverse health effects of spousal violence among women attending Saudi Arabian primary health-care clinics.

    PubMed

    Eldoseri, H M; Tufts, K A; Zhang, Q; Fish, J N

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the frequency of spousal violence among Saudi women and document the related health effects and injuries, as well as their attitudes to gender and violence. Structured interviews were conducted with 200 ever-married women recruited from primary-care centres in Jeddah. Nearly half of the surveyed women (44.5%) reported ever experiencing physical violence from their spouse. Although 37 women (18.5%) had received violence-related injuries, only 6.5% had reported these injuries to a health-care provider. Victims of spousal violence had poor perceptions of their overall health, and reported pain or discomfort, antidepressant use and suicidal thoughts. Women mostly disagreed with the presented justifications for wife-beating. However, the association between gender attitudes and spousal violence was not significant. The results of this study support calls for integration of education about partner violence into health-care curricula to enhance the access and quality of services. PMID:25601810

  9. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Vaccine Uptake in Pregnant Women Entering the 2010 Influenza Season in Western Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott W White; Rodney W Petersen; Julie A Quinlivan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To audit the uptake of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccine in pregnant women entering the 2010 influenza season in Western Australia, and to identify why some women did not receive the vaccine. Design, setting and participants: Cross-sectional study of consecutive patients attending the Joondalup Health Campus public antenatal clinics in WA in January 2010. Intervention: Audit of uptake of

  10. Clinical Audit of Antenatal Service Provision in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kayode Omoniyi Osungbade; Vivian N. Shaahu; Obioma C. Uchendu

    2011-01-01

    We audited records of 365 pregnant women whose mean age was 25.6 ± 5.6 years. Their mean gestational age at booking was 29.3 ± 2.7 weeks; their mean number of antenatal visits was 4.2 ± 2.3. Weight, blood pressure, and urine were checked on 97.3%, 95.1%, and 86.3% of the women respectively. Hemoglobin estimation was done on 19.2% of women; 34.8%

  11. Cervical intraepithelial lesions in females attending Women's Health Clinics in Alexandria, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hadi, Mona; Khalaf, Adel; Aboulkassem, Hanaa; Naeem, Noha; Baqy, Mohamed Abdel; Sallam, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of preinvasive cervical lesions. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in Egyptian women living in Alexandria to clarify the need for implementing a national organized screening program and a vaccination program in our community. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a 6 years period and covered the different socioeconomic levels to have a representative sample for women living in Alexandria. All women included did not have any cervical disorder related complaints. Conventional Pap smears were obtained and diagnosed using the Bethesda system. Women with abnormal Pap smears were managed according to the 2006 consensus guidelines within the available facilities. Persistent abnormal cytological results were referred for colposcopic biopsy. Histological results were grouped into: Reactive changes, CIN 1, CIN 2/CIN 3 and adenocarcinoma in-situ (AIS). Results: Out of the 6173 smears included in the study 6072 (98.36%) were normal and only 101 (1.63%) were abnormal. After colposcopic biopsies, 0.08% had CIN 1, 0.03% had CIN 2, 3 and 0.01% had AIS. Conclusion: We concluded that cervical cancer screening programs, although life-saving for a number of women, are not a sufficiently high priority in our community. Money for national health screening programs should preferably be directed more towards recruiting women for breast cancer screening, since breast cancer accounts for about 33% of all female cancers in Egypt ranking number one, while cervical cancer ranks number 13. PMID:26195985

  12. Perinatal depressive symptoms among Arab women in northern Israel.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Saralee; Tanous, Mary; Shihab, Shihab; Goldman, Nofar; Ziv, Arnona; Kaplan, Giora

    2012-08-01

    Perinatal depression, a prevalent condition with negative consequences for the mother, infant and family, has been reported in many countries. This study aimed to assess the scope of depressive symptoms among pregnant and postnatal Israeli Arab women and to identify possible risk factors. Data were collected from a screening program at 58 Mother-Child Health Care clinics in northern Israel from June to December, 2009. Participants included 1,254 pregnant and 2,326 postnatal women. The rate of antenatal depressive symptoms, i.e., a score of ?10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was 20.8%. Women attending clinics with primarily religious or traditional populations had lower rates antenatally than did those described as secular. During the postnatal period 16.3% of the women scored ?10 on the EPDS. The rate of postnatal depressive symptoms was significantly higher among women living in Moslem than Druze communities (EPDS ? 10: 19.0% vs. 13.4%, respectively, P = 0.01). Postnatally, there were no significant differences according to SES cluster, community size, or religious orientation. The rate of antenatal and postnatal depression among Arab women in northern Israel was somewhat higher than that of Jewish Israeli women in the same region, and considerably lower than that of Arab Bedouin women in southern Israel. Given the differences in their life styles and circumstances, health policy authorities should be informed regarding the needs of these various sub-populations. PMID:21735141

  13. Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes of Teenage Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Haddabi, Rahma; Al-Bash, Majeda; Al-Mabaihsi, Nadia; Al-Maqbali, Najla; Al-Dhughaishi, Tamima; Abu-Heija, Adel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the obstetrical and perinatal outcomes of teenage Omani girls with singleton pregnancies at a tertiary teaching hospital. Methods This is a retrospective case control study. We reviewed obstetric and perinatal outcomes of teenage nulliparous pregnant Omani girls with singleton pregnancies aged 14 to 19 years, delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2013. We compared their outcomes with outcomes of pregnant nulliparous Omani women with singleton pregnancies aged 20 to 25 years old delivered at the same hospital during the same period. Results When compared with pregnant women (n=307), teenage pregnant girls (n=307) were found to have higher proportion of preterm delivery <32 weeks (7% vs. 3%, p=0.040), preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes (PPROM) (19% vs. 11%, p=0.005) and anemia (58% vs. 44%, p=0.005). Cesarean section rate was higher in women than teenager girls (20% vs. 10%, p=0.001). Teenager girls had lighter babies (mean weight ± standard deviation 2,750±690 vs. 2,890±480, p=0.020), incidence of very low birth weight babies (<1,500g) was higher in teenagers (3.9% vs. 0.3%, p=0.003), but perinatal mortality rate was similar in the two groups. Conclusion Teenage pregnant Omani women are at increased risk of preterm delivery before 32 weeks gestation, PPROM, anemia, and delivering very low birth weight babies. PMID:25584155

  14. Factors associated with perceived risk of breast cancer among women attending a screening program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally W. Vernon; Victor G. Vogel; Susan Halabi; Melissa L. Bondy

    1993-01-01

    A person's perception of the risk of, or susceptibility to, developing a disease is believed to be an important determinant of health-related behavior, yet little is known about the determinants of perceived risk. Knowledge of these correlates may be useful in identifying and addressing barriers to performance of health behaviors such as mammography screening. Data collected from over 36,000 women

  15. Sex trade among young women attending family-planning clinics in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and nature of sex trade in a clinic-based sample of young women and to evaluate associations with sexual and reproductive health. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with women aged 16–29 years (n=1277) presenting to family-planning clinics in Northern California, USA. Results Overall, 8.1% of respondents indicated a lifetime history of trading sex for money or other resources. Sex trade was associated with unintended pregnancy (adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.48), multiple abortions (ARR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.19–2.23), STI diagnosis (ARR 1.46; 95% CI, 1.27–1.68), and unwanted sex (vaginal ARR 3.64; 95% CI, 2.39–5.56; anal ARR 4.99; 95% CI, 2.17–11.50). Of the women ever involved in sex trade, 12 (37.3%) reported that their first such experience was before they were 18 years of age. Conclusion Approximately 1 in 12 participants had been involved in sex trade, illustrating the presence of patients with this history within the family-planning clinical setting. Sex trade was associated with multiple indicators of poor sexual and reproductive health. Family-planning clinics may represent an underused mechanism for engaging this high-risk population. PMID:22356762

  16. Group versus Individual Professional Antenatal Breastfeeding Education for Extending Breastfeeding Duration and Exclusivity: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka Lun; Tarrant, Marie; Lok, Kris Yuet Wan

    2015-08-01

    Although breastfeeding initiation rates have increased substantially in many developed countries over the past several decades, breastfeeding duration and exclusivity remain suboptimal. In the antenatal period, both group and individual education interventions have been implemented to improve breastfeeding. The purpose of this review was to compare the effectiveness of group and individual antenatal professional education on breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using Medline (1946-June 2014), PubMed (1883-June 2014), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (1947-June 2014), EMBASE (1947-June 2014), British Nursing Index (1994-June 2014), Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library. Included studies were limited to health care professional-conducted education delivered to pregnant women only. Only studies reporting breastfeeding duration or exclusivity were included. Nineteen studies were included, of which 13 evaluated antenatal group education, 5 evaluated individual antenatal education, and 1 evaluated both a group and an individual antenatal education. When compared with standard care, 4 out of 12 studies supported the effectiveness of antenatal group education on breastfeeding duration or exclusivity, whereas 4 out of 6 studies supported the effectiveness of antenatal individual education. Two studies compared antenatal group education with peer-led education and neither study showed a significant difference in breastfeeding outcomes. The methodological heterogeneity and the small number of high quality studies limited our ability to draw firm conclusions about the effectiveness of either mode of antenatal education. PMID:25908110

  17. Emergency contraception: change in knowledge of women attending for termination of pregnancy from 1984 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Gordon, A F; Owen, P

    1999-01-01

    Although the Yuzpe emergency contraception regimen has been available in the UK since 1984, the expected reduction in the number of induced abortions has not occurred. To assess whether poor knowledge of postcoital contraception is a significant factor in induced abortion, questionnaires were administered to two cohorts of 100 consecutive women undergoing pregnancy termination at Ninewells Hospital (Dundee, UK) in 1984 and 1996. Over the 12-year study period, there was a trend toward increased reliance on condoms for pregnancy prevention (32% in 1984 and 60% in 1996). Condom accident was the main reason for unwanted pregnancy in the 1996 cohort (38%) compared with nonuse of contraception in 1984 (58%). True method failure accounted for 24% of conceptions in 1984 and 20% in 1996. 28% of women in the 1984 cohort and 17% in 1996 considered the possibility they might be pregnant after the index unprotected intercourse or condom accident. Good knowledge of emergency contraception (i.e., how long it is effective after sexual intercourse and where to obtain the method) increased from 12% in the 1984 cohort to 73% in 1996. These findings indicate that a lack of awareness of emergency contraception is no longer a substantial obstacle. Utilization of emergency contraception would likely be improved by easier accessibility (e.g., making the method available from pharmacies without a prescription). PMID:10023095

  18. Understanding delayed access to antenatal care: a qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote timely antenatal care for all women. PMID:24935100

  19. Antenatal Sonographic Diagnosis of Exencephaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Abu Musa; Toshiyuki Hata; Daisaku Senoh; Ken Makihara; Showa Aoki; Kohkichi Hata; Osamu Takamiya; Tomiju Mochida; Manabu Kitao; Osamu Tanaka

    1990-01-01

    We herein present a case of exencephaly with rachischisis, situs ambiguous and club feet, diagnosed antenatally by ultrasound. This combination of anomalies is very rare.Copyright © 1990 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Antenatal gene tests in low-risk pregnancies: molecular screening for aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) and infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kallinen, J; Heinonen, S; Palotie, A; Mannermaa, A; Ryynanen, M

    2001-05-01

    Approximately one in five subjects in Finland carries some gene defect associated with 30 diseases belonging to the Finnish disease heritage, and about one in 500 children born is affected. Almost all carriers, women and men, are unaware of their condition. Recent advances in molecular medicine have offered the possibility of population-based carrier screening for recessive disorders. We studied acceptance and attitudes to antenatal screening for aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) and infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL). From January 1995 until December 1996 carrier tests were offered at Kuopio City Health Center, free of charge to all pregnant women attending maternity care units. Women found to be carriers of AGU (n = 47) or INCL (n = 14) underwent detailed genetic counseling, and their male partners were also offered the test. If both partners appeared to be carriers we offered prenatal testing (n = 1). No affected fetuses were detected. Attitudes towards the gene test were elicited by means of a questionnaire. Altogether 87% of pregnant women elected to undertake the gene tests. Antenatal screening for gene defects was feasible and well accepted, and it provided an effective way to find carriers of genetic diseases and to incorporate prenatal testing into this process. PMID:11360285

  1. Antenatal psychosocial assessment for reducing perinatal mental health morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Marie-Paule; Priest, Susan R; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health conditions arising in the perinatal period, including depression, have the potential to impact negatively on not only the woman but also her partner, infant, and family. The capacity for routine, universal antenatal psychosocial assessment, and thus the potential for reduction of morbidity, is very significant. Objectives To evaluate the impact of antenatal psychosocial assessment on perinatal mental health morbidity. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register, the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group’s Trials Register (CCDAN TR-Studies), HSRProj in the National Library of Medicine (USA), and the Current Controlled Trials website: http://www.controlled trials.com/ and the UK National Research Register (last searched March 2008). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently assessed trials for eligibility; they also extracted data from included trials and assessed the trials for potential bias. Main results Two trials met criteria for an RCT of antenatal psychosocial assessment. One trial examined the impact of an antenatal tool (ALPHA) on clinician awareness of psychosocial risk, and the capacity of the antenatal ALPHA to predict women with elevated postnatal Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) scores, finding a trend towards increased clinician awareness of ‘high level’ psychosocial risk where the ALPHA intervention had been used (relative risk (RR) 4.61 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99 to 21.39). No differences between groups were seen for numbers of women with antenatal EDS scores, a score of greater than 9 being identified by ALPHA as of concern for depression (RR 0.69 95% CI 0.35 to 1.38); 139 providers. The other trial reported no differences in EPS scores greater than 12 at 16 weeks postpartum between the intervention (communication about the EDS scores with the woman and her healthcare providers plus a patient information booklet) and the standard care groups (RR 0.86 95% CI 0.61 to 1.21; 371 women). Authors’ conclusions While the use of an antenatal psychosocial assessment may increase the clinician’s awareness of psychosocial risk, neither of these small studies provides sufficient evidence that routine antenatal psychosocial assessment by itself leads to improved perinatal mental health outcomes. Further studies with better sample size and statistical power are required to further explore this important public health issue. It will also be important to examine outcomes up to one year postpartum not only for mother, but also infant and family. PMID:18843682

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among immigrant and native pregnant women in Eastern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Ramos; Afredo Milla; Juan C. Rodríguez; Sergio Padilla; Mar Masiá; Félix Gutiérrez

    In European countries, toxoplasma antenatal screening is recommended to prevent toxoplasmosis. The seroprevalence of these\\u000a infections in immigrants can be different than in native population. From February 2006 to June 2010, a cross-sectional study\\u000a was carried out in all pregnant women attended at a reference unit in Elche, Spain. An enzyme immunoassay was used for detection\\u000a of IgG antibodies against

  3. Clinical audit of antenatal service provision in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osungbade, Kayode Omoniyi; Shaahu, Vivian N; Uchendu, Obioma C

    2011-05-01

    We audited records of 365 pregnant women whose mean age was 25.6 ± 5.6 years. Their mean gestational age at booking was 29.3 ± 2.7 weeks; their mean number of antenatal visits was 4.2 ± 2.3. Weight, blood pressure, and urine were checked on 97.3%, 95.1%, and 86.3% of the women respectively. Hemoglobin estimation was done on 19.2% of women; 34.8% received two doses of tetanus toxoid. Malaria prophylaxis and iron and folate supplements were provided to 263 (72.1%) and 293 (80.3%), respectively. Late booking was common, and antenatal service was inadequately equipped. Early booking and full implementation of preventive treatments are recommended. Support for detection of anaemia and immunization service is desirable. PMID:21476162

  4. No Association between Antenatal Common Mental Disorders in Low-Obstetric Risk Women and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Their Offspring: Results from the CDS Study in Ghana and Côte D'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Bonle, Marguerite Te; Appiah-Poku, John; Hinz, Rebecca; Barthel, Dana; Schoppen, Stefanie; Feldt, Torsten; Barkmann, Claus; Koffi, Mathurin; Loag, Wibke; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Eberhardt, Kirsten A.; Tagbor, Harry; N’Goran, Eliezer; Ehrhardt, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence linking common mental disorders (CMD) in pregnant women to adverse birth outcomes is inconsistent, and studies often failed to control for pregnancy complications. This study aimed to explore the association between antenatal depression and anxiety symptoms and birth outcomes in a low-obstetric risk sample of mother/child dyads in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. Methods In 2010-2011, a prospective cohort of 1030 women in their third trimester in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire was enrolled. Depression and anxiety were assessed in the third trimester using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale. 719 mother/child dyads were included in the analysis. We constructed multivariate regression models to estimate the association between CMD and low birth weight (LBW), and preterm birth (PTB) to control for potential confounders. Results The prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms were 28.9% and 14.2% respectively. The mean birth weight was 3172.1g (SD 440.6) and the prevalence of LBW was 1.7%. The mean gestational age was 39.6 weeks and the proportion of PTB was 4%. Multivariate linear regression revealed no significant association between maternal depression (B=52.2, 95% CI -18.2 122.6, p=0.15) or anxiety (B=17.1, 95% CI -74.6 108.7, p=0.72) and birth weight. Yet, low socio-economic status, female sex of the child, and younger maternal age were associated with lower birth weight. Multivariate logistic regression suggested no significant association between maternal depression (OR: 2.1, 95% CI 0.8 5.6, p=0.15) or anxiety (OR: 1.8, 95% CI 0.6 5.5, p=0.29) with PTB. Conclusions Our data suggests that depression and/or anxiety in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy are not independent predictors of adverse birth outcomes in low obstetric risk women. The role of pregnancy complications as confounders or effect modifiers in studies of maternal CMD and their impact on birth outcomes should be investigated. PMID:24260460

  5. Role of antenatal care in toxemia of pregnancy in alexandria.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Aida M; Kishk, Nahla A; Shokeir, Nagwa F; Kassem, Mohamed S

    2006-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia remain one of the major obstetrical problems in less developed countries. Proper antenatal care (ANC) with regular measurement of blood pressure remains the mainstay of screening for hypertension in pregnancy. The aim of the current study was to identify frequency and characteristics of women with toxemia of pregnancy, assess both the quantitative and qualitative adequacy of antenatal care among cases with toxemia of pregnancy and to evaluate the effect of antenatal care on maternal and perinatal outcome. A cross-sectional case series study design was utilized .The study population was all cases, with confirmed diagnosis of toxemia of pregnancy who were admitted to El-Shatby University hospital during the period from January to May 2005. A structured interviewing schedule was used to collect data on characteristics of cases, maternal and fetal outcome. Site, adequacy and quality of received antenatal care were assessed. Out of total cases (336), 14.29% were diagnosed as mild pre-eclampsia, 83.31% were found to have severe pre-eclampsia while 2.40% were suffering from eclampsia. The severity of the condition was significantly associated with older maternal age, multiple pregnancy, primigravity, nulliparity, low socioeconomic conditions, husband's smoking and excessive caffeine consumption. Three-quarters of eclampsia cases (75.0%) didn't receive antenatal care and 60.0% of severe pre-eclamptics received inadequate antenatal care. The mean percent score of quality care domains of antenatal care content for mild pre-eclamptics was 75.62 +/- 13.80%. This was significantly higher than that for those of severe (59.96 +/- 27.95%) or for eclampsia cases (48.75 +/- 20.04%) where X(2) of Kruskal-Wallis=8.316 (P<0.001). Adverse maternal and fetal outcome occurred in 79.4% of women and 72.3% of babies for those who received poor quality ANC. In conclusion, the complications of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia could be prevented by wide spread use of adequate antenatal care, education and training of primary medical care personnel, prompt diagnosis of high risk patients and timely referral to higher level health care. PMID:17382081

  6. Self-reported oral hygiene habits, dental attendance and attitudes to dentistry during pregnancy in a sample of immigrant women in North London

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Hullah; Yaroslava Turok; Maud Nauta; Wai Yoong

    2008-01-01

    Aims  The aim of this study was to describe self-reported oral health, oral hygiene habits, frequency of visits to a dentist and\\u000a factors associated with dental attendance among pregnant women at a North London Hospital, the majority of whom are immigrants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  Peridontal disease is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe

  7. Determinants of Utilization of Antenatal Care Services in Rural Lucknow, India

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Manas P.; Mohan, Uday; Singh, Shivendra K.; Singh, Vijay K.; Srivastava, Anand K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Antenatal care services are the first steps towards ensuring the health of mothers and the newborn. This is the key component for achieving Millennium Development Goals by 2015. But India's performance continues to be poor in providing antenatal care services to its huge population, particularly in the rural areas. Objective: To assess the determinants of utilization of antenatal services by rural beneficiaries in Lucknow, a district of north India. Materials and Methods: The study, cross-sectional in design, was conducted from August 2009 to July 2010. Multistage random sampling was used for selecting villages. A total of 352 recently delivered women were selected following systematic random sampling. Logistic regression was used to find out the determinants of three antenatal care services. Results: Overall, 85.5% of the beneficiaries surveyed were found to receive at least three antenatal care services from any health facility. Community health centre was the most common source for such care. Significant difference was found between beneficiaries who took three antenatal care visits and who did not in terms of age, socio economic status, and timing of registration. On multiple regression, only age (OR = 2.107, 95% CI = 1.132 – 3.923) and timing of registration (OR = 2.817, 95% CI = 1.487 – 5.338) were found to be the predictors for three antenatal care visits. Conclusion: Intervention should be focused on young and late registered women for ensuring sufficient care during pregnancy. PMID:24479045

  8. Awareness and practice of family planning methods in women attending gyne OPD at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, H; Marahatta, R

    2008-09-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study of awareness and practice of family planning methods among 200 women of reproductive age attending gynecology out patient department (GOPD) of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from 14th May 2008 to 14th July, 2008 was carried out. Most of the respondents (93.0%) were aware of at least one of family planning methods out often methods, but only 65.0% had ever used it and contraceptive prevalence rate was 33.5% which was slightly higher than the national data as 28.5%. The best known method of temporary contraception was depo provera (78.0%) followed by oral contraceptive pills (74.0%) and condom (71.0%) and least known methods were vaginal foam tablets/jelly (34.0%) and natural methods (16.0%). Among permanent family planning methods, awareness about female sterilization (81.0%) was more than male sterilization (77.0%) which was in accordance with studies done in other countries. Knowledge about emergency coritraception was quite low (12.0%) as it was newly introduced in the country. Regarding current use of contraception depo provera (11.0%) was the most widely used followed by oral contraceptive pills (4.5%) and condom (4.5%). 5.5% had undergone female sterilization while only 2.5% of male partner had sterilization Knowledge of non contraceptive benefits of family planning methods was claimed by only 35.0% of the respondents, 27.0% reported awareness that condoms protect from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) while knowledge about various adverse effects was widespread (52.5%). The most common source of information on contraception was media (55.5%), both printed and electronic. This study also observed that with increase in level of education, awareness also increased. Although most of the women were aware about the methods, they were ignorant about the details like duration of protection, return of fertility on discontinuation and non contraceptive benefits. The most common reason for discontinuation of FP methods was stated as side effects. A wide knowledge practice gap was evident in this study, which was similar to the findings of studies done in other developing countries. Improved female education strategies and better access to services are needed to solve these problems. The use of communication media suitable for the audience and adequate message is important in conducting effective family planning awareness activities. Efforts should be made to educate the public about the safety and convenience of modern, long-term, reversible methods of contraception among both healthcare professionals and the public. PMID:19253864

  9. Stressful life events, social health issues and low birthweight in an Australian population-based birth cohort: challenges and opportunities in antenatal care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Investment in strategies to promote 'a healthy start to life' has been identified as having the greatest potential to reduce health inequalities across the life course. The aim of this study was to examine social determinants of low birthweight in an Australian population-based birth cohort and consider implications for health policy and health care systems. Methods Population-based survey distributed by hospitals and home birth practitioners to >8000 women six months after childbirth in two states of Australia. Participants were women who gave birth to a liveborn infant in Victoria and South Australia in September/October 2007. Main outcome measures included stressful life events and social health issues, perceived discrimination in health care settings, infant birthweight. Results 4,366/8468 (52%) of eligible women returned completed surveys. Two-thirds (2912/4352) reported one or more stressful life events or social health issues during pregnancy. Women reporting three or more social health issues (18%, 768/4352) were significantly more likely to have a low birthweight infant (< 2500 grams) after controlling for smoking and other socio-demographic covariates (Adj OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.1-2.8). Mothers born overseas in non-English speaking countries also had a higher risk of having a low birthweight infant (Adj OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.2-2.9). Women reporting three or more stressful life events/social health issues were more likely to attend antenatal care later in pregnancy (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.3-3.1), to have fewer antenatal visits (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.4-3.4) and to experience discrimination in health care settings (OR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.2-3.3). Conclusions There is a window of opportunity in antenatal care to implement targeted preventive interventions addressing potentially modifiable risk factors for poor maternal and infant outcomes. Developing the evidence base and infrastructure necessary in order for antenatal services to respond effectively to the social circumstances of women's lives is long overdue. PMID:21450106

  10. Daily Maternal Counting of Fetal Movement as an Antenatal Screening Test. Part I. A Review

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    The author reviews use of maternal counting of fetal movements as an antenatal screening test. This test appears to be a sensitive indicator of fetal well-being and a useful method for preventing inexplicable stillbirths. Evidence suggests that it should be considered a routine antenatal screening test for all pregnant women, and not just for those at high risk for perinatal morbidity and mortality. Screening should begin at 28 weeks gestation. PMID:21253142

  11. Implementation of evidence-based antenatal care in Mozambique: a cluster randomized controlled trial: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) reduces maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality directly through the detection and treatment of pregnancy-related illnesses, and indirectly through the detection of women at increased risk of delivery complications. The potential benefits of quality antenatal care services are most significant in low-resource countries where morbidity and mortality levels among women of reproductive age and neonates are higher. WHO developed an ANC model that recommended the delivery of services scientifically proven to improve maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of an intervention designed to increase the use of the package of evidence-based services included in the WHO ANC model in Mozambique. The primary hypothesis is that the intervention will increase the use of evidence-based practices during ANC visits in comparison to the standard dissemination channels currently used in the country. Methods This is a demonstration project to be developed through a facility-based cluster randomized controlled trial with a stepped wedge design. The intervention was tailored, based on formative research findings, to be readily applicable to local prenatal care services and acceptable to local pregnant women and health providers. The intervention includes four components: the provision of kits with all necessary medicines and laboratory supplies for ANC (medical and non-medical equipment), a storage system, a tracking system, and training sessions for health care providers. Ten clinics were selected and will start receiving the intervention in a random order. Outcomes will be computed at each time point when a new clinic starts the intervention. The primary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending the first ANC visit, and secondary outcomes are the delivery of selected health care practices to women attending second and higher ANC visits as well as the attitude of midwives in relation to adopting the practices. This demonstration project is pragmatic in orientation and will be conducted under routine conditions. Discussion There is an urgent need for effective and sustainable scaling-up approaches of health interventions in low-resource countries. This can only be accomplished by the engagement of the country’s health stakeholders at all levels. This project aims to achieve improvement in the quality of antenatal care in Mozambique through the implementation of a multifaceted intervention on three levels: policy, organizational and health care delivery levels. The implementation of the trial will probably require a change in accountability and behaviour of health care providers and we expect this change in ‘habits’ will contribute to obtaining reliable health indicators, not only related to research issues, but also to health care outcomes derived from the new health care model. At policy level, the results of this study may suggest a need for revision of the supply chain management system. Given that supply chain management is a major challenge for many low-resource countries, we envisage that important lessons on how to improve the supply chain in Mozambique and other similar settings, will be drawn from this study. Trial registration Pan African Clinical Trial Registry database. Identification number: PACTR201306000550192. PMID:24886392

  12. Effect of antenatal education on expectant parents' knowledge and attitudes regarding infant nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Mogan

    1984-01-01

    OBESITY is a growing problem among infants and young children and yet little attention is paid to the nutritional education of expectant parents. Eighty six couples attending a course of antenatal classes jointly completed a questionnaire about their beliefs and knowledge relating to infant feeding. Ninety per cent planned to breast-feed their babies, but there was some confusion about feeding

  13. Antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression: a synthesis of recent literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Robertson; Sherry Grace; Tamara Wallington; Donna E Stewart

    2004-01-01

    Postpartum nonpsychotic depression is the most common complication of childbearing, affecting approximately 10–15% of women and, as such, represents a considerable health problem affecting women and their families. This systematic review provides a synthesis of the recent literature pertaining to antenatal risk factors associated with developing this condition. Databases relating to the medical, psychological, and social science literature were searched

  14. Stigma and Attitudes towards Antenatal Depression and Antidepressant Use during Pregnancy in Healthcare Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawley, Laura; Einarson, Adrienne; Bowen, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Depression in pregnancy or antenatal depression (AD) occurs in approximately one in five women, with potentially deleterious effects to the mother and fetus. People are encouraged to get treatment for depression; however, pregnant women can experience stigma when they reach out for help with depression. Research indicates that healthcare…

  15. Preparation for pain management during childbirth: The psychological aspects of coping strategy development in antenatal education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Escott; Pauline Slade; Helen Spiby

    2009-01-01

    During childbirth, in addition to or in place of analgesia, women manage pain using a range of coping strategies. Antenatal education provides an opportunity prior to birth to help women to prepare for an often painful event. However, this is usually carried out with little reference to the literature regarding psychological factors which influence the experience of pain. This review

  16. The Views of Student-Teachers Attending a Turkish University on Discrimination Related to the Education of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murat, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to highlight how Turkish students perceive important issues such as discrimination against women, violence that surfaced as a result of discrimination, alienation, inequality between men and women and isolation of women from work life. A total of 50 students participated in the study. Individual interviews were conducted.…

  17. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy: a qualitative study of knowledge, attitudes and practices of district health managers, antenatal care staff and pregnant women in Korogwe District, North-Eastern Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godfrey Mubyazi; Paul Bloch; Mathias Kamugisha; Andrew Kitua; Jasper Ijumba

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) is a key intervention in the national strategy for malaria control in Tanzania. SP, the current drug of choice, is recommended to be administered in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy during antenatal care (ANC) visits. To allow for a proper design of planned scaling up of IPT services in

  18. From research to practice: the example of antenatal care in Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Winiyakul, Narong; Chongsomchai, Chompilas; Chaisiri, Kamron

    2004-01-01

    The rationale for providing antenatal care is to screen predominantly healthy pregnant women to detect early signs of, or risk factors for, abnormal conditions or diseases and to follow this detection with effective and timely intervention. The recommended antenatal care programme in most developing countries is often the same as the programmes used in developed countries. However, in developing countries there is wide variation in the proportion of women who receive antenatal care. The WHO randomized trial of antenatal care and the WHO systematic review indicated that a model of care that provided fewer antenatal visits could be introduced into clinical practice without causing adverse consequences to the woman or the fetus. This new model of antenatal care is being implemented in Thailand. Action has been required at all levels of the health-care system, from consumers through to health professionals, the Ministry of Public Health and international organizations. The Thai experience is a good example of moving research findings into practice, and it should be replicated elsewhere to effectively manage other health problems. PMID:15643795

  19. Factors influencing the use of antenatal care in rural West Sumatra, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Every year, nearly half a million women and girls needlessly die as a result of complications during pregnancy, childbirth or the 6 weeks following delivery. Almost all (99%) of these deaths occur in developing countries. The study aim was to describe the factors related to low visits for antenatal care (ANC) services among pregnant women in Indonesia. Method A total of 145 of 200 married women of reproductive age who were pregnant or had experienced birth responded to the questionnaire about their ANC visits. We developed a questionnaire containing 35 items and four sections. Section one and two included the women's socio demographics, section three about basic knowledge of pregnancy and section four contained two subsections about preferences about midwives and preferences about Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA) and the second subsections were traditional beliefs. Data were collected using a convenience sampling strategy during July and August 2010, from 10 villages in the Tanjung Emas. Multiple regression analysis was used for preference for types of providers. Results Three-quarter of respondents (77.9%) received ANC more than four times. The other 22.1% received ANC less than four times. 59.4% received ANC visits during pregnancy, which was statistically significant compared to multiparous (p = 0.001). Women who were encouraged by their family to receive ANC had statistically significant higher traditional belief scores compared to those who encouraged themselves (p = 0.003). Preference for TBAs was most strongly affected by traditional beliefs (p < 0.001). On the contrary, preference for midwives was negatively correlated with traditional beliefs (p < 0.001). Conclusions Parity was the factor influencing women's receiving less than the recommended four ANC visits during pregnancy. Women who were encouraged by their family to get ANC services had higher traditional beliefs score than women who encouraged themselves. Moreover, traditional beliefs followed by lower income families had the greater influence over preferring TBAs, with the opposite trend for preferring midwives. Increased attention needs to be given to the women; it also very important for exploring women's perceptions about health services that they received. PMID:22353252

  20. Pregnant women's experiences of male partner involvement in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Khayelitsha, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brittain, Kirsty; Giddy, Janet; Myer, Landon; Cooper, Diane; Harries, Jane; Stinson, Kathryn

    2015-08-01

    Male partner involvement (MPI) has been identified as a priority intervention in programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, but rates of MPI remain low worldwide. This study used a quantitative survey (n = 170) and two focus group discussions (FGDs) with 16 HIV-positive pregnant women attending a public sector antenatal care service in Khayelitsha, South Africa, to examine the determinants of high levels of involvement and generate a broader understanding of women's experiences of MPI during pregnancy. Among survey participants, 74% had disclosed their status to their partner, and most reported high levels of communication around HIV testing and preventing partner transmission, as well as high levels of MPI. High MPI was significantly more likely among women who were cohabiting with their partner; who had reportedly disclosed their HIV status to their partner; and who reported higher levels of HIV-related communication with their partner. FGD participants discussed a range of ways in which partners can be supportive during pregnancy, not limited to male attendance of antenatal care. MPI appears to be a feasible intervention in this context, and MPI interventions should aim to encourage male partner attendance of antenatal care as well as greater involvement in pregnancy more generally. Interventions that target communication are needed to facilitate HIV-related communication and disclosure within couples. MPI should remain a priority intervention in PMTCT programmes, and increased efforts should be made to promote MPI in PMTCT. PMID:25738960

  1. Maternal Antenatal Depression and Infant Disorganized Attachment at 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at 3 months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at 3 months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing. PMID:23216358

  2. Opportunities to improve maternal health literacy through antenatal education: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Renkert, S; Nutbeam, D

    2001-12-01

    This paper examines the concept of maternal health literacy, defined as the cognitive and social skills that determine the motivation and ability of women to gain access to, understand, and use information in ways that promote and maintain their health and that of their children. Specifically, it investigates the feasibility of using the concept of health literacy to guide the content and process of antenatal classes. The paper reports on the results of focus groups and interviews conducted with a range of health care providers, pregnant women and new mothers to obtain different perspectives on the issues surrounding antenatal education and parenting. The results give us a realistic look at what women are learning from existing antenatal education and how it can be improved. Comparing the results from the educators and the women, the same basic issues surface. Both recognize that there are serious time limitations in antenatal classes. These limitations, combined with natural anxiety and curiosity about childbirth, generally ensure that the content of classes is confined to pregnancy and childbirth. The limitations of time are also cited as a reason for the teaching methods being heavily weighted towards the transfer of factual information, as distinct from the development of decision-making skills, and practical skills for childbirth and parenting The results indicate clearly that antenatal classes cannot possibly cover all there is to know about pregnancy, childbirth and parenting. If the purpose of antenatal classes is to improve maternal health literacy, then women need to leave a class with the skills and confidence to take a range of actions that contribute to a successful pregnancy, childbirth and early parenting. This includes knowing where to go for further information, and the ability to analyse information critically. The authors conclude that this would represent a very challenging change in orientation for both the educators and pregnant women included in this study. Work continues on the development of the tools that will be needed to support this change. PMID:11733456

  3. Determinants of antenatal and delivery care utilization in Tigray region, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite the international emphasis in the last few years on the need to address the unmet health needs of pregnant women and children, progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow. This is particularly worrying in sub-Saharan Africa where over 162,000 women still die each year during pregnancy and childbirth, most of them because of the lack of access to skilled delivery attendance and emergency care. With a maternal mortality ratio of 673 per 100,000 live births and 19,000 maternal deaths annually, Ethiopia is a major contributor to the worldwide death toll of mothers. While some studies have looked at different risk factors for antenatal care (ANC) and delivery service utilisation in the country, information coming from community-based studies related to the Health Extension Programme (HEP) in rural areas is limited. This study aims to determine the prevalence of maternal health care utilisation and explore its determinants among rural women aged 15–49 years in Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods The study was a community-based cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire. A cluster sampling technique was used to select women who had given birth at least once in the five years prior to the survey period. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to elicit the impact of each factor on ANC and institutional delivery service utilisation. Results The response rate was 99% (n=1113). The mean age of the participants was 30.4 years. The proportion of women who received ANC for their recent births was 54%; only 46 (4.1%) of women gave birth at a health facility. Factors associated with ANC utilisation were marital status, education, proximity of health facility to the village, and husband’s occupation, while use of institutional delivery was mainly associated with parity, education, having received ANC advice, a history of difficult/prolonged labour, and husbands’ occupation. Conclusions A relatively acceptable utilisation of ANC services but extremely low institutional delivery was observed. Classical socio-demographic factors were associated with both ANC and institutional delivery attendance. ANC advice can contribute to increase institutional delivery use. Different aspects of HEP need to be strengthened to improve maternal health in Tigray. PMID:23672203

  4. Survival and progression of HIV disease in women attending GUM/HIV clinics in Britain and Ireland. Study Group for the MRC Collaborative Study of HIV Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the pattern of clinical disease in women with HIV infection and to examine the effect of potential cofactors, including oral contraceptive use, alcohol and smoking, ethnic group, and route of HIV transmission, on progression to AIDS and death. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: 15 HIV and genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in Britain and Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: 505 women aged over 18 years with a positive HIV antibody test entered the study between June 1992 and August 1995, with outcome data available for 503 women, and 1208 woman years of follow up to April 1996. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: AIDS defining conditions, incidence of AIDS, and death. RESULTS: 120 women (24%) had AIDS at entry to the study. There were 99 incident AIDS cases and 132 deaths during 1208 woman years of follow up. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) was the commonest first AIDS defining condition in white women (31% of AIDS cases), followed by oesophageal candidiasis (19%) while tuberculosis was the most common first AIDS defining condition among black African women (24% of AIDS cases), followed by oesophageal candidiasis (19%). In multivariate analyses, rate of progression to AIDS was significantly related to CD4 lymphocyte count at entry and PCP prophylaxis, but not to ethnic group, route of HIV transmission, alcohol, smoking, or oral contraceptive use. Mortality from all causes was not significantly different in women infected through injecting drugs (adjusted ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.7-1.8) compared with those infected through sexual intercourse, and non-significantly lower in black African women (0.7, 0.3-1.2) compared with white women. Survival was not significantly related to smoking, alcohol, or oral contraceptive use. CONCLUSIONS: In women attending GUM/HIV clinics, the pattern of AIDS defining conditions differs by ethnic group, but progression of HIV disease is not importantly related to smoking, alcohol, oral contraceptive use, route of HIV transmission, or ethnic group. ??? PMID:10615311

  5. Effect of removing user fees on attendance for curative and preventive primary health care services in rural South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, D.; Gouws, E.; Sach, M.; Karim, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    User fees are used to recover costs and discourage unnecessary attendance at primary care clinics in many developing countries. In South Africa, user fees for children aged under 6 years and pregnant women were removed in 1994, and in 1997 all user fees at all primary health care clinics were abolished. The intention of these policy changes was to improve access to health services for previously disadvantaged communities. We investigated the impact of these changes on clinic attendance patterns in Hlabisa health district. Average quarterly new registrations and total attendances for preventive services (antenatal care, immunization, growth monitoring) and curative services (treatment of ailments) at a mobile primary health care unit were studied from 1992 to 1998. Regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether trends were statistically significant. There was a sustained increase in new registrations (P = 0.0001) and total attendances (P = 0.0001) for curative services, and a fall in new registrations (P = 0.01) and total attendances for immunization and growth monitoring (P = 0.0002) over the study period. The upturn in demand for curative services started at the time of the first policy change. The decreases in antenatal registrations (P = 0.07) and attendances (P = 0.09) were not statistically significant. The number of new registrations for immunization and growth monitoring increased following the first policy change but declined thereafter. We found no evidence that the second policy change influenced underlying trends. The removal of user fees improved access to curative services but this may have happened at the expense of some preventive services. Governments should remain vigilant about the effects of new health policies in order to ensure that objectives are being met. PMID:11477970

  6. How much time do health services spend on antenatal care? Implications for the introduction of the focused antenatal care model in Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia von Both; Steffen Fle?a; Ahmad Makuwani; Rose Mpembeni; Albrecht Jahn

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC) is a widely used strategy to improve the health of pregnant women and to encourage skilled care during childbirth. In 2002, the Ministry of Health of the United Republic of Tanzania developed a national adaptation plan based on the new model of the World Health Organisation (WHO). In this study we assess the time health workers

  7. Use of antenatal corticosteroids prior to preterm birth in four South East Asian countries within the SEA-ORCHID project

    PubMed Central

    Pattanittum, Porjai; Ewens, Melissa R; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; McDonald, Steven J; Crowther, Caroline A

    2008-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence supporting the use of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk of preterm birth to promote fetal lung maturation and reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. This audit aimed to assess the use of antenatal corticosteroids prior to preterm birth in the nine hospitals in four South East Asian countries participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive Health in Developing Countries (SEA-ORCHID) Project. Method We reviewed the medical records of 9550 women (9665 infants including 111 twins and two triplets) admitted to the labour wards of nine hospitals in four South East Asian countries during 2005. For women who gave birth before 34 weeks gestation we collected information on women's demographic and pregnancy background, the type, dose and use of corticosteroids, and key birth and infant outcomes. Results Administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women who gave birth before 34 weeks gestation varied widely between countries (9% to 73%) and also between hospitals within countries (0% to 86%). Antenatal corticosteroids were most commonly given when women were between 28 and 34 weeks gestation (80%). Overall 6% of women received repeat doses of corticosteroids. Dexamethasone was the only type of antenatal corticosteroid used. Women receiving antenatal corticosteroids compared with those not given antenatal corticosteroids were less likely to have had a previous pregnancy and to be booked for birth at the hospital and almost three times as likely to have a current multiple pregnancy. Exposed women were less likely to be induced and almost twice as likely to have a caesarean section, a primary postpartum haemorrhage and postpartum pyrexia. Infants exposed to antenatal corticosteroids compared with infants not exposed were less likely to die. Live born exposed infants were less likely to have Apgar scores of < 7 at five minutes and less likely to have any lung disease. Conclusion In this survey the use of antenatal corticosteroids prior to preterm birth varied between countries and hospitals. Evaluation of the enablers and barriers to the uptake of this effective antenatal intervention at individual hospitals is needed. PMID:18925968

  8. Frequency of Human Papillumavirus among Women with High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Invasive Cervical Cancer Attending Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Clinics, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    KHODAKARAMI, Nahid; MORADI, Afshin; MIRZAEI, Hamidreza; FARZANEH, Farah; YAVARI, Parvin; AKBARI, Mohamad Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The previous studies reported some information about prevalence release of high-risk HPV types in HSIL or cervical cancer globally and in Iran, however, this information is not enough for final judgment about vaccination against HPV or any screening program. The aim of the present study was to assess the HPV type distribution in HSIL and ICC specimens of women attending Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals, Tehran, Iran for treatment during 10 years. Methods This retrospective- descriptive study evaluated the HPV type distribution of pathologic specimens of Iranian women with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Formalin-fixed tumor biopsies that were retrieved from women presenting with histological confirmation for ICC and 17 pathologic confirmation for HSIL specimens. Results The most frequently identified HPV type 16 among both groups, women with invasive cervical cancer (4-2.18%) and women with High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (29.41%), followed by HPV18, HPV31 and 26. HPV16 and / or 18 accounted for 82.2% of all infected samples. Conclusion The dominance of HPV16 over other high-risk types might be even higher than in a region with low HPV exposure. However, there was no strong evidence for any judgment that show to the policy makers; which one is cost-effectiveness and feasibility for cervical cancer prevention in Iran, vaccination, screening or both? More population based study and national meta-analysis needed for better understanding of HPV prevalence and HPV DNA patterns in Iran.

  9. Health insurance for the poor decreases access to HIV testing in antenatal care: evidence of an unintended effect of health insurance reform in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ettenger, Allison; Bärnighausen, Till; Castro, Arachu

    2014-05-01

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV was added to standard antenatal care (ANC) in 2000 for Colombians enrolled in the two national health insurance schemes, the 'subsidized regime' (covering poor citizens) and the 'contributory regime' (covering salaried citizens with incomes above the poverty threshold), which jointly covered 80% of the total Colombian population as of 2007. This article examines integration of HIV testing in ANC through the relationship between ordering an HIV test with the type of health insurance, including lack of health insurance, using data from the nationally representative 2005 Colombia Demographic and Health Survey. Overall, health-care providers ordered an HIV test for only 35% of the women attending ANC. We regressed the order of an HIV test during ANC on health systems characteristics (type of insurance and type of ANC provider), women's characteristics (age, wealth, educational attainment, month of pregnancy at first antenatal visit, HIV knowledge, urban vs. rural residence and sub-region of residence) and children's characteristics (birth order and birth year). Women enrolled in the subsidized regime were significantly less likely to be offered and receive an HIV test in ANC than women without any health insurance (adjusted odds ratio = 0.820, P < 0.001), when controlling for the other independent variables. Wealth, urban residence, birth year of the child and the type of health-care provider seen during the ANC visit were significantly associated with providers ordering an HIV test for a woman (all P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that enrolment in the subsidized regime reduced access to HIV testing in ANC. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms through which the potential effect of health insurance coverage on HIV testing in ANC occurs and to examine whether enrolment in the subsidized regime has affected access to other essential health services. PMID:23598426

  10. Estimating Gestational Age in Late Presenters to Antenatal Care in a Resource-Limited Setting on the Thai-Myanmar Border

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kerryn A.; Simpson, Julie A.; Thomas, Kyla H.; Rijken, Marcus J.; White, Lisa J.; Lu Moo Dwell, Saw; Paw, Moo Kho; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Nosten, François; Fowkes, Freya J. I.; McGready, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Estimating gestational age in resource-limited settings is prone to considerable inaccuracy because crown-rump length measured by ultrasound before 14 weeks gestation, the recommended method for estimating gestational age, is often unavailable. Judgements regarding provision of appropriate obstetric and neonatal care are dependent on accurate estimation of gestational age. We determined the accuracy of the Dubowitz Gestational Age Assessment, a population-specific symphysis-fundal height formula, and ultrasound biometry performed between 16 and 40 weeks gestation in estimating gestational age using pre-existing data from antenatal clinics of the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit on the Thai-Myanmar border, where malaria is endemic. Two cohorts of women who gave birth to live singletons were analysed: 1) 250 women who attended antenatal care between July 2001 and May 2006 and had both ultrasound crown-rump length (reference) and a Dubowitz Gestational Age Assessment; 2) 975 women attending antenatal care between April 2007 and October 2010 who had ultrasound crown-rump length, symphysis-fundal measurements, and an additional study ultrasound (biparietal diameter and head circumference) randomly scheduled between 16 and 40 weeks gestation. Mean difference in estimated newborn gestational age between methods and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were determined from linear mixed-effects models. The Dubowitz method and the symphysis-fundal height formula performed well in term newborns, but overestimated gestational age of preterms by 2.57 weeks (95% LOA: 0.49, 4.65) and 3.94 weeks (95% LOA: 2.50, 5.38), respectively. Biparietal diameter overestimated gestational age by 0.83 weeks (95% LOA: -0.93, 2.58). Head circumference underestimated gestational age by 0.39 weeks (95% LOA: -2.60, 1.82), especially if measured after 24 weeks gestation. The results of this study can be used to quantify biases associated with alternative methods for estimating gestational age in the absence of ultrasound crown-rump length to inform critical clinical judgements in this population, and as a point of reference elsewhere. PMID:26114295

  11. Histologic chorioamnionitis, antenatal steroids, and perinatal outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Elimian; Uma Verma; Debra Beneck; Rebecca Cipriano; Paul Visintainer; Nergesh Tejani

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To determine the perinatal effects of histologic chorioamnionitis on preterm neonates and the effectiveness of antenatal steroids in the presence of histologic chorioamnionitis.Methods: We studied neonates at our institution who weighed 1750 g or less at birth from January 1990 through December 1997. The population was stratified primarily by presence of histologic chorioamnionitis and secondarily by exposure to antenatal

  12. Dimensions of Quality of Antenatal Care Sservice at Suez, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Rahman El Gammal, Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The 5th millennium development goal aims at reducing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015. According to the World Health Organization, there was an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths globally in 2008. Developing countries accounted for 99% of these deaths of which three-fifths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In primary health care (PHC), quality of antenatal care is fundamental and critically affects service continuity. Nevertheless, medical research ignores the issue and it is lacking scientific inquiry, particularly in Egypt. Aim of the Study: The aim of the following study is to assess the quality of antenatal care in urban Suez Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional primary health care center (PHCC) based study conducted at five PHCC in urban Suez, Egypt. The total sample size collected from clients, physicians and medical records. Parameters assessed auditing of medical records, assessing provider and pregnant women satisfaction. Results: Nearly 97% of respondents were satisfied about the quality of antenatal care, while provider's satisfaction was 61% and for file, auditing was 76.5 ± 5.6. Conclusion: The present study shows that client satisfaction, physicians’ satisfaction and auditing of medical record represent an idea about opportunities for improvement. PMID:25374861

  13. African American and White Differences in Nutritional Status Among Low-Income Women Attending Public Health Clinics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiepu Liu; Seng-Jaw Soong; Xingqiu Wang; Nedra P. Wilson; Carol B. Craig

    1996-01-01

    :Information concerning nutritional status and factors influencing dietary intakes among underserved populations is scarce. To obtain this information, data on nutritional status in a group of 726 white and African American women of low education and low income who were inner-city dwellers were analyzed. Dietary habits in all subjects were characterized by high intakes of fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and

  14. African American and White Differences in Nutritional Status Among Low-Income Women Attending Public Health Clinics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1996-01-01

    Information concerning nutritional status and factors influencing dietary intakes among underserved populations is scarce. To obtain this information, data on nutritional status in a group of 726 white and African American women of low education and low income who were inner-city dwellers were analyzed. Dietary habits in all subjects were characterized by high intakes of fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and

  15. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørg Hjerkinn; Morten Lindbæk; Idar Skogmo; Elin Olaug Rosvold

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his\\/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. METHODS: We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  17. The cause and consequence of domestic violence on pregnant women in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, N N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidate the impact of domestic violence on the health and pregnancy outcomes of women. Data were extracted from literature through the MEDLINE database for years 2000-2011. Domestic violence occurs in every society, irrespective of class, creed, religion and country. Women attending antenatal clinics in Delhi reported experience of 26.9% physical, 29% mental and 6.2% sexual abuse, irrespective of their age. The spouse was the perpetrator of abuse in 47% cases and his family members were responsible for 31%. Pregnant women were hit by their husbands on the back and abdomen, sometimes repeatedly, besides psychological abuse. Incidence of domestic violence was more when the male spouse was less educated or in the habit of consuming alcohol, opium or tobacco. Illiteracy, poverty, family status and uncaring attitude of community about spousal violence were the causes of domestic violence. Women having experience of violence were less likely to receive antenatal care or home visits by health workers and had a risk of perinatal and neonatal mortality of 2.59 and 2.37 times higher, respectively, than women having no violence during pregnancy. The survey indicated that 4.5% of abused women required hospitalisation and 3.8% needed medical care. Women's education, economic autonomy and empowerment may reduce the incidence of domestic violence among Indian women. PMID:23550851

  18. Rate of Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendant and the Influencing Factors in an Urban Myanmar Population.

    PubMed

    Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Soe, Malar; Charupoonphol, Phitaya; Srisorrachatr, Suwat

    2015-07-01

    A survey study aimed at identifying rates and predictive factors on utilization of skilled birth attendant (SBA) among pregnant women. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 200 Myanmar women aged 18 to 49 years in Kalay Township. Data were collected by interview questionnaire from March 1 to 15, 2012, and data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation, ?(2) test, and multiple logistic regression analysis. The utilization rate of SBA was 74%. Factors significantly predicting utilization of SBA (P < .05) were level of maternal and child health (MCH) knowledge, attitude toward SBA, and accessibility to MCH services. The women who had a moderate to good level of knowledge utilized SBA 2.7 times more than those who had a poor level of knowledge (odds ratio = 2.705, 95% confidence interval = 1.31-5.57). The women who had a positive attitude toward SBA utilized SBA 7.7 times more than those who had a negative attitude (odds ratio = 7.708, 95% confidence interval = 3.71-15.98). The women who had high accessibility to MCH services utilized SBA 1.4 times more than those who had low accessibility (odds ratio = 1.477, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-2.21). These factors were able to correctly predict utilization of SBA at 74.9%. MCH knowledge and information on utilization of SBA should be strengthened during every antenatal care visit to enhance positive attitude on utilization of SBA and to increase accessibility to MCH services by providing community antenatal care or home visits. PMID:25556218

  19. The effects of antenatal depression and antidepressant treatment on placental gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Åkerud, Helena; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Kaihola, Helena; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-01-01

    The effects of antenatal depression and antidepressant treatment during pregnancy on both mother and child are vigorously studied, but the underlying biology for these effects is largely unknown. The placenta plays a crucial role in the growth and development of the fetus. We performed a gene expression study on the fetal side of the placenta to investigate gene expression patterns in mothers with antenatal depression and in mothers using antidepressant treatment during pregnancy. Placental samples from mothers with normal pregnancies, from mothers with antenatal depression, and from mothers using antidepressants were collected. We performed a pilot microarray study to investigate alterations in the gene expression and selected several genes from the microarray for biological validation with qPCR in a larger sample. In mothers with antenatal depression 108 genes were differentially expressed, whereas 109 genes were differentially expressed in those using antidepressants. Validation of the microarray revealed more robust gene expression differences in the seven genes picked for confirmation in antidepressant-treated women than in depressed women. Among the genes that were validated ROCK2 and C12orf39 were differentially expressed in both depressed and antidepressant-treated women, whereas ROCK1, GCC2, KTN1, and DNM1L were only differentially expressed in the antidepressant-treated women. In conclusion, antenatal depression and antidepressant exposure during pregnancy are associated with altered gene expression in the placenta. Findings on those genes picked for validation were more robust among antidepressant-treated women than in depressed women, possibly due to the fact that depression is a multifactorial condition with varying degrees of endocrine disruption. It remains to be established whether the alterations found in the gene expression of the placenta are found in the fetus as well. PMID:25628539

  20. Evaluation of the quality of antenatal care using electronic health record information in family medicine clinics of Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the quality of antenatal care (ANC) using indicators should be part of the efforts to improve primary care services in developing countries. The growing use of the electronic health record (EHR) has the potential of making the evaluation more efficient. The objectives of this study were: (a) to develop quality indicators for ANC and (b) to evaluate the quality of ANC using EHR information in family medicine clinics (FMCs) of Mexico City. Methods We used a mixed methods approach including: (a) in-depth interviews with health professionals; (b) development of indicators following the RAND-UCLA method; (c) a retrospective cohort study of quality of care provided to 5342 women aged 12–49 years who had completed their pregnancy in 2009 and attended to at least one ANC visit with their family doctor. The study took place in four FMCs located in Mexico City. The source of information was the EHR. SAS statistical package served for programing and performing the descriptive statistical analysis. Results 14 ANC quality indicators were developed. The evaluation showed that 40.6% of women began ANC in the first trimester; 63.5% with low-risk pregnancy attended four or more ANC visits; 4.4% were referred for routine obstetric ultrasound, and 41.1% with vaginal infection were prescribed metronidazole. On average, the percentage of recommended care that women received was 32.7%. Conclusions It is feasible to develop quality indicators suitable for evaluating the quality of ANC using routine EHR data. The study identified the ANC areas that require improvement; which can guide future strategies aimed at improving ANC quality. PMID:24885103

  1. Using the ALPHA form in practice to assess antenatal psychosocial health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J. Reid; Anne Biringer; June D. Carroll; Deana Midmer; Lynn M. Wilson; Beverley Chalmers; Donna E. Stewart

    1998-01-01

    Background: The assessment of the psychosocial health of pregnant women and their families, although recommended, is not carried out by most practitioners. One reason is the lack of a practical and evidence-based tool. In response, a multidisciplinary group created the Antenatal Psychosocial Health Assessment (ALPHA) form. This article describes the development of this tool and experi- ence with it in

  2. Antenatal maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome: results of a demonstration project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Wald; A. Kennard; J. W. Densem; H. S. Cuckle; T. Chard; L. Butler

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the implementation of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome in practice, using individual risk estimates based on maternal age and the three serum markers: alpha fetoprotein, unconjugated oestriol, and human chorionic gonadotrophin. DESIGN--Demonstration project of Down's syndrome screening; women with a risk estimate at term of 1 in 250 or greater were classified as \\

  3. Compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention antenatal culture protocol for preventing group B streptococcal neonatal sepsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Cheon-Lee; Marvin S. Amstey

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to measure the compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention antenatal culture protocol for preventing group B streptococcal sepsis after extensive education of physicians and staff.STUDY DESIGN: After 2 months of educational activities to familiarize attending physicians, nurses, and laboratory staff with the guidelines, a retrospective chart review of all vaginal deliveries over a

  4. The association of ethnic minority density with late entry into antenatal care in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Posthumus, Anke G; Schölmerich, Vera L N; Steegers, Eric A P; Kawachi, Ichiro; Denkta?, Semiha

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, non-Western ethnic minority women make their first antenatal visit later than native Dutch women. Timely entry into antenatal care is important as it provides the opportunity for prenatal screening and the detection of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this study we explored whether women's timely entry is influenced by their neighborhood. Moreover, we assessed whether ethnic minority density (the proportion of ethnic minorities in a neighborhood) influences Western and non-Western ethnic minority women's chances of timely entry into care differently. We hypothesized that ethnic minority density has a protective effect against non-Western women's late entry into care. Data on time of entry into care and other individual-level characteristics were obtained from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry (2000-2008; 97% of all pregnancies). We derived neighborhood-level data from three other national databases. We included 1,137,741 pregnancies of women who started care under supervision of a community midwife in 3422 neighborhoods. Multi-level logistic regression was used to assess the associations of individual and neighborhood-level determinants with entry into antenatal care before and after 14 weeks of gestation. We found that neighborhood characteristics influence timely entry above and beyond individual characteristics. Ethnic minority density was associated with a higher risk of late entry into antenatal care. However, our analysis showed that for non-Western women, living in high ethnic minority density areas is less detrimental to their risk of late entry than for Western women. This means that a higher proportion of ethnic minority residents has a protective effect on non-Western women's chances of timely entry into care. Our results suggest that strategies to improve timely entry into care could seek to create change at the neighborhood level in order to target individuals likely of entering care too late. PMID:25856150

  5. Dietary patterns during pregnancy and the association with sociodemographic characteristics among women attending general practices in southern Brazil: the ECCAGe Study.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Juliana Feliciati; Nunes, Maria Angélica Antunes; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Melere, Cristiane; Ozcariz, Silvia Giselle Ibarra; Buss, Caroline; Drhemer, Michele; Manzolli, Patrícia; Soares, Rafael Marques; Pinheiro, Andréa Poyastro; Camey, Suzi

    2013-05-01

    The assessment of the relationship between food intake and sociodemographic factors is crucial for developing effective public health policies. The present study aimed to examine dietary patterns in pregnant women and the association between these patterns and sociodemographic characteristics. Pregnant women attending general practices in southern Brazil (n = 712) answered a questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire with 88 items. Three dietary patterns were identified using cluster analysis. The association between the dietary patterns and sociodemographic variables was analyzed using the chi-square test and adjusted standardized residuals (p < 0,05). The restricted pattern was associated with lower maternal age, not living with a partner and being a non-working student. The varied pattern was associated with older maternal age, living with a partner, being employed and higher levels of education and income. The common-Brazilian dietary pattern included traditional Brazilian food items and was associated with lower levels of education and income, being unemployed and being a non-student. PMID:23703002

  6. Knowledge of periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al-Darzi, W; Al-Mudares, F; Farah, A; Ali, A; Marzouk, D

    2014-09-01

    Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects. Folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period is known to lower the risk of such defects. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the level of knowledge about periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women attending for antenatal care at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt in 2012. Questionnaires were filled through personal interviews with 660 pregnant women. Of the respondents, 62.4% had heard of folic acid and 39.2% knew about the role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge about using folic acid before and in the first trimester of pregnancy was highest among university-educated women and those working in professional occupations. Only 18.8% of women reported taking folic acid, and 8.8% had used it before conception. Awareness campaigns are suggested to improve knowledge about folic acid among women in the childbearing period in Egypt. PMID:25343469

  7. Antenatal psychosocial assessment: how accurate are we in determining ‘low-risk’ status? A pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janan C. Karatas; Stephen Matthey; Bryanne Barnett

    2009-01-01

    Routine Comprehensive Psychosocial Assessment was implemented antenatally at a public hospital in Sydney in 2000. The assessment,\\u000a completed on all women, classifies them as (1) currently, or at high-risk of becoming, distressed, or, (2) not currently,\\u000a or at low risk of becoming, distressed during the perinatal period. This pilot study followed up a sample of women (N?=?50) from the latter

  8. Diagnosis by AMPLICOR PCR of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in urine samples from women and men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, T C; Welsh, L; Lentz, A; Crotchfelt, K; Zenilman, J; Newhall, J; Gaydos, C

    1996-01-01

    Screening of urine specimens from men for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by a commercial PCR assay (AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test; Roche Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Branchburg, N.J.) is a sensitive and specific noninvasive diagnostic assay. Since screening of women for C. trachomatis infection with the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test has been limited to use with endocervical swab specimens, we conducted an evaluation of the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test for the detection of C. trachomatis using female urine samples and compared the results of those obtained by in vitro culture and PCR of endocervical swab specimens. For 713 men we compared the performance of AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test with urine specimens with that of culture of urethral specimens. For specimens that were PCR positive and culture negative, two additional tests were used to resolve the discrepancies: direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) of sediment from a spun endocervical specimen culture vial and major outer membrane protein-based PCR of the sediment from the endocervical specimen culture vial. Of 525 urine specimens from females, 67 (12.8%) were PCR positive, and 41 (7.8%) endocervical specimens from the 525 women were culture positive. After resolution of the discrepancies, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 93.3%, whereas the sensitivity of endocervical swab specimen culture was 67.3%. Of 468 female endocervical swab specimens, 47 (10.0%) had a positive PCR result and 33 (7.0%) were culture positive. The resolved sensitivity of the endocervical swab specimen PCR was 86%. Of 415 matched female urine and endocervical swab specimens, there were 49 confirmed infections; 30 (61.2%) specimens were positive by culture of the endocervical swab specimen, 40 (81.6%) were positive by confirmed endocervical swab specimen PCR, 43 (87.8%) were positive by confirmed urine PCR, and all 49 (100%) were positive by either endocervical swab specimen PCR or urine PCR. For men, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 88%, and the sensitivity of culture was only 50.7%. These results indicate that urine PCR is highly sensitive for the detection of C. trachomatis in both women and men and provides a noninvasive technique for routine screening for chlamydial infection. PMID:8735088

  9. Traditional birth home attendance and its implications for malaria control during pregnancy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Idowu, O A; Mafiana, C F; Sotiloye, Dapo

    2008-07-01

    A longitudinal survey was carried out to assess prevalence of malaria infection among attendees of a traditional birth home (TBH) in the metropolis of Abeokuta, Nigeria. Malaria prevalence was 62.4%, and various degrees of anaemia were recorded in 80.3% of pregnant women. Patronage by pregnant teenagers was 10.8%, with all of them anaemic and 73.9% infected with malarial parasites. Knowledge of malaria transmission and prevention were generally poor, with the emphasis placed on exposure to direct rays and heat from the sun. Avoidance of the sun's heat was therefore considered to be an effective preventive measure; another was the consumption of specially prepared and packaged herbal tea, which the pregnant women were expected to drink daily. Only 36.3% of the women associated malaria infection with mosquito bites. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) was not recorded among the women, although a large proportion (91.3%) showed a willingness to buy ITNs. The cost of receiving antenatal care at the TBH was higher than that in public hospitals. Patronage of TBHs was observed to be linked more with cultural beliefs than poverty. This study suggests that there is a need to extend malaria control interventions to women attending TBHs. PMID:18472118

  10. Determinants of institutional delivery among women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the factors that influence institutional delivery among women in Bangladesh extracting data from 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. We employed both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses in this study. Findings revealed that, only 14.7% of the women went for institutional delivery and 28.8% births were delivered by trained birth attendance. The multivariate logistic regression analysis yielded quantitatively important and reliable estimates of facility delivery. The likelihood of institutional delivery was significantly higher for first-order pregnancy, couples' higher education, the richest, higher autonomy, TV ownership, non-Muslims, who received antenatal care services, pregnancy complications, and urban residents. Government should ensure quality of care, easy accessibility, and availability of all facilities free of cost in the public medical institutions. Women should be informed regarding the long-term benefit of institutional delivery through information, education, and communication program. PMID:23666835

  11. Seroprevalance of Rubella in Women with Bad Obstetric History

    PubMed Central

    Ramana, B.V.; Reddy, B. Kailasanatha; Murty, D.S.; Vasudevanaidu, K.H.

    2013-01-01

    Rubella is a common cause of rash and fever during childhood. However, its public health importance relates to the teratogenic effects of primary rubella infection occurring in pregnant women, which can lead to fetal death with spontaneous abortion or to congenital defects in surviving infants. Most of the cases are asymptomatic and difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds. Detection of specific IgM antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique is a useful method for diagnosis. The present study was conducted on 180 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Government Maternity Hospital, Tirupati. All the serum samples were tested for Rubella-specific IgM antibodies. A seropositivity of 12.67% was observed among cases with bad obstetric history and 6.67% in normal pregnant women. Within the test group, high sero-positivity (13.33%) was observed in women with repeated abortions followed by in cases of intrauterine death (12.73%). The results indicate high prevalence of rubella in our population. All antenatal cases should be routinely screened for rubella, so that early diagnosis will help in proper management and fetal outcome. PMID:24479042

  12. Hong Kong married abortion applicants: a comparison with married women who elect to complete their pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Lieh-Mak, F; Tam, Y K; Ng, S

    1981-01-01

    Comparison of 130 married abortion applicants with 100 married pregnant women who were attending the antenatal clinic. The abortion applicants were more likely to have had unhappy childhoods, broken homes, sexual pathology and more children. Their neuroticism scores on the Maudsley Personality Inventory were significantly higher. They tended to use either no contraception or unreliable methods. They were older and tended to report more socioeconomic problems. These characteristics appear to be similar to those reported from other studies. The authors caution that these are only tentative findings, based on a small, single hospital study. PMID:7462270

  13. Early infant male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention: knowledge and attitudes of women attending a rural hospital in Swaziland, Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Prudence; Kliner, Merav; Walley, John

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Swaziland has the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world at 26% of the adult population. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual sex by up to 60% and the Government of Swaziland has been promoting adult male circumcision. Infant circumcision commenced in 2013 so it is important to understand the knowledge and views of women as potential mothers, around infant circumcision for medical purposes to inform the development of the service. This study interviewed 14 women of reproductive age attending the outpatient department of Good Shepherd Mission Hospital (GSMH), a rural district hospital, on their knowledge of and attitudes to early infant male circumcision (EIMC). Participants were highly knowledgeable about the health benefits of medical circumcision, although knowledge of the comparative risks and benefits of EIMC to adult circumcision was poor. All participants would have a son circumcised; the preferred age varied from early infancy to adolescence. Complications and pain were the main barriers whilst religious and cultural reasons were mentioned both for and against circumcision. A variety of family members are important in the decision to circumcise a young boy. Acceptability of medical circumcision was high in this study, but concerns about safety, pain, autonomy and cultural factors reduce the acceptability of infant circumcision more specifically. It will be important to provide accurate, culturally sensitive information about infant circumcision to mothers, fathers and grandparents using existing hospital and community services provided at GSMH and throughout Swaziland. Where possible services for MMC should be available to males of all ages so that families and young men may choose the most favourable age for circumcision. PMID:24957082

  14. Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a rural community: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Oni, Olurinde A; Tukur, Jamilu

    2012-09-01

    Poor maternal nutrition, especially in rural settings, adversely affects pregnancy and birth outcomes. In many local communities, pregnant women have food taboos with consequent depletion of vital nutrients. To facilitate early identification and prompt counseling, this study aimed at describing pregnant women who are likely to keep food taboos. Data was collected from 405 pregnant women that attended antenatal care at health facilities in Saki East Local Government of Oyo state, Nigeria. Sociodemographic characteristics of the women were described using means and proportions. Using logistic regression analysis, maternal characteristics significantly associated with adherence to food taboos were identified. The data was analysed using SAS 9.2. Factors associated with food taboos were teen age, primigravidity, low body mass index, lack of formal education, and low monthly family income. Health workers should have a high index of suspicion for food taboos among pregnant women with the identified risk factors. PMID:23437501

  15. Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detections in Urine, Vulvar, and Cervical Samples from Women Attending a Colposcopy Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Gravitt, Patti E.; Dunn, S. Terence; Brown, David; Allen, Richard A.; Eby, Yolanda J.; Smith, Katie; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Zhang, Roy R.; Gold, Michael A.; Schiffman, Mark; Walker, Joan L.; Castle, Philip E.; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    While urine-based sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) is being explored as a simple and noninvasive approach for cervical cancer screening, data comparing HPV genotyping in urine and those in cellular sampling of the cervix and vulva, and their correlation with rigorously confirmed cervical disease status, are sparse. We performed HPV genotyping on voided-urine and clinician-collected vulvar and cervical samples from 72 women undergoing colposcopy. Although urine-based HPV carcinogenic HPV detection was lower (58.3%) than cervical (73.6%) and vulvar (72.1%) detection (P = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively), the agreement of urine HPV with cervical and vulvar HPV was moderate (kappa = 0.55) and substantial (kappa = 0.62), respectively. Urine-based carcinogenic HPV detection had a clinical sensitivity of 80.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60.7 to 93.5) and a specificity of 53.3% (95% CI = 37.9 to 68.3) for diagnosing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3 (CIN2/3) on histology; 90.0% of CIN3 was positive for urine HPV. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity values for vulvar sampling were 92% (95% CI = 74 to 99) and 40.5% (95% CI = 25.6 to 56.7), and those for cervical sampling were 96.2% (95% CI = 80.4 to 99.9) and 40% (95% CI = 25.7 to 55.7), respectively. HPV16 was the most common carcinogenic genotype detectable in 25% of urine, 33.8% of vulvar, and 31.9% of cervical samples overall, with prevalence increasing with cervical disease grade, regardless of the sampling method. Stronger cervical HPV PCR signal strengths were associated with increased frequency of urine HPV detection. In summary, the relatively lower detection rates but comparable clinical performance of urine-based HPV sampling underscore the need for larger studies to evaluate urine-based sampling for cervical cancer screening, epidemiologic studies, and postvaccination HPV disease surveillance. PMID:24197879

  16. Impact on Infants’ Cognitive Development of Antenatal Exposure to Iron Deficiency Disorder and Common Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Hanieh, Sarah; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antenatal exposure to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and common mental disorders (CMD) on cognitive development of 6 months old infants in a developing country. Methods A prospective population-based study in a rural province in Vietnam, which enrolled pregnant women at 12–20 weeks gestation and followed them up with their infants until six months postpartum. Criteria for IDA were Hb <11 g/dL and serum ferritin <15 ng/mL. CMD symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam validation. Infant cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Ed. Path analyses were performed to determine the direct and indirect, partly or fully mediated, causal effects of the antenatal exposures. Results A total of 497 pregnant women were recruited, of those 378 women provided complete data which were included in the analyses. Statistically significant direct adverse effects of persistent antenatal IDA (estimated difference of ?11.62 points; 95% CI ?23.01 to ?0.22) and antenatal CMD (?4.80 points; 95% CI: ?9.40 to ?0.20) on infant Bayley cognitive scores at six months were found. Higher birthweight, household wealth, and self-rated sufficient supply of breastmilk were associated with higher cognitive scores. Maternal age >30 years and primiparity had an indirect adverse effect on infants’ Bayley cognitive scores. Conclusions These findings suggest that antenatal IDA and CMD both have adverse effects on child cognitive development, which if unrecognized and unaddressed are likely to be lasting. It is crucial that both these risks are considered by policy makers, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve child cognitive function in developing countries. PMID:24086390

  17. Congenital midureteral stricture in children diagnosed with antenatal hydronephrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian G. Smith; Adam R. Metwalli; James Leach; Earl Y. Cheng; Bradley P. Kropp

    2004-01-01

    ObjectivesAntenatal hydronephrosis is the most common genitourinary pathologic finding during gestational ultrasonography. Congenital midureteral strictures are an unusual cause of prenatal hydronephrosis, with 13 total previously reported and only 1 diagnosed as a result of antenatal ultrasonography.

  18. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Ntaganira, Joseph; Muula, Adamson S; Masaisa, Florence; Dusabeyezu, Fidens; Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%), slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%), kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%), throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%), and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%). HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]). Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29]), having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers), and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be made available. PMID:18847476

  19. A newborn with antenatal testis tortion

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Fatma Çakmak; Aygün, Canan; Ayçiçek, Tu?ba; Aykanat, Mustafa Alper; Ayy?ld?z, Suat

    2014-01-01

    Testis tortion in the newborn (especially antenatal testis tortion) is observed very rarely and constitutes 10-12% of childhood testis tortions. In testis tortion, firm and painless testicular tissue is palpated on physical examination. Doppler ultrasonography is a sensitive method in the diagnosis. In cases of neonatal testis tortion, the testis can be saved with appropriate surgical exploration in only 0–5% of the cases. Here, a newborn with antenatal testis tortion who underwent orchiectomy in the first day of life was presented.

  20. [Antenatal diagnosis: the revolution of new technologies].

    PubMed

    Fokstuen, Siv; Sloan-Béna, Frédérique; lrion, Olivier

    2014-01-15

    Since ten years, the number of amniocenteses or chorionic villous sampling for maternal anxiety has decreased thanks to the first trimester screening of trisomy 21 by ultrasound and maternal serum analysis. Two new tools have recently revolutionized antenatal screening and diagnosis: Analysing fetal DNA in maternal blood for chromosomes 21, 18 and 13 in order to avoid invasive fetal sampling and genomic comparative hybridization in order to diagnose deletions or duplications not detected by conventional caryotyping. These new technologies are dedicated to high-risk pregnancies, and have limitations. They do not replace ultrasound or first trimester screening. Information and ethics are central in antenatal screening and diagnosis. PMID:24558898

  1. Effectiveness of Antenatal Clinics to Deliver Intermittent Preventive Treatment and Insecticide Treated Nets for the Control of Malaria in Pregnancy in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jenny; Dellicour, Stephanie; Bruce, Jane; Ouma, Peter; Smedley, James; Otieno, Peter; Ombock, Maurice; Kariuki, Simon; Desai, Meghna; Hamel, Mary J.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria in pregnancy can have devastating consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the WHO prevention strategy for sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent-preventive-treatment (IPTp) with two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and insecticide-treated-nets (ITNs) in pregnancy is low. We analysed household survey data to evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal clinics (ANC) to deliver IPTp and ITNs to pregnant women in Nyando district, Kenya. Methods We assessed the systems effectiveness of ANC to deliver IPTp and ITNs to pregnant women and the impact on low birthweight (LBW). Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of receipt of IPTp and ITN use during pregnancy. Results Among 89% of recently pregnant women who attended ANC at least once between 4–9 months gestation, 59% reported receiving one dose of SP and 90% attended ANC again, of whom 57% received a second dose, resulting in a cumulative effectiveness for IPTp of 27%, most of whom used an ITN (96%). Overall ITN use was 89%, and ANC the main source (76%). Women were less likely to receive IPTp if they had low malaria knowledge (0.26, 95% CI 0.08–0.83), had a child who had died (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14–0.95), or if they first attended ANC late (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.06–0.67). Women who experienced side effects to SP (OR 0.18, CI 0.03–0.90) or had low malaria knowledge (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.11–5.43) were less likely to receive IPTp by directly observed therapy. Ineffective delivery of IPTp reduced its potential impact by 231 LBW cases averted (95% CI 64–359) per 10,000 pregnant women. Conclusion IPTp presents greater challenges to deliver through ANC than ITNs in this setting. The reduction in public health impact on LBW resulting from ineffective delivery of IPTp is estimated to be substantial. Urgent efforts are required to improve service delivery of this important intervention. PMID:23798997

  2. Attending to Attendance. Fastback 450.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, John W.

    This fastback document examines student absenteeism and offers advice on what schools can do to improve attendance. It looks at truancy, absenteeism, and tardiness and how, since the first days of compulsory education, educators have had to deal with these obstacles to education. Since the 1970s absenteeism has been identified by many educators as…

  3. A population-based evaluation of the impact of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome in France, 1981 -2000

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A population-based evaluation of the impact of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome in France and practice changes in prenatal screening for Down's syndrome(DS) on prenatal diagnosis and livebirth's syndrome. This has been especially important for younger women who are at lower risk of Down's syndrome

  4. Antenatal education and postnatal support strategies for improving rates of exclusive breast feeding: randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin-Lin Su; Yap-Seng Chong; Yiong-Huak Chan; Yah-Shih Chan; Doris Fok; Kay-Thwe Tun; Faith S P Ng; Mary Rauff

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether antenatal breast feeding education alone or postnatal lactation support alone improves rates of exclusive breast feeding compared with routine hospital care.Design Randomised controlled trial.Setting A tertiary hospital in Singapore.Participants 450 women with uncomplicated pregnancies.Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were rates of exclusive breast feeding at discharge from hospital and two weeks, six weeks, three months, and

  5. Portable Antenatal Ultrasound Platform for Village Midwives

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Ruth

    to appropriate medical facilities for delivery. Ultrasound is a common imaging modality for obstetrical (OBPortable Antenatal Ultrasound Platform for Village Midwives Waylon Brunette 1 , Wayne Gerard 1 University of Washington Seattle, WA USA 98195 ronathan@uw.edu ABSTRACT Ultrasound imaging is an effective

  6. Targeted Routine Antenatal Anti-D Prophylaxis in the Prevention of RhD Immunisation - Outcome of a New Antenatal Screening and Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Tiblad, Eleonor; Taune Wikman, Agneta; Ajne, Gunilla; Blanck, Agneta; Jansson, Yvonne; Karlsson, Anita; Nordlander, Elisabeth; Holländer, Bibi Shassti; Westgren, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of RhD immunisation after implementation of first trimester non-invasive fetal RHD screening to select only RhD negative women carrying RHD positive fetuses for routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis (RAADP). Materials and Methods We present a population-based prospective observational cohort study with historic controls including all maternity care centres and delivery hospitals in the Stockholm region, Sweden. All RhD negative pregnant women were screened for fetal RHD genotype in the first trimester of pregnancy. Anti-D immunoglobulin (250–300 µg) was administered intramuscularly in gestational week 28–30 to participants with RHD positive fetuses. Main outcome measure was the incidence of RhD immunisation developing during or after pregnancy. Results During the study period 9380 RhD negative women gave birth in Stockholm. Non-invasive fetal RHD genotyping using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma was performed in 8374 pregnancies of which 5104 (61%) were RHD positive and 3270 (39%) RHD negative. In 4590 pregnancies with an RHD positive test the women received antenatal anti-D prophylaxis. The incidence of RhD immunisation in the study cohort was 0.26 percent (24/9380) (95% CI 0.15–0.36%) compared to 0.46 percent (86/18546) (95% CI 0.37 to 0.56%) in the reference cohort. The risk ratio (RR) for sensitisation was 0.55 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.87) and the risk reduction was statistically significant (p?=?0.009). The absolute risk difference was 0.20 percent, corresponding to a number needed to treat (NNT) of 500. Conclusions Using first trimester non-invasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD to target routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis selectively to RhD negative women with RHD positive fetuses significantly reduces the incidence of new RhD immunisation. The risk reduction is comparable to that reported in studies evaluating the outcome of non selective RAADP to all RhD negative women. The cost-effectiveness of this targeted approach remains to be studied. PMID:23940682

  7. Cephalothoracopagus janiceps asymmetros twins: antenatal sonographic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dinesh; Jhobta, Anupam; Azad, J R; Dhiman, D S; Pandith, Mansa; Sharma, Sanjiv

    2013-01-01

    Conjoined twins have been the subject of myth and legend since antiquity because of the rarity and peculiarity of their juxtaposition. Fortunately, modern medical technology and concurrent advancements in surgical techniques provide an opportunity for successful separation and hope of a normal independent existence for these unique children. Antenatal sonography allows timely detection of this condition so that further management may be planned. PMID:23303732

  8. Family planning consultations during antenatal and postnatal care. The role of the midwife and health worker.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, I

    1987-10-01

    Health workers in Botswana have recognized the opportunity that pregnancy and the puerperium present to offer family planning advice to women who might not otherwise be reached with this information. Antenatal midwives, maternity ward midwives, and community health midwives incorporate family planning education into their consultations. To help midwives to remember, prompts on family planning appear in the obstetrical record at Bamalete Lutheran Hospital in Ramotswa. At least 4 sections of the antenatal record are related to family planning, including a consent form for tubal ligation, the date of the last normal menstrual period, a birth interval history, a past family planning practice and future plans. Checklists completed by midwives on discharge from the delivery center, at the postnatal clinic, and at the final follow-up visit also include a section on whether family planning has been discussed, what advice was accepted, and what method was adopted. PMID:12280825

  9. Antenatal diagnosis of lethal skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Tretter, A E; Saunders, R C; Meyers, C M; Dungan, J S; Grumbach, K; Sun, C C; Campbell, A B; Wulfsberg, E A

    1998-02-17

    Lethal skeletal dysplasias (LSD) are a heterogeneous group of rare but important genetic disorders characterized by abnormal growth and development of bone and cartilage. We describe the diagnosis and outcome of 29 cases of lethal skeletal dysplasias evaluated between January 1989 and December 1996 at the University of Maryland Medical Center and the Ultrasound Institute of Baltimore. Two cases presented at delivery with no prenatal care while the remaining 27 cases were identified by antenatal sonography. Final diagnoses included thanatophoric dysplasia (14), osteogenesis imperfecta, type II (6), achondrogenesis (2), short rib syndromes (3), campomelic syndrome (2), atelosteogenesis (1), and no evidence of a skeletal dysplasia (1). Twenty out of 27 pregnancies were terminated with an average at detection of 21.6 weeks. The other 7 pregnancies that went on to deliver had an average age at detection of 29.2 weeks. Fetal abnormalities in the terminated pregnancies were identified at a significantly earlier gestational age (P = 0.0016) than the pregnancies that continued. While the identification of LSD by sonography was excellent (26/27), only 13/27 (48%) were given an accurate specific antenatal diagnosis. In 8/14 (57%) cases with an inaccurate or nonspecific diagnosis there was a significant or crucial change in the genetic counseling. Thus, while antenatal sonography is an excellent method for discovering LSD, clinical examination, radiographs, and autopsy are mandatory for making a specific diagnosis. PMID:9489797

  10. Clinical and psychosocial correlates of antenatal depression: a review.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Shima, S; Sugawara, M; Toda, M A

    1996-01-01

    In contrast to the considerable research on postnatal depression, less attention has been paid to that occurring during pregnancy-antenatal depression (AD). However, recent investigations have studied depression among pregnant women not necessarily requiring psychiatric hospitalization but needing psychological support and help. A controlled study showed that the rate of AD was significantly higher than that of depression among non-pregnant women: the reported incidence varies between 4 and 29%. AD was found to be associated with: (1) obstetric factors (first pregnancy, first delivery, and past history of abortion); (2) early experience (loss of father); (3) personality (high neuroticism score); (4) attitudes towards the present pregnancy (perplexity of the husband); (5) accomodation factors (non-detached housing, and expected crowdedness after birth of the child, and (6) social support (low level of intimacy with the husband). Differential effects of these factors in the development of AD are to be studied in future research, particularly in conjunction with investigation of hormonal variables. PMID:8784941

  11. Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Gross; Joanna Armstrong Schellenberg; Flora Kessy; Constanze Pfeiffer; Brigit Obrist

    2011-01-01

    Background  The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged.\\u000a Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants\\u000a of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health\\u000a workers' antenatal care practices with

  12. Preparation for pain management during childbirth: the psychological aspects of coping strategy development in antenatal education.

    PubMed

    Escott, Diane; Slade, Pauline; Spiby, Helen

    2009-11-01

    During childbirth, in addition to or in place of analgesia, women manage pain using a range of coping strategies. Antenatal education provides an opportunity prior to birth to help women to prepare for an often painful event. However, this is usually carried out with little reference to the literature regarding psychological factors which influence the experience of pain. This review seeks to consider how recent developments in psychological knowledge could enhance care. Areas identified include range of coping strategies and factors influencing their efficacy and implementation. This draws on both the literature on management of acute pain in other scenarios and the limited literature related to childbirth related pain. The following recommendations for systematic evaluation in the context of antenatal education are made: (i) Increase the range of coping strategies currently utilized to include cognitive based strategies. (ii) Help women to identify and understand the nature of their own coping styles and preferences, including any unhelpful patterns of pain catastrophizing. (iii) Help women to develop their own unique set of coping strategies for labor. (iv) Strengthen feelings of coping self-efficacy by practice in class and reinforcement by the class teacher. (v) Develop implementation intentions which account for the changing context of childbirth and (vi) Actively develop prompting and reinforcement of use of identified coping strategies by birth partners. PMID:19709792

  13. A Cohort Perspective on Gender Gaps in College Attendance and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flashman, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In the last 30 years, women experienced dramatic increases in college attendance and completion. Women now make up the majority of college attenders and completers, and their numbers continue to grow. Recent research shows that these gender differences are driven largely by changes among women in rates of college attendance. What is causing these…

  14. Antenatal screening and its possible meaning from unborn baby's perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sahin Aksoy

    2001-01-01

    In recent decades antenatal screening has become one of the most routine procedure of pregnancy-follow up and the subject of hot debate in bioethics circles. In this paper the rationale behind doing antenatal screening and the actual and potential problems that it may cause will be discussed. The paper will examine the issue from the point of wiew of parents,

  15. Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids and outcome of premature neonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly A. Banks; Avital Cnaan; Mark A. Morgan; Julian T. Parer; Jeffrey D. Merrill; Philip L. Ballard; Roberta A. Ballard

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to examine outcome for premature neonates after multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids compared with a single course. Study Design: We performed a post hoc nonrandomized analysis on 710 neonates of 25-32 weeks’ gestation who were born to mothers enrolled in the North American Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Trial and who received 1, 2, or ?3 courses of antenatal corticosteroids.

  16. Antenatal psychosomatic programming to reduce postpartum depression risk and improve childbirth outcomes: a randomized controlled trial in Spain and France

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression (PPD) and poor childbirth outcomes are associated with poverty; these variables should be addressed by an adapted approach. The aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of an antenatal programme based on a novel psychosomatic approach to pregnancy and delivery, regarding the risk of PPD and childbirth outcomes in disadvantaged women. Methods A multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial comparing a novel to standard antenatal programme. Primary outcome was depressive symptoms (using EPDS) and secondary outcome was preterm childbirth (fewer 37 weeks). The sample comprised 184 couples in which the women were identified to be at PPD risk by validated interview. The study was conducted in three public hospitals with comparable standards of perinatal care. Women were randomly distributed in to an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG), and evaluated twice: during pregnancy (T1) and four weeks post-partum (T2). At T2, the variables were compared using the chi square test. Data analysis was based on intention to treat. The novel programme used the Tourné psychosomatic approach focusing on body awareness sensations, construction of an individualized childbirth model, and attachment. The 10 group antenatal sessions each lasted two hours, with one telephone conversation between sessions. In the control group, the participants choose the standard model of antenatal education, i.e., 8 to 10 two-hour sessions focused on childbirth by obstetrical prophylaxis. Results A difference of 11.2% was noted in postpartum percentages of PPD risk (EPDS ? 12): 34.3% (24) in EG and 45.5% (27) in CG (p = 0.26). The number of depressive symptoms among EG women decreased at T2 (intragroup p = 0.01). Premature childbirth was four times less in EG women: three (4.4%) compared to 13 (22.4%) among CG women (p = 0.003). Birth weight was higher in EG women (p = 0.01). Conclusions The decrease of depressive symptoms in women was not conclusive. However, because birth weight was higher and the rate of preterm childbirth was lower in the EG, our results suggest that the psychosomatic approach may be more helpful to the target population than the standard antenatal programs. PMID:24422605

  17. Exploring risk of experiencing intimate partner violence after HIV infection: a qualitative study among women with HIV attending postnatal services in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Mulrenan, Claire; Colombini, Manuela; Kikuvi, Joshua; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore risks of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) after HIV infection among women with HIV in a postnatal care setting in Swaziland. Design A qualitative semistructured in-depth interview study, using thematic analysis with deductive and inductive coding, of IPV experiences after HIV infection extracted from service-integration interview transcripts. Setting Swaziland. Participants 19 women with HIV, aged 18–44, were purposively sampled for an in-depth interview about their experiences of services, HIV and IPV from a quantitative postnatal cohort participating in an evaluation of HIV and reproductive health services integration in Swaziland. Results Results indicated that women were at risk of experiencing IPV after HIV infection, with 9 of 19 disclosing experiences of physical violence and/or coercive control post-HIV. IPV was initiated through two key pathways: (1) acute interpersonal triggers (eg, status disclosure, mother-to-child transmission of HIV) and (2) chronic normative tensions (eg, fertility intentions, initiating contraceptives). Conclusions The results highlight a need to mitigate the risk of IPV for women with HIV in shorter and longer terms in Swaziland. While broader changes are needed to resolve gender disparities, practical steps can be institutionalised within health facilities to reduce, or avoid increasing, IPV pathways for women with HIV. These might include mutual disclosure between partners, greater engagement of Swazi males with HIV services, and promoting positive masculinities that support and protect women. Trial registration number NCT01694862. PMID:25976760

  18. Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Rehle, Thomas M.; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Kim, Andrea A.; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Design: Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. Methods: We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15–49 years and currently pregnant women between surveys conducted from 2003 to 2008 (period 1) and 2009 to 2012 (period 2). Log-binomial regression was used to test for a difference in prevalence trend between the two groups. Prevalence among pregnant women was age-standardized to represent the age distribution of all women. Results: Pooling data for all countries, HIV prevalence declined among pregnant women from 6.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3–7.9%] to 5.3% (95% CI 4.2–6.6%) between periods 1 and 2, whereas it remained unchanged among all women at 8.4% (95% CI 8.0–8.9%) in period 1 and 8.3% (95% CI 7.9–8.8%) in period 2. Prevalence declined by 18% (95% CI ?9–38%) more in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Estimates were similar in Western, Eastern, and Southern regions of SSA; none were statistically significant (P?>?0.05). HIV prevalence decreased significantly among women aged 15–24 years while increasing significantly among women 35–49 years, who represented 29% of women but only 15% of pregnant women. Age-standardization of prevalence in pregnant women did not reconcile the discrepant trends because at older ages prevalence was lower among pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Conclusion: As HIV prevalence in SSA has shifted toward older, less-fertile women, HIV prevalence among pregnant women has declined more rapidly than prevalence in women overall. Interpretation of ANC prevalence data to inform national HIV estimates should account for both age-specific fertility patterns and HIV-related sub-fertility. PMID:25406753

  19. CENTERING PREGANCY- AFRICA: A PILOT OF GROUP ANTENATAL CARE TO ADDRESS MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Crystal L.; Abrams, Elizabeth T.; Klima, Carrie; Kaponda, Chrissie P.N.; Leshabari, Sebalda C.; Vonderheid, Susan C.; Kamaga, Martha; Norr, Kathleen F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe health worker shortages and resource limitations negatively affect quality of antenatal care (ANC) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Group ANC, specifically CenteringPregnancy (CP), may offer an innovative approach to enable midwives to offer higher quality ANC. Objective Our overarching goal was to prepare to conduct a clinical trial of CenteringPregnancy – Africa (CP-Africa) in Malawi and Tanzania. In Phase 1, our goal was to determine the acceptability of CP as model for ANC in both countries. In Phase 2, our objective was to develop CP-Africa session content consistent with the Essential Elements of CP model and with national standards in both Malawi and Tanzania. In Phase 3, our objective was to pilot CP-Africa in Malawi to determine whether sessions could be conducted with fidelity to the Centering process. Setting Phase 1 and 2 took place in Malawi and Tanzania. Phase 3, the piloting of two sessions of CP-Africa, occurred at two sites in Malawi: a district hospital and a small clinic. Design We used an Action Research approach to promote partnerships among university researchers, the Centering Healthcare Institute, healthcare administrators, health professionals and women attending ANC to develop CP-Africa session content and pilot this model of group ANC. Participants For Phases 1 and 2, members of the Ministries of Health, health professionals and pregnant women in Malawi and Tanzania were introduced to and interviewed about CP. In Phase 2, we finalized CP-Africa content and trained thirteen health professionals in the Centering Healthcare model. In Phase 3, we conducted a small pilot with 24 pregnant women (12 at each site). Measurements and Findings Participants enthusiastically embraced CP-Africa as an acceptable model of ANC healthcare delivery. The CP-Africa content met both CP and national standards. The pilot established that the CP model could be implemented with process fidelity to the 13 Essential Elements. Several implementation challenges and strategies to address these challenges were identified. Key Conclusions Preliminary data suggest that CP-Africa is feasible in resource-constrained, low-literacy, high-HIV settings in sub-Saharan Africa. By improving the quality of ANC delivery, midwives have an opportunity to make a contribution towards Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targeting improvements in child, maternal and HIV-related health outcomes (MDGs 4, 5 and 6). A clinical trial is needed to establish efficacy. Implications for Practice CP-Africa also has the potential to reduce job-related stress and enhance job satisfaction for midwives in low income countries. If CP can be transferred with fidelity to process in sub-Saharan Africa and retain similar results to those reported in clinical trials, it has the potential to benefit pregnant women and their infants and could make a positive contribution to MGDs 4, 5 and .6. PMID:23871278

  20. Revised guidelines on management of antenatal hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, A.; Bagga, A.; Krishna, A; Bajpai, M.; Srinivas, M.; Uppal, R.; Agarwal, I.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread antenatal screening has resulted in increased detection of anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract. The present guidelines update the recommendations published in 2000. Antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) is transient and resolves by the third trimester in almost one-half cases. The presence of oligohydramnios and additional renal or extrarenal anomalies suggests significant pathology. All patients with ANH should undergo postnatal ultrasonography; the intensity of subsequent evaluation depends on anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the renal pelvis and/or Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) grading. Patients with postnatal APD exceeding 10 mm and/or SFU grade 3-4 should be screened for upper or lower urinary tract obstruction and vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). Infants with VUR should receive antibiotic prophylaxis through the first year of life, and their parents counseled regarding the risk of urinary tract infections. The management of patients with pelviureteric junction or vesicoureteric junction obstruction depends on clinical features and results of sequential ultrasonography and radionuclide renography. Surgery is considered in patients with increasing renal pelvic APD and/or an obstructed renogram with differential renal function <35-40% or its subsequent decline. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of prenatal intervention, frequency of follow-up investigations and indications for surgery in these patients. PMID:23716913

  1. Sociodemographic predictors of acceptance of voluntary HIV testing among pregnant women in a large maternity hospital, Omdurman, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Idris, A K M; Elsamani, E Z; Elnasri, A E A

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the sociodemographic predictors of willingness of pregnant women in Sudan to accept HIV testing. A random sample of 500 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Omdurman maternity hospital in 2010 were interviewed. Significant predictors of women's tendency to accept HIV testing were: age < 30 years (OR 3.5, 95% CI: 2.2-5.8), primigravida (OR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3), better education level (OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.7-6.7), owning a radio (OR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4), in employment (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2-5.0) and ? 2 antenatal care visits (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9). Husband's age ? 35 years (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.0-5.2) and Christian faith (OR 3.8, 95% CI: 1.4-10.7) were significant variables, although with a wide margin of confidence. These predictors should be considered in strategies to increase the acceptance and use of HIV testing and counselling services. PMID:26077522

  2. Do Age and Gender of Social Supports Matter for Low-Income African-American Women Attending an HIV Prevention Program?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rogério M. Pinto; Mary M. McKay

    2005-01-01

    Although social support has been linked to improvement in health behaviors, little is known about social support among those most affected by the AIDS epidemic: low-income, young adult, African-American women and their children. Since the age and gender of informal support providers have been shown to influence the types and degrees of social support one receives, this paper examines differences

  3. Self-Defining as Sexually Abused and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Women Attending an STD Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as…

  4. The quality–coverage gap in antenatal care: toward better measurement of effective coverage

    PubMed Central

    Hodgins, Stephen; D'Agostino, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Background: The proportion of pregnant women receiving 4 or more antenatal care visits (ANC 4+) is used prominently as a global benchmark indicator to track maternal health program performance. This has contributed to an inappropriate focus on the number of contacts rather than on the content and process of care. This paper presents analysis of specific elements of care received among women reporting 4 or more ANC visits. Methods: We conducted secondary analysis using Demographic and Health Survey data from 41 countries to determine coverage for specific elements of antenatal care. The analysis was conducted for: (1) women who delivered during the 2 years preceding the survey and who reported receiving 4 or more ANC visits, and (2) all women who delivered during the preceding 2 years. The specific ANC services that we assessed were: blood pressure measurement, tetanus toxoid vaccination, first ANC visit at less than 4 months gestation, urine testing, counseling about danger signs, HIV counseling and testing, iron–folate supplementation (? 90 days), and at least 2 doses of sulfadoxine/pyramethamine for malaria prevention. The difference between expected (100%) and actual coverage (the quality–coverage gap) was calculated for each service across the 41 surveys. Results: Coverage for specific elements of care among women reporting 4 or more ANC visits was generally low for most of the specific elements assessed. Blood pressure and tetanus toxoid performed best, with median quality–coverage gaps of 5% and 18%, respectively. The greatest gaps were for iron–folate supplementation (72%) and malaria prevention (86%). Coverage for specific interventions was generally much lower among all pregnant women (reflecting population effective coverage) than among only those who had received ANC 4+ visits. Although ANC 4+ and average coverage across the elements of care correlated relatively well (Pearson r2 ?=? 0.56), most countries had lower average coverage for the content of care than for ANC 4+ (among all pregnant women). Conclusion: We argue for the adoption of a summary indicator that better reflects the content of antenatal care than does the current ANC 4+ indicator. We propose, as an alternative, the simple average of a set of ANC content indicators available through surveys and routine health information systems. PMID:25276575

  5. Postnatal depression among women availing maternal health services in a rural hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Avita Rose; Edwin, Serin; Joachim, Nayanthara; Mathew, Geethu; Ajay, Shwetha; Joseph, Bobby

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Postnatal depression, with an estimated prevalence of 13-19%, causes significant impairment of mental health among women worldwide and has long term consequences. However, more than half of all cases are not detected by healthcare providers. Screening for postnatal depression has not been given importance in maternal health programs in India. Our objective was to screen for postnatal depression among women attending a rural hospital in India, immediately postpartum and at 6-8 weeks post-delivery, and to study associated factors. Methods: A cross sectional study was done on 123 postnatal women attending a rural maternity hospital in Karnataka, South India, of whom 74 women were interviewed within one week of childbirth, and 49 women at 6-8 weeks post-delivery. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to screen for postnatal depression. Results: About 45.5% of the women screened positive for postnatal depression (44.6% of all subjects within one week of delivery and 46.9% at 6-8 weeks after delivery). Postnatal depression was significantly associated with mood swings during antenatal period, staying with the family of birth during pregnancy and away from their husbands, and was significantly higher among women who perceived their life as stressful and having a low self-esteem (P<0.05) Conclusions: This study found a high prevalence of postnatal depression in women in rural Karnataka. This underlines the need for incorporating screening for postnatal depression in the routine care of women during pregnancy and delivery.

  6. Periodontal Status and Some Variables among Pregnant Women in a Nigeria Tertiary Institution

    PubMed Central

    Onigbinde, OO; Sorunke, ME; Braimoh, MO; Adeniyi, AO

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gingival changes during pregnancy have been well-documented. The prevalence of gingivitis in pregnant women has reportedly ranged from 30% to 100%. Increase in both the rate of estrogen metabolism and synthesis of prostaglandins by the gingiva contributed to the gingival changes observed during pregnancy. In effect increased prevalence of dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis and tooth mobility may be encountered in pregnancy. Aim: The purpose of the study was to determine the association of some variables and the periodontal status in a sample of pregnant women attending the Ante Natal Clinic (ANC) of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Lagos. Subjects and Methods: Women at various stages of pregnancy, attending the ANC of LASUTH, constituted the target population. The questionnaire was administered on each patient followed by dental examinations. Periodontal status was assessed using the community periodontal index (CPI) of treatment needs. Oral hygiene status was evaluated according to Green and Vermilion simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). Results: The association between the CPI scores; OHI-S scores and variables such as trimester and dental visits were statistically significant. Conclusion: This study indicated that the gestational age of pregnancy and dental visits have a definite impact on the periodontal status. Oral health education should be included as an integral part of antenatal care to increase the women awareness. This would improve the mothers’ dental care-seeking behavior. PMID:25506475

  7. Antenatal Maternal Emotional Distress and Duration of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Helbig, Anne; Benth, J?rat? Šaltyt?; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) We sought to prospectively study the association between antenatal emotional distress and gestational length at birth as well as preterm birth. Study Design We followed up 40,077 primiparous women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Emotional distress was reported in a short form of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (SCL-5) at 17 and 30 weeks of gestation. Gestational length at birth, obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, was used as continuous (gestational length in days) and categorized (early preterm (22–31 weeks) and late preterm (32–36 weeks) versus term birth (?37 weeks)) outcome, using linear and logistic regression analysis, respectively. Births were divided into spontaneous and provider-initiated. Results Of all women, 7.4% reported emotional distress at 17 weeks, 6.0% at 30 weeks and 5.1% had a preterm birth. All measurements of emotional distress at 30 weeks were significantly associated with a reduction of gestational length, in days, for provider-initiated births at term. Emotional distress at 30 weeks showed a reduced duration of pregnancy at birth of 2.40 days for provider-initiated births at term. An increase in emotional distress from 17 to 30 weeks was associated with a reduction of gestational length at birth of 2.13 days for provider-initiated births at term. Sustained high emotional distress was associated with a reduction of gestational length at birth of 2.82 days for provider-initiated births. Emotional distress did not increase the risk of either early or late preterm birth. Conclusion Emotional distress at 30 weeks, an increase in emotional distress from 17 to 30 weeks and sustained high levels of emotional distress were associated with a reduction in gestational length in days for provider-initiated term birth. We found no significant association between emotional distress and the risk of preterm birth. PMID:25000409

  8. Antenatal assessment of the growth restricted fetus.

    PubMed

    Baschat, A A; Harman, C R

    2001-04-01

    Babies who are small due to intrauterine growth restriction are at higher risk for poor perinatal and long-term outcome than those who are appropriately grown. Through multiple antenatal testing modalities a sequence of deteriorating fetal status can be documented in such cases. The nature of this compromise is best reflected by the combination of fetal biometry, biophysical profile scoring and arterial and venous Doppler. This combination accurately defines fetal states and therefore risk of stillbirth or poor transition to extrauterine life. In the preterm neonate, fetal factors, gestational age and neonatal course interact significantly to impact on short- and long-term outcomes. The potential for iatrogenic prematurity is great and ongoing appraisal of peripartum management is critical. An integrated management protocol accounting for these factors is examined in this review. PMID:11315871

  9. Teaching antenatal counseling skills to neonatal providers.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Theophil A; Watson, Katie L; Boss, Renee D

    2014-02-01

    Counseling a family confronted with the birth of a periviable neonate is one of the most difficult tasks that a neonatologist must perform. The neonatologist's goal is to facilitate an informed, collaborative decision about whether life-sustaining therapies are in the best interest of this baby. Neonatologists are trained to provide families with a detailed account of the morbidity and mortality data they believe are necessary to facilitate a truly informed decision. Yet these complicated and intensely emotional conversations require advanced communication and counseling skills that our current fellowship-training strategies are not adequately providing. We review educational models for training neonatology fellows to provide antenatal counseling at the threshold of viability. We believe that training aimed at teaching these skills should be incorporated into the neonatal-perinatal medicine fellowship. The optimal approaches for teaching these skills remain uncertain, and there is a need for continued innovation and outcomes-based research. PMID:24468569

  10. Plasma adiponectin is inversely associated with antenatal anxiety: Results from a Brazilian cohort.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Fernanda; de Jesus Pereira Pinto, Thatiana; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Lepsch, Jaqueline; Benaim, Camila; Struchiner, Claudio José; Kac, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal anxiety may increase the risk of undesirable birth outcomes. Studies have demonstrated an association between adiponectin and anxiety, but this issue has not been investigated during pregnancy. This study aimed to evaluate the association between plasma adiponectin, measured throughout gestation, and the occurrence of anxiety at late pregnancy (30-36th weeks). A prospective cohort was investigated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Healthy pregnant women, aged 20-40 years, were evaluated between gestational weeks 5-13, 22-26 and 30-36. State anxiety was measured using a validated version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and women were categorized as high (score?50, n=30) or low anxiety (score<50, n=129). Plasma samples for all trimesters were analyzed using commercial ELISA kits to determine adiponectin concentrations (U/mL). Statistical analysis involved student's t-tests, chi-square, Pearson correlation, multiple logistic regression and linear mixed effects (LME) regression to model longitudinal trends of adiponectin, stratified for anxiety categories. Women with higher anxiety scores had lower mean concentrations of 3rd trimester adiponectin compared with those with lower scores (7.9; 95% CI: 7.0-8.9 vs. 9.9; 95% CI: 9.1-10.7). Women with 3rd trimester adiponectin values within the third tertile (10.47-26.57U/mL) were less likely to have high antenatal anxiety (adjusted OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.09-0.98) compared with those within the first tertile (2.25-7.08U/mL). Unlike women with low levels of anxiety, those with high levels had a significant decrease of plasma adiponectin throughout pregnancy (?=-0.07; 95% CI: -0.13-[-0.01] vs. ?=-0.01; 95% CI: -0.05 to 0.03). Multiple LME model indicated higher adiponectin throughout pregnancy for women with low anxiety (?=-1.57; 95% CI: -2.78-[-0.37]). In conclusion, plasma adiponectin throughout pregnancy was inversely associated with antenatal anxiety. PMID:25305545

  11. Prognostic Evaluation of DNA Index in HIV-HPV Co-Infected Women Cervical Samples Attending in Reference Centers for HIV-AIDS in Recife

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Albert Eduardo Silva; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Garcia, Renan Gomes; Welkovic, Stefan; Barbosa, Aureliana; Menezes, Maria Luiza Bezerra; Tenório, Terezinha; Maruza, Magda; Ximenes, Ricardo A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Persistence of cervical infection caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types with high oncogenic risk may lead to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether, in HIV-positive women, the presence of aneuploidy in cervical cell samples is associated with presence and evolution of CIN. Methods The present study had two stages. In the first stage, comprising a cross-sectional study, the association between the presence of aneuploidy seen via flow cytometry and sociodemographic characteristics, habits and characteristics relating to HPV and HIV infection was analyzed. In the second stage, comprising a cohort study, it was investigated whether aneuploidy was predictive of CIN evolution. Results No association was observed between the presence of aneuploidy and HPV infection, or between its presence and alterations seen in oncotic cytological analysis. On the other hand, aneuploidy was associated with the presence of CIN (p?=?0.030) in histological analysis and with nonuse of antiretroviral therapy (p?=?0.001). Most of the HIV-positive women (234/272) presented normal CD4+ T lymphocyte counts (greater than 350 cells/mm3) and showed a greater aneuploidy regression rate (77.5%) than a progression rate (23.9%) over a follow-up of up to two years. Conclusion Although there was an association between the presence of cervical tissue lesions and the DNA index, the latter was not predictive of progression of the cervical lesion. This suggests that progression of the cervical lesion to cancer in HIV-positive women may also be changed through improvement of the immunological state enabled by using antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25144309

  12. Psychosocial Factors of Antenatal Anxiety and Depression in Pakistan: Is Social Support a Mediator?

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Ahmed; Raza, Nahal; Lodhi, Haneen Wajid; Muhammad, Zerwah; Jamal, Mehak; Rehman, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy is generally viewed as a time of fulfillment and joy; however, for many women it can be a stressful event. In South Asia it is associated with cultural stigmas revolving around gender discrimination, abnormal births and genetic abnormalities. Methodology This cross-sectional study was done at four teaching hospitals in Lahore from February, 2014 to June, 2014. A total of 500 pregnant women seen at hospital obstetrics and gynecology departments were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of three sections: demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS). Pearson’s chi-squared test, bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression were used to analyze associations between the independent variables and scores on the HADS and SPS. Results Mean age among the 500 respondents was 27.41 years (5.65). Anxiety levels in participants were categorized as normal (145 women, 29%), borderline (110, 22%) or anxious (245, 49%). Depression levels were categorized as normal (218 women, 43.6%), borderline (123, 24.6%) or depressed (159, 31.8%). Inferential analysis revealed that higher HADS scores were significantly associated with lower scores on the SPS, rural background, history of harassment, abortion, cesarean delivery and unplanned pregnancies (P < .05). Social support (SPS score) mediated the relationship between the total number of children, gender of previous children and HADS score. Women with more daughters were significantly more likely to score higher on the HADS and lower on the SPS, whereas higher numbers of sons were associated with the opposite trends in the scores (P < .05). Conclusion Because of the predominantly patriarchal sociocultural context in Pakistan, the predictors of antenatal anxiety and depression may differ from those in developed countries. We therefore suggest that interventions designed and implemented to reduce antenatal anxiety and depression should take into account these unique factors. PMID:25629925

  13. A cross-sectional study of antenatal depression and associated factors in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Robert C; Umar, Eric; Tomenson, Barbara; Creed, Francis

    2014-04-01

    Depression, and disabling levels of mixed depressive, anxious and somatic symptoms, termed common mental disorder, occurring in the perinatal period are an important health problem in low- and middle-income countries. In this cross-sectional study, pregnant women were recruited from a district hospital antenatal clinic in Malawi. Symptoms of depression and anxiety, and non-specific somatic symptoms commonly associated with distress, were measured using validated local versions of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). In a sub-sample, Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV diagnoses of major and minor depressive disorders were made using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Maternal socio-demographic and health variables were measured, and associations with SRQ score and depression diagnosis were determined. Of 599 eligible women, 583 were included in the analysis. The adjusted weighted prevalence of current major depressive episode and current major or minor depressive episode were 10.7 % (95 % CI 6.9-14.5 %) and 21.1 % (95 % CI 15.5-26.6 %), respectively. On multivariate analysis, SRQ score was significantly associated with lower perceived social support, experience of intimate partner violence, having had a complication in a previous delivery, higher maternal mid-upper arm circumference and more years of schooling. Major depressive episode was associated with lower perceived social support and experience of intimate partner violence. This study demonstrates that antenatal depression/CMD is common in Malawi and is associated with factors that may be amenable to psychosocial interventions. PMID:24240635

  14. Antenatal steroids and fluid balance in very low birthweight infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Dimitriou; V Kavvadia; M Marcou; A Greenough

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if insensible water loss (IWL) differed between infants exposed or not exposed antenatally to corticosteroids and to explore possible mechanisms for the early postnatal diuresis associated with antenatal steroid exposure.Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data.Setting: Level three neonatal intensive care unit.Patients: Ninety six infants, median gestational age 27.5 weeks (range 23–33).Main outcome measures: Comparison of the

  15. Recent partner violence and sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk among adolescent and young adult women attending family planning clinics

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for both STI/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past three months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI, and related care-seeking over the same time period. Methods Female family planning clinic patients ages 16–29 (n=3,504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011–2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behavior, self-reported STI, and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Results Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52, 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51, 3.27) and injection drug use, both their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47, 7.79) and their partner’s (AOR 3.85, 1.91, 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.51, 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73, 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59, 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87, 3.31). Conclusions Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women’s agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk, and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction. PMID:24234072

  16. HIV testing among pregnant women living with HIV in India: are private healthcare providers routinely violating women’s human rights?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In India, approximately 49,000 women living with HIV become pregnant and deliver each year. While the government of India has made progress increasing the availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services, only about one quarter of pregnant women received an HIV test in 2010, and about one-in-five that were found positive for HIV received interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Methods Between February 2012 to March 2013, 14 HIV-positive women who had recently delivered a baby were recruited from HIV positive women support groups, Government of India Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers, and nongovernmental organizations in Mysore and Pune, India. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine their general experiences with antenatal healthcare; specific experiences around HIV counseling and testing; and perceptions about their care and follow-up treatment. Data were analyzed thematically using the human rights framework for HIV testing adopted by the United Nations and India’s National AIDS Control Organization. Results While all of the HIV-positive women in the study received HIV and PMTCT services at a government hospital or antiretroviral therapy center, almost all reported attending a private clinic or hospital at some point in their pregnancy. According to the participants, HIV testing often occurred without consent; there was little privacy; breaches of confidentiality were commonplace; and denial of medical treatment occurred routinely. Among women living with HIV in this study, violations of their human rights occurred more commonly in private rather than public healthcare settings. Conclusions There is an urgent need for capacity building among private healthcare providers to improve standards of practice with regard to informed consent process, HIV testing, patient confidentiality, treatment, and referral of pregnant women living with HIV. PMID:24656059

  17. Safety of artemether-lumefantrine in pregnant women with malaria: results of a prospective cohort study in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Safety data regarding exposure to artemisinin-based combination therapy in pregnancy are limited. This prospective cohort study conducted in Zambia evaluated the safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in pregnant women with malaria. Methods Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were assigned to groups based on the drug used to treat their most recent malaria episode (AL vs. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP). Safety was assessed using standard and pregnancy-specific parameters. Post-delivery follow-up was six weeks for mothers and 12 months for live births. Primary outcome was perinatal mortality (stillbirth or neonatal death within seven days after birth). Results Data from 1,001 pregnant women (AL n = 495; SP n = 506) and 933 newborns (AL n = 466; SP n = 467) showed: perinatal mortality (AL 4.2%; SP 5.0%), comprised of early neonatal mortality (each group 2.3%), stillbirths (AL 1.9%; SP 2.7%); preterm deliveries (AL 14.1%; SP 17.4% of foetuses); and gestational age-adjusted low birth weight (AL 9.0%; SP 7.7%). Infant birth defect incidence was 1.8% AL and 1.6% SP, excluding umbilical hernia. Abortions prior to antenatal care could not be determined: abortion occurred in 4.5% of women treated with AL during their first trimester; none were reported in the 133 women exposed to SP and/or quinine during their first trimester. Overall development (including neurological assessment) was similar in both groups. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure to AL in pregnancy, including first trimester, is not associated with particular safety risks in terms of perinatal mortality, malformations, or developmental impairment. However, more data are required on AL use during the first trimester. PMID:20809964

  18. Sexual HIV risk behaviour and associated factors among pregnant women in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The HIV risk increases during pregnancy. The elevated risk of HIV acquisition in pregnant women may be explained by behavioural and other factors. The aim of this study was to assess sexual HIV risk behaviour and its associated factors among pregnant women in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1 502 pregnant women (age range 18–47 years, mean age 26.6 years, standard deviation (SD) 6.1, and the mean gestational age was 6.5 months (SD 1.6). Antenatal women were selected, using systematic sampling from 63 primary care clinics and community health centres in Nkangala District. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Results The majority (63%) of the participants had never used a condom with their primary sexual partner in the past 3 months, 60% were not aware of the HIV status of their sexual partner, 7.6% had a casual sexual partner in the past 3 months, 20% had two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months and 17.3% reported to have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) (other than HIV) in the past 12 months. The various HIV risk behaviours were predicted, by being single and alcohol use for multiple sexual partners; by fewer antenatal visits, being HIV negative and not having used alcohol for lack of condom use; by being HIV positive, having experienced physical partner violence and psychological distress for having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (other than HIV); and by lower education, unplanned pregnancy, non-antenatal care attendance by expectant father, the belief that antiretrovirals can cure HIV and being HIV positive for having a partner with HIV positve or unknown status. Conclusion High levels of sexual HIV risk behaviour were found during pregnancy. Pregnant women need to be informed of their increased risk of HIV and the importance of sexual HIV risk reduction including the use of condoms throughout pregnancy. PMID:23510451

  19. Maternal health care amid political unrest: the effect of armed conflict on antenatal care utilization in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Price, James I; Bohara, Alok K

    2013-05-01

    Armed conflicts, which primarily occur in low- and middle-income countries, have profound consequences for the health of affected populations, among them a decrease in the utilization of maternal health care services. The quantitative relationship between armed conflict and maternal health care utilization has received limited attention in the public health literature. We evaluate this relationship for a particular type of health care service, antenatal care, in Nepal. Using count regression techniques, household survey data and sub-national conflict data, we find a negative correlation between the number of antenatal care visits and incidents of conflict-related violence within a respondent's village development committee. Specifically, we find that under high-intensity conflict conditions women receive between 0.3 and 1.5 fewer antenatal care check-ups. These findings imply that maternal health care utilization is partially determined by characteristics of the social environment (e.g. political instability) and suggest health care providers need to revise maternal health strategies in conflict-affected areas. Strategies may include decentralization of services, maintaining neutrality among factions, strengthening community-based health services and developing mobile clinics. PMID:22773608

  20. Policy and practice concerning women with an RhD negative blood type : a midwifery perspective 

    E-print Network

    Harkness, Mairi

    2014-07-05

    In May 2002 the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) made the recommendation that all pregnant women with an RhD negative blood type should be offered routine antenatal anti-D immunoglobulin (Ig) prophylaxis ...

  1. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Frohman, N; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89 %. In the fully adjusted model, antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR?=?17.04; 95 % CI 2.10-38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR?=?9.37; 95 % CI 3.41-25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19 % experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680

  2. 75 FR 61860 - Advisory Committee on Women Veterans; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...readjustment counseling, women Veterans' legislative issues, special health initiatives, women Veterans' research, rural health, and homeless initiatives for women Veterans. Interested persons may attend, appear before, or file...

  3. Where There Are (Few) Skilled Birth Attendants

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Ndola; Rowen, Tami; Bell, Suzanne; Walsh, Julia; Potts, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Recent efforts to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries have focused primarily on two long-term aims: training and deploying skilled birth attendants and upgrading emergency obstetric care facilities. Given the future population-level benefits, strengthening of health systems makes excellent strategic sense but it does not address the immediate safe-delivery needs of the estimated 45 million women who are likely to deliver at home, without a skilled birth attendant. There are currently 28 countries from four major regions in which fewer than half of all births are attended by skilled birth attendants. Sixty-nine percent of maternal deaths in these four regions can be attributed to these 28 countries, despite the fact that these countries only constitute 34% of the total population in these regions. Trends documenting the change in the proportion of births accompanied by a skilled attendant in these 28 countries over the last 15-20 years offer no indication that adequate change is imminent. To rapidly reduce maternal mortality in regions where births in the home without skilled birth attendants are common, governments and community-based organizations could implement a cost-effective, complementary strategy involving health workers who are likely to be present when births in the home take place. Training community-based birth attendants in primary and secondary prevention technologies (e.g. misoprostol, family planning, measurement of blood loss, and postpartum care) will increase the chance that women in the lowest economic quintiles will also benefit from global safe motherhood efforts. PMID:21608417

  4. Ramadan fasting and newborn's birth weight in pregnant Muslim women in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Savitri, Ary I; Yadegari, Nasim; Bakker, Julia; van Ewijk, Reyn J G; Grobbee, Diederick E; Painter, Rebecca C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2014-11-14

    Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to trimester in which Ramadan fasting took place. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 130 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care in Amsterdam and Zaanstad, The Netherlands. Data on adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and demographics were self-reported by pregnant women, and the outcome of the newborn was retrieved from medical records after delivery. The results showed that half of all the women adhered to Ramadan fasting. With strict adherence to Ramadan fasting in pregnancy, the birth weight of newborns tended to be lower than that of newborns of non-fasting mothers, although this was not statistically significant ( - 198 g, 95 % CI - 447, 51, P= 0·12). Children of mothers who fasted in the first trimester of pregnancy were lighter at birth than those whose mothers had not fasted ( - 272 g, 95 % CI - 547, 3, P= 0·05). There were no differences in birth weight between children whose mothers had or had not fasted if Ramadan fasting had taken place later in pregnancy. Ramadan fasting during early pregnancy may lead to lower birth weight of newborns. These findings call for further confirmation in larger studies that should also investigate potential implications for perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality. PMID:25231606

  5. Use of serial maternal urine cytomegalovirus PCR to detect primary CMV infection in seronegative pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Khare, Milind; Sharland, Mike; Manyonda, Isaac; Rice, Phil; Bland, J Martin; Griffiths, Paul

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if serial maternal urine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests can detect primary CMV infection during pregnancy. This was a prospective study conducted from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 1999 in an antenatal clinic setting of a teaching hospital. The study group included women who were CMV IgG negative and aged <30 years or had a pre-school child. They were invited to self-collect urine samples monthly and send them to the laboratory by post. Cord bloods were tested for CMV IgG to detect seroconversion. An anxiety questionnaire was sent to all study participants. At first attendance, 1549 (42%) women were CMV IgG negative. Of the 696 eligible women, 609 (88%) participated in the urine PCR study. PCR was performed on 2263 urine samples (median of 4/pregnancy). Primary CMV infection was identified in one woman by urine PCR at 36 weeks (baby CMV negative). Cord blood samples were available from 152/609 infants (25%). Seroconversion was noted in only one woman. Replies to the questionnaire were received from 264/609 women (43%): 214 (81%) had little or no anxiety, and 220 (83%) felt reassured by their study participation. Serial urine PCR is a feasible method of detecting primary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy which has potential for evaluation in further studies. PMID:15109818

  6. Mothers' Antenatal Depression and Their Children's Antisocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Sharp, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Interviews of 120 British adolescents and their parents (80% of a random sample of antenatal patients drawn from a representative urban population and followed longitudinally) revealed that 40 (33%) had been arrested and/or had a diagnosis of "DSM-IV" conduct disorder by 16 years of age; of those, 18 (45%) had committed violent acts. Depression in…

  7. Health education during antenatal care: the need for more

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ateeq, Mohammed A; Al-Rusaiess, Amal A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of health education during antenatal is to provide advice, education, reassurance and support, to address and treat the minor problems of pregnancy, and to provide effective screening during the pregnancy. Exploring current practices in this regard revealed the need for more organized educational activities to ensure high quality and clients satisfaction. PMID:25733929

  8. Participation of traditional birth attendants in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in two rural districts in Zimbabwe: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Freddy; Aung, Khin Devi; Ndoro, Theresa; Engelsmann, Barbara; Dabis, François

    2008-01-01

    Background Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is among the key HIV prevention strategies in Zimbabwe. A decrease in use of antenatal care (ANC) services with an increase in home deliveries is affecting the coverage of PMTCT interventions in a context of accelerated economic crisis. The main objective was to evaluate acceptability and feasibility of reinforcing the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in family and child health services through their participation in PMTCT programmes in Zimbabwe. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was undertaken using multistage cluster sampling in two rural districts through interviews and focus group discussions among women who delivered at home with a TBA, those who had an institutional delivery and TBAs. Results 45% of TBAs interviewed knew the principles of PMTCT and 8% delivered a woman with known HIV-positive status in previous year. Of the complete package of PMTCT services, more than 75% of TBAs agreed to participate in most activities with the exception of performing a blood test (17%), accompanying new-borns to closest health centre to receive medication (15%) and assisting health centres in documentation of the link ANC-PMTCT services (18%). Women who delivered at home were less likely to have received more than one ANC service or have had contact with a health centre compared to women who delivered in a health centre (91.0% vs 72.6%; P < 0.001). Also, 63.6% of the women who delivered in a health centre had the opportunity to choose the place of delivery compared to 39.4% of women who delivered at home (P < 0.001). More than 85% of women agreed that TBAs could participate in all activities related to a PMTCT programme with the exception of performing a blood test for HIV. Concerns were highlighted regarding confidentiality of the HIV-serostatus of women. Conclusion Although the long-term goal of ANC service delivery in Zimbabwe remains the provision of skilled delivery attendance, PMTCT programmes will benefit from complementary approaches to prevent missed opportunities. TBAs are willing to expand their scope of work regarding activities related to PMTCT. There is a need to reinforce their knowledge on MTCT prevention measures and better integrate them into the health system. PMID:19061506

  9. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ?1 to ?3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ?1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  10. Validation of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10): A study on illicit drug use among Chinese pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Lap Po; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ip, Patrick; Chow, Chun Bong; Chan, Mei Fung; Ng, Judy Wai Ying; Sing, Chu; Lam, Ying Hoo; Mak, Wing Lai Tony; Chow, Kam Ming; Chin, Robert Kien Howe

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying illicit drug use during pregnancy among Chinese population. Chinese pregnant women attending their first antenatal visit or their first unbooked visit to the maternity ward were recruited during a 4-month study period in 2011. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographic information, a single question on illicit drug use during pregnancy and the DAST-10. Urine samples screened positive by the urine Point-of-Care Test were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DAST-10 performance was compared with three different gold standards: urinalysis, self-reported drug use, and evidence of drug use by urinalysis or self-report. 1214 Chinese pregnant women participated in the study and 1085 complete DAST-10 forms were collected. Women who had used illicit drugs had significantly different DAST-10 scores than those who had not. The sensitivity of DAST-10 for identify illicit drug use in pregnant women ranged from 79.2% to 33.3% and specificity ranged from 67.7% to 99.7% using cut-off scores from ?1 to ?3. The ~80% sensitivity of DAST-10 using a cut-off score of ?1 should be sufficient for screening of illicit drug use in Chinese pregnant women, but validation tests for drug use are needed. PMID:26091290

  11. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  12. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gebre, Abel; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world's population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11?g/dL) among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%–39.7%) of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01–3.04), no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03–2.37), absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92–5.37), and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06–4.91) were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron supplementation and nutritional counseling on consumption of extra meal and iron-rich foods during pregnancy are recommended to prevent anemia in the pregnant women.

  13. Social support and the incidence and persistence of depression between antenatal and postnatal examinations in Turkey: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cankorur, Vesile Senturk; Abas, Melanie; Berksun, Oguz; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to measure incidence and persistence of depression and to investigate the influence of self-reported antenatal social support and traditional/nuclear family structure on incidence and persistence of depression between the third trimester of pregnancy and following childbirth. We hypothesised that lower antenatal social support would be associated with incidence and persistence of case-level depressive symptoms and the family structure would have an effect on the incidence and persistence of depressive symptoms. Settings The cohort study described here was carried out in and around Ankara the capital of Turkey, because of the considerable heterogeneity of the population in terms of traditional Middle Eastern and ‘modern’ Western lifestyle and social environment. Samples were drawn from 20 urban and rural antenatal clinics (mainly primary care settings) within the geographic catchment. Participants Of 730 women recruited in their third trimester, 578 (79.2%) were re-examined between 2 and 6?months after childbirth. Exclusion criteria were as follows: aged younger than 18?years, illiteracy, significant health problems and refusal to participate. Primary and secondary outcome measures Close Persons Questionnaire items enquired about relationships with the husband, mother and mother-in-law and depression was ascertained using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the each assessments. Results In those followed, onset of postnatal depression occurred in 13.9% and persistence of antenatal depression in 49.7%. After adjustment, worse emotional support from the mother-in-law was significantly associated with postnatal depression incidence (OR=0.93, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.99) and worse emotional support from the husband with postnatal persistence (OR=0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.96) of antenatal depression. Family structure was not a risk or modifying factor. Conclusions The incidence and persistence of postnatal depression in this Middle Eastern cohort were comparable to international findings. Certain family relationships predicted incidence and persistence of postnatal depression but no role of traditional/nuclear family structure was found. PMID:25833665

  14. Moderate antenatal anxiety symptoms and birth outcomes of boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Kaitz, Marsha; Mankuta, David; Rokem, Ann Marie; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-12-01

    Women's antenatal anxiety, especially if paired with significant life stressors or comorbid physical or mental health disorders, can predict adverse birth outcomes, defined in terms of birth weight, gestational age at birth and obstetric complications. Here, we tested for an impact of moderate anxiety symptoms on these outcomes because many women experience these kinds of symptoms during pregnancy, and even subtle differences in birth outcomes can have significant effects on children's development. We also tested for moderation of anxiety effects by infant gender. The sample comprised 219 women with anxiety symptoms ranging from none to moderate levels on the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate models estimated main effects of Group (no/minimal versus moderate symptoms) and interactions between Group and infant Gender. Results indicate that moderate anxiety predicted more obstetric complications, particularly among mothers of daughters. Results also demonstrate a Group × Gender interaction on BW, indicating that sons of anxious mothers weighed more than sons of controls; whereas, daughters of anxious mothers weighed less than daughters of controls. These findings show that moderate anxiety symptoms may affect some birth outcomes, and differently for males and females. PMID:25204367

  15. Neonatal opioid withdrawal and antenatal opioid prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Yao, Zhan; Guttmann, Astrid; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.; Dhalla, Irfan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal is increasing in both Canada and the United States. However, the degree to which the treatment of pain with opioids, rather than the misuse of prescription opioids or heroin, contributes to the prevalence of neonatal opioid withdrawal remains unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional study between 1992 and 2011 in Ontario with 2 objectives. First, we determined the annual incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Second, using data from a subset of women eligible for publicly funded prescription drugs, we determined what proportion of women who deliver an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome were given a prescription for an opioid before and during pregnancy. Results The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome in Ontario increased 15-fold during the study period, from 0.28 per 1000 live births in 1992 to 4.29 per 1000 live births in 2011. During the final 5 years of the study, we identified 927 deliveries of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome to mothers who were public drug plan beneficiaries. Of these mothers, 67% had received an opioid prescription in the 100 days preceding delivery, including 53.3% who received methadone, an increase from 28.6% in the interval spanning 1 to 2 years before delivery (p < 0.001). Prescription for nonmethadone opioids decreased from 38% to 17% (p < 0.001). Interpretation The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal in Ontario has increased substantially over the last 20 years. Most of the women in this cohort who delivered an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome had received a prescription for an opioid both before and during their pregnancy. PMID:25844370

  16. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in antenatal population in Menoufia governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El Deeb, Hala K; Salah-Eldin, Hesham; Khodeer, Seham; Allah, Azza Abdu

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women would be a valuable approach for planning appropriate preventive strategies. However, no enough data currently exist as to the magnitude of T. gondii infection among pregnant women in Egypt. In view of paucity of reports on this issue, the current cross-sectional study aimed to determine the rate of T. gondii infection and maternal-fetal transmission in antenatal population in Menoufia governorate, Egypt. Out of 323 pregnant women who were screened for Toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies with ELFA, 218 samples were IgG seropositive, of which, 9 samples were IgM seropositive. Therefore, seropositivity rates of 67.5% (95% CI: 62.39%, 72.61%), and 2.8% (95% CI: 1%, 4.6%) for IgG and IgM, respectively were found. Analysis of serological patterns revealed that a large proportion of subjects were immune to Toxoplasma infection (IgG+/IgM-), as prevalence of chronic infection was 64.7% (209 cases), and 32.5% of cases were susceptible to primary infection (IgG-/IgM-). Meanwhile, the rate of probable acute Toxoplasma infection (IgG+/IgM+) was 2.8%, with one case (0.3%) confirmed for recent infection, as she had low avidity index with positive amniotic fluid analysis with both PCR and mouse inoculation. Significant relations were seen between Toxoplasma-specific IgG and knowledge about transmission modes, consumption of milk/milk products and unwashed raw vegetable/fruit, hand hygiene, contact with soil and farm animals. In conclusion, we reported high prevalence for T. gondii infection among antenatal population in Menoufia governorate. Thus, the susceptibility for toxoplasmosis is relatively low. Sources of infection revealed herein might represent potential threats for primary infection in seronegative women. Accordingly, there is urgent need for implementation of health education programs as an appropriate approach for prevention. PMID:22921952

  17. Antenatal depression: an artefact of sleep disturbance?

    PubMed

    Mellor, R; Chua, S C; Boyce, P

    2014-08-01

    Research indicates that poor sleep quality is linked to and may precede depressive symptomatology in pregnancy, complicating screening for either condition. Pregnancy onset may also contribute to the development of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). For the first time, the link between SDB and depression was examined in pregnancy. A total of 189 pregnant women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for sleep quality and the Berlin Questionnaire for SDB. Women were also asked what they felt was the cause of their symptoms. PSQI-assessed poor sleep quality and self-perceived depression were strongly associated with EPDS scores of probable depression (X (2) 13.39; p?

  18. Frequency of primary resistance to antiretroviral drugs and genetic variability of HIV-1 among infected pregnant women recently diagnosed in Luanda-Angola.

    PubMed

    Castelbranco, Emingarda Patrícia André Félix; da Silva Souza, Edvaldo; Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Martins, Angélica Nascimento; de Alencar, Luiz Claúdio Arraes; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2010-12-01

    The determination of the prevalence of primary resistance to antiretroviral therapy in different places of the world is of extreme importance in molecular epidemiology monitoring, and it can guide the initial patient therapy in a given geographical area. The frequency of drug resistance mutations (DRM) and the genetic variability of HIV-1 isolates from newly diagnosed HIV-infected pregnant women attending the antenatal clinics of the Lucrecia Paim and Augusto N'Gangula maternities, Luanda-Angola, were determined. Thirty five out of 57 samples (61.4%) were sequenced and one mutation associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was detected. Additionally, two mutations associated with resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were also detected. No primary mutations associated with protease inhibitors (PI) were found. Subtypes A1, C, D, F1, G, H, CRF 13, CRF 37, and other mosaics were detected. PMID:20929349

  19. Informed decision making regarding antenatal screening for fetal abnormality in the United Kingdom: a qualitative study of parents and professionals.

    PubMed

    Barr, Owen; Skirton, Heather

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the views of parents and health professionals regarding informed decision making for antenatal screening for Down syndrome. This qualitative study was based on thematic analysis and conducted in England, where screening for Down syndrome is universally offered to all pregnant women. Four focus groups were held with pregnant women and/or their partners (n?=?22), and another four groups were held with health professionals who offer antenatal screening (n?=?22). Data were analyzed through coding of the transcribed focus group discussions and extraction of main themes. Extracted themes were: information overload, gaps in information, challenges in providing information and involvement of both parents in the decision. Parents and professionals believed that burdening parents with untimely information on a wide range of topics in the first trimester detracted from decision making about screening. Many parents also reported they were not sufficiently informed and wanted individualized discussion with a health professional. To ensure parents make informed decisions, information on screening should be provided at the appropriate time, with opportunity for personal discussion with a knowledgeable health professional. PMID:23347127

  20. The silent HIV epidemic among pregnant women within rural Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Yahya-Malima, Khadija I; Olsen, Bjørg E; Matee, Mecky I; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2006-01-01

    Background Many national antenatal clinics (ANC) based HIV surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa have limited coverage of remote rural sites, a weakness that compromises adequate estimation, monitoring and development of effective preventive and care programmes. To address this void in rural Manyara and Singida within Northern Tanzania, we conducted antenatal clinic-based sentinel surveillance. Methods We consecutively enrolled 1377 counselled and consenting pregnant women attending ANC clinics for the first time during the current pregnancy. The study was conducted in six antenatal clinics, within three divisions of rural Manyara and Singida regions in 2003/2004. Interviews were conducted and blood samples for routine purposes were collected and tested for anti-HIV IgG antibody anonymously, using Bionor HIV-1 & 2 assay ®. Results Among enrolees, 94% (1296/1377) participated fully. The overall prevalence of HIV was 2.0% (95%CI: 1.34–2.97). The highest HIV prevalence was among women aged between 15–19 years in both rural and remote rural populations. The odds of HIV infection was 4.3 (95%CI: 1.42–12.77) times among women reporting more than one lifetime sexual partners compared with those with one partner. HIV infection was associated with history of genital sores or foul smelling discharge, OR 6.8 (95%CI: 2.78–16.66) and age at first pregnancy (2.5 times higher likelihood of infection if before the age of 18 years versus at a later age). Conclusion Including rural remote sites, as part of the national ANC routine surveillance, is crucial in order to discover imminent silent epidemics such as the one described in this paper. Scaling up HIV prevention efforts is mandatory to prevent the imminent escalation of the HIV epidemic highly associated with a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), multiple sexual partners and pregnancies at a younger age. Ignorance of relevant knowledge and low utilisation of condoms underscores the urgency for large-scale preventive efforts. Research to capture a wider representation of the risk factors in the general population should be a priority to enable further customised HIV prevention efforts. PMID:16643653

  1. Antenatal maternal hypoxia: criterion for fetal growth restriction in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eeun Amy; Longo, Lawrence D.; Goyal, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Rodents are a useful model for life science research. Accumulating evidence suggests that the offspring of mice and rats suffer from similar disorders as humans when exposed to hypoxia during pregnancy. Importantly, with antenatal hypoxic exposure, human neonates demonstrate low birth weight or growth restriction. Similarly, with antenatal hypoxic exposure rodents also demonstrate the fetal growth restriction (FGR). Surprisingly, there is no consensus on the minimum duration or degree of hypoxic exposure required to cause FGR in rodents. Thus, we have reviewed the available literature in an attempt to answer these questions. Based on studies in rats, birth weight reduction of 31% corresponded to 10th percentile reduction in birth weight curve. With the similar criterion (10th percentile), in mice 3 days or more and in rats 7 days or more of 14% or lower hypoxia administration was required to produce statistically significant FGR.

  2. Recommendations for repeat courses of antenatal corticosteroids: A decision analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron B. Caughey; Julian T. Parer

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to review the evidence regarding multiple versus single courses of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS), devise dosing regimens based on this evidence, and then, by using decision analysis, compare 5 ACS regimens: (1) single course, (2) weekly courses, (3) every-other-week dosing, (4) every-other-week dosing with no more than 2 courses, and (5) an every-other-week dosing regimen with no

  3. [The importance of antenatal immunoprophylaxis for prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn].

    PubMed

    Starcevi?, Mirta; Mataija, Marina; Sovi?, Dragica; Dodig, Javorka; Matijevi?, Ratko; Kukuruzovi?, Monika

    2011-03-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a consequence of maternal alloimmunization against fetal red blood cell antigens. Alloimmunization against D antigen from Rhesus (Rh) blood group system is particularly important because of its strong immunogenicity. During the last few decades, the introduction of RhD prophylaxis by postpartum administration of anti-D immunoglobulin to RhD negative women, now improved with antenatal prophylaxis, has led to a dramatic decrease in perinatal mortality and morbidity from HDFN. However, severe cases have not disappeared, mostly due to prophylaxis failure. In our case, inappropriate prenatal care during the first pregnancy in an RhD negative mother resulted in primary immunization. In the next pregnancy with an RhD positive child, the mother's secondary immune response was extremely strong and led to early development of severe fetal anemia. The fetus survived thanks to the treatment with intrauterine transfusions (IUT), but they caused suppression of erythropoiesis, which lasted for months after birth. The long lasting, late anemia was treated with repeated postnatal red cell transfusions and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). Despite the severity of HDFN in our case, the short-term outcome is good. The boy has normal growth until now, but due to the possibility of an adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcome, this case requires continuous follow up. It also reminds of the fact that RhD alloimmunization remains an actual problem in daily routine. Antenatal prophylaxis is a crucial step in quality care of those who are at a risk of HDFN. PMID:21568074

  4. Antenatal assessment using the FECG obtained via abdominal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Crowe, J A; Woolfson, M S; Hayes-Gill, B R; Peasgood, W; Mohd-Ali, M A; Huang, Y; Herbert, J; Huang, X B; Harrison, A; Gibson, N M; Symonds, E M; Reed, N; Mohajer, M

    1996-01-01

    During the past decade a variety of intrapartum fetal monitors have been constructed that process the entire fetal electrocardiogram (FECG), obtained via a scalp electrode. They therefore differ from conventional monitors in aiming to extract relevant timing and magnitude information from the morphology of the FECG rather than simply the RR interval and hence heart rate. An intrapartum monitor such as this has been successfully developed by ourselves. This paper describes the early results obtained whilst attempting to extend this form of monitoring forward into the antenatal period. In order to achieve this the FECG must be acquired via surface electrodes placed on the maternal abdomen, which yields a signal containing the FECG amidst a number of noise sources. Our investigations into the feasibility of "antenatal abdominal FECG analysis" have been on two fronts. The first has been to produce a bedside monitor similar in function to our intrapartum device, whilst the second has been to address the possibility of performing such monitoring in ambulant subjects. At present the antenatal bedside monitor has successfully extracted and processed the FECG in approximately 75% of the cases studied, with subjects ranging from 20 weeks through to term having been monitored. We also have demonstrated the feasibility of the long term monitoring of maternal and fetal heart rate using a portable instrument. PMID:8708930

  5. A Descriptive Survey of the Educational Preparation and Practices of Antenatal Educators in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Cathy; O’Connell, Rhona; Devane, Declan

    2014-01-01

    Antenatal education is recommended to prospective parents, yet little is known about the educational preparation of the facilitators of this education, or of the educational practices they use. The aim of this study was to investigate the educational preparation and practices of antenatal educators in Ireland. Data were collected using a questionnaire structured on the three components (abilities, opportunities, and means) of Stamler’s theoretical framework of enablement. Eighty-four of the 120 antenatal educators responded (70%), and this included midwives, public health nurses, physiotherapists, and private antenatal educators. Findings describe a picture of varied educational preparation for the antenatal educator with a range of educational practices being used. Within public antenatal classes, large class size was a barrier to providing a participatory educational approach. PMID:24453466

  6. DEVELOP students attend conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Last month, Madeline Brozen and Jason Jones of the DEVELOP Program at John C. Stennis Space Center joined members from the program's national office at Langley Research Center to attend the Southern Growth Policies Board annual conference in Biloxi. Pictured are (l to r): Karen Allsbrook, Jonathan Gleason, Gov. Haley Barbour, Madeline Brozen, Lindsay Rogers and Tracey Silcox.

  7. Inferring calendar event attendance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Joe Tullio

    2001-01-01

    The digital personal calendar has long been established as an effective tool for supporting workgroup coordination. For the new class of ubiquitous computing applications, however, the calendar can also be seen as a sensor, providing both location and availability information to these applications. In most cases, however, the calendar represents a sequence of events that people could (or should) attend,

  8. An assessment of the likely acceptability of vaginal microbicides for HIV prevention among women in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The findings of the CAPRISA tenofovir studies have raised expectations that soon an approved microbicide would be available. However it is in only a limited number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa that the acceptability of microbicides has been evaluated. We conducted a study to assess the acceptability of vaginal microbicides among women in rural Ghana. Methods The study employs a mixed method design, using cross-sectional survey and focus group discussions to further understand issues related to awareness and attitudes towards microbicide development, acceptability and perceived partner attitudes among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in two health facilities in the Kintampo North municipality of Ghana. We used logistic regression to identify possible predictors of microbicide acceptability among the women surveyed. Results Although only 2% of the 504 women were aware of the development of microbicides, 95% were willing to use one when it became available. The cost of a microbicide that will be considered affordable to 50% of women was US$0.75. Although there were concerns about possible wetting effect, gel or creams were the most preferred (68% of women) formulation. Although 71% thought their partners will find microbicide acceptable, apprehensions about the feasibility of and consequences of failed discreet use were evident. 49% of women were concerned about possible negative effect of microbicide on sexual pleasure. Perceived partner acceptability (O.R. =17.7; 95%C.I. 5.03-62.5) and possibility of discreet use (O.R. =8.9 95%C.I. 2.63-30.13) were the important predictors of microbicide acceptability. Conclusion Achieving microbicide acceptability among male partners should be made a part of the promotive interventions for ensuring effective use among women in rural Ghana. PMID:23114222

  9. Antenatal depression and children's developmental outcomes: potential mechanisms and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Waters, Cerith S; Hay, Dale F; Simmonds, Jessica R; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2014-10-01

    During the last decade there has been increased recognition of the prevalence of antenatal depression as well as an expansion in research examining the impact of maternal mood during pregnancy on offspring development. The aim of this review was to summarise the theoretical underpinnings and empirical evidence regarding the impact of antenatal depression on children's developmental outcomes. Biological mechanisms hypothesised to account for an association between antenatal depression and adverse offspring outcomes are first identified including the functioning of the prenatal Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis and epigenetic processes. A systematic literature search is then conducted of studies examining the impact of antenatal depression on child development. In general, studies examining associations between antenatal depression and offspring temperament, cognitive and emotional outcomes reveal either no effect of the prenatal environment or small effects that often attenuate following adjustment for other antenatal and postnatal risk factors. In contrast, an independent effect of antenatal depression on children's conduct problems and antisocial behaviour is a well-replicated finding. There is emerging evidence that exposure to depression during pregnancy impacts negatively on offspring biology, although the findings are complex and require replication. Psychological and pharmacological treatments of antenatal depression are then reviewed, considering whether antidepressant medication exerts harmful effects on the foetus. We close by proposing that antenatal depression is an early marker of a developmental cascade to future mental health problems for both mothers and offspring. PMID:25037152

  10. Antenatal Syphilis Screening Using Point-Of-Care Testing in Low- and Middle-Income Countries in Asia and Latin America: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuznik, Andreas; Muhumuza, Christine; Komakech, Henry; Marques, Elsa M. R.; Lamorde, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes to the infant. In low- and middle-income countries in Asia and Latin America, 20%-30% of women are not tested for syphilis during pregnancy. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing the coverage for antenatal syphilis screening in 11 Asian and 20 Latin American countries, using a point-of-care immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test. Methods The decision analytical cost-effectiveness models reported incremental costs per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted from the perspectives of the national health care payer. Clinical outcomes were stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and congenital syphilis. DALYs were computed using WHO disability weights. Costs included the ICS test, three injections of benzathine penicillin, and nurse wages. Country-specific inputs included the antenatal prevalence of syphilis and the proportion of women in the antenatal care setting that are screened for syphilis infection as reported in the 2014 WHO baseline report on global sexually transmitted infection surveillance. Country-specific data on the annual number of live births, proportion of women with at least one antenatal care visit, and per capita gross national income were also included in the model. Results The incremental cost/DALY averted of syphilis screening is US$53 (range: US$10-US$332; Prob<1*per capita GDP=99.71%) in Asia and US$60 (range: US$5-US$225; Prob<1*per capita GDP=99.77%) in Latin America. Universal screening may reduce the annual number of stillbirths by 20,344 and 4,270, neonatal deaths by 8,201 and 1,721, cases of congenital syphilis by 10,952 and 2,298, and avert 925,039 and 197,454 DALYs in the aggregate Asian and Latin American panel, respectively. Conclusion Antenatal syphilis screening is highly cost-effective in all the 11 Asian and 20 Latin American countries assessed. Our findings support the decision to expand syphilis screening in countries with currently low screening rates or continue national syphilis screening programs in countries with high rates. PMID:26010366

  11. Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

    2009-01-01

    This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

  12. Improving Pupil Attendance: A Handbook for Administrators and Attendance Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Pupil Services.

    This handbook provides guidance to school administrators in setting up an effective school attendance system. After brief introductory sections on the importance of good attendance and on how to recognize whether excessive pupil absences are a problem, the third section discusses how to organize the attendance services: outlining objectives;…

  13. Increasing Attendance via a School Attendance Review Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickert, Donald M.

    1987-01-01

    Describes program designed to increase student attendance at San Jacinto (California) Unified School District (approximately 2,300 grade K-12 students) that includes goal setting, successive communications with students and parents, establishment of School Attendance Review Board, and student recognition/rewards. Reports average attendance

  14. Routine testing of fetal Rhesus D status in Rhesus D negative women using cell-free fetal DNA: an investigation into the preferences and information needs of women

    PubMed Central

    Oxenford, Kerry; Silcock, Caroline; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to investigate women's preferences and information needs for routine implementation of fetal Rhesus D (RhD) typing using cell-free fetal DNA. Methods A questionnaire was developed following focus groups and interviews with both health professionals and RhD negative (RhD?) women offered fetal RhD genotyping within a research study and distributed to RhD? women attending routine antenatal appointments in four National Health Service hospitals. Current knowledge of blood types, anti-D administration, fetal RhD genotyping and future practices were explored. Results A total of 19 respondents participated in interviews and focus groups, and 270 respondents completed the questionnaires. Questionnaire respondents overwhelmingly felt that the test should be offered to all RhD? women (92.1%), and 75.9% said that they would accept this test. Most were happy to have the test even if it involved extra blood tests (89.3%) or appointments (79%). The knowledge of blood groups was poor. Although 90.7% knew that the baby could have a different blood group from themselves, only 34% knew that blood groups are inherited from both parents. More than 40% were not aware that anti-D would not be required if their baby was RhD?. Conclusions Women would welcome the introduction of routine fetal RhD genotyping. Information leaflets and training of midwives will be essential for implementation to ensure good understanding regarding testing. © 2013 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:23625761

  15. Increasing Reservation Attendance: Ganado's Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Carl; And Others

    Based on recommendations of a District Attendance Task Force, in 1980 the Ganado School District (a Navajo Reservation District) formulated an Attendance Improvement Plan which decreased the primary school's absentee rate 37% over previous years and which dramatically increased Friday attendance. The primary school targeted "high risk" chronic…

  16. Hypnosis Antenatal Training for Childbirth (HATCh): a randomised controlled trial [NCT00282204

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan M Cyna; Marion I Andrew; Jeffrey S Robinson; Caroline A Crowther; Peter Baghurst; Deborah Turnbull; Graham Wicks; Celia Whittle

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although medical interventions play an important role in preserving lives and maternal comfort they have become increasingly routine in normal childbirth. This may increase the risk of associated complications and a less satisfactory birth experience. Antenatal hypnosis is associated with a reduced need for pharmacological interventions during childbirth. This trial seeks to determine the efficacy or otherwise of antenatal

  17. Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Coercion among Pregnant Women in India: Relationship with Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Deepthi; Chandra, Prabha S.; Thomas, Tinku; Carey, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent in most parts of the world. It is also prevalent during pregnancy. Methods This study assessed the prevalence of IPV during pregnancy and evaluated its relationship with mental health outcomes, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pregnant women (n = 203) attending an antenatal clinic in a public hospital in Bangalore were assessed for presence of IPV as well as depressive, somatic and PTSD symptoms as well as life satisfaction. Results Self-reported physical violence in the last year was reported by 14% of women, psychological abuse by 15%, and sexual coercion by 9%. One-half of these women reported ongoing abuse during pregnancy. Depression, somatic, and PTSD symptoms were higher in those with a history of abuse or sexual coercion, and life satisfaction was poorer in those with any form of violence. Among those reporting a history of sexual coercion, severity of violence was related to increased psychiatric morbidity. Alcohol abuse in the spouse was a predictor of the presence and severity of abuse. Limitations The study was conducted in a single clinic in southern India which is a large country with very diversified populations. Conclusion The experience of intimate partner violence and its mental health consequences are quite prevalent in India which is a culture where gender disparities are normative and pregnancy is a particularly vulnerable period. PMID:17109969

  18. Relationship between sociodemographics, dietary intake, and physical activity with gestational weight gain among pregnant women in Rafsanjan City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Tabatabaei, Seyed Zia; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh; Mun, Chan Yoke; Nazari, Mozhgan

    2015-03-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a determinant of health and nutrition of mothers and offspring. However, many factors associated with GWG are not completely understood. The present study assessed the relationship between sociodemographics, dietary intake, and physical activity with GWG in 308 Iranian pregnant women attending government healthcare centres in Rafsanjan city, Iran. Women gained an average of 12.87±3.57 kg during pregnancy while 54% did not gain weight within the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended range. Univariate logistic models showed that gestaional weight gain was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), energy intake, and sitting time. Cumulative logit model showed positive relationship between age (p=0.0137) and pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.0001) with GWG. All pregnant women should be counselled on achieving the reccomended GWG to prevent adverse maternal and prenatal outcomes. Pre-pregnancy and gestational nutritional status and physical activity should be emphasized in antenatal care. PMID:25995733

  19. Reducing the risk of HIV infection during pregnancy among South African women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L; Peltzer, K; Villar-Loubet, O; Shikwane, E; Cook, R; Vamos, S; Weiss, S M

    2013-01-01

    Mpumalanga Province, South Africa has one of the highest HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates among pregnant women (~29.4%). This study sought to enhance male involvement in pregnancy to increase HIV disclosure, sexual communication, HIV knowledge and reduce unprotected sex. Participants attending Antenatal Clinics (ANC) completed HIV counseling and testing and were enrolled with male partners (n=239 couples, 478 individuals). Twelve ANCs were randomly assigned to provide a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) intervention or the standard of care, health education sessions plus PMTCT. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (approximately 6-8 weeks post-baseline) on demographics, sexual behavior, HIV-related knowledge, and conflict resolution strategies. Experimental participants increased HIV knowledge, use of negotiation, and decreased intimate partner violence. Additionally, they were more likely to have increased condom use from baseline to post-intervention (OR=5.1, 95% CI=[2.0, 13.3]). Seroconversions in the control condition exceeded experimental (6 vs. 0). HIV serostatus disclosure to partner did not increase over time for men or women within the experimental or control condition. Male involvement in pregnancy may be an important strategy to reduce sexual risk behavior and HIV transmission. Results support the utility of group interventions to enhance communication and HIV knowledge among pregnant couples. PMID:23438041

  20. Morbidity and mortality in booked women who deliver outside orthodox health facilities in Calabar, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J Etuk; I. H Itam; E. E. J Asuquo

    2000-01-01

    Women who booked for antenatal care at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, but delivered outside orthodox health facilities were studied. The aims were to determine the pattern of maternal morbidity and mortality in them and to compare this with the pattern in women who booked and delivered at UCTH. One hundred and eighteen of the defaulters traced

  1. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamdan Z Hamdan; Abdel Haliem M Ziad; Salah K Ali; Ishag Adam

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. METHODS: A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women.

  2. Befriending breastfeeding: a home-based antenatal pilot for south Asian families.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Naomi

    2012-06-01

    In the last decade recognition of the impact of social inequalities on health has resulted in a refocus of the public health agenda, with health visitors having a pivotal role. While this involvement is in the form of family-centred public health, it is also intended to involve work with the wider community and primarily focuses on beginning to address the injustice of inequality before a child is born, acknowledging that early intervention is key to breaking the cycle of deprivation. Such inequalities disproportionately affect those from black and minority ethnic (BME) groups who are more likely to report long-term ill health than their white counterparts. Access to healthcare services is restricted not only by family choices but also by difficulties of location and language. Numerous initiatives to address these issues have been implemented in the last 10 years, from Sure Start centres to maternity service reform, but the level of engagement from women from BME groups is not equal to their counterparts. In one locality in Oxford there is a high concentration of families from Pakistan and Bangladesh who, despite concerted efforts, have remained hard to reach. This project attempted to redesign the current antenatal breastfeeding information service, and aimed to produce evidence to guide practice to better connect with this group. The review considers evidence provided by the literature base and uses a home visiting approach to investigate the topic. Results are correlated and compared, and recommendations for the future are presented. PMID:22779392

  3. BETAMETHASONE PHARMACOKINETICS AFTER TWO PRODRUG FORMULATIONS IN SHEEP: IMPLICATIONS FOR ANTENATAL CORTICOSTEROID USE

    PubMed Central

    Samtani, Mahesh N.; Löhle, Matthias; Grant, Angela; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Jusko, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal administration of betamethasone to enhance fetal lung maturation for women who threaten preterm labor is common clinical practice. However, recommendations regarding the choice of betamethasone formulations for perinatal use are vague. The disposition of betamethasone from two commonly used antenatal formulations is poorly understood. We therefore designed a study to capture the true pharmacokinetic profiles of betamethasone from these fast acting and dual-release formulations. Betamethasone in sheep plasma was measured by a newly designed, highly sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay after intramuscular injection (n = 4) of 0.25 mg/kg betamethasone phosphate and 0.5 mg/kg betamethasone phosphate/acetate formulations. Compartmental modeling was performed using the ADAPT II program. Betamethasone pharmacokinetics could be captured for 24 h for the phosphate and for 5 days for the phosphate/acetate formulations. The phosphate formulation profile had the appearance of a traditional Bateman function with a terminal half-life of 4 h, whereas the phosphate/acetate formulation produced a biexponential decline with a terminal half-life of 14 h. The latter is much longer than is commonly reported and has been missed in the literature due to assay limitations. Extrapolations to humans indicate that although both formulations might have similar therapeutic indices, the dual formulation might be associated with a lower safety profile. In light of this newly identified long terminal half-life for the betamethasone dual formulation, dosing practices for betamethasone in pregnancy need to be reassessed. PMID:15860658

  4. Lung cancer in filling station attendants

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P.; Andersen, O. (Institute of Community Health, Odense University, (Denmark))

    1991-01-01

    At the Danish census on 9 November 1970, 4,055 men and 1,195 women aged 20-64 years indicated an employment that was coded as retail sale of oil and gasoline; almost all individuals probably worked as filling station attendants. Record linkage at Danmarks Statistik showed that 529 of the men had died during the following 17 years. Respiratory cancer (75 deaths) was the only cause of death that showed a significant excess (standardized mortality ration, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.00) when compared to all men gainfully employed at the time of the census. An increased mortality due to cardiovascular disease could not be related to any particular diagnostic subgroup; the mortality in women did not differ from expected rates. These results are in accordance with data from other countries on occupational groups exposed to high levels of exhaust fumes.

  5. Seroprevalence and correlates of human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type 1 antibodies among pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okoye, Augustine Ejike; Ibegbulam, Obike Godswill; Onoh, Robinson Chukwudi; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Ugwu, Ngozi I; Lawani, Lucky Osaheni; Anigbo, Chukwudi Simon; Nonyelu, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Background Human T-cell lymphoma/leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 is a retrovirus transmitted vertically from mother to child parenterally and sexually by infected lymphocytes. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies and associated risk factors for HTLV-1 infection among pregnant women in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to October 2010. Two hundred pregnant women were recruited consecutively from the antenatal clinic. Five milliliters of blood was collected from each of the participants into a plain sterile bottle and allowed to clot. The serum obtained was stored at ?20°C until required for analysis. The serum samples were then analyzed for antibodies to HTLV-1 using a one-step incubation double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Participants’ demographic characteristics and degree of exposure to the risk factors associated with HTLV-1 infection were captured using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis of results was done using SPSS version 17. Results The average age of the pregnant women was 28.94 years (standard deviation 4.17). The age-group with the highest representation was those between the ages of 26 and 30 years. Thirty-six percent of the population was above 30 years old. The result of the tests showed that only one respondent, a 31-year-old pregnant woman tested positive for HTLV-1 antibodies. Therefore, the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 antibodies among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital was 0.5%, with a 95% confidence interval of 0%–2.8%. Some of the sociodemographic risk factors of HTLV-1 infection found to be applicable to the 31-year-old woman who tested positive included positive history of previous sexually transmitted diseases, high parity, low socioeconomic status, female sex, and age above 30 years. The pregnant women that participated in this study were exposed to risk factors and behaviors associated with HTLV-1 infection. Some of the pregnant women (17.5%) had contracted sexually transmitted diseases, and 80.5% did not use condoms during coitus. Conclusion The seroprevalence obtained in this study was low, though it is 100% for anyone infected. More prospective and multicenter studies are required to determine the infectivity of HTLV-1 among pregnant women in Nigeria. PMID:25258559

  6. Gonorrhoea in women and exposure to risk.

    PubMed Central

    Yarnell, J; Samways, R

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented on the characteristics of women with newly diagnosed gonorrhoea who attended Lydia Clinic, St. Thomas' Hospital, during a 6-month period. Although gonorrhoea in women is largely asymptomatic, there was strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that some women had attended because they had been exposed to risk. The proportion of women thus motivated was largest among those women who had attended a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases before--in which up to 40 per cent. of women had apparently attended entirely of their own accord. Women born in the West Indies differed from their counterparts born in the United Kingdom in three respects: they were younger, recorded fewer contacts, and referred themselves less frequently to the clinic for a first visit. Implications for health education and for future research are discussed. PMID:1033015

  7. [A cardiac rhabdomyome evoking the antenatal diagnosis of a Bourneville's tuberous sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Charif D'Ouazzane, M; Gueroui, I; Betaich, K; Bennani, R; Touati, Z; Haddour, L; Cherti, M

    2015-02-01

    Rare hereditary affection, the Bourneville's tuberous sclerosis (BTS) is an autosomal dominant inherited phakomatosis. Rhabdomyomes are the most frequent cardiac tumors in children and infants, they are one of the most premature modes of revelation of the STB. They sometimes allow to envisage the diagnosis in antenatal period at the same time as the genetic and neurological explorations. We report the diagnosis of a fetal BTS evoked by the antenatal discovery of a cardiac rhabdomyome. The antenatal cerebral explorations, realized by magnetic resonance imagery (MRI), put evidence cerebral localisations confirming the diagnosis. PMID:22621850

  8. Reproductive health outcomes among female flight attendants: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Cone, J E; Vaughan, L M; Huete, A; Samuels, S J

    1998-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that female flight attendants may experience increased rates of spontaneous abortion. We conducted a survey of female flight attendants who were pregnant at any time between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 1991 (n = 418) using a mailed self-administered interest survey (response rate, 60 %) and follow-up questionnaire regarding reproductive outcomes and potential risk factors for adverse outcomes (response rate, 64%). The cumulative hazard of spontaneous abortion was 17% when maternal age, smoking, alcohol use, and prior spontaneous abortions were control led for, using a Cox life-table regression model. Of the female flight attendants who worked outside the home, 47 of 321 (15%) experienced a spontaneous abortion, compared with 6 of 73 (8%) who did not work outside the home during the pregnancy period (odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 0.78-4.66). Flight attendants who experienced a spontaneous abortion during their first pregnancy during the study period reported working significantly more flight hours per month during their pregnancy (74 hours per month) than did flight attendants who delivered a live birth (64 hours per month) (Student's t = -3.30, P = 0.002). We conclude that although the results of this study must be considered preliminary because of the relatively low overall response rate (38%), we did not find an overall increased risk for spontaneous abortion among flight attendants, compared with other working women (10%-20%). Women who continue working as flight attendants during pregnancy and those who work relatively higher numbers of flight hours during pregnancy may, however, be at increased risk for spontaneous abortion, compared with flight attendants who do not perform such work. PMID:9531091

  9. Seroepidemiological and socioeconomic studies of genital chlamydial infection in Ethiopian women.

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, M E; Jamil, Y; Tibaux, G; Pelzer, A; Mehari, L; Darougar, S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the prevalence of chlamydial genital infection in Ethiopian women attending gynaecological, obstetric and family planning clinics; to identify the epidemiological, social and economic factors affecting the prevalence of infection in a country where routine laboratory culture and serological tests for chlamydial species are unavailable; to determine the risk factors for genital chlamydial infection in those with serological evidence of other sexually transmitted diseases. SUBJECTS--1846 Ethiopian women, outpatient attenders at two teaching hospitals and a mother and child health centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. SETTING--Gynaecological outpatient department, antenatal, postnatal and family planning clinics. METHODS--Sera were tested for type-specific anti-chlamydial antibodies using purified chlamydial antigens (C. trachomatis A-C (CTA-C), C. trachomatis D-K (CTD-K), Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV1-3), and C. pneumoniae (CPn)), in a micro-immunofluorescence test. The genital chlamydia seropositivity was analysed against patient's age, clinic attended, ethnic group, religion, origin of residence, age at first marriage and first coitus, income, number of sexual partners, duration of sexual activity, marital status/profession, obstetric and contraceptive history, and seropositivity for other sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS--Overall exposure to chlamydia species was found in 84%, genital chlamydial infection in 62%, and titres suggestive of recent or present genital infection in 42% of those studied. Genital chlamydial infection was highest (64%) in family planning and lowest (54%) in antenatal clinic attenders. Exposure to genital chlamydia species was influenced by ethnic group and religion. Those married and sexually active under 13 years of age had greater exposure (69%) to genital chlamydial infection than those first sexually active aged over 18 (46%). Prevalence of infection was highest in those with more than five sexual partners (78%) and in bargirls (84%). The lowest income groups had a higher prevalence (65%) of genital chlamydial infection than the wealthiest (48%). Multivariate analysis showed the most important factors to be age at first coitus, religion, prostitution and present age of the woman in that order. Risk for genital chlamydial infection was increased in those with seropositivity for syphilis, gonorrhoea, HSV-2 but not HBV infection. CONCLUSION/APPLICATION--Chlamydial genital infections are highly prevalent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic Ethiopian women. The high prevalence of infection reported reflects a complexity of socioeconomic factors: very early age at first marriage and first coitus, instability of first marriage, subsequent divorce and remarriage or drift into prostitution, all of which are influenced by ethnic group, religion and poverty--together with transmission from an infected group of prostitutes by promiscuous males to their wives, lack of diagnostic facilities and inadequate treatment of both symptomatic and asymptomatic men and women. The problem of chlamydial disease in Ethiopia needs to be addressed urgently in the context of control of STD. PMID:1398656

  10. Health facility-based data on women receiving sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy in Tanzania: lessons to learn from a cross-sectional survey in Mkuranga and Mufindi districts and other national survey reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A study of health facility (HF) data on women receiving sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) was carried out at antenatal care clinics in Mkuranga and Mufindi districts. Methods A review of health management information system (HMIS) registers, interviews with health-care workers (HWs) and district and national level malaria control program managers corroborated by inter-temporal assessment through observations at HF levels. Statistical data were analyzed in Excel and interpreted in triangulation with qualitative data from interviews and observations. Results Data indicated that IPTp doses administered to women were inadequate and partly inconsistent. HMIS registers lacked space for IPT records, forcing HWs to manipulate their record-keeping. The proportion/number of IPTp recipients in related to the supply of SP for free delivery, to women’s attendance behaviours, showed variation by quarter and year of reporting. Conclusion It is impossible to achieve rational health service planning when the HMIS is weak. Whilst it is acknowledged that the HMIS is already overloaded, concerted measures are urgently needed to accommodate data on new interventions and other vertical programs if malaria programs are to achieve their goals. PMID:24433529

  11. Leaf concentrate fortification of antenatal protein-calorie snacks improves pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Magon, Anjna; Collin, Simon M; Joshi, Pallavi; Davys Late, Glyn; Attlee, Amita; Mathur, Beena

    2014-09-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) snacks are routinely distributed to pregnant women in India. These provide protein and calories but are low in micronutrients. We investigated whether RTE snacks fortified with leaf concentrate (LC) could improve pregnancy outcomes, including maternal haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and infants' birthweight. This randomized controlled two-arm trial was conducted over 18 months: control (sRTE) group received standard 120 g RTE snack (102 g wheat flour, 18 g soya flour); intervention (lcRTE) group received the same snack fortified with 7 g LC. The study was conducted in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. One hundred and five pregnant women aged 18-35 years were studied. Among the 105 women randomized to the two arms of the trial, 2 (1.9%) were severely anaemic (Hb ? 6.0 g/dL); 55 (53.4%) were moderately anaemic (Hb 6.0-8.0 g/dL); 34 (33.0%) were mildly anaemic (Hb 8.6-10.9 g/dL); and 12 (11.7%) were not anaemic (Hb ? 11.0 g/dL). In the final month of pregnancy, 83.0% (39/47) of women in the sRTE group had Hb ? 8.5 g/dL compared to 37.8% (17/45) in the lcRTE group (p<0.001). After adjustment for age and baseline Hb concentration, the difference in Hb concentrations due to LC fortification was 0.94 g/dL (95% CI 6.8-12.0; p<0.001). Mean live birthweight in the lcRTE group was 2,695 g (SD 325 g) compared to 2,545 g (297 g) in the sRTE group (p=0.02). The lcRTE snacks increased infants' birthweight by 133.7 g (95% CI 7.3-260.2; p=0.04) compared to sRTE snacks. Leaf concentrate fortification of antenatal protein-calorie snacks in a low-income setting in India protected against declining maternal haemoglobin concentrations and increased infants' birthweight when compared with unfortified snacks. These findings require replication in a larger trial. PMID:25395906

  12. Individual and Facility-Level Determinants of Iron and Folic Acid Receipt and Adequate Consumption among Pregnant Women in Rural Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Amanda; Stephenson, Rob; Young, Melissa; Webb-Girard, Amy; Hogue, Carol; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Background In Bihar, India, high maternal anemia prevalence and low iron and folic acid supplement (IFA) receipt and consumption have continued over time despite universal IFA distribution and counseling during pregnancy. Purpose To examine individual and facility-level determinants of IFA receipt and consumption among pregnant women in rural Bihar, India. Methods Using District Level Household Survey (2007–08) data, multilevel modeling was conducted to examine the determinants of two outcomes: IFA receipt (any IFA receipt vs. none) and IFA consumption (?90 days vs. <90 days). Individual-level and facility-level factors were included. Factor analysis was utilized to construct antenatal care (ANC) quality and health sub-center (HSC) capacity variables. Results Overall, 37% of women received any IFA during their last pregnancy. Of those, 24% consumed IFA for 90 or more days. Women were more likely to receive any IFA when they received additional ANC services and counseling, and attended ANC earlier and more frequently. Significant interactions were found between ANC quality factors (odds ratio (OR): 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25, 0.56) and between ANC services and ANC timing and frequency (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.82). No HSC factors were significantly associated with IFA receipt. Women were more likely to consume IFA for ?90 days if they attended at least 4 ANC check-ups and received more ANC services. IFA supply at the HSC (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.82) was also significantly associated with IFA consumption. Conclusions Our findings indicate that individual and ANC factors (timing, frequency, and quality) play a key role in facilitating IFA receipt and consumption. Although HSC capacity factors were not found to influence our outcomes, significant variation at the facility level indicates unmeasured factors that could be important to address in future interventions. PMID:25793866

  13. Prognostic factors of posterior urethral valves and the role of antenatal detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisa Ylinen; Marja Ala-Houhala; Sakari Wikström

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the significance of different prognostic factors and long-term renal outcome in boys with posterior urethral valves (PUVs) detected either antenatally or during infancy. A total of 46 cases of PUVs, 23 antenatal and 23 postnatal, were followed prospectively from 1983 to 2003. The mean follow-up time was 12.5 years. The impact of vesicoureteral

  14. Syphilis screening in the antenatal care: a cross-sectional study from Botswana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Romoren; Mafizur Rahman

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Congenital syphilis is recognized as a substantial public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis among antenatal care attendees in Botswana and to contribute to knowledge about the challenges facing the syphilis-screening programme. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 703 antenatal care attendees at 13 health facilities in Gaborone, Botswana

  15. Awareness and views of the law on termination of pregnancy and reasons for resorting to an abortion among a group of women attending a clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Abeyasinghe, N L; Weerasundera, B J; Jayawardene, P A; Somarathna, S D

    2009-04-01

    In Sri Lanka, induced abortion is a criminal offence except to save the life of the mother. This study determined the awareness and views of the law on abortion among women seeking an abortion. Three hundred and thirteen women were interviewed. The characteristics of the study group are discussed. 65.8% of the respondents stated they knew the current law, 25.6% stated they did not and 8.3% were unsure. On detailed analysis of each respondent's knowledge regarding the situations where abortion is legalized including those who stated that they did not know the law, only 11.2% had an accurate knowledge. More than 75% stated that abortion should be legalized when the mother's life was in danger, where there was pregnancy after rape or incest, when there was psychiatric illness in the mother and when there were fetal anomalies. Reasons for resorting to an abortion are discussed. Although 11.2% were aware of the law, there was no difference in the reasons for resorting to an abortion when compared with those who were unaware of the law. This study highlights the fact that availability of abortion services to women depend not only on the law and its awareness, but on how it is interpreted and enforced. PMID:19239963

  16. HIV risk perception among pregnant women in western India: need for reducing vulnerabilities rather than improving knowledge!

    PubMed

    Darak, Shrinivas; Gadgil, Mukta; Balestre, Eric; Kulkarni, Maitreyee; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) have been considered as a low HIV risk population. Yet, a substantial proportion of new HIV infections are occurring among stable heterosexual couples. This paper sought to investigate the proportion and profile of women who, within the low-risk population, are potentially at higher risk of HIV infection. HIV risk perception of pregnant women enrolled within the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest trial was described and associated socio-behavioral characteristics, husband's characteristics, and HIV-related characteristics were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Among 484 women enrolled, baseline data were collected for 479 women and 460 women with completed data were considered for the present analysis (96%). Eighty-nine (19.4%) women perceived themselves at risk of HIV. Women with educational level <11years (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR = 2.4 [CI = 1.28-4.53]), who stayed in joint families (AOR = 1.89 [CI = 1.12-3.12]), who had experienced insult or hurt from the partner (AOR = 1.91 [CI = 1.11-3.27]) and whose partner were alcoholic (AOR = 2.19 [CI = 1.31-3.66]) were significantly more likely to perceive themselves at risk of HIV. Women who had heard about sexually transmitted infections were also more likely to report HIV risk perception (AOR = 3.36 [CI = 1.83-6.18]). Substantial proportion of women (one out of five) perceived themselves at risk of HIV and most of these have reported some form of vulnerability in their couple relationship such as intimate partner violence, alcoholic partner, lack of communication, and spaces for communication with partner. Though awareness and knowledge is the first step for prevention, considering the vulnerabilities associated with HIV risk perception, HIV prevention interventions in India should target overall sources of vulnerability to HIV. Targeted risk reduction for women in ANC should be considered for primary HIV prevention among couples. PMID:24215183

  17. No Moderating Effect of 5-HTTLPR on Associations Between Antenatal Anxiety and Infant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Elizabeth C.; Ramchandani, Paul G.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Glover, Vivette; Netsi, Elena; Evans, Jonathan; Meaney, Michael J.; Murphy, Susannah E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Maternal antenatal anxiety is associated with an increased risk of behavioral disturbances in offspring. Recent work has suggested that the effect of maternal antenatal anxiety on infant temperament at 6 months is moderated by the serotonin transporter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR, with carriers of the short allele more susceptible to the adverse behavioral outcomes of maternal antenatal anxiety. These findings, however, are yet to be replicated and extended beyond infancy. The aim of the current study was to assess this same potential moderator (5-HTTLPR) in a large population-based cohort study, and to determine whether or not the effects persist into childhood and early adolescence. Method Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) cohort (N = 3,946) were used to assess whether the 5-HTTLPR genotype moderated the association between self-reported maternal antenatal anxiety (Crown Crisp Index) in pregnancy, and child temperament at 6 months (Infant Temperament Questionnaire), and also later behavioral and emotional problems on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire from age 4 to 13 years. Results We found no evidence to suggest that the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism moderated the effects of maternal antenatal anxiety on infant temperament at 6 months or infant behavioral and emotional problems from childhood through to adolescence. Conclusion Our results, based on a large prospective community sample that assessed children from infancy to early adolescence, provide a thorough test of, but no evidence for, a genetic moderation of the effects of maternal antenatal anxiety by 5-HTTLPR. PMID:23622853

  18. The relationship between maternal depression and smoking cessation during pregnancy--a cross-sectional study of pregnant women from 15 European countries.

    PubMed

    Smedberg, Janne; Lupattelli, Angela; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Øverland, Simon; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy. However, differences in study design and methodology challenge study comparability. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal depression and continuing smoking among pregnant European women while adjusting for maternal characteristics. This multinational, web-based study evaluated pregnant women in 15 European countries recruited from October 2011 to February 2012. Data on depression status, smoking habits, maternal socio-demographic characteristics, and life-style factors were collected via an anonymous online questionnaire. Associations were estimated with logistic regression. Of 4,295 women included, 1,481 (34.5 %) reported smoking before pregnancy, and 391 (26.4 %) continued smoking during pregnancy whereof 127 (32.5 %) were depressed. The association between depression and continuing smoking during pregnancy were uniform across the European countries (OR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.50-2.71), with about twice the prevalence of continuing smoking among the depressed. There was a strong relationship between continuing smoking in pregnancy and low education level (OR 4.46, 95 % CI 2.72-7.32), which coincided with risky pregnancy behavior such as failure to attend pregnancy/birth preparation courses (OR 1.80, 95 % CI 1.19-2.72) and follow recommended use of folic acid (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.23-2.65). Women who perceived the risk for the fetus of continued smoking during pregnancy as higher were the least likely to continue smoking during pregnancy (OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.68-0.77). This underlines the clustering of risk in some pregnant women, and the results should guide antenatal care of depressed women struggling to quit smoking during pregnancy. PMID:25352316

  19. Dimensions of women's empowerment and their influence on the utilization of maternal health services in an Egyptian village: a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Leo; Fouad, Nawal Abdel Moneim; Chiang, Chifa; Elshair, Inass Helmy Hassan; Abdou, Nagah Mahmoud; El Banna, Saneya Rizk; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the association between women's empowerment and the utilization of maternal health services by women in Egypt and analyzed the dimensions of women's empowerment that are associated with increased health service utilization. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a village in Egypt in November 2007. A total of 189 women, who had ever been married and had at least one child, were interviewed to collect data on the utilization of maternal health services, such as the number of antenatal care (ANC) visits during their pregnancies and whether delivery of their child was attended by skilled health personnel. Proxy variables on five different dimensions of women's empowerment were obtained by principal component analysis, and were tested for an association with the utilization of maternal health services, using logistic regression models. The five dimensions extracted from the data were freedom of movement, economic security and stability, support by family and freedom from domination, decision-making in daily life, and relationship with the community/participation in society. Among these dimensions, support by family and freedom from domination was the only factor that was positively associated with maternal health service utilization (regular ANC: OR = 1.38, P = 0.05; deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel: OR = 1.71, P = 0.01). Current age was also associated with the latter, possibly influenced by the recent rapid increase in the provision of health services in the village studied. Furthermore, this study revealed that a relatively high proportion of younger women still only limited access to maternal health services in Egypt. PMID:25130002

  20. Does Antenatal Maternal Psychological Distress Affect Placental Circulation in the Third Trimester?

    PubMed Central

    Helbig, Anne; Kaasen, Anne; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Haugen, Guttorm

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Some types of antenatal maternal psychological distress may be associated with reduced fetal growth and birthweight. A stress-mediated reduction in placental blood flow has been suggested as a mechanism. Previous studies have examined this using ultrasound-derived arterial resistance measures in the uterine (UtA) and umbilical (UA) arteries, with mixed conclusions. However, a reduction in placental volume blood flow may occur before changes in arterial resistance measures are seen. Fetoplacental volume blood flow can be quantified non-invasively in the umbilical vein (UV). Our objective was to study whether specific types of maternal psychological distress affect the placental circulation, using volume blood flow quantification in addition to arterial resistance measures. Methods This was a prospective observational study of 104 non-smoking pregnant women (gestational age 30 weeks) with uncomplicated obstetric histories. Psychological distress was measured by General Health Questionnaire-28 (subscales anxiety and depression) and Impact of Event Scale-22 (subscales intrusion, avoidance and arousal). UtA and UA resistance measures and UV volume blood flow normalized for fetal abdominal circumference, were obtained by Doppler ultrasound. Results IES intrusion scores above the mean were associated with a reduction in normalized UV volume blood flow (corresponding to –0.61 SD; P?=?0.003). Adjusting for UA resistance increased the strength of this association (difference –0.66 SD; P<0.001). Other distress types were not associated with UV volume blood flow. Maternal distress was not associated with arterial resistance measures, despite adjustment for confounders. Conclusions Intrusive thoughts and emotional distress regarding the fetus were associated with reduced fetoplacental volume blood flow in third trimester. Uterine and umbilical artery resistance measures were not associated with maternal distress. Our findings support a decrease in fetoplacental blood flow as a possible pathway between maternal distress and reduced fetal growth. PMID:23437312

  1. Antenatally diagnosed congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations (CCAM): Research Review

    PubMed Central

    Di Prima, Fosca Antonia Francesca; Bellia, Adriano; Inclimona, Genny; Grasso, Francesco; Teresa, Maria; Cassaro, Meli Nazario

    2012-01-01

    Summary Prenatal identification of lung abnormalities has increased with prenatal surveillance. With the advent of improved antenatal imaging over the past ten years, the diagnosis, assessment and management of congenital cystic lung abnormalities have changed. These were once considered the exclusive domain of the surgeon, who had the authority to operate on all congenital cystic lung abnormalities regardless of size or clinical signs in order to avoid the risk of cancer and improve lung growth in even asymptomatic infants. Clinicians are reconsidering this approach in the light of the spontaneous improvement and possible resolution that occurs over months to years with many of these lesions, thinking about the opportunity to take a more conservative approach in many minimally symptomatic or asymptomatic infants in the early months of life. The risks of subsequent cancer are poorly understood and probably overstated. Many centers advocate surgery only in cases of symptomatic or significant lesions, although there is little consensus as to what constitutes a significant lesion. This article will review current knowledge (classification, pathogenesis, genetics, prenatal evaluation, clinical implications) on congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations (CCAM) and discuss management options for young children with these lung abnormalities. PMID:22905308

  2. Antenatal fetal assessment: multifetal gestation--an overview.

    PubMed

    Devoe, Lawrence D

    2008-08-01

    As prevalence of multifetal gestation has increased in the United States, antenatal surveillance of these pregnancies has gained importance. This article focuses on the assessment of twin pregnancy, since critical data are lacking for the surveillance of higher order multiple gestations. Twin pregnancies encounter risks that differ in nature, frequency, and intensity from those seen in singleton pregnancies. Most of these risks stem from subnormal or discordant fetal growth or abnormalities of placentation. Sonographic modalities play key roles in antepartum surveillance. These include fetal biometry, serial growth studies, amniotic fluid volume assessment, Doppler velocimetry of fetal-placental circulation, and biophysical profile testing. Fetal heart rate testing, specifically nonstress testing, has also been used extensively in twin surveillance. This article examines the specific application of these modalities to twin gestation and reviews the best evidence available for their support. Assessment of unique risk conditions of twin-twin transfusion, monoamniotic twinning, and intrauterine death of one twin is addressed. Based on current data, a strategic outline for assessment of twin pregnancy is presented. PMID:18652929

  3. Sexually transmitted infections in women who have sex with women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J V Bailey; C Farquhar; C Owen; P Mangtani

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STIs) in a sample of women who have sex with women (WSW) and to identify risk factors for the acquisition of STI.Method: Cross sectional survey. Questionnaire for demographic, sexual history, and sexual practice data linked with the results of genitourinary examination. 708 new patients attending two sexual health clinics for lesbians

  4. Association of Antenatal Depression with Adverse Consequences for the Mother and Newborn in Rural Ghana: Findings from the DON Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Weobong, Benedict; ten Asbroek, Augustinus H. A.; Soremekun, Seyi; Manu, Alexander A.; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Prince, Martin; Kirkwood, Betty R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Whilst there is compelling evidence of an almost 2-fold increased risk of still births, and suggestive evidence of increased mortality among offspring of mothers with psychotic disorders, only three studies have addressed the role of antenatal depression (AND) on survival of the baby. We examined these associations in a large cohort of pregnant women in Ghana. Methods A Cohort study nested within 4-weekly surveillance of all women of reproductive age to identify pregnancies and collect data on births and deaths in the Kintampo Health Research Centre study area of Ghana. Women were screened for AND using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to ascertain DSM-IV major or minor depression. Outcomes were adverse birth outcomes, maternal/infant morbidity, and uptake of key newborn care practices, examined using logistic regression; effect sizes reported as relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. Results 20679 (89.6%) pregnant women completed the PHQ-9. The prevalence of AND was 9.9% (n?=?2032) (95% confidence interval 9.4%–10.2%). AND was associated with: prolonged labour (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.02–1.53); peripartum complications (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07–1.15);postpartum complications (RR 1.27, 96% CI 1.21–1.34); non-vaginal delivery (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02–1.40); newborn illness (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.16–1.99); and bed net use during pregnancy (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89–0.98), but not neonatal deaths, still births, low birth weight, immediate breast feeding initiation, or exclusive breastfeeding. AND was marginally associated with preterm births (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.98–1.76). Conclusion This paper has contributed important evidence on the role of antenatal depression as a potential contributor to maternal and infant morbidity. Non-pharmacological treatments anchored on primary care delivery structures are recommended as an immediate step. We further recommend that trials are designed to assess if treating antenatal depression in conjunction with improving the quality of obstetric care results in improved maternal and newborn outcomes. PMID:25549334

  5. Using Attendance Worksheets to Improve Student Attendance, Participation, and Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoads, Edward

    2013-06-01

    As science instructors we are faced with two main barriers with respect to student learning. The first is motivating our students to attend class and the second is to make them active participants in the learning process once we have gotten them to class. As we head further into the internet age this problem only gets exacerbated as students have replaced newspapers with cell phones which can surf the web, check their emails, and play games. Quizzes can motivated the students to attend class but do not necessarily motivate them to pay attention. Active learning techniques work but we as instructors have been bombarded by the active learning message to the point that we either do it already or refuse to. I present another option which in my classroom has doubled the rate at which students learn my material. By using attendance worksheets instead of end of class quizzes I hold students accountable for not just their attendance but for when they show up and when they leave the class. In addition it makes the students an active participant in the class even without using active learning techniques as they are writing notes and answering the questions you have posed while the class is in progress. Therefore using attendance worksheets is an effective tool to use in order to guide student learning.

  6. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Efetie, E R; Salami, H A

    2007-05-01

    Violence against women is a human rights violation, which is increasingly becoming a serious public health issue. When it occurs in pregnant women, victims are recognised to be at higher risk of complications of pregnancy. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out over a 3-month period from May to July 2005 to document the prevalence, knowledge and perception of domestic violence (DV) on pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. The mean age of the respondents was 31.5 +/- 4.25 years, with a range of 20 - 42 years. Most (85.2%) had attained tertiary education. While most (92.9%) were aware of DV in pregnancy, 125 women (37.4%) had experienced DV. Psychological abuse ranked highest with 66.4%, while physical and sexual abuse accounted for 23.4% and 10.2% of the group. Of this group, 21.2% required medical treatment as a result of DV, and all were aware of possible pregnancy complications, such as abortion, premature labour and depression. Most (81.9%) of the respondents felt DV was illegal. A majority (29.7%) kept their DV secret with a few numbers reporting to family, doctors, clergy or close friends. With higher educational status, the experience of DV was greater, although this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Similarly with increasing parity, although this tended to reverse after parity of 3. The prevalence of DV found in Abuja, the centrally located capital city of Nigeria is higher than that from the study in Zaria, northern Nigeria (28%). This is cause for concern, and points to a rising trend in the northern region of the country although the centres are different. Similarly, the husband/spouse was the most common offender; responsible here for 74.2% of cases. This may give justification to recent calls for paternal educational classes for spouses. Increasing public awareness remains the key, through education and public enlightenment campaigns, with more emphasis on the identified perpetrator class. PMID:17654190

  7. Girls' and Women's Education in Laos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    While girls and women in Laos are not the target of strong discriminatory practices, they are at a higher risk of dropping out of school and never attending school. Specific components have been developed within educational policies and strategies to address needs of and concerns for girls and women. Reasons that girls and women lack access to…

  8. Meeting the Needs of Women Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baechtold, Margaret; De Sawal, Danielle M.

    2009-01-01

    The number of women veterans attending college is increasing. This suggests that campus professionals need to become aware of how issues associated with mental health, sexual assault, and gender identity may influence how women veterans make the transition into the higher education environment. This chapter addresses the special needs of women

  9. Expediting support for the pregnant mothers to obtain antenatal care at public health facilities in rural areas of Balochistan province, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Pongpanich, Sathirakorn; Ghaffar, Najma; Chapman, Robert Sedgwick; Mureed, Sheh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify, and compare relative importance of, factors associated with antenatal care (ANC) utilization in rural Balochistan, toward framing a policy to increase such utilization. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among 513 pregnant women in Jhal Magsi District, Balochistan, in 2011. A standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. Predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors were evaluated with generalized linear models (Poisson distribution and log link). Results: Prevalence of any ANC was only 14.4%. Predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors were all important determinants of ANC utilization. Reinforcing factors were clearly most important, husband’s support for ANC was more important than support from other community members. Among predisposing factors, higher income, education, occupation, and better knowledge regarding benefits of ANC were positively and statistically significantly associated with ANC However increased number of children showed negative association. Complications free pregnancy showed positive significant association with ANC at public health facility among enabling factors. Conclusion: It is very important to increase antenatal care utilization in the study area and similar areas. Policy to achieve this should focus on enhancing support from the husband.

  10. The influence of women's empowerment on maternal health care utilization: evidence from Albania.

    PubMed

    Sado, Lantona; Spaho, Alma; Hotchkiss, David R

    2014-08-01

    Women in Albania receive antenatal care and postnatal care at lower levels than in other countries in Europe. Moreover, there are large socio-economic and regional disparities in maternal health care use. Previous research in low- and middle-income countries has found that women's status within the household can be a powerful force for improving the health, longevity, and mental and physical capacity of mothers and the well-being of children, but there is very little research on this issue in the Balkans. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of women's empowerment within the household on antenatal and postnatal care utilization in Albania. The research questions are explored through the use of bivariate and multivariate analyses based on nationally representative data from the 2008-09 Albania Demographic and Health Survey. The linkages between women's empowerment and maternal health care utilization are analyzed using two types of indicators of women's empowerment: decision making power and attitudes toward domestic violence. The outcome variables are indicators of the utilization of antenatal care and postnatal care. The findings suggest that use of maternal health care services is influenced by women's roles in decision-making and the attitudes of women towards domestic violence, after controlling for a number of socio-economic and demographic factors which are organized at individual, household, and community level. The study results suggest that policy actions that increase women's empowerment at home could be effective in helping assure good maternal health. PMID:24929918

  11. Research and Teaching: Attendance and Performance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Randy Moore

    2003-03-01

    Class attendance by most students in nonmajors science classes is influenced by whether they receive points for attending class. If students do not get points for attending class, there is a strong positive correlation of high class attendance with high g

  12. Effect of introducing antenatal diagnosis on reproductive behaviour of families at risk for thalassaemia major.

    PubMed Central

    Modell, B; Ward, R H; Fairweather, D V

    1980-01-01

    Families who were at risk of producing a child with thalassaemia major were studied to determine the sequential effects on their reproductive behaviour of knowing the risk and, subsequently, of knowing that antenatal diagnosis was available. Knowing the risk caused them virtually to stop reproduction and to seek termination of 70% of pregnancies, most of which were accidental. The introduction of antenatal diagnosis in 1975 permitted the resumption of nearly normal reproduction by at-risk families, with fewer than 30% of pregnancies being terminated for thalassaemia major. All couples at risk for thalassaemia major should be detected and counselled before they produce an affected child; responsibility for either choosing or refusing antenatal diagnosis should be theirs alone. PMID:7388536

  13. Ileal atresia secondary to antenatal strangulation of Littre's hernia in an exomphalos minor

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Khoo, A Kate; De Coppi, Paolo; Pierro, Agostino

    2013-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of ileal atresia, resulting from antenatal strangulation of a Meckel’s diverticulum in an exomphalos minor. This is a rare antenatal complication of Littre’s hernia, which has not been previously described. A small exomphalos minor at the base of umbilical cord and late onset vascular accident at the narrow defect leading to ileal atresia may be missed in the prenatal diagnosis. The triad of exomphalos minor, Meckel's diverticulum and terminal ileal atresia secondary to antenatal strangulation of Littre's hernia is very rare to find in the same patient. A small exomphalos minor at the base of the umbilical cord can be missed even in the postnatal period. Our case lends direct evidence of vascular accident as a cause of ileal atresia and supports vascular theory. Whenever possible umbilicus should be preserved naturally and exomphalos sac should be opened higher up for excellent cosmetic results. PMID:23839617

  14. Antenatal onset of haemorrhagic and\\/or ischaemic lesions in preterm infants: prevalence and associated obstetric variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L S de Vries; P Eken; F Groenendaal; K J Rademaker; B Hoogervorst; H W Bruinse

    1998-01-01

    AIMTo assess the prevalence of an antenatal onset of haemorrhagic and\\/or ischaemic lesions in preterm infants; to identify possibly related obstetric risk factors.METHODSA prospective cohort study was made of 1332 infants born at less than 34 completed weeks, using cranial ultrasound, for the presence of antenatal brain lesions (group A) involving the periventricular white matter (PVWM) or central grey matter.

  15. Intimate partner violence against women in eastern Uganda: implications for HIV prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles AS Karamagi; James K Tumwine; Thorkild Tylleskar; Kristian Heggenhougen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i) determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii) identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii) look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention

  16. Clinical algorithms for the screening of pregnant women for STDs in Libreville, Gabon: which alternatives?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bourgeois; D. Henzel; G. Malonga-Mouelet; G. Dibanga; C. Tsobou; M. Peeters; E. Delaporte

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain one of the major public health problems in the developing world. To implement a systematic screening of STDs among pregnant women in Libreville, Gabon, a preliminary cross sectional study on STD prevalence and risk factors was performed in antenatal clinics. A score, integrating risk factors and elementary clinical signs for the screening of STDs,

  17. Qualitative study of perinatal care experiences among Somali women and local health care professionals in Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siri Vangen; R. Elise B. Johansen; Johanne Sundby; Bente Træen; Babill Stray-Pedersen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore how perinatal care practice may influence labor outcomes among circumcised women. Study design: In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 Somali immigrants and 36 Norwegian health care professionals about their experiences from antenatal care, delivery and the management of circumcision. Results: Circumcision was not recognized as an important delivery issue among Norwegian health care professionals and generally the

  18. Factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia: results of Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2002\\/2003 and 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiana R Titaley; Michael J Dibley; Christine L Roberts

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antenatal care aims to prevent maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. In Indonesia, at least four antenatal visits are recommended during pregnancy. However, this service has been underutilized. This study aimed to examine factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia. METHODS: We used data from Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) 2002\\/2003 and 2007. Information of

  19. A holistic antenatal model based on yoga, Ayurveda, and Vedic guidelines.

    PubMed

    Rakhshani, Abbas; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Sharma, Ahalya; Singh, Amit; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of pregnancy complications are on the rise globally with severe consequences. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2009), every minute, at least one woman dies and 20 are affected by the complications related to pregnancy or childbirth. While the root cause of pregnancy complications is unclear, it likely has physical, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects. The Vedas are a rich source of antenatal health care guidelines in all these aspects. The primary objective of the authors was to compile the scriptural and scientific evidence for a holistic antenatal model of yoga with emphasis on sociocultural Indian practices. PMID:25036466

  20. Birthday Effects and Preschool Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.

    2013-01-01

    Young-for-grade students have been shown to receive lower grades and have a higher likelihood of retention compared to their oldest peers upon kindergarten entry. Our study of 1474 economically disadvantaged first-time kindergarteners investigates if preschool attendance may ameliorate some of the risks potentially associated with being…

  1. Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth (Review)

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    06 Neonatal deaths . . . 64 Analysis 01.07. Comparison 01 Corticosteroids versus placebo 01 Corticosteroids versus placebo or no treatment, Outcome 01 Maternal death . . . 38 Analysis 01 01.04. Comparison 01 Corticosteroids versus placebo or no treatment, Outcome 04 Fetal and neonatal

  2. Screening women for intimate partner violence in healthcare settings: abridged Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of screening for intimate partner violence conducted within healthcare settings to determine whether or not screening increases identification and referral to support agencies, improves women’s wellbeing, decreases further violence, or causes harm. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of trials assessing effectiveness of screening. Study assessment, data abstraction, and quality assessment were conducted independently by two of the authors. Standardised estimations of the risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Data sources Nine databases searched up to July 2012 (CENTRAL, Medline, Medline(R), Embase, DARE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and ASSIA), and five trials registers searched up to 2010. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised or quasi-randomised trials of screening programmes for intimate partner violence involving all women aged ?16 attending a healthcare setting. We included only studies in which clinicians in the intervention arm personally conducted the screening, or were informed of the screening result at the time of the consultation, compared with usual care (or no screening). Studies of screening programmes that were followed by structured interventions such as advocacy or therapeutic intervention were excluded. Results 11 eligible trials (n=13?027) were identified. In six pooled studies (n=3564), screening increased the identification of intimate partner violence (risk ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.39 to 3.89), particularly in antenatal settings (4.26, 1.76 to 10.31). Based on three studies (n=1400), we detected no evidence that screening increases referrals to domestic violence support services (2.67, 0.99 to 7.20). Only two studies measured women’s experience of violence after screening (three to 18 months after screening) and found no reduction in intimate partner violence. One study reported that screening does not cause harm. Conclusions Though screening is likely to increase identification of intimate partner violence in healthcare settings, rates of identification from screening interventions were low relative to best estimates of prevalence of such violence. It is uncertain whether screening increases effective referral to supportive agencies. Screening does not seem to cause harm in the short term, but harm was measured in only one study. As the primary studies did not detect improved outcomes for women screened for intimate partner violence, there is insufficient evidence for screening in healthcare settings. Studies comparing screening versus case finding, or screening in combination with therapeutic intervention for women’s long term wellbeing, are needed to inform the implementation of identification policies in healthcare settings. PMID:24821132

  3. Women Students at the Boston Architectural Center 1975-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Martha

    The Boston Architectural Center (BAC) offers a positive educational environment and contributes to opening the architectural profession to women. Results of a survey indicate that the percentage of female undergraduates and female faculty is higher than at other architectural schools. Also, 292 women who have attended or are attending the BAC were…

  4. Emergency hormonal contraception usage in genitourinary medicine clinic attenders.

    PubMed

    Evans, J K; Holmes, A; Browning, M; Forster, G E

    1996-06-01

    In England, health providers conducted a prospective study of 150 consecutive women 14-43 years old who sought emergency hormonal contraception (EHC) (50 mcg ethinyl estradiol + 500 mcg norgestrel) at the genitourinary medicine clinic of The Royal London Hospital in the Whitechapel section of London. 50% had also used EHC in the past. 23% had experienced at least 1 induced abortion. The reasons for EHC use were contraceptive failure for 100 (66%) women, unprotected sexual intercourse for 48 (32%) women, and rape for 2 women. 93% of the women reporting contraceptive failure were using a condom during the index sexual intercourse. The remaining women recognized the possibility of failure of their oral contraceptives (e.g., concurrent use of an antibiotic and forgotten pill). 50 (33%) and 21 (14%) women returned to the clinic for follow-up within 1 month and 1-3 months of initial presentation, respectively. Nine of these women had attended the family planning advisory clinic. 3.3% of the 71 women who returned to the clinic were pregnant. 22 (31%) of the women who returned to the clinic reported side effects (10 nausea and vomiting, 9 nausea, 5 abdominal pain, 1 breast tenderness, and 1 a panic attack). More than 31% of returning women reported an abnormal period after using EHC. 51% of returning women said that their preferred future method of contraception would be condoms. 10% either had not yet decided to use contraception or were planning to become pregnant. Clinic staff screened only 13% of all 150 women for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) within 1 month of unprotected intercourse. None of them had an STD. Six of the 150 women returned for a second EHC prescription within 3 months. These findings indicate the need for clinicians to address future contraceptive plans at the time of EHC prescription, since most women did not return for follow-up or family planning advice. They should also screen for STDs during this initial contact considering the high rate of unprotected intercourse. PMID:8707328

  5. Changes in sexual practices and responses among ante-natal clinic attendees in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, A B; Fatusi, A O; Makinde, O N; Omojuwa, I; Asa, S; Onwudiegwu, U

    2005-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out among 134 antenatal clinic attendees in a Nigerian tertiary hospital to assess pregnancy-related sexual beliefs and changes in sexual frequency and response. Information was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire, and analysed by SPSS. Only 15% of women believed that religious, social or cultural reasons prevented sexual intercourse in pregnancy. Frequency of sexual intercourse decreased in pregnancy in 37.4% of the respondents, remained unaltered in 46.1% and increased in 16.5%. Age, marriage duration and gestational age were not associated with change in the pattern of coital frequency in pregnancy, but education was significantly associated. Sexual responsiveness diminished in approximately half of our respondents in terms of arousal (54.5%), orgasm (48.5%), pleasure (43.7%) and satisfaction (51.4%). The changes were not associated with pregnancy duration. We concluded that sex in pregnancy is well accepted in our environment, and health workers should promote sexual health and well-being in pregnancy. PMID:16368588

  6. Screening for factor XI deficiency amongst pregnant women of Ashkenazi Jewish origin.

    PubMed

    Kadir, R A; Kingman, C E C; Chi, C; O'connell, N M; Riddell, A; Lee, C A; Economides, D L

    2006-11-01

    A pilot study was conducted over a 6-month period to evaluate antenatal screening for factor XI (FXI) deficiency amongst Ashkenazi Jewish women booking for their pregnancy in a single obstetric unit. Fifty-four women of Ashkenazi Jewish origin were recruited during their visit for the routine first trimester ultrasound scan. They completed a questionnaire about their personal bleeding symptoms and had blood taken for FXI levels (FXI:C). Seven (13%) women had partial FXI deficiency. Five (9%) were newly diagnosed, and in the remaining two, the diagnosis was known previously. One infant with severe FXI deficiency was identified as a result of maternal testing. This study has shown that FXI deficiency is common amongst women of Ashkenazi Jewish origin and supports its antenatal screening in this population. However, further studies are required to evaluate its cost-effectiveness and the effect on pregnancy outcome. PMID:17083513

  7. Repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatments adversely affect neural transmission time and auditory thresholds in laboratory rats

    PubMed Central

    Church, M.W.; Adams, B.R.; Anumba, J.I.; Jackson, D.A.; Kruger, M.L.; Jen, K.-L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Antenatal corticosteroid (AC) treatment is given to pregnant women at risk for preterm birth to reduce infant morbidity and mortality by enhancing lung and brain maturation. However, there is no accepted regimen on how frequently AC treatments should be given and some studies found that repeated AC treatments can cause growth retardation and brain damage. Our goal was to assess the dose-dependent effects of repeated AC treatment and estimate the critical number of AC courses to cause harmful effects on the auditory brainstem response (ABR), a sensitive measure of brain development, neural transmission and hearing loss. We hypothesized that repeated AC treatment would have harmful effects on the offspring’s ABRs and growth only if more than 3 AC treatment courses were given. To test this hypothesis, pregnant Wistar rats were given either a high regimen of AC (HAC), a moderate regimen (MAC), a low regimen (LAC), or saline (SAL). An untreated control (CON) group was also used. Simulating the clinical condition, the HAC dams received 0.2 mg/kg Betamethasone (IM) twice daily for 6 days during gestation days (GD) 17-22. The MAC dams received 3 days of AC treatment followed by 3 days of saline treatment on GD 17-19 and GD 20-22, respectively. The LAC dams received 1 day of AC treatment followed by 5 days of saline treatment on GD 17 and GD 18-22, respectively. The SAL dams received 6 days of saline treatment from GD 17-22 (twice daily, isovolumetric to the HAC injections, IM). The offspring were ABR-tested on postnatal day 24. Results indicated that the ABR’s P4 latencies (neural transmission time) were significantly prolonged (worse) in the HAC pups and that ABR’s thresholds were significantly elevated (worse) in the HAC and MAC pups when compared to the CON pups. The HAC and MAC pups were also growth retarded and had higher postnatal mortality than the CON pups. The SAL and LAC pups showed little or no adverse effects. In conclusion, repeated AC treatment had harmful effects on the rat offspring’s ABRs, postnatal growth and survival. The prolonged ABR latencies reflect slowed neural transmission times along the auditory nerve and brainstem auditory pathway. The elevated ABR thresholds reflect hearing deficits. We concluded that repeated AC treatment can have harmful neurological, sensory and developmental effects on the rat offspring. These effects should be considered when weighing the benefits and risks of repeated AC treatment and when monitoring and managing the prenatally exposed child for possible adverse effects. PMID:21963399

  8. Women's worth.

    PubMed

    Bloch, N

    1992-01-01

    Jill Conway is a feminist historian, writer, teacher, and now-emerita 1st woman president of Smith College. She claims that women today still suffer from a great deal of oppression. Women around the world are currently in a disadvantage position. In 7 countries women do not have the right to vote. In the US less that .5% of top executives are women. The wage gap in the US between 1939 and 1989 has only shrunk $.10, from $.58-$.68. Conway points out that we are all constrained by our social mores, generational attitudes, political events, and economic circumstances. Few people are able to overcome these things in the way that they live their lives. Conway questions the validity of history written from a male dominated point of view. Around the world the value of women's work is almost always lower than that of men. India is just 1 example, there 75% of women are illiterate and 1/2 the population lives in poverty based on a caste system. Female literacy tripled in the 1st 30 years of independence and by 1981 it had reached 25%. The literacy gap is actually growing in India Today with 44% of girls aged 6 to 11, who are eligible to attend school, not doing so. Rural poverty keeps them at home because their domestic work is more valuable than their education. Other cultural tradition compound the problem: arranged marriages often result in motherhood for 14 year old girls. This is done for many reasons, 1 of which is crop failure insurance. When 2 families are combined through marriage, their total land share grows and they are thus more likely to have enough to eat. Education is just 1 necessary step. Developed nations must realize the realities that exist in the countries they provide aid for. In Africa for example, 70% of continent's food is produced by women. Yet the aid programs of the past have only been designed to offer assistant to men and create jobs for men. PMID:12317441

  9. Antenatal and Postnatal Iron Supplementation and Childhood Mortality in Rural Nepal: A Prospective Follow-up in a Randomized, Controlled Community Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Christine P.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Wu, Lee; Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P.; Khatry, Subarna K.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term benefits of antenatal iron supplementation in child survival are not known. In 1999–2001, 4,926 pregnant women in rural Nepal participated in a cluster-randomized, double-masked, controlled trial involving 4 alternative combinations of micronutrient supplements, each containing vitamin A. The authors examined the impact on birth weight and early infant mortality in comparison with controls, who received vitamin A only. They followed the surviving offspring of these women at approximately age 7 years to study effects of in utero supplementation on survival. Of 4,130 livebirths, 209 infants died in the first 3 months and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of those remaining, 3,761 were followed, 150 died between ages 3 months and 7 years, and 152 were lost to follow-up. Mortality rates per 1,000 child-years from birth to age 7 years differed by maternal supplementation group, as follows: folic acid, 13.4; folic acid-iron, 10.3; folic acid-iron-zinc, 12.0; multiple micronutrients; 14.0; and controls, 15.2. Hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65, 1.22), 0.69 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.99), 0.80 (95% CI: 0.58, 1.11), and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.31), respectively, in the 4 supplementation groups. Maternal iron-folic acid supplementation reduced mortality among these children by 31% between birth and age 7 years. These results provide additional motivation for strengthening antenatal iron-folic acid programs. PMID:19778983

  10. Amniotic fluid macrophages and the antenatal diagnosis of anencephaly and spina bifida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G R Sutherland; D J Brock; J B Scrimgeour

    1975-01-01

    The macrophage content of amniotic fluid has been measured and the upper limit of normal on an arbitrary scale is 41. Amongst 65 amniotic fluids collected for antenatal diagnostic studies before 22weeks' gestation there were eight which had macrophage counts ranging from 82 to 6226,three of these were shown to have anencephaly and two spina bifida. The reasons for three

  11. Effects of Antenatal Antibiotics on the Incidence and Bacteriological Profile of Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Laugel; P. Kuhn; J. Beladdale; L. Donato; B. Escande; D. Astruc; J. Messer

    2003-01-01

    Background: Recommendations for the use of antenatal antibiotics have been widely implemented in the past few years, notably to prevent group B streptococcal disease or to prolong pregnancy in the case of preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Objectives: We designed a retrospective study to assess the potential effects of this increasing use of antibiotics on the incidence and bacteriological

  12. Antenatal and delivery risk factors simultaneously associated with neonatal death and cerebral palsy in preterm infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arsenio Spinillo; Ezio Capuzzo; Simona Orcesi; Mauro Stronati; Marco Di Mario; Elisa Fazzi

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the simultaneous effects of antenatal and delivery risk factors on neonatal death and cerebral palsy in preterm infants, we conducted a cohort study of 363 singleton pregnancies delivered between 24 and 33 weeks gestation. Neurodevelopmental outcome of the infants was evaluated at 2 years of corrected age. Risk factors associated with death or cerebral palsy were analysed by

  13. Neonatal sepsis and death after multiple courses of antenatal betamethasone therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen T. Vermillion; David E. Soper; Roger B. Newman

    2000-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the effects of single versus multiple courses of betamethasone therapy on the frequencies of neonatal outcomes and perinatal infectious morbidity among singleton pregnancies complicated by preterm delivery. Study Design: We performed a nonconcurrent prospective analysis of singleton pregnancies delivered between 24 and 34 weeks’ gestation after antenatal betamethasone exposure. Patients were categorized into

  14. Training of Healthcare Personnel to Improve Performance of Community-Based Antenatal Care Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohnishi, Mayumi; Nakamura, Keiko; Takano, Takehito

    2007-01-01

    Background: The present study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a training course designed to improve the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of healthcare personnel to allow them to provide a comprehensive community-based antenatal care (ANC) program in rural Paraguay. Methods: Sixty-eight of 110 healthcare personnel in the Caazapa…

  15. Repeated Course Antenatal Steroids, Inflammation Gene Polymorphisms and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at Age 2

    PubMed Central

    CLARK, Erin A. S.; MELE, Lisa; WAPNER, Ronald J.; SPONG, Catherine Y.; SOROKIN, Yoram; PEACEMAN, Alan; IAMS, Jay D.; LEVENO, Kenneth J.; HARPER, Margaret; CARITIS, Steve N.; MERCER, Brian M.; THORP, John M.; RAMIN, Susan M.; CARPENTER, Marshall; ROUSE, Dwight J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evaluate the interaction between repeated course antenatal corticosteroids and inflammation gene polymorphisms with neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 2. STUDY DESIGN Nested case-control analysis of a randomized controlled trial of single versus repeated course antenatal corticosteroids. Cases had mental and/or psychomotor delay at age 2. Controls had normal neurodevelopment. Previous analyses of 125 cases and 147 controls identified 4 inflammation gene polymorphisms associated with neurodevelopmental delay at age 2. RESULTS The interaction between repeated course corticosteroids and the IL6 -174 genotype with neurodevelopmental delay was significant (P=0.046). The IL6 -174 GG genotype was associated with neurodevelopmental delay at age 2 in the single course corticosteroid group (OR 6.47; 95%CI 1.86-22.50). Exposure to repeated course antenatal corticosteroids abrogated this genotype effect (OR 1.30; 95%CI 0.48-3.54). Results were unchanged after controlling for potential confounders. CONCLUSION Repeated course antenatal steroids may reduce the increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay at age 2 associated with IL6 -174 GG genotype. PMID:21529753

  16. Extraction of the abdominal fetal electrocardiogram for use as an indicator of antenatal fetal status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Crowe; William Peasgood; Malcolm S. Woolfson

    1992-01-01

    Fetal assessment during labour using the fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) obtained via a scalp electrode is in an advanced stage of development. In order to apply a similar technique antenatally the FECG must be extracted via electrodes placed on the mother's body. Instrumentation has been specifically designed for this purpose and used to record signals from the abdomen of an initially

  17. Ethical dilemmas of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome in primary care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil A Douglas

    2010-01-01

    A fictionalised case report is used to highlight the author's experience of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome in a primary care setting. The case of a Bangladeshi woman who has a strongly positive result for a screening test for which she has not given informed consent is examined from several different ethical standpoints. The dilemma posed by the case is

  18. Influence of antenatal care, placental weight and genetic variation on low birth weight, Makassar Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Amiruddin, Ridwan; Yusuf, Irawan

    2008-10-01

    Inadequate antenatal care and nutrition, gene variation (CYP2A6), and poor placental growth are associated with low birthweight (LBW). The objective for this study was to analyze risk factors for LBW, including antenatal care, gene variation CYP2A6 and placental weight. A case control of infants with a birthweight less than 2500 gm, compared to a control group of infants with a birthweight > 2500 gm. There were 57 cases and a similar number of controls. In the analysis odds ratios (OR) were calculated for each risk factor. Low placental weight was strongly related to low birth weight (OR 43.9 CI 14.7-129.8). Mothers who had inadequate antenatal care had increased risk of LBW (OR 2.7, 95% CI. 1.2-6.1). The gene variation CYP2A6 was found to be risk factor for a lighter placenta weight (OR 9.5 95% CI. 4.0-22.3). Programs to improve antenatal care and monitoring for the gene variation CYP2A6 would reduce the incidence of LBW. PMID:19533856

  19. [Management of meconium peritonitis: a remarkable case of idiopathic meconium peritonitis diagnosed antenatally].

    PubMed

    Sergent, F; Marret, S; Verspyck, E; Liard, A; Labadie, G; Marpeau, L

    2003-10-01

    Meconium peritonitis is an inflammatory peritonitis induced by meconium extruding into the peritoneal cavity through a perforation of the fetal intestine. Antenatal diagnosis is possible. Prognosis depends on the pathology having caused perforation. This is often unknown. The objectives of this article are to analyze the contribution of antenatal investigations to estimating neonatal prognosis of meconium peritonitis, and to define optimal management. We describe a case of meconium peritonitis diagnosed in utero with particularly severe ultrasound presentation suggesting a potentially lethal course for the neonate. An eutrophic infant was delivered vaginally after preliminary aspiration of the meconium ascites. The neonate presented with a very distended abdomen and responded well to neonatal resuscitation. Laparotomy exploration confirmed the diagnosis of meconium peritonitis. No cause was identified. No obvious perforation was found. The postsurgery period was uneventful. At later follow-up the infant was doing well, free of further problems notably of any digestive disorder. Antenatal ultrasound features suggestive of severe meconium peritonitis are distended fetal bowel loops, huge cystic masses, major meconium ascites, and polyhydramnios. These neonates have a high risk of obstruction and intestinal perforation. Intestinal resection is frequently required. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is necessary more often in these neonates with a higher risk of fatal outcome due to respiratory distress syndrome or surgery complications. Prognosis remains good after antenatal diagnosis for neonates free of cystic fibrosis, providing delivery takes place in a center with adequate technical facilities. PMID:14593305

  20. Antenatal diagnosis, prevalence and outcome of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bondagji, Nabeel S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence, pattern of distribution, and the outcome of different types of kidney and urinary tract anomalies (CAKUT) diagnosed during the antenatal period. The second objective is to test the accuracy of antenatal diagnosis of CAKUT. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional hospital-based study, all cases diagnosed antenatally with urinary tract anomalies at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were studied. The prevalence, pattern of distribution, and immediate postnatal outcomes, in addition to the accuracy of antenatal diagnosis, of those cases are reported. Results: One hundred and forty-one cases of urinary tract anomalies were antenatally diagnosed; postnatal diagnosis was confirmed in 128 cases (90.1%). The prevalence of CAKUT in our population is 3.26 per 1000 births. The most common abnormalities detected were hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, and renal agenesis, in descending order of frequency. The perinatal mortality rate among fetuses with CAKUT is 310 per 1000, the majority of these cases (90%) occurred in cases with renal parenchyma involvement. Conclusions: The prevalence of different types of CAKUT is higher than that reported in developed countries. Urinary tract anomalies can be accurately diagnosed and classified in the antenatal period using ultrasonography imaging. Antenatal diagnosis is a helpful tool in planning immediate postnatal care and deciding the place for delivery. This might prevent or slow renal function deterioration and help in early identification of patients who need early surgical intervention. PMID:24669120

  1. Male Partner Risk Behaviors Are Associated With Reactive Rapid HIV Antibody Tests Among Pregnant Mexican Women: Implications for Prevention of Vertical and Sexual HIV Transmission in Concentrated HIV Epidemics.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Estela; Kendall, Tamil

    2015-01-01

    Mexico's policies on antenatal HIV testing are contradictory, and little is known about social and behavioral characteristics that increase pregnant Mexican women's risks of acquiring HIV. We analyzed the association between risk behaviors reported by pregnant women for themselves and their male partners, and women's rapid HIV antibody test results from a large national sample. Three quarters of pregnant women with a reactive test did not report risk behaviors for themselves and one third did not report risk behaviors for themselves or their male partners. In the retrospective case-control analysis, other than reporting multiple sexual partners, reactive pregnant women reported risk behaviors did not differ from nonreactive women's behaviors. However, reactive pregnant women were significantly more likely to have reported risk behaviors for male partners. Our findings support universal offer of antenatal HIV testing and suggest that HIV prevention for women should focus on reducing risk of HIV acquisition within stable relationships. PMID:26066695

  2. Prevention of pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary vascular remodeling by antenatal simvastatin treatment in nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Makanga, Martine; Maruyama, Hidekazu; Dewachter, Celine; Da Costa, Agnès Mendes; Hupkens, Emeline; de Medina, Geoffrey; Naeije, Robert; Dewachter, Laurence

    2015-04-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has a high mortality rate mainly due to lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Simvastatin has been shown to prevent the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in experimental models of PH. We, therefore, hypothesized that antenatal simvastatin would attenuate PPHN in nitrofen-induced CDH in rats. The efficacy of antenatal simvastatin was compared with antenatal sildenafil, which has already been shown to improve pathological features of PPHN in nitrofen-induced CDH. On embryonic day (E) 9.5, nitrofen or vehicle was administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. On E11, nitrofen-treated rats were randomly assigned to antenatal simvastatin (20 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) orally), antenatal sildenafil (100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) orally), or placebo administration from E11 to E21. On E21, fetuses were delivered by cesarean section, killed, and checked for left-sided CDH. Lung tissue was then harvested for further pathobiological evaluation. In nitrofen-induced CDH, simvastatin failed to reduce the incidence of nitrofen-induced CDH in the offspring and to increase the body weight, but improved the lung-to-body weight ratio and lung parenchyma structure. Antenatal simvastatin restored the pulmonary vessel density and external diameter, and reduced the pulmonary arteriolar remodeling compared with nitrofen-induced CDH. This was associated with decreased lung expression of endothelin precursor, endothelin type A and B receptors, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase, together with restored lung activation of apoptotic processes mainly in the epithelium. Antenatal simvastatin presented similar effects as antenatal therapy with sildenafil on nitrofen-induced CDH. Antenatal simvastatin improves pathological features of lung hypoplasia and PPHN in experimental nitrofen-induced CDH. PMID:25617377

  3. 29 CFR 785.28 - Involuntary attendance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Lectures, Meetings and Training Programs § 785.28 Involuntary attendance. Attendance is not voluntary, of course, if it...

  4. Successful Attendance Policies and Programs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    What steps can be taken to assure that High School students have the best attendance possible? It is commonly believed and well supported by research that students who attend school regularly are more successful than those who do not. The challenge for high schools is to design and implement attendance policies and programs that monitor,…

  5. A randomised controlled trial on the Four Pillars Approach in managing pregnant women with anaemia in Yogyakarta–Indonesia: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a common health problem among pregnant women and a contributing factor with a major influence on maternal mortality in Indonesia. The Four Pillars Approach is a new approach to anaemia in pregnancy, combining four strategies to improve antenatal and delivery care. The primary objective of this study is to measure the effectiveness of the Four Pillars Approach. The barriers, the facilitators, and the patients’ as well as the midwives’ satisfaction with the Four Pillars Approach will also be measured. Methods/Design This study will use a cluster randomised controlled trial. This intervention study will be conducted in the Public Health Centres with basic emergency obstetric care in Yogyakarta Special Province and in Central Java Province. We will involve all the Public Health Centres (24) with emergency obstetric care in Yogyakarta Special Province. Another 24 Public Health Centres with emergency obstetric care in Central Java Province which have similarities in their demographic, population characteristics, and facilities will also be involved. Each Public Health Centre will be asked to choose two or three nurse-midwives to participate in this study. For the intervention group, the Public Health Centres in Yogyakarta Special Province, training on the Four Pillars Approach will be held prior to the model’s implementation. Consecutively, we will recruit 360 pregnant women with anaemia to take part in part in the study to measure the effectiveness of the intervention. The outcome measurements are the differences in haemoglobin levels between the intervention and control groups in the third trimester of pregnancy, the frequency of antenatal care attendance, and the presence of a nurse-midwife during labour. Qualitative data will be used to investigate the barriers and facilitating factors, as to nurse-midwives’ satisfaction with the implementation of the Four Pillars Approach. Discussion If the Four Pillars Approach is effective in improving the outcome for pregnant women with anaemia, this approach could be implemented nationwide and be taken into consideration to improve the outcome for other conditions in pregnancy, after further research. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN35822126. PMID:24884497

  6. Geophagy practices and the content of chemical elements in the soil eaten by pregnant women in artisanal and small scale gold mining communities in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Geophagy, a form of pica, is the deliberate consumption of soil and is relatively common across Sub-Saharan Africa. In Tanzania, pregnant women commonly eat soil sticks sold in the market (pemba), soil from walls of houses, termite mounds, and ground soil (kichuguu). The present study examined geophagy practices of pregnant women in a gold mining area of Geita District in northwestern Tanzania, and also examined the potential for exposure to chemical elements by testing soil samples. Method We conducted a cross sectional study using a convenience sample of 340 pregnant women, ranging in age from 15–49 years, who attended six government antenatal clinics in the Geita District, Tanzania. Structured interviews were conducted in June-August, 2012, to understand geophagy practices. In addition, soil samples taken from sources identified by pregnant women practicing geophagy were analysed for mineral element content. Results Geophagy was reported by 155 (45.6%) pregnant women with 85 (54.8%) initiating the practice in the first trimester. A total of 101 (65%) pregnant women reported eating soil 2 to 3 times per day while 20 (13%) ate soil more than 3 times per day. Of 155 pregnant women 107 (69%) bought pemba from local shops, while 48 (31%) consumed ground soil kichuguu. The estimated mean quantity of soil consumed from pemba was 62.5 grams/day. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and zinc levels were found in both pemba and kichuguu samples. Cadmium and mercury were found only in the kichuguu samples. Based on daily intake estimates, arsenic, copper and manganese for kichuguu and copper and manganese for pemba samples exceed the oral Minimum Risk Levels designated by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Conclusion Almost 50% of participants practiced geophagy in Geita District consistent with other reports from Africa. Both pemba and kichuguu contained chemical elements at varying concentration, mostly above MRLs. As such, pregnant women who eat soil in Geita District are exposed to potentially high levels of chemical elements, depending upon frequency of consumption, daily amount consumed and the source location of soil eaten. PMID:24731450

  7. Case-control study of antenatal and intrapartum risk factors for cerebral palsy in very preterm singleton babies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J Murphy; A. M Johnson; S Sellers; I. Z MacKenzie

    1995-01-01

    SummaryThe increase in survival of very preterm babies during the 1980s was accompanied by a sharp increase in the rate of cerebral palsy in this group. The relation between antenatal and intrapartum factors and cerebral palsy in such babies has not been well defined. To identify adverse and protective antenatal and intrapartum factors we undertook a case-control study of 59

  8. Inequality of the use of skilled birth assistance among rural women in Bangladesh: facts and factors.

    PubMed

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Kabir, M A

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the inequality of the use of skilled delivery assistance by the rural women of Bangladesh using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Simple cross-tabulation and univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were employed in the study. Overall, 56.1% of the women received at least one antenatal care visit, whereas only 13.2% births were assisted by skilled personnel. Findings revealed apparent inequality in using skilled delivery assistance by socioeconomic strata. Birth order, women's education, religion, wealth index, region and antenatal care are important determinants of seeking skilled assistance. To ensure safe motherhood initiative, government should pay special attention to reduce inequality in seeking skilled delivery assistance. A strong focus on community-based and regional interventions is important in order to increase the utilization of safe maternal health care services in rural Bangladesh. PMID:23572376

  9. Women's Center Women's Center

    E-print Network

    Malls, Oct. 20-24, 8:00am-5:00pm Body Positive James River Room, Webb Center, 12:30pm-1:30 pm Love Your Activists James River Room, Webb Center, 12:30pm-1:30pm December Women's Climb Night - Winter HolidayWomen's Center Fall 2014 Women's Center Fall 2014 August Women's Equality Day Front Lobby, Webb

  10. Noninvasive Assessment of Antenatal Hydronephrosis in Mice Reveals a Critical Role for Robo2 in Maintaining Anti-Reflux Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Li, Qinggang; Liu, Juan; Mendelsohn, Cathy; Salant, David J.; Lu, Weining

    2011-01-01

    Antenatal hydronephrosis and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are common renal tract birth defects. We recently showed that disruption of the Robo2 gene is associated with VUR in humans and antenatal hydronephrosis in knockout mice. However, the natural history, causal relationship and developmental origins of these clinical conditions remain largely unclear. Although the hydronephrosis phenotype in Robo2 knockout mice has been attributed to the coexistence of ureteral reflux and obstruction in the same mice, this hypothesis has not been tested experimentally. Here we used noninvasive high-resolution micro-ultrasonography and pathological analysis to follow the progression of antenatal hydronephrosis in individual Robo2-deficient mice from embryo to adulthood. We found that hydronephrosis progressed continuously after birth with no spontaneous resolution. With the use of a microbubble ultrasound contrast agent and ultrasound-guided percutaneous aspiration, we demonstrated that antenatal hydronephrosis in Robo2-deficient mice is caused by high-grade VUR resulting from a dilated and incompetent ureterovesical junction rather than ureteral obstruction. We further documented Robo2 expression around the developing ureterovesical junction and identified early dilatation of ureteral orifice structures as a potential fetal origin of antenatal hydronephrosis and VUR. Our results thus demonstrate that Robo2 is crucial for the formation of a normal ureteral orifice and for the maintenance of an effective anti-reflux mechanism. This study also establishes a reproducible genetic mouse model of progressive antenatal hydronephrosis and primary high-grade VUR. PMID:21949750

  11. Clinical Application of Antenatal Genetic Diagnosis of Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type IV

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jing; Li, Song; Xu, YeYe; Cong, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical analysis and genetic testing of a family with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV were conducted, aiming to discuss antenatal genetic diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type IV. Material/Methods Preliminary genotyping was performed based on clinical characteristics of the family members and then high-throughput sequencing was applied to rapidly and accurately detect the changes in candidate genes. Results Genetic testing of the III5 fetus and other family members revealed missense mutation in c.2746G>A, pGly916Arg in COL1A2 gene coding region and missense and synonymous mutation in COL1A1 gene coding region. Conclusions Application of antenatal genetic diagnosis provides fast and accurate genetic counseling and eugenics suggestions for patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV and their families. PMID:25835785

  12. Vocational Training for Women Refugees in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eve

    1990-01-01

    Refugee assistance programs are typically designed for men, who are greatly outnumbered by refugee women. A critique of training and job development opportunities shows that women are trained to produce items of little demand, those with children have difficulty attending training, and they are reluctant to engage in paid work if it affects their…

  13. Factors Related to Smoking in College Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marlene C. Mackey; Selina Hunt McKinney; Abbas Tavakoli

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking among American women attending college has increased dramatically since the 1980's. To develop effective smoking prevention and cessation programs, a better understanding of factors associated with smoking in college women is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine if selected factors (stress, stress management, nutrition, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and race) were related to smoking

  14. Antenatal care and educational problems of unmarried teenage mothers in Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Omuga, B O; Ojwang, S B

    1990-10-01

    Part of a detailed analysis of 864 unmarried teenage mothers delivering in Pumwani Maternity Hospital and Kenyatta National Hospital is presented. Teenage pregnancy amounted for 42.3% of all deliveries of unmarried mothers. Most teenage patients were above 16 years of age, had a religious background of wide coverage, had low quality antenatal care and low education. 94.6% were found to be primigravidas. This dominance has also been found by other workers. PMID:2282891

  15. Pituitary-Adrenal Response in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants after Treatment with Antenatal Corticosteroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Ng; G. W. K. WONG; C. W. K. LAM; C. H. LEE; M. Y. WONG; T. F. FOK; W. WONG; D. C. F. CHAN

    1997-01-01

    Antenatal corticosteroids have been widely used for the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm neonates, yet little is known about their effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in these infants. We prospectively evaluated pituitary-adrenal func- tion in 61 preterm (,32 gestational weeks), very low birth weight (,1500 g) infants on days 7 and 14 of life using the human CRH

  16. Implications of antenatal diagnosis of small-intestinal atresia in the 1990s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. H. Tam; G. Nicholls

    1999-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of antenatal diagnosis of small-intestinal atresias (SIA) in the modern era and determine its effect\\u000a on management and outcome, the records of neonates admitted to a single institution in 1991–1996 with a diagnosis of SIA were\\u000a reviewed. Duodenal atresia, atresias complicating meconium ileus, and those associated with gastroschisis were excluded. Of\\u000a 14 neonates with SIA, 10

  17. Short-term outcomes of mothers and infants exposed to antenatal amphetamines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Oei; M E Abdel-Latif; R Clark; F Craig; K Lui

    2010-01-01

    Aim:To determine the short-term outcomes of newborn infants and mothers exposed to antenatal amphetamines in the state of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory during 2004.Methods:Amphetamine exposure was determined retrospectively using ICD-10 AM morbidity code searches of hospital medical records and from records of local drug and alcohol services. Records were reviewed on site. All public hospitals (n

  18. Antenatal retinoic acid does not alter alveolization or postnatal lung function in preterm sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Willet; A. H. Jobe; M. Ikegami; J. Newnham; P. D. Sly

    2000-01-01

    Retinoic acid exposure has been shown to promote surfactant produc- tion in foetal rats and to promote alveolization in neonatal rats. It was hypothesized that antenatal retinoic acid treatment would promote alveolization and accelerate functional maturation in the lungs of late gestation preterm sheep. Foetuses received a single i.m. injection of all-trans retinoic acid (RA, 20 mg.kg-1 )o r vehicle

  19. Quality of Antenatal Care and Obstetrical Coverage in Rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Kameli, Y.; Capon, G.; Sondo, B.; Martin-Prével, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Improving maternal health is one of the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations. Despite the efforts to promote maternal and neonatal care to achieve this goal, the use of delivery care remains below expectations in Burkina Faso. This situation raises the question of the quality of care offered in maternity wards. The aim of this study was to identify primary healthcare facility and antenatal care characteristics predictive of an assisted delivery in rural Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Gnagna province (North-East Burkina Faso) in November 2003. The operational capacities of health facilities were assessed, and a non-participating observation of the antenatal care (ANC) procedure was undertaken to evaluate their quality. Scores were established to summarize the information gathered. The rate of professional childbirth (obstetrical coverage) was derived from the number of childbirths registered in the health facility compared to the size of the population. The established scores were related to the obstetrical coverage using non-parametric tests (Kendall). In total, 17 health facilities were visited, and 81 antenatal consultations were observed. Insufficiencies were observed at all steps of ANC (mean total score for the quality of ANC=10.3±3.0, ranging from 6 to 16, out of a maximum of 20). Health facilities are poorly equipped, and the availability of qualified staff remained low (mean total score for the provision of care was 22.9±4.2, ranging from 14 to 33). However, these scores were not significantly related to the rate of professional childbirth (tau Kendall=0.27: p=0.14 and 0.01, p=0.93 respectively). The ability of the primary health centres to provide good antenatal care remains low in rural Burkina Faso. The key factors involved in the limited use of professional childbirth relating to maternal health services may be the quality of ANC. PMID:20214088

  20. Effects of Maternal Inflammation and Exposure to Cigarette Smoke on Birth Weight and Delivery of Preterm Babies in a Cohort of Indigenous Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Kirsty G.; Rae, Kym; Weatherall, Loretta; Hall, Sharron; Burns, Christine; Smith, Roger; Lumbers, Eugenie R.; Blackwell, C. Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), neonatal deaths, and deaths from infection are higher among Indigenous Australians. This study aimed to determine the effects of inflammatory responses and exposure to cigarette smoke, two important factors associated with sudden death in infancy, on preterm birth, and birth weight in a cohort of Indigenous mothers. Indigenous Australian women (n?=?131) were recruited as part of a longitudinal study while attending antenatal care clinics during pregnancy; blood samples were collected up to three times in pregnancy. Serum cotinine, indicating exposure to cigarette smoke, was detected in 50.4% of mothers. Compared with non-Indigenous women, the cohort had 10 times the prevalence of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori (33 vs. 3%). Levels of immunoglobulin G, antibodies to H. pylori, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were all inversely correlated with gestational age (P?women with chronic infections such as H. pylori to improve pregnancy outcomes and decrease risk factors for sudden death in infancy. PMID:25806032

  1. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Paternal Depression from the Antenatal to the Postpartum Period and the Relationships between Antenatal and Postpartum Depression among Fathers in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Y. W.; Chui, C. Y.; Tang, C. S. K.; Lee, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that maternal perinatal mental health problems have been extensively studied and addressed to be a significant health problem, the literature on paternal perinatal mental health problems is relatively scarce. The present study aims at determining the prevalence of paternal perinatal depression and identifying the risk factors and the relationship between antenatal and postpartum depression. Methodology. 622 expectant fathers were recruited from regional maternal clinics. The expectant fathers were assessed using standardized and validated psychological instruments on 3 time points including early pregnancy, late pregnancy, and six weeks postpartum. Results. Results showed that a significant proportion of expectant fathers manifested depressive symptoms during the perinatal period. Paternal antenatal depression could significantly predict higher level of paternal postpartum depression. Psychosocial risk factors were consistently associated with paternal depression in different time points. Conclusions. The present study points to the need for greater research and clinical attention to paternal depression given that it is a highly prevalent problem and could be detrimental to their spouse and children development. The present findings contribute to theoretical basis of the prevalence and risk factors of paternal perinatal depression and have implications of the design of effective identification, prevention, and interventions of these clinical problems. PMID:24600517

  2. The Health Effects of Attending College for Latina Undergraduate Students and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Jill Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective. Latinos are the largest ethnic minority in the U.S. and by 2050 they are estimated to become one quarter of the population, yet only one in ten has a college degree. More Latino women (Latinas) are currently attending college than Latino men. To date research has focused on their experiences and where they obtain support…

  3. Estimating attendance for breast cancer screening in ethnic groups in London

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Renshaw; Ruth H Jack; Steve Dixon; Henrik Møller; Elizabeth A Davies

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast screening uptake in London is below the Government's target of 70% and we investigate whether ethnicity affects this. Information on the ethnicity for the individual women invited is unavailable, so we use an area-based method similar to that routinely used to derive a geographical measure for socioeconomic deprivation. METHODS: We extracted 742,786 observations on attendance for routine appointments

  4. The Prevalence of Anemia Among Pregnant Women at Booking in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dim, Cyril C.; Onah, Hyacinth E.

    2007-01-01

    Background More than half of the pregnant women in the world have hemoglobin levels indicative of anemia. Knowledge of the current situation of the condition in our environment is necessary. This knowledge will motivate antenatal caregivers toward early detection and prompt management of anemia in pregnancy. Aims Our aim was to determine the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women at registration for antenatal care at a major tertiary healthcare center in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study of 530 normal pregnant women registered with the antenatal unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, between January 1, 2005 and October 30, 2005. Data on the age, parity, gestational age at booking, interval between last confinement and last menstrual period in the index pregnancy, hemoglobin concentration at booking, and HIV status were obtained and analyzed. Results The mean gestational age at booking was 21.7 ± 7.1 weeks (range, 6–37). Two hundred fourteen (40.4%) of the women were anemic (hemoglobin [Hb] < 11.0 g/dL). The majority (90.7%) of these anemic patients were mildly anemic, whereas 9.3% were moderately anemic. There was no case of severe anemia (Hb < 7.0 g/dL). The prevalence of anemia at booking was significantly higher in those who registered for antenatal care in the third trimester than in those who registered in the second trimester, and in HIV-positive pregnant women than in HIV-negative ones (P = .00). The patients' age, parity, and the interval between the last confinement and the index pregnancy had no significant relationship with the hemoglobin concentration of pregnant women at booking (P > .05). Conclusion The prevalence of anemia in pregnancy at booking is still high in Enugu. Preconception care, including iron and folic acid supplementation, is advocated to reduce this problem. Early antenatal booking and improved antenatal care are also necessary for early diagnosis and treatment of the condition. All would ensure safe motherhood. PMID:18092018

  5. [Selected services rights for attending physicians].

    PubMed

    Schalkhäuser, K

    2014-08-01

    Individual health insurance companies again and again refuse the remuneration of invoices submitted by attending physicians for purely private patients or for compulsory health insurance patients with additional private insurance. As a rule the refusal is based on legal precedents or sub-statutory regulations. This article aims to help attending physicians to react argumentatively to a possible rejection of private medical billing by insurance companies for inpatient attending physician services provided. PMID:25037627

  6. Knowledgeable antenatal care as a pathway to skilled delivery: modelling the interactions between use of services and knowledge in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Ensor, Tim; Quigley, Paula; Green, Cathy; Razak Badru, Abdul; Kaluba, Dynes; Siziya, Seter

    2014-08-01

    The link between antenatal care (ANC) and facility delivery is a specific example of the effect of early medical contacts on later use of essential services. The role of ANC in improving maternal health remains unclear. High levels of ANC are reported in a number of countries where skilled delivery remains uncommon. ANC may influence the use of services by increasing willingness to use services and educating about maternal health. The objective of this study is to understand the interaction between use of skilled and unskilled ANC, knowledge of obstetric complications and danger signs, and the eventual use of a facility for delivery. The study makes use of data from a survey of around 1700 women who had recently given birth across 11 districts of Zambia in 2011. Multivariate analysis is used to explore the associations between ANC use, knowledge and place of delivery. The results suggest that place of care and number of visits is strongly associated with the eventual use of a facility for delivery; an effect that is stronger in remote areas. Both skilled and unskilled ANC and obstetric knowledge is linked to higher use of facility delivery care while care provided at home appears to have an opposite effect. The research suggests that ANC influences later use of delivery care in two ways: by developing a habit to use formal care services and in increasing maternal knowledge. The work might be generalized to other health seeking behaviour to explore how the quantity and quality of initial contacts influence later use of services. PMID:23894074

  7. Patterns of contraceptive use among urban women in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dona J. Lethbridge; Rosemary Wang

    1991-01-01

    Patterns of contraceptive use among married urban women in Taiwan were investigated. A convenience sample of 150 women attending health clinics for reasons other than contraceptive care were interviewed about their contraceptive use. The most prevalent contraceptive method used by these women was the intrauterine device, followed by the condom and birth?control pills. Participants had used only one or two

  8. Does removal of out-of-pocket costs for cervical and breast cancer screening work? A quasi-experimental study to evaluate the impact on attendance, attendance inequality and average cost per uptake of a Japanese government intervention.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Hoshino, Takahiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Ito, Yuri; Ioka, Akiko; Miyashiro, Isao; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2013-08-15

    Reducing out-of-pocket costs is known to improve mammography attendance, but an evidence gap remains concerning Pap smear testing. The Japanese government implemented a politically determined intervention to remove out-of-pocket costs for Pap smear tests and mammography attendance, costing US$148 million, in 2009. It targeted women when they reached the first year of a 5-year age group (i.e., 20, 25, 30 years) with the aim of reducing attendance inequality. Our objective is to evaluate the intervention in terms of uptake and average cost per uptake for cancer screening attendance and to assess socioeconomic inequalities in cancer screening attendance pre- and postintervention. A quasi-experimental study utilizing national repeated cross sections, observed pre- and postintervention, which compared intervention and comparison groups by the Difference-in-Differences method, was conducted. Outcome measures were uptake of cancer screening attendance resulting from the intervention with average cost per uptake and broad inequality indicators for cancer screening attendance according to socioeconomic inequality. In total, 34,043 age-eligible, noninstitutionalized women were analyzed. Uptake among the overall population was 13.9% point in the age- and income-adjusted model for Pap smear and 9.8% point for mammography, with an average cost of US$139 per uptake. The intervention increased inequality indicators in Pap smear attendance (more than +100%) but decreased inequality in mammography attendance (ranging from -12.9 to -74.1%) within the intervention group. In conclusion, removing out-of-pocket costs improves female cancer screening uptake in Japan but may not be cost-saving. Although cost removal reduces inequalities in attendance for mammography, it appears to increase inequalities in Pap smear attendance. PMID:23400833

  9. Women's Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  10. Social stratification, risk factor prevalence and cancer screening attendance.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, François; Viguier, Jérôme; Touboul, Chantal; Coscas, Yvan; Pivot, Xavier; Blay, Jean-Yves; Lhomel, Christine; Morère, Jean-François

    2015-06-01

    This analysis aimed to assess the extent to which exposure to cancer risk factors and attendance of screening programmes are influenced by social characteristics. The validated Evaluation of deprivation and health inequalities in public health centres (EPICES) index was used to measure social deprivation. A sample of the general population (N=1603) was assessed to search for potential correlations between screening attendance, risk factors and any components of the EPICES score. In 2011, 33% of the population studied was classified as 'vulnerable'. Sex had no significant impact on this rating (32% men, 35% women), whereas occupational status did. Vulnerable individuals were more likely already to have cancer (10 vs. 7%; nonsignificant difference; odds ratio 1.43 [0.98-2.10]). The mean BMI was 26.0?kg/m (SD 4.9) for the vulnerable population versus 24.8?kg/m (SD 3.9) in the nonvulnerable population (P<0.01). The prevalence of current smoking was higher in the vulnerable group (38 vs. 23%, odds ratio 2.03 [1.61-2.56]). In contrast, no statistically significant difference was observed between attendance rates for nationwide organized cancer screening programmes (breast and colorectal; target age group 50-74 years) by the vulnerable and nonvulnerable groups. Social indicators of vulnerable populations are associated with increased rates of risk factors for cancer, but not with screening attendance. Our data support the previously reported marked impact of organized programmes that reduce or even remove inequalities in access to cancer screening. However, although the organized programmes have indeed enabled population-wide, nonselective access to screening, primary prevention as it stands today remains inadequate in the underserved population and further improvements are warranted. PMID:26016792

  11. Risk factors for pre-term birth in a Canadian cohort of HIV-positive women: role of ritonavir boosting?

    PubMed Central

    Kakkar, Fatima; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Lamarre, Valerie; Ducruet, Thierry; Amre, Devendra; Soudeyns, Hugo; Lapointe, Normand; Boucher, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of pre-term birth (PTB) associated with the use of protease inhibitors (PIs) during pregnancy remains a subject of debate. Recent data suggest that ritonavir boosting of PIs may play a specific role in the initiation of PTB, through an effect on the maternal–fetal adrenal axis. The primary objective of this study is to compare the risk of PTB among women treated with boosted PI versus non-boosted PIs during pregnancy. Methods Between 1988 and 2011, 705 HIV-positive women were enrolled into the Centre Maternel et Infantile sur le SIDA mother–infant cohort at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine in Montreal, Canada. Inclusion criteria for the study were: 1) attendance at a minimum of two antenatal obstetric visits and 2) singleton live birth, at 24 weeks gestational or older. The association between PTB (defined as delivery at <37 weeks gestational age), antiretroviral drug exposure and maternal risk factors was assessed retrospectively using logistic regression. Results A total of 525 mother–infant pairs were included in the analysis. Among them, PI-based combination anti-retroviral therapy was used in 37.4%, boosted PI based in 24.4%, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor based in 28.1%, and no treatment was given in 10.0% of cases. Overall, 13.5% of women experienced PTB. Among women treated with antiretroviral therapy, the risk of PTB was significantly higher among women who received boosted versus non-boosted PI (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.02–3.97). This remained significant after adjusting for maternal age, delivery CD4 count, hepatitis C co-infection, history of previous PTB, and parity (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.05–4.51). There was no increased risk of PTB with the use of unboosted PIs as compared to NNRTI- or NRTI-based regimens. Conclusion While previous studies on the association between PTB and PI use have generally considered all PIs the same, our results would indicate a possible role of ritonavir boosting as a risk factor for PTB. Further work is needed to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved, and to identify the safest ARV regimens to be used in pregnancy. PMID:26051165

  12. Attending Behavior of Children Near a Child Who is Reinforced for Attending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okovita, Hymie Wolf; Bucher, Bradley

    1976-01-01

    The present study investigated effects of a token program for one child on the attending behavior of other children sitting near him. Results show the rewarded child's attending increased in the reinforcement conditions and the unrewarded children's attending increased when they were sitting on either side of the rewarded child. (Author)

  13. Day 68 -Attended a fascinating lecture over

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    Day 68 - Attended a fascinating lecture over lunch. Made me think. Day 1 - Surrounded by students the ride together. Day 507 - Starte Day 68 - Attended a fascinating lecture over lunch. Made me think. Atten fascin lectur lunch 68Started a UBC course I've always wanted to take. For free! Day 335

  14. Does Mandatory Attendance Improve Student Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marburger, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous empirical literature indicates that student performance is inversely correlated with absenteeism. The author investigates the impact of enforcing an attendance policy on absenteeism and student performance. The evidence suggests that an enforced mandatory attendance policy significantly reduces absenteeism and improves exam performance.

  15. Legal Challenges to Compulsory Attendance Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph C.

    Legal challenges to state compulsory attendance laws have emphasized four interrelated constitutional claims. Under provisions of the free exercise clause of the First Amendment, parents have challenged the state's authority to require public school attendance in lieu of home instruction and private, religious organizations have refused to comply…

  16. EMPLOYERS ATTENDING JOB FAIR SPRING 2014

    E-print Network

    Karonis, Nicholas T.

    students from "all majors" rather than search for candidates within specific majors. Maximize your jobEMPLOYERS ATTENDING JOB FAIR SPRING 2014 Updated: 2/13/14 211 Employers Attending Want to maximize. Keyword Search: Press CTRL F to search and type the word(s) you wish to search. Your found words

  17. Status of plasma folate after folic acid fortification of the food supply in pregnant African American women and the influences of diet, smoking, and alcohol consumption1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken D Stark; Robert J Pawlosky; Skadi Beblo; Mahadev Murthy; Vincent P Flanagan; James Janisse; Michelle Buda-Abela; Helaine Rockett; Janice E Whitty; Robert J Sokol; John H Hannigan; Norman Salem Jr

    Background: African American women and socioeconomically challengedwomenareatriskofcompromisedfolatestatusand,thus, of folate-related birth defects. Data are limited on circulating folate concentrationsinpregnantAfricanAmericanwomenafterfolicacid fortification of the food supply was implemented. Objective:Theobjectivewastodeterminetheinfluenceofsmoking and alcohol consumption on plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (5-MTHFA) concentrations in pregnant African American women. Design: Alcohol consumption, smoking exposure, and other char- acteristics of pregnant African American women reporting to an inner-city antenatal clinic

  18. Consultation rates in cervical screening non-attenders: opportunities to increase screening uptake in GP primary care

    PubMed Central

    Sasieni, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the proportion of cervical screening non-attenders presenting to general practice (GP) primary care over one year. Setting 137 practices in East London, UK. Methods Anonymous primary care records were downloaded using EMIS web (clinical software). Cervical screening nonattendance was defined as no recorded smear in the last 3.5 years (women aged 25–49) or 5.5 years (women aged 50–64). The last three consultation entries were used to estimate the proportion of non-attenders who consulted in GP over 3 months and 1 year using the Kaplan-Meier method. Newly registered women were assessed separately. Results were calculated for each practice and the median and interquartile range (IQR) across practices are presented. Heterogeneity was assessed using funnel plots. Results Of 261,810 women, 224,313 (86%) had been registered for >1 year. The proportion classified as non-attenders differed between those registered for >1 year (30%, IQR 27%--35%) and within the last year (49%, IQR 40%--57%), suggesting that screening records were less up-to-date in newly registered women. A median of 32% (IQR: 27%--37%) of non-attenders presented over 3 months, and 60% (IQR: 52%--67%) over 1 year. Funnel plots of the proportion of non-attenders presenting by the number of non-attenders showed substantial variation between practices. Conclusions Over half of cervical screening non-attenders present to their GP at least once a year, in over 75% of practices. This represents a good opportunity for improving coverage by offering an alternative form of screening, such as self-sampling for human papillomavirus testing. PMID:25742805

  19. Children of battered women.

    PubMed

    Westra, B; Martin, H P

    1981-01-01

    Twenty children of physically abused women who were temporarily living in shelters were studied. These children, from 2 1/2 to 8 years of age showed significantly poorer cognitive, verbal, motor and quantitative abilities than would be expected in a normal population. They also demonstrated evidence of personality problems, with a concerning penchant for hostile-aggressive behavior. Hearing problems and articulation deficits were common. The children studied were from middle to lower-middle class families. The problems showed in this study group are felt to be an underestimate of the true prevalence of developmental and psychological problems in children of abused women. It is suggested that children are at a point of crisis just as admittedly few services available to abused women, there are even fewer services being provided to the children in such families. This is compounded by the relative unavailability of most recently assaulted women to attend to the emotional and developmental needs of their children. The need for health, developmental, and personality screening for children of abused women is highlighted, as well as the need for crisis intervention programs for such children. Groundwork has been laid through this research for more detailed clinical research to aid children of women who are physically abused. A greater appreciation of the problems encountered will facilitate appropriate interventions to optimize the growth and development of these children. PMID:6163043

  20. 1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Women's Studies WOMEN'S STUDIES Students gain knowledge of contemporary feminist theories of the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' arts and humanities programs, women's studies examines women's lives's programs · Bachelor of Arts with a major in women's studies (http:// bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/womens-studies

  1. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Risk Among Urban Minority Women in Primary Health Care Settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elwin Wu; Nabila El-Bassel; Susan S. Witte; Louisa Gilbert; Mingway Chang

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the associations between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk among urban, predominantly minority women. Interviews were conducted with 1,590 women, predominantly African American and Latina, attending hospital-based health care clinics. Approximately 1 in 5 women reported experiencing IPV in their current primary heterosexual relationships; about 1 in 8 women reported experiencing IPV in the preceding 6

  2. High prevalence of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated mutations in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from pregnant women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix; Bakoua, Damien; Fesser, Anna; Nkombo, Michael; Vouvoungui, Christevy; Ntoumi, Francine

    2015-07-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) has not been evaluated in the Republic of Congo since its implementation in 2006 and there is no published data on molecular markers of SP resistance among Plasmodium falciparum isolates from pregnant women. This first study in this country aimed to describe the prevalence of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) point mutations and haplotypes in P. falciparum isolates collected from pregnant women with asymptomatic infection. From March 2012 to December 2013, pregnant women attending Madibou health centre (in Southern Brazzaville) for antenatal visits were enrolled in this study after obtaining their written informed consent. Blood samples were collected and P. falciparum infections were characterized using PCR. A total of 363 pregnant women were enrolled. P. falciparum infection was detected in 67 (18.4%) samples as their PCR amplification of dhfr and dhps genes yielded bands and all the PCR products were successfully digested. Out of these 67 isolates, 59 (88%), 57 (85%) and 53 (79.1%) carried 51I, 59R and 108N dhfr mutant alleles, respectively. The prevalence of dhps 436A, 437G and 540E mutations were 67.1% (45/67), 98.5% (66/67) and 55.2% (37/67), respectively. More than one-half of the isolates carried quintuple mutations, with highly resistant haplotype dhfr51I/59R/108N+dhps437G/540E detected in 33% (22/67) whereas 25% (17/67) were found to carry sextuple mutations. We observed significantly higher frequencies of triple dhps mutations 436A/437G/540E and quintuple mutations dhfr51I/59R/108N+dhps437G/540E in isolates from women who received IPTp-SP than those who did not. Overall, this study shows high prevalence rates of SP-associated resistance mutations in P. falciparum isolates collected from pregnant women. The presence of the dhps mutant allele 540E and the high prevalence of isolates carrying quintuple dhfr/dhps mutations are here reported for the first time in the Republic of Congo. The increasing prevalence of multiple mutant alleles observed in this study is alarming and may present a challenge for the future interventions including IPTp-SP in the country. PMID:25934142

  3. Antenatal Depressive Symptoms and the Risk of Preeclampsia or Operative Deliveries: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong; Li, Yingxue; Zhang, Zhixia; Yan, Weirong

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between depression and/or depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the risk of an operative delivery or preeclampsia, and to quantify the strength of the association. Methods A search of the PubMed, SCI/SSCI, Proquest PsycARTICLES and CINAHL databases was supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key retrieved articles and review articles. We aimed to include case control or cohort studies that reported data on antenatal depression and /or depressive symptoms and the risk of an operative delivery and/or preeclampsia. Results Twelve studies with self-reported screening instruments were eligible for inclusion with a total of 8400 participants. Seven articles that contained 4421 total participants reported the risk for an operative delivery, and five articles that contained 3979 total participants reported the risk for preeclampsia. The pooled analyses showed that both operative delivery and preeclampsia had a statistically significant association with antenatal depressive symptoms (RR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.35, and OR = 1.63, 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.02, respectively). When the pre-pregnancy body mass indices were controlled in their initial design, the risk for preeclampsia still existed (OR = 1.48, 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.01), while the risk for an operative delivery became uncertain (RR = 1.01, 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.22). Conclusions Antenatal depressive symptoms are associated with a moderately increased risk of an operative delivery and preeclampsia. An abnormal pre-pregnancy body mass index may modify this association. PMID:25789626

  4. Behavioural, educational and respiratory outcomes of antenatal betamethasone for term caesarean section (ASTECS trial)

    PubMed Central

    Stutchfield, Peter Roy; Whitaker, Rhiannon; Gliddon, Angela E; Hobson, Lucie; Kotecha, Sailesh; Doull, Iolo J M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether antenatal betamethasone prior to elective term caesarean section (CS) affects long term behavioural, cognitive or developmental outcome, and whether the risk of asthma or atopic disease is reduced. Design A questionnaire based follow-up of a multicentre randomised controlled trial (Antenatal Steroids for Term Elective Caesarean Section, BMJ 2005). Setting Four UK study centres from the original trial. Participants 862 participants from the four largest recruiting centres, 92% of the original study. 824 (96%) were traced and 799 (93%) were successfully contacted. Fifty-one percent (407/799) completed and returned the questionnaire. The children were aged 8–15?years (median 12.2?years, 52% girls). 386 gave consent to contact schools with 352 (91%) reports received. Main outcome measures Questionnaires including a strengths and difficulties questionnaire, International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, general health and school performance. Results There were no significant differences between children whose mothers received betamethasone and controls for the mean total strengths and difficulties questionnaire scores and subscores for hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, prosocial behaviour, conduct or peer problems. 25 (12%) children whose mothers received betamethasone had reported learning difficulties compared with 27 (14%) control children. The proportion of children who achieved standard assessment tests KS2 exams level 4 or above for mathematics, English or science was similar as were the rates of ever reported wheeze (30% vs 30%), asthma (24% vs 21%), eczema (34% vs 37%) and hay fever (25% vs 27%). Conclusions Antenatal betamethasone did not result in any adverse outcomes or reduction in asthma or atopy. It should be considered for elective CS at 37–38?weeks of gestation. Trial registration: Original trial was preregistration, the trial publication is BMJ. 2005 Sep 24;331(7518):662. PMID:23424017

  5. Antenatal records: do they help us? A new record for watching fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, I; Ritter, H

    1984-07-01

    An antenatal record is described which uses a questionnaire to detect mothers and babies at risk, and a graph for charting fetal growth indirectly, by maternal weight, height of fundus, and girth, to give a clear picture. By working out scores for fetal growth and cervical ripeness, guidance is given on when to take action to save babies likely to be born too soon or too late. Our slogan, "Be a Fetal Growth Watcher", serves as a mnemonic for: "Fundus, Girth, Weight". PMID:6464177

  6. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice.

    PubMed

    Kim Sooi, Law; Lean Keng, Soon

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy. PMID:24093047

  7. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kim Sooi, Law

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy. PMID:24093047

  8. Voluntary counseling and HIV testing for pregnant women in the Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana: Is couple counseling the way forward?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Baiden; P. Remes; R. Baiden; J. Williams; A. Hodgson; M. Boelaert; A. Buve

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the results of a cross-sectional questionnaire survey undertaken in the Kassena-Nankana district of Ghana to assess the perception and attitude of 270 antenatal clinic attendants towards voluntary counseling and HIV testing. It was found that although 92.6% (95% CI 88.8–95.4) of respondents indicated a willingness to get tested, only 51% (95% CI 45.0–57.2) considered HIV testing for

  9. Women and Literacy in India: A Study in a Re-settlement Colony in Delhi. Education for Development Occasional Papers Series 1, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dighe, Anita

    A group of 100 randomly selected women living in the resettlement colony of Ambedkernager in South Delhi, India, who had participated in colony's Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) were interviewed regarding their participation in the TLC. Of the 100 women, 34 had attended school earlier. Four of the 34 women were still attending school. Most…

  10. Effect of EMR implementation on clinic time, patient and staff satisfaction, and chart completeness in a resource-limited antenatal clinic in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gray, Alice; Henshaw, Christe; Wright, Julie; Leah, Jessica; Caloia, David; Spitzer, Rachel F; Omenge, Elkanah; Chemwolo, Benjamin; Tierney, William M

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Medical Records (EMR) are thought to improve healthcare through a variety of means. However, the study of EMR implementation in resource-poor settings has been minimal. Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH) is the second largest tertiary care centre in Kenya, hosting a busy antenatal clinic serving Eldoret and surrounding regions. The recent transition from written to electronic antenatal records at MTRH permits the opportunity to study whether this change improves quality of care, in terms of: TIME: Does the patient or healthcare worker spend the same amount of time at the encounter? SATISFACTION: Is the patient or healthcare worker more or less satisfied with the encounter? COMPLETENESS: Does the antenatal record do a better job of recording key information in the antenatal history? Our Objective wasto determine the effects of EMR implementation on an antenatal clinic in a resource-limited setting. PMID:23920996

  11. Prevalence of excessive or problem drinkers among patients attending somatic outpatient clinics: a study of alcohol related medical care.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, J; Magnusson, P H

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of alcohol related morbidity was studied among 2038 patients attending somatic outpatient clinics. A further 76 patients had refused the study, giving an overall drop out rate of 3.6%. Several methods were combined so as to detect as many patients with problem drinking as possible. According to the criteria and definitions employed 17% of men (confidence interval 15% to 19%) and 4% of women (confidence interval 3% to 5%) were excessive consumers of alcohol or problem drinkers. The highest proportion of such patients--that is, 17%--was noted in the emergency rooms (27% of men, 8% of women). At other clinics the proportions varied from 11% to 17% of men and from 2% to 4% of women. The strongest relations between overconsumption of alcohol and consultation at the clinic were among patients attending the medical outpatient clinic and the emergency rooms; in 86% (confidence interval 75% to 97%) and 88% (confidence interval 81% to 95%) of problem drinkers attending these clinics, respectively, alcohol was related to the consultation. Consultations were related to alcohol in 82% of women with excessive or problem drinking and 73% of men defined in this way. There was a tendency to a higher proportion of men with excessive or problem drinking in the age group 40-49 years. These findings show that among patients classified as excessive or problem drinkers attending somatic outpatient clinics there was a close relation between alcohol consumption and utilisation of medical resources, especially in women. PMID:3117173

  12. 14 CFR 121.391 - Flight attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...During taxi, flight attendants required by this section must remain at their duty stations with safety belts and shoulder harnesses fastened except to perform duties related to the safety of the airplane and its occupants. [Doc. No. 2033, 30 FR...

  13. Operational problems of an iron supplementation programme for pregnant women: an assessment of UNRWA experience.

    PubMed

    Pappagallo, S; Bull, D L

    1996-01-01

    Assessed is a large-scale iron supplementation programme for the 70 000 pregnant refugee women cared for by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA). For this purpose, a retrospective survey of 1267 antenatal records was conducted in health centres located in the West Bank, Gaza, Syrian Arab Republic, Jordan, and Lebanon. The following operational problems were identified: late entry to antenatal care; high drop-out rate from antenatal care; low compliance in follow-up haemoglobin examinations; and misdirected continued testing of women who were not anaemic at registration. Routine iron supplementation of all pregnant women should be considered only in those countries where severe anaemia is prevalent and should always be coupled with additional interventions that are effective at improving iron deficiency anaemia in a given population. In most countries attention should be directed towards changing dietary habits to enhance the availability of local foodstuffs that are rich in iron. One initial haemoglobin test may help in focusing on the relatively few initially anaemic subjects who need further attention. Repeated testing during pregnancy is unwarranted. PMID:8653813

  14. The Ecology of Gynecological Care for Women

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Pei; Chou, Chia-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Shao, Chun-Chih; Su, Irene H.; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Li-Fang; Yu, Hann-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Gynecological care is vital to women’s health but utilization of gynecological care has been seldom addressed. We applied the population-based “ecology model” to demonstrate the utilization of gynecological care of women, with examples from Taiwan. We analyzed the claims data from the cohort datasets within the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Women’s utilization of gynecological care in 2009 was computed. Of 1000 women, 319 utilized gynecological care at least once, 277 visited Western medicine clinics, 193 visited physician clinics, 118 visited hospital-based outpatient clinics, 73 visited traditional Chinese medicine clinics, eight were hospitalized, four were hospitalized in an academic medical center, and four visited emergency departments. More than 90% of young and middle-aged women who sought gynecological care visited gynecologist clinics. Elderly women were less likely to utilize gynecological care in all settings of medical care, but were more likely to be attended by non-gynecologists. Young women tended to visit emergency departments. The ecology model highlighted age disparities in women’s utilization of gynecological care in various settings of medical care. Since gynecological conditions were common among women, more attention should be paid on the availability of gynecologists and continuing medical education in gynecological care for non-gynecologists to guarantee women’s health. PMID:25089773

  15. Effects of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on lung function in mid-childhood: follow-up of a double-blind randomised controlled trial in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Devakumar, Delan; Stocks, Janet; Ayres, Jon G; Kirkby, Jane; Yadav, Sushil K; Saville, Naomi M; Devereux, Graham; Wells, Jonathan C K; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony; Osrin, David

    2015-06-01

    A randomised trial of prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation in Nepalese women increased birthweight and weight at 2?years of age in offspring, compared to those born to mothers who only received iron and folic acid supplements. Further follow-up of this cohort provided an opportunity to investigate the effect of antenatal multiple micronutrients on subsequent lung function by measuring spirometry at 7-9?years of age in C: hildren born during the trial. 841 children (80% of the cohort) were seen at mean±sd 8.5±0.4 years. Technically successful spirometry results were obtained in 793 (94.3%) children, 50% of whom had been randomised to micronutrient supplementation. Background characteristics, including anthropometry, were similar in the two allocation groups. Lung function was also similar, mean (95% CI) difference in z-scores (supplementation minus control) was -0.08 (-0.19-0.04), -0.05 (-0.17-0.06) and -0.04 (-0.15-0.07) for forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1), forced vital capacity and FEV1/FVC, respectively. Compared with healthy white children, FEV1 and FVC in the "healthy" Nepalese children were ?1 (?13%) z-score lower, with no difference in FEV1/FVC. We conclude that, compared with routine iron and folic acid, multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy has no effect on spirometric lung function in Nepalese children at 8.5?years of age. PMID:25700386

  16. The challenge of referring HIV-positive pregnant women with treatment indication from PMTCT to ART services: a retrospective follow-up study in Mbeya, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Theuring, Stefanie; Sewangi, Julius; Nchimbi, Philo; Harms, Gundel; Mbezi, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Providing full antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all HIV-positive, pregnant women with treatment indication could significantly reduce overall mother-to-child transmission. However, the effectiveness of referring HIV-positive antenatal care (ANC) clients with a treatment indication to ART services has rarely been assessed to date. We retrospectively followed-up data of a cohort of treatment-eligible ANC clients in Mbeya Region, Tanzania by retracing and merging registries of ANC, Care and Treatment Centers (CTC), and Infant Care. ART initiation and ART duration before delivery served as primary outcome indicators to assess referral effectiveness. We retraced data of 60 ANC clients with treatment indication: 39 (65%) started predelivery ART and 21 (35%) remained untreated during pregnancy. Eight (13.3%) did not initiate ART at all within the observation period. Women starting ART before delivery had significantly lower CD4-cell counts at enrollment than nonstarters (medians: 207.5 vs. 292 cells/µl; p = 0.013). Predelivery ART starters had experienced a significantly shorter duration between staff-declared "ART readiness" and actual ART start (medians: 0 vs. 28 days; p = 0.0004). The median ART duration prior to delivery was 57 days; only eight women (13.3%) accomplished ?90 days ART intake during pregnancy. Early enrollment in ANC at ?24 gestational weeks was associated with longer duration of predelivery ART. At maternity wards, 24.3% of treatment-eligible mothers and newborns with retraceable delivery data had received no or inadequate antiretrovirals. Within 6 months postdelivery, women attended on average 3.5 out of 6 requested CTC visits. Concluding, every third treatment-eligible woman in this cohort was not covered through ART before delivery, and predelivery ART duration was mostly suboptimal regarding vertical transmission prevention. HIV-positive women need to be encouraged to approach ANC early in pregnancy, and health services need to address unnecessary time gaps before ART initiation. In addition, inclusive ART services for HIV-positive ANC clients should be seriously discussed. PMID:24359539

  17. Traditional birth attendants lack basic information on HIV and safe delivery practices in rural Mysore, India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is little research on HIV awareness and practices of traditional birth attendants (TBA) in India. This study investigated knowledge and attitudes among rural TBA in Karnataka as part of a project examining how traditional birth attendants could be integrated into prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March 2008 and January 2009 among TBA in 144 villages in Mysore Taluk, Karnataka. Following informed consent, TBA underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire in the local language of Kannada on practices and knowledge around birthing and HIV/PMTCT. Results Of the 417 TBA surveyed, the median age was 52 years and 96% were Hindus. A majority (324, 77.7%) had no formal schooling, 88 (21.1%) had up to 7 years and 5 (1%) had more than 7 yrs of education. Only 51 of the 417 TBA (12%) reported hearing about HIV/AIDS. Of those who had heard about HIV/AIDS, only 36 (72%) correctly reported that the virus could be spread from mother to child; 37 (74%) identified unprotected sex as a mode of transmission; and 26 (51%) correctly said healthy looking people could spread HIV. Just 22 (44%) knew that infected mothers could lower the risk of transmitting the virus to their infants. An overwhelming majority of TBA (401, 96.2%) did not provide antenatal care to their clients. Over half (254, 61%) said they would refer the woman to a hospital if she bled before delivery, and only 53 (13%) felt referral was necessary if excessive bleeding occurred after birth. Conclusions Traditional birth attendants will continue to play an important role in maternal child health in India for the foreseeable future. This study demonstrates that a majority of TBA lack basic information about HIV/AIDS and safe delivery practices. Given the ongoing shortage of skilled birth attendance in rural areas, more studies are needed to examine whether TBA should be trained and integrated into PMTCT and maternal child health programs in India. PMID:20860835

  18. Routine administration of Anti-D: the ethical case for offering pregnant women fetal RHD genotyping and a review of policy and practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since its introduction in the 1960s Anti-D immunoglobulin (Anti-D Ig) has been highly successful in reducing the incidence of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) and achieving improvements to maternal and fetal health. It has protected women from other invasive interventions during pregnancy and prevented deaths and damage amongst newborns and is a technology which has been adopted worldwide. Currently about one third of pregnant women with the blood group Rhesus D (RhD) negative in the UK (approximately 40,000 women per year in England and Wales), receive antenatal Anti-D Ig in pregnancy when they do not require it because they are carrying a RhD negative fetus. Since 1997, a test using cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal blood has been developed to identify the genotype of the fetus and can be used to predict the fetal RhD blood group. Discussion This paper considers whether it is ethically acceptable to continue administering antenatal Anti-D Ig to all RhD negative women when fetal RHD genotyping using maternal blood could identify those women who do not need this product. Summary The antenatal administration of Anti-D Ig to a third of RhD negative pregnant women who carry a RhD negative fetus and therefore do not need it raises important ethical issues. If fetal RHD genotyping using maternal blood was offered to all RhD negative pregnant women it would assist them to make an informed choice about whether or not to have antenatal Anti-D Ig. PMID:24568571

  19. The impact of prenatal care on neonatal deaths in the presence and absence of antenatal high-risk conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony M. Vintzileos; Cande V. Ananth; John C. Smulian; William E. Scorza; Robert A. Knuppel

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the association between prenatal care in the United States and the neonatal death rate in the presence and absence of antenatal high-risk conditions. Study Design: Data were derived from the national perinatal mortality data sets for the years 1995 through 1997, which were provided by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  20. Task shifting in maternal and newborn care: a non-inferiority study examining delegation of antenatal counseling to lay nurse aides supported by job aids in Benin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Shifting the role of counseling to less skilled workers may improve efficiency and coverage of health services, but evidence is needed on the impact of substitution on quality of care. This research explored the influence of delegating maternal and newborn counseling responsibilities to clinic-based lay nurse aides on the quality of counseling provided as part of a task shifting initiative to expand their role. Methods Nurse-midwives and lay nurse aides in seven public maternities were trained to use job aids to improve counseling in maternal and newborn care. Quality of counseling and maternal knowledge were assessed using direct observation of antenatal consultations and patient exit interviews. Both provider types were interviewed to examine perceptions regarding the task shift. To compare provider performance levels, non-inferiority analyses were conducted where non-inferiority was demonstrated if the lower confidence limit of the performance difference did not exceed a margin of 10 percentage points. Results Mean percent of recommended messages provided by lay nurse aides was non-inferior to counseling by nurse-midwives in adjusted analyses for birth preparedness (? = -0.0, 95% CI: -9.0, 9.1), danger sign recognition (? = 4.7, 95% CI: -5.1, 14.6), and clean delivery (? = 1.4, 95% CI: -9.4, 12.3). Lay nurse aides demonstrated superior performance for communication on general prenatal care (? = 15.7, 95% CI: 7.0, 24.4), although non-inferiority was not achieved for newborn care counseling (? = -7.3, 95% CI: -23.1, 8.4). The proportion of women with correct knowledge was significantly higher among those counseled by lay nurse aides as compared to nurse-midwives in general prenatal care (? = 23.8, 95% CI: 15.7, 32.0), birth preparedness (? = 12.7, 95% CI: 5.2, 20.1), and danger sign recognition (? = 8.6, 95% CI: 3.3, 13.9). Both cadres had positive opinions regarding task shifting, although several preferred 'task sharing' over full delegation. Conclusions Lay nurse aides can provide effective antenatal counseling in maternal and newborn care in facility-based settings, provided they receive adequate training and support. Efforts are needed to improve management of human resources to ensure that effective mechanisms for regulating and financing task shifting are sustained. PMID:21211045

  1. Tired, weak, or in need of rest: fatigue among general practice attenders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A David; A Pelosi; E McDonald; D Stephens; D Ledger; R Rathbone; A Mann

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence and associations of symptoms of fatigue. DESIGN--Questionnaire survey. SETTING--London general practice. PARTICIPANTS--611 General practice attenders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Scores on a fatigue questionnaire and reasons given for fatigue. RESULTS--10.2% Of men (17\\/167) and 10.6% of women (47\\/444) had substantial fatigue for one month or more. Age, occupation, and marital status exerted minor effects. Subjects attributed fatigue equally

  2. Father Attendance in Nurse Home Visitation

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, John R.; Olds, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the rates and predictors of father attendance at nurse home visits in replication sites of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP). Early childhood programs can facilitate father involvement in the lives of their children, but program improvements require an understanding of factors that predict father involvement. The sample consisted of 29,109 low-income, first-time mothers who received services from 694 nurses from 80 sites. We conducted mixed-model multiple regression analyses to identify population, implementation, site, and nurse influences on father attendance. Predictors of father attendance included a count of maternal visits (B = 0.12, SE = 0.01, F = 3101.77), frequent contact between parents (B = 0.61, SE = 0.02, F = 708.02), cohabitation (B = 1.41, SE = 0.07, F = 631.51), White maternal race (B = 0.77, SE = 0.06, F = 190.12), and marriage (B = 0.42, SE = 0.08, F = 30.08). Random effects for sites and nurses predicted father-visit participation (2.7 & 6.7% of the variance, respectively), even after controlling for population sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest that factors operating at the levels of sites and nurses influence father attendance at home visits, even after controlling for differences in populations served. Further inquiry about these influences on father visit attendance is likely to inform program-improvement efforts. PMID:25521707

  3. Relationships between antenatal and postnatal care and post-partum modern contraceptive use: evidence from population surveys in Kenya and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is often assumed, with little supportive, empirical evidence, that women who use maternal health care are more likely than those who do not to use modern contraceptives. This study aims to add to the existing literature on associations between the use of antenatal (ANC) and post-natal care (PNC) and post-partum modern contraceptives. Methods Data come from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in Kenya (2008–09) and Zambia (2007). Study samples include women who had a live birth within five years before the survey (3,667 in Kenya and 3,587 in Zambia). Multivariate proportional hazard models were used to examine the associations between the intensity of ANC and PNC service use and a woman’s adoption of modern contraceptives after a recent live birth. Results Tests of exogeneity confirmed that the intensity of ANC and PNC service use and post-partum modern contraceptive practice were not influenced by common unobserved factors. Cox proportional hazard models showed significant associations between the service intensity of ANC and PNC and post-partum modern contraceptive use in both countries. This relationship is largely due to ANC services; no significant associations were observed between PNC service intensity and post-partum FP practice. Conclusions While the lack of associations between PNC and post-partum FP use may be due to the limited measure of PNC service intensity, the study highlights a window of opportunity to promote the use of modern contraceptives after childbirth through ANC service delivery. Depending on the availability of data, further research should take into account community- and facility-level factors that may influence modern contraceptive use in examining associations between ANC and PNC use and post-partum FP practice. PMID:23289547

  4. Women Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Roberta M.; Sandler, Bernice Resnick

    Guidelines are presented to help institutions ensure women's full participation in campus-based and sponsored merit awards and prizes programs. Over 100 recommendations are designed to: explain why such awards and prizes can be particularly important for women students and women faculty; identify overt and inadvertent barriers to women's full…

  5. Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Davis, Hazel K., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The 16 articles in this journal issue deal with women's studies within the English curriculum. Topics discussed in the articles include (1) the feminist challenge to the male-centered curriculum in higher education; (2) the women's movement and women's studies; (3) connotations of the word "girl"; (4) women in English education; (5) the new…

  6. A Phenomenological Study of Sexual Harassment and Violence among Girls Attending High Schools in Urban Slums, Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…

  7. The Traditional Birth Attendant in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning: A Guide to Her Training and Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verderese, Maria de Lourdes; Turnbull, Lily M.

    The publication provides guidelines for assisting developing countries in determining strategies for the utilization and training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). TBA's are persons (usually women in rural areas) who assist the mother at childbirth and who initially acquired their skills through experience rather than formal training. After…

  8. Breaking the taboo: an exploration of female university students' experiences of attending a feminist?informed sex education course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Askew

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative interview study of nine young women who attended a feminist?informed human sexuality course as undergraduate students at a US university located in the ‘Bible belt’. The course focused on messages of desire and empowerment, rather than romance or fear, and was designed to encourage students to think critically about current sexual discourses.

  9. Breaking the Taboo: An Exploration of Female University Students' Experiences of Attending a Feminist-Informed Sex Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative interview study of nine young women who attended a feminist-informed human sexuality course as undergraduate students at a US university located in the "Bible belt". The course focused on messages of desire and empowerment, rather than romance or fear, and was designed to encourage students to…

  10. SELF-ESTEEM OF RAPED WOMEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucila Amaral; Carneiro Vianna

    This qualitative study shows the results of workshops held with health workers and public health users (raped women), aimed at raising these women's self-esteem and creating awareness among health workers who attend them. Neuro-Linguistic Programming techniques were used to bring back life experiences, which contributed to a re-reading and to minimize causal factors of low self-esteem. Themes like repugnance, fear

  11. The design of a community lifestyle programme to improve the physical and psychological well-being of pregnant women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity is a global public health issue. Having a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more (classifying a person as obese) at the start of pregnancy is a significant risk factor for maternal and fetal morbidity. There is a dearth of evidence to inform suitable inteventions to support pregnant women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more. Here we describe a study protocol to test the feasibility of a variety of potential healthy lifestyle interventions for pregnant women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more in a community based programme. Methods/Design Four hundred women will be approached to attend a 10-week community lifestyle programme. The programme will be provided as a supplement to standard antenatal care. The programme is multi-faceted, aimed at equipping participants with the skills and knowledge needed to adopt healthy behaviours. The social (cognitive) learning theory will be used as a tool to encourage behaviour change, the behaviour change techniques are underpinned by five theoretical components; self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, goal setting, feedback and positive reinforcement. The main outcomes are pregnancy weight gain and caesarean section rate. Other important outcomes include clinical outcomes (e.g., birth weight) and psychological outcomes (e.g., well-being). Secondary outcomes include women's experience of pregnancy and health care services, amount of physical activity, food intake and the suitability of the intervention components. A prospective study using quantitative and qualitative methods will inform the feasibility of implementing the community lifestyle programme with pregnant women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more. Mixed methods of data collection will be used, including diaries, focus groups/interviews, pedometers, validated and specifically designed questionnaires, a programme register, weight gain during pregnancy and perinatal outcome data. Discussion Findings from this current feasibility study will inform future interventions and NHS services and add to the evidence-base by providing information about the experiences of pregnant women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more undertaking a community lifestyle programme. The study will lead on to a randomised control trial of a suitable intervention to improve the pregnancy outcomes of this target group. Trail Registration ISRCTN29860479. PMID:20507580

  12. Antenatal and Postnatal Diagnosis of Coxsackie B4 Infection: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Jennifer C.; Schneider, Carol; Menticoglou, Savas; Herath, Jayantha; Del Bigio, Marc R.

    2011-01-01

    Enteroviruses are a common cause of neonatal infection. In particular, Coxsackie B viruses are often associated with severe, fatal disease. The antenatal diagnosis of Coxsackie B viral infections is uncommon. We present a unique case of Coxsackie B4 virus ventriculitis and myocarditis causing fetal hydrops at 22 weeks gestation. Transmission was inferred by viral isolation from the amniotic fluid and by placental pathology. We also describe two additional cases of fatal neonatal Coxsackie B4 infection complicated by myocarditis and encephalitis with cerebral necrosis in a 4-day-old female and by myocarditis, spinal leptomeningitis, and hepatitis in a 4-day-old male. Transplacental acquisition of infection carries a poor prognosis. We propose that Coxsackie B virus should be considered in the investigation of nonimmune hydrops, particularly in the presence of cardiac dysfunction. PMID:23946895

  13. Digital Women

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Digital Women strives to be a full-service portal for working women in all varieties of business. The site offers a huge collection of resources, including informative articles, manuals, free software, Web tools, and advice, as well as ten free newsletters and mailing lists. Digital Women also provides a place for business women to network, including information about the Digital Women 2000 Annual International Net-Together, which will take place on Vancouver Island September 29-October 1, 2000.

  14. Abuse of women and children in a Philippine community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C Acebes-Escobal; M. C Nerida; R. A Chez

    2002-01-01

    This retrospective study describes the demographic profiles, types of injuries and characteristics of abusers of 1354 women and children survivors of domestic violence who sought medical care from the obstetrics and gynecology resident and attending staff in the Women and Children Protection Unit in Vicente Sotto Memorial Medical Center from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 1998. Thirty-nine percent of

  15. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus genotypes in pregnant Japanese women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kentaro Yamasaki; Kiyonori Miura; Takako Shimada; Shoko Miura; Shuhei Abe; Makoto Murakami; Tetsuro Sameshima; Akira Fujishita; Kouhei Kotera; Akira Kinoshita; Koh-ichiro Yoshiura; Hideaki Masuzaki

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the pre-vaccination epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and genotypes in pregnant Japanese women, we performed Pap smear tests and HPV genotype testing in patients attending Nagasaki University Hospital and collaborating hospitals from August 2007 to July 2010. Serial uterine cervical specimens were obtained from 151 pregnant women. The HPV test was positive on the first visit

  16. Vaginal Douching among University Women in the Southeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Barbara Hansen; Close, Fran T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the knowledge, beliefs about, and practices of vaginal douching among women attending 2 universities in the southeastern United States. Participants: There were 416 participants in this study; 46.9% were black and 44.5% were white. Methods: The authors administered a 30-item questionnaire to women enrolled in…

  17. Academic Achievement and Body Image in Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Women attend college to further themselves through education, but are confronted with traditional concepts of beauty and stereotypes regarding physical appearance. For many women, college is a paradox between the serious nature of intellectual curiosity and the pull to conform to societal expectations. These expectations can be powerful forces as…

  18. Writing in the Company of Other Women: Exceeding the Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Barbara M.

    2006-01-01

    In academic life, writing for publication is a significant responsibility. It can also be a rewarding private pleasure. This article reports on the effects of attending week-long writing retreats for a group of academic women in Aotearoa New Zealand. The residential retreats have been held twice a year since 1997, and attract women from different…

  19. Low Income Women and Physician Breastfeeding Advice: A Regional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzer, J; Zeece, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of the pilot study presented here were to determine whether low income women were receiving compendious breastfeeding advice from their attending physicians. Design: This study assessed low income women's reports of physician breastfeeding advice using a newly designed Likert scaled survey based on the American Surgeon…

  20. Antenatal Presentation of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome May Mimic Meckel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karmous-Benailly, Houda; Martinovic, Jelena; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Sirot, Yoann; Clech, Laure; Ozilou, Catherine; Augé, Joëlle; Brahimi, Nora; Etchevers, Heather; Detrait, Eric; Esculpavit, Chantal; Audollent, Sophie; Goudefroye, Géraldine; Gonzales, Marie; Tantau, Julia; Loget, Philippe; Joubert, Madeleine; Gaillard, Dominique; Jeanne-Pasquier, Corinne; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Peter, Marie-Odile; Plessis, Ghislaine; Simon-Bouy, Brigitte; Dollfus, Hélène; Le Merrer, Martine; Munnich, Arnold; Encha-Razavi, Férechté; Vekemans, Michel; Attié-Bitach, Tania

    2005-01-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a multisystemic disorder characterized by postaxial polydactyly, progressive retinal dystrophy, obesity, hypogonadism, renal dysfunction, and learning difficulty. Other manifestations include diabetes mellitus, heart disease, hepatic fibrosis, and neurological features. The condition is genetically heterogeneous, and eight genes (BBS1–BBS8) have been identified to date. A mutation of the BBS1 gene on chromosome 11q13 is observed in 30%–40% of BBS cases. In addition, a complex triallelic inheritance has been established in this disorder—that is, in some families, three mutations at two BBS loci are necessary for the disease to be expressed. The clinical features of BBS that can be observed at birth are polydactyly, kidney anomaly, hepatic fibrosis, and genital and heart malformations. Interestingly, polydactyly, cystic kidneys, and liver anomalies (hepatic fibrosis with bile-duct proliferation) are also observed in Meckel syndrome, along with occipital encephalocele. Therefore, we decided to sequence the eight BBS genes in a series of 13 antenatal cases presenting with cystic kidneys and polydactyly and/or hepatic fibrosis but no encephalocele. These fetuses were mostly diagnosed as having Meckel or “Meckel-like” syndrome. In six cases, we identified a recessive mutation in a BBS gene (three in BBS2, two in BBS4, and one in BBS6). We found a heterozygous BBS6 mutation in three additional cases. No BBS1, BBS3, BBS5, BBS7, or BBS8 mutations were identified in our series. These results suggest that the antenatal presentation of BBS may mimic Meckel syndrome. PMID:15666242

  1. The Effects of Attending a Diverse College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The question of whether there are benefits to be obtained from having a diverse student body is a key issue in the debate over affirmative action. This paper estimates the effects of college racial diversity on post-college earnings, civic behavior, and satisfaction with the college attended. I use the Beginning Postsecondary Students survey,…

  2. Introduction to Computer Graphics Vote / Attendance Sheet

    E-print Network

    Pang, Alex

    student name and project title (other than your own) for your choice of: Best project: Next best project / Attendance Sheet: Your name: Enter student name and project title (other than your own) for your choice of: Note: Best project votes have weight = 2, while next best project votes have weight = 1. Person

  3. Daycare Attendance, Stress, and Mental Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Claude Geoffroy; Sylvana M Côté; Sophie Parent; Jean Richard Séguin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Daycare stress can be indexed by cortisol, and elevated levels of cortisol have been implicated in the onset and development of mental health disorders. Our objective was to quantify the associations between daycare and cortisol and to identify individual and environmental conditions under which daycare attendance is associated with cortisol concentrations. Methods: We used Cohen effect size statistics to

  4. Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

  5. International Determinants of Private School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Leslie; Rutkowski, David; Plucker, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The current study uses Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 data to investigate international determinants of private school attendance. In particular, we seek to understand whether student achievement and home background factors such as socioeconomic status (SES) or motivational and goal-oriented factors are more predictive…

  6. Automated Attendance Accounting System; Patent Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Carl P.; And Others

    An automated accounting system, useful for applying data to a computer from a multiplicity of terminals, has the potential of replacing the manual attendance accounting system now employed in schools. The inventors claim that such a sophisticated system with terminals in the classrooms would enable school administrators not only to monitor simple…

  7. Timekeeper runs Attendance Certification Report (replaces form

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Timekeeper runs Attendance Certification Report (replaces form 672). Verifies employee's balances adjustments are entered, balances are updated in real-time but not posted on verification report until the following month. Employee can view balances through Self Service which includes adjustments. Timekeeper runs

  8. Attendance and Truancy Programs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    According to the 2000 census, high school dropouts had a 52% employment rate, compared to 71% for high school graduates and 83% for college graduates. According to NCSE, the national dropout rate is 30% of which 80% had been chronically absent from school ("School attendance tracking: Challenges and effective practices"), which puts the high…

  9. Examining predictors of sex guilt in multiethnic samples of women.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, G E; Dunn, K M

    1991-10-01

    Previous research has shown that attitudes, including sex guilt, may influence the nature and type of sexual practices in which a person engages. This study examined the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, and religiosity to sex guilt and aspects of sexual permissiveness that relate to sexual attitudes. Subjects were random samples of 126 African American women and 122 white American women in Los Angeles County. They were interviewed face-to-face and completed the Mosher Forced Choice Sex Guilt subscale. Results indicated that while the association between church attendance and sex guilt was stronger for white than for black women, no significant differences in sex guilt across attendance levels was found for black women. Overall, contrary to previous reports, black women had higher levels of sex guilt than their white peers. The importance of understanding factors including SES and religiosity as they relate to African American and white American women's sexual attitudes and behaviors is discussed. PMID:1747042

  10. Criterion validity of a 10-category scale for ranking physical activity in Norwegian women

    E-print Network

    Borch, Kristin B; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Lund, Eiliv

    2012-01-19

    ) with a criterion method in middle-aged Norwegian women. Methods A sample of 177 randomly recruited healthy women attended two clinical visits approximately 4-6 months apart. At each visit, the women completed the NOWAC PA questionnaire (NOPAQ), rating...

  11. Social change and women's health.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Peggy; Worts, Diana; McMunn, Anne; Sacker, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five decades, the organization of women's lives has changed dramatically. Throughout the industrialized world, paid work and family biographies have been altered as the once-dominant role of homemaker has given way to the role of secondary, dual, or even primary wage-earner. The attendant changes represent a mix of gains and losses for women, in which not all women have benefited (or suffered) equally. But little is known about the health consequences. This article addresses that gap. It develops a "situated biographies" model to conceptualize how life course change may influence women's health. The model stresses the role of time, both as individual aging and as the anchoring of lives in particular historical periods. "Situating" biographies in this way highlights two key features of social change in women's lives: the ambiguous implications for the health of women as a group, and the probable connections to growing social and economic disparities in health among them. This approach lays the groundwork for more integrated and productive population-based research about how historical transformations may affect women's health. PMID:24066418

  12. Prevalence and psychological correlates of postnatal depression in rural Taiwanese women.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Ying; Creedy, Debra K; Gamble, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive longitudinal cohort study investigated the prevalence and psychological risk factors for depression in new mothers living in Pingtung County, southern Taiwan. Expectant mothers (n = 236) were recruited through antenatal clinics, and 162 participants were followed up at 6 weeks postpartum. The estimated prevalence of probable depression (at a cut-off score ? 13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) was 17.3% before birth and 24.1% after birth. Several risk factors for postnatal depression were identified, including maternal self-esteem, antenatal depression, and psychiatric morbidity. The regression of intention on predictive variables yielded an adjusted R(2) of.70. The findings can help clinical nurses effectively recognize and implement risk mitigation plans for the health benefits of rural childbearing women. PMID:25148390

  13. Vaginal infections in human immunodeficiency virus–infected women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Helfgott; Nancy Eriksen; C. Michael Bundrick; Ronald Lorimor; Barbara Van Eckhout

    2000-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to compare the frequencies of vaginal infections among human immunodeficiency virus–infected women with those among human immunodeficiency virus–seronegative women. Study Design: Human immunodeficiency virus–seropositive women attending a comprehensive care center for human immunodeficiency virus disease at the outpatient department of an inner-city hospital in Houston underwent rigorous gynecologic evaluation for sexually transmitted diseases, including evidence

  14. Disabled women?s maternal and newborn health care in rural Nepal: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Joanna; Basnet, Machhindra; Budhathoki, Bharat; Adhikari, Dhruba; Tumbahangphe, Kirti; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Groce, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective there is little evidence about disabled women?s access to maternal and newborn health services in low-income countries and few studies consult disabled women themselves to understand their experience of care and care seeking. Our study explores disabled women?s experiences of maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Design we used a qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews. Setting rural Makwanpur District of central Nepal. Participants we purposively sampled married women with different impairments who had delivered a baby in the past 10 years from different topographical areas of the district. We also interviewed maternal health workers. We compared our findings with a recent qualitative study of non-disabled women in the same district to explore the differences between disabled and non-disabled women. Findings married disabled women considered pregnancy and childbirth to be normal and preferred to deliver at home. Issues of quality, cost and lack of family support were as pertinent for disabled women as they were for their non-disabled peers. Health workers felt unprepared to meet the maternal health needs of disabled women. Key conclusions and implications for practice integration of disability into existing Skilled Birth Attendant training curricula may improve maternal health care for disabled women. There is a need to monitor progress of interventions that encourage institutional delivery through the use of disaggregated data, to check that disabled women are benefiting equally in efforts to improve access to maternal health care. PMID:24768318

  15. Determinants of non-attendance to mammographic screening. Analysis of a population sample of the screening program in the District of Florence.

    PubMed

    Ciatto, S; Cecchini, S; Isu, A; Maggi, A; Cammelli, S

    1992-02-29

    The characteristics associated with non-attendance to mammographic breast cancer screening were studied by interviewing a random sample (213 attenders, 121 non-attenders in the 1989 screening) of residents in one of the municipalities of the Florence District Program, where screening has been ongoing since 1970. The overall attendance rate was 60%, and it was dependent on age (40-49 years, 66.5%; 50-59 years, 62.5%; 60-70 years, 55.5%), whereas a significant association with socio-economic status, educational level and health-behavior reported in other programs was not confirmed in the study. This finding suggests that determinants of non-attendance may vary and should be evaluated in each local setting. The belief that screening is useless, fear of cancer being detected, postponement and laziness were the most common motivations of refusal stated by non-attenders, and such a negative attitude towards screening was rather strong since most non-attenders stated they would not like to be informed or stimulated to attend future screenings. Rapid improvement of attendance rates in such a context might be achieved only by putting special pressure on women aimed to change their negative attitude towards screening and their opinion about the benefits of early breast cancer detection. This might be regarded as unacceptable and however would involve high costs and a major organization effort. PMID:1609454

  16. Married Women

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2008-03-26

    Broadcast Transcript: There's marital duplicity going on here in South Korea. Namely, secret bank accounts. Put together by women. Unbeknownst to their husbands. Apparently, more than 65% of married Korean women are salting away money that they save...

  17. Women's health

    MedlinePLUS

    Women's health refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment and diagnosis of diseases and ... Women's health includes a wide range of specialties and focus areas, such as: Birth control, sexually transmitted infections ( ...

  18. Community mobilisation and health management committee strengthening to increase birth attendance by trained health workers in rural Makwanpur, Nepal: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Morrison; Kirti Man Tumbahangphe; Bharat Budhathoki; Rishi Neupane; Aman Sen; Kunta Dahal; Rita Thapa; Reema Manandhar; Dharma Manandhar; Anthony Costello; David Osrin

    2011-01-01

    Background  Birth attendance by trained health workers is low in rural Nepal. Local participation in improving health services and increased\\u000a interaction between health systems and communities may stimulate demand for health services. Significant increases in birth\\u000a attendance by trained health workers may be affected through community mobilisation by local women's groups and health management\\u000a committee strengthening. We will test the effect

  19. Bone metabolism in fetuses of pregnant women exposed to single and multiple courses of corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Linda; Ramin, Susan M.; Mele, Lisa; Wapner, Ronald J.; Johnson, Francee; Peaceman, Alan M.; Sorokin, Yoram; Dudley, Donald J.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Caritis, Steve N.; Miodovnik, Menachem; Mercer, Brian; Thorp, John M.; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Sibai, Baha

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of single and recurrent doses of antenatal corticosteroids on fetal bone metabolism. Study Design A secondary analysis of a cohort of pregnant women from a previously reported randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial of women at risk for preterm delivery who received weekly courses of betamethasone (active) or placebo after an initial course of corticosteroids. Umbilical cord serum levels of carboxy terminal pro-peptide of type I pro-collagen (PICP) and cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I pro-collagen (ICTP) were measured to assess the rate of fetal bone formation and resorption, respectively. Analysis was stratified according to number of repeat antenatal study courses of betamethasone or placebo (1–3 vs. ? 4 courses not including the initial course). Results Of the 251 umbilical cord serum samples, the median serum ICTP levels, but not PICP levels, were significantly lower with repeat betamethasone exposure compared to placebo (55 vs. 57.9 mcg/L, respectively, p=0.01). In the fetuses exposed to ? 4 repeat study courses, there was a significant decrease in median ICTP levels between repeat betamethasone exposure and placebo (53.4 vs. 58.6 mcg/L, respectively, p=0.04) but there was no difference between groups in the fetuses exposed to 1 – 3 repeat study courses (57.4 vs. 56.7 mcg/L, respectively, p= 0.29). Conclusion Levels of umbilical cord serum markers of bone resorption but not formation are reduced in fetuses exposed to repeat courses of antenatal betamethasone. Up to 4 courses of antenatal betamethasone do not appear to affect fetal bone metabolism. PMID:19546756

  20. The Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART): Rationale, design, and methods of a randomized, controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy for the primary prevention of asthma and allergies in children

    PubMed Central

    Litonjua, Augusto A.; Lange, Nancy E.; Carey, Vincent J.; Brown, Stacey; Laranjo, Nancy; O’Connor, George T.; Sandel, Megan; Strunk, Robert C.; Bacharier, Leonard B.; Zeiger, Robert S.; Schatz, Michael; Hollis, Bruce W.; Weiss, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    There is intense interest in the role of vitamin D in the development of asthma and allergies. However, studies differ on whether a higher vitamin D intake or status in pregnancy or at birth is protective against asthma and allergies. To address this uncertainty, the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART) was developed. VDAART is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women to determine whether prenatal supplementation can prevent the development of asthma and allergies in the women’s offspring. A secondary aim is to determine whether vitamin D supplementation can prevent the development of pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia, preterm birth, and gestational diabetes. Women were randomized to the treatment arm of 4,000 IU/day of vitamin D3 plus a daily multivitamin that contained 400 IU of vitamin D3 or the placebo arm of placebo plus a multivitamin that contained 400 IU daily of vitamin D3. Women who were between the gestational ages of 10–18 weeks were randomized from three clinical centers across the United States – Boston Medical Center, Washington University in St. Louis, and Kaiser Permanente Southern California Region (San Diego, CA). Supplementation took place throughout pregnancy. Monthly monitoring of urinary calcium to creatinine ratio was performed in addition to medical record review for adverse events. Offspring are being evaluated quarterly through questionnaires and yearly during in-person visits until the 3rd birthday of the child. Ancillary studies will investigate neonatal T-regulatory cell function, maternal vaginal flora, and maternal and child intestinal flora. PMID:24614387

  1. Prenatal Depression in Women Hospitalized for Obstetric Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Anna R.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Hynan, Linda S.; Miltenberger, Paula D.; Labat, Dana Broussard; Rifkin, Jamie B.; Stringer, C. Allen

    2009-01-01

    Objective Little is known about depression during pregnancy in women with high maternal or fetal risk, as this population is often excluded from research samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate depressive symptoms and known risk factors for depression in a group of women hospitalized with severe obstetric risk. Method In the antenatal unit, 129 inpatients completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS) from October 2005 through December 2006. A subset of women were administered the Mood Disorder module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) based upon a score of ? 11 on the EPDS. Obstetric complications were classified according to the Hobel Risk Assessment for Prematurity. Results Fifty-seven of the 129 women (44.2%) scored 11 or greater on the EPDS, and at least 25/129 (19%) met the DSM-IV criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Mothers reporting high attachment to the fetus on the MAAS reported lower severity of depressive symptoms (rho = ?0.33, p < 0.001); those reporting interpersonal relationship dissatisfaction on the DAS endorsed higher depressive severity (rho = ?0.21, p = 0.02). Severity of obstetric risk was unrelated to depression but, one complication, incompetent cervix, was positively associated with level of depressive symptomatology. Conclusion Findings indicate a higher prevalence rate of MDD in women with severe obstetric risk than that reported in low-risk pregnancy samples, suggesting the need for routine depression screening to identify those who need treatment. Fewer depressive symptoms were reported by mothers reporting strong maternal fetal attachment andgreater relationship satisfaction. PMID:18312059

  2. Violence Against Women and Postpartum Depression: The Experience of Chilean Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana M. Quelopana

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on the findings from a cross-sectional study of women (N?=?163) who were at least two weeks postpartum and attending primary care clinics in Arica-Chile. The study examined the prevalence of history of violence and its association with postpartum depression (PPD). The Women Abuse Screen and the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale Spanish-Version were used to assess interpersonal

  3. Online Data Collection in Women’s Health Research: A Study of Perimenopausal Women with Migraines

    PubMed Central

    MOLONEY, MARGARET F.; STRICKLAND, ORA L.; DIETRICH, ALEXA; MYERBURG, STUART

    2008-01-01

    An estimated 17 to 18 percent of all women, and six percent of men, experience migraines. Hormonal shifts may cause migraines to recur, worsen, or even begin during the perimenopause and are a significant cause of discomfort and disability. However, very little research has explored the experience of migraines in this population. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of perimenopausal women with migraines, via online questionnaires and discussion boards, and to evaluate the feasibility of collecting women’s health data via the Internet. In an earlier study, we found that midlife women had difficulty attending focus groups due to other time commitments. This study was designed to increase accessibility to the research via the Internet. Of the 43 women recruited into the study, 21 were also interviewed in “real-time” qualitative interviews; all received passwords to complete online questionnaires and participate in three- to four-week discussion boards on the study Web site. Quantitative data were imported into SPSS; narrative qualitative data from discussion boards were transferred to a software package for analysis. Online questionnaires and discussion boards were found to be feasible methods for data collection for this population. Qualitative data analysis revealed themes related to women’s efforts to predict and control their headaches, the relationship of headaches to women’s menses and menopausal symptoms, and the effects of migraines on their lives. In this paper we describe the process of using the Internet, feminist issues related to this innovative methodology, and also discuss the results of a major study theme, the experience of headaches in relationship to the menstrual cycle. PMID:20209041

  4. Effect of Antenatal Parasitic Infections on Anti-vaccine IgG Levels in Children: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Indu; McKibben, Maxim; Mungai, Peter; McKibben, Elisabeth; Wang, Xuelei; Sutherland, Laura J.; Muchiri, Eric M.; King, Charles H.; King, Christopher L.; LaBeaud, A. Desiree

    2015-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections are prevalent among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to malaria and/or helminths affects the pattern of infant immune responses to standard vaccinations against Haemophilus influenzae (Hib), diphtheria (DT), hepatitis B (Hep B) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Methods and Findings 450 Kenyan women were tested for malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), and intestinal helminths during pregnancy. After three standard vaccinations at 6, 10 and 14 weeks, their newborns were followed biannually to age 36 months and tested for absolute levels of IgG against Hib, DT, Hep B, and TT at each time point. Newborns’ cord blood (CB) lymphocyte responses to malaria blood-stage antigens, soluble Schistosoma haematobium worm antigen (SWAP), and filaria antigen (BMA) were also assessed. Three immunophenotype categories were compared: i) tolerant (those having Plasmodium-, Schistosoma-, or Wuchereria-infected mothers but lacking respective Th1/Th2-type recall responses at birth to malaria antigens, SWAP, or BMA); ii) sensitized (those with infected/uninfected mothers and detectable Th1/Th2-type CB recall response to respective parasite antigen); or iii) unexposed (no evidence of maternal infection or CB recall response). Overall, 78.9% of mothers were infected with LF (44.7%), schistosomiasis (32.4%), malaria (27.6%) or hookworm (33.8%). Antenatal maternal malaria, LF, and hookworm were independently associated with significantly lower Hib-specific IgG. Presence of multiple maternal infections was associated with lower infant IgG levels against Hib and DT antigens post-vaccination. Post-vaccination IgG levels were also significantly associated with immunophenotype: malaria-tolerized infants had reduced response to DT, whereas filaria-tolerized infants showed reduced response to Hib. Conclusions There is an impaired ability to develop IgG antibody responses to key protective antigens of Hib and diphtheria in infants of mothers infected with malaria and/or helminths during pregnancy. These findings highlight the importance of control and prevention of parasitic infections among pregnant women. PMID:25590337

  5. Hand hygiene among neurologists attending a congress.

    PubMed

    Faiz, Kashif Waqar; Sundseth, Antje; Altmann, Marianne

    2014-02-01

    Hand hygiene is effective in preventing health care-associated infections, but hand hygiene compliance is low among health care workers in different hospital settings. Less is known about hand hygiene among physicians in a nonhospital setting. We evaluated handwashing behavior among 200 neurologists (100 males and 100 females) attending a world congress. Overall, 74.0% performed proper hand hygiene using soap and water, and there were significant differences between sex and handwashing behavior. PMID:24485383

  6. Local yielding attending fatigue crack growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Hahn; R. G. Hoagland; A. R. Rosenfield

    1972-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth rate measurements were performed at 100C on an Fe-3Si steel in three thickness conditions and at different\\u000a ?K-levels. The test pieces were subsequently sectioned and etched to reveal the plastic deformation attending crack growth both\\u000a on the surface and in the interior. Unlike preceding studies, the Fe-3Si steel displayed classical cyclic crack growth: well-defined\\u000a fatigue striations with

  7. 38 CFR 21.374 - Authorization for travel of attendants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...furnish the attendant with common-carrier transportation, meal and lodging expenses; or (ii) Will grant the attendant...veteran. A relative, for this purpose, is a person who by blood or marriage is the veteran's (i) Spouse, (ii)...

  8. 5 CFR 185.124 - Subpoenas for attendance at hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Subpoenas for attendance at hearing. 185.124 Section 185.124 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL...SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.124 Subpoenas for attendance at hearing....

  9. Conventions: Reasons to Attend and Ways to Finance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Victoria L. Gadecki

    2001-03-01

    There are many obvious reasons to attend conventions, conferences, and workshops. In this article, the author describes the compelling reasons to attend these professional events and fondly remembers her experiences as an attendee at the NSTA conventions.

  10. Social context and drivers of intimate partner violence in rural Kenya: Implications for the health of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher, Abigail M.; Romito, Patrizia; Odero, Merab; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Onono, Maricianah; Turan, Janet M.

    2013-01-01

    More than half of rural Kenyan women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. Beyond physical consequences, IPV indirectly worsens maternal health because pregnant women avoid antenatal care or HIV testing when they fear violent reprisal from partners. To develop an intervention to mitigate violence towards pregnant women, we conducted qualitative research in rural Kenya. Through eight focus group discussions, four with pregnant women (n=29), four with male partners (n=32), and in-depth interviews with service providers (n=20), we explored the social context of IPV using an ecological model. We found that women experienced physical and sexual IPV, but also economic violence like forced exile from the marital home or losing material support. Relationship triggers of IPV included perceived sexual infidelity or transgressing gender norms. Women described hiding antenatal HIV testing from partners, as testing was perceived as a sign of infidelity. Extended families were sometimes supportive, but often encouraged silence to protect the family image. The broader community viewed IPV as an intractable, common issue, which seemed to normalise its use. These results resonate with global IPV research showing that factors beyond the individual – gender roles in intimate partnerships, family dynamics, and community norms – shape high rates of violence. PMID:23387300

  11. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of antenatal fetal intra-abdominal umbilical vein varix detection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Won; Kim, Jung Eun; Chung, Jin Hoon; Lee, Hyun Jung; Yoon, Ji Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study reviewed clinical characteristics of fetal intra-abdominal umbilical vein (FIUV) varices that were detected during antenatal ultrasound examinations. Methods Between January 2006 and January 2012, 121 cases of FIUV varices were detected and 7 cases were lost to follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 114 patients and neonates. Results From a total 96,553 ultrasound examinations in 43,995 pregnancies, 121 cases of FIUV varices were identified (2.8 per 1,000 pregnancies). Gestational age at diagnosis was 32.0 ± 2.9 weeks (range, 20.1-36.3 weeks), the mean diameter of the FIUV varix was 12.6 ± 2.1 mm (range, 8.0-21.0 mm) at initial diagnosis and the mean maximal diameter was 13.1 ± 2.3 mm (range, 8.0-21.0 mm) during follow-up. The most severe pregnancy complications included one case of intrauterine fetal death and another case of fetal hydrops. Associated fetal anomalies (n = 11, 9.6%) detected by ultrasonography included bilateral renal pelvis dilatation, ventriculomegaly, cryptorchidism, incomplete renal duplication and pulmonary sequestration. A total of 104 cases (91.2%) were delivered at term and 10 cases (8.8%) were preterm deliveries before 37 weeks of gestation. Conclusion FIUV varices that are not associated with fetal anomalies based on ultrasound examination during prenatal care have favorable pregnancy outcomes. Nevertheless, close fetal monitoring is recommended to decrease perinatal complications. PMID:24883288

  12. HIV type 1 gag genetic diversity among antenatal clinic attendees in North Rift Valley, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Nyagaka, Benuel; Kiptoo, Michael K; Lihana, Raphael W; Khamadi, Samoel A; Makokha, Ernest P; Kinyua, Joyceline G; Mwangi, Joseph; Osman, Saida; Lagat, Nancy J; Muriuki, Joseph; Okoth, Vincent; Gicheru, Michael; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Songok, Elijah M

    2012-05-01

    HIV genetic recombination and high mutation rate increase diversity allowing it to escape from host immune response or antiretroviral drugs. This diversity has enabled specific viral subtypes to be predominant in specific regions. To determine HIV-1 subtypes among seropositive antenatal clinic attendees in Kenya's North Rift Valley, a cross-sectional study was carried out on 116 HIV-1-positive blood samples. Proviral DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by DNAzol lysis and ethanol precipitation. Polymerase chain reactions using specific primers for HIV-1 gag and population sequencing on resulting amplicons were carried out. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 81 (70%) were subtype A1, 13 (11%) subtype D, 8 (7%) subtype C, 3 (3%) subtype A2, 1 (1%) subtype G, and 10 showed possible recombinants: 5 (4%) subtype A1D, 4 (3%) subtype A1C, and 1 (1%) subtype A2C. These data support the need to establish circulating subtypes for better evaluation of effective HIV diagnostic and treatment options in Kenya. PMID:21827277

  13. Gestational age–specific risks versus benefits of multicourse antenatal corticosteroids for preterm labor

    PubMed Central

    ZEPHYRIN, Laurie C.; HONG, Kimberly N.; WAPNER, Ronald J.; PEACEMAN, Alan M.; SOROKIN, Yoram; DUDLEY, Donald J.; IAMS, Jay D.; HARPER, Margaret; CARITIS, Steve N.; MERCER, Brian M.; THORP, John M.; RAMIN, Susan M.; ROUSE, Dwight J.; SIBAI, Baha

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate a gestational age threshold at which the benefits of treatment with weekly courses of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) during preterm labor outweigh the risks. Study Design Risk-benefit ratios by gestational age are determined using a Markov microsimulation decision-analysis model with a 1-week cycle length. Single course and multiple (weekly to max of 4) courses of ACS by gestational age of entry (23 to 31 6/7 weeks) are compared. Benefits are composite events (respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia or stillbirth) averted. Risks are small head circumference and small for gestational age. Results More composite events are averted (benefits) than risks acquired (6:1) when multiple courses of ACS are initiated at 26 weeks’ gestation. When multiple courses of ACS are initiated at 29 weeks’ gestation, the risk-benefit ratio is 1. Beyond 29 weeks, there is a suggestion of more risk than benefit. Conclusion The model suggests that multiple courses of ACS initiated at less than 29 ‘weeks’ gestation may have increased benefit compared to risks. Further analyses are needed to determine the long term clinical significance of these findings. PMID:23770471

  14. The ecology of gynecological care for women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Pei; Chou, Chia-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Shao, Chun-Chih; Su, H Irene; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Li-Fang; Yu, Hann-Chin

    2014-08-01

    Gynecological care is vital to women's health but utilization of gynecological care has been seldom addressed. We applied the population-based "ecology model" to demonstrate the utilization of gynecological care of women, with examples from Taiwan. We analyzed the claims data from the cohort datasets within the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Women's utilization of gynecological care in 2009 was computed. Of 1000 women, 319 utilized gynecological care at least once, 277 visited Western medicine clinics, 193 visited physician clinics, 118 visited hospital-based outpatient clinics, 73 visited traditional Chinese medicine clinics, eight were hospitalized, four were hospitalized in an academic medical center, and four visited emergency departments. More than 90% of young and middle-aged women who sought gynecological care visited gynecologist clinics. Elderly women were less likely to utilize gynecological care in all settings of medical care, but were more likely to be attended by non-gynecologists. Young women tended to visit emergency departments. The ecology model highlighted age disparities in women's utilization of gynecological care in various settings of medical care. Since gynecological conditions were common among women, more attention should be paid on the availability of gynecologists and continuing medical education in gynecological care for non-gynecologists to guarantee women's health. PMID:25089773

  15. Visibly Invisible: Uncovering Identity for African American Women at an Academically Selective University 

    E-print Network

    Crear, Shelah Flowers

    2013-07-31

    Using intersectionality as the theoretical framework, this study examined the identity development of African American women attending an academically selective university. Much of the extant literature on African American ...

  16. Rural-Nonrural Differences in College Attendance Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Meece, Judith L.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study documented college attendance patterns of rural youth in terms of the selectivity of first postsecondary institution of attendance, the timing of transition to postsecondary education, and the continuity of enrollment. The study also examined how these college attendance

  17. Should We Bother Improving Students' Attendance at Seminars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbadamosi, Gbolahan

    2015-01-01

    This study uses action research intervention to improve students' attendance at seminars. Specifically, the study asks the question: will students' attendance improve if they drive their own learning by running their own seminars? Records of lecture and seminar attendance at a module and comparative ones were used. Focus group interviews…

  18. Is Attending Lectures Still Relevant in Engineering Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Cronin, K.; Byrne, E.

    2011-01-01

    A case study was conducted on a group of undergraduate chemical engineering students to assess the relevance of attending lectures from a student perspective and to understand why these students attend and do not attend lectures with a view to developing approaches to teaching, which are of greater interest and benefit to student learning. The…

  19. The effect of obesity on the outcome of infertility management in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majedah Al-Azemi; Florence E. Omu; Alexander E. Omu

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic with ever increasing incidence and public health problems in both developing and developed countries. Objective The objective of the study is to investigate the incidence of obesity among patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome attending infertility clinic and the effect on treatment outcome. Methodology Two hundred and seventy women with polycystic ovarian syndrome attending

  20. Women Veterans Health Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Care » Women Veterans Health Care Women Veterans Health Care Menu Menu Womens Health Women Veterans Health Care ... more » MyHealtheVet LGBT Awareness Role Models Women Veterans Health Care Did you know that women are the fastest ...

  1. The Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service: a decade of achievement in the health of women and babies in NSW.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Elisabeth; Best, Elizabeth

    2012-06-01

    The Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service was established to improve the health of Aboriginal women during pregnancy and decrease perinatal morbidity and mortality for Aboriginal babies. The Service is delivered through a continuity-of-care model, where midwives and Aboriginal Health Workers collaborate to provide a high quality maternity service that is culturally sensitive, women centred, based on primary health-care principles and provided in partnership with Aboriginal people. An evaluation of the Service found that the program is achieving its goals in relation to the provision of antenatal and postnatal care and has demonstrated improvements in perinatal morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:22697102

  2. Lost to follow-up among pregnant women in a multi-site community based maternal and newborn health registry: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It is important when conducting epidemiologic studies to closely monitor lost to follow up (LTFU) rates. A high LTFU rate may lead to incomplete study results which in turn can introduce bias to the trial or study, threatening the validity of the findings. There is scarce information on LTFU in prospective community-based perinatal epidemiological studies. This paper reports the rates of LTFU, describes socio-demographic characteristics, and pregnancy/delivery outcomes of mothers LTFU in a large community-based pregnancy registry study. Methods Data were from a prospective, population-based observational study of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR). This is a multi-centre, international study in which pregnant women were enrolled in mid-pregnancy, followed through parturition and 42 days post-delivery. Risk for LTFU was calculated within a 95%CI. Results A total of 282,626 subjects were enrolled in this study, of which 4,893 were lost to follow-up. Overall, there was a 1.7% LTFU to follow up rate. Factors associated with a higher LTFU included mothers who did not know their last menstrual period (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.4), maternal age of < 20 years (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.3), women with no formal education (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1, 1.4), and attending a government clinic for antenatal care (RR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4, 2.8). Post-natal factors associated with a higher LTFU rate included a newborn with feeding problems (RR 1.6, 94% CI 1.2, 2.2). Conclusions The LTFU rate in this community-based registry was low (1.7%). Maternal age, maternal level of education, pregnancy status at enrollment and using a government facility for ANC are factors associated with being LTFU. Strategies to ensure representation and high retention in community studies are important to informing progress toward public health goals. Trial registration Registration at the Clinicaltrials.gov (ID# NCT01073475). PMID:26062899

  3. Low-molecular-weight heparin for obstetric thromboprophylaxis: Experience of sixty-nine pregnancies in sixty-one women at high risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Nelson-Piercy; Elizabeth A. Letsky; Michael de Swiet

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the use of low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin, Clexane) for thromboprophylaxis in pregnancy.STUDY DESIGN: A prospective consecutive cohort of 61 pregnant women at high risk of thromboembolism receiving antenatal thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin (usually 40 mg, subcutaneously daily) in a total of 69 pregnancies was identified from the obstetric medicine clinic at Queen Charlotte's Hospital. Bone density

  4. Class Attendance in College: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Relationship of Class Attendance with Grades and Student Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crede, Marcus; Roch, Sylvia G.; Kieszczynka, Urszula M.

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the relationship between class attendance in college and college grades reveals that attendance has strong relationships with both class grades (k = 69, N = 21,195, p = 0.44) and GPA (k = 33, N = 9,243, p = 0.41). These relationships make class attendance a better predictor of college grades than any other known predictor of…

  5. Why women don’t report sexual harassment: A case study of an elite military institution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana L. Pershing

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment affects the lives of women in a variety of organizational settings, and the United States military has been\\u000a no exception. While several studies have documented the prevalence of women’s experiences with harassment among both the enlisted\\u000a and officer ranks, little is known about women who are being trained to serve as future officers while attending the U.S.\\u000a Department

  6. Women's understanding of abnormal cervical smear test results: a qualitative interview study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M Kavanagh; Dorothy H Broom

    1997-01-01

    AbstractObjective: To describe how women interpret their experiences of diagnosis and treatment of a cervical abnormality and how healthcare services for such women can be improved.Design: Qualitative study using detailed individual interviews.Setting: Australian gynaecology clinics.Subjects: 29 Women who had a cervical cytological abnormality and who attended a gynaecologist.Main outcome measures: Women's views on their diagnosis and their information needs.Results: Most

  7. Do women use dental dams? Safer sex practices of lesbians and other women who have sex with women.

    PubMed

    Richters, Juliet; Prestage, Garrett; Schneider, Karen; Clayton, Stevie

    2010-06-01

    Dental dams are distributed and promoted in some safer sex campaigns for use in oral sex. However, whether and how often dams are used for sex between Australian women remains unknown. We investigated the use of dental dams for sex by lesbians and other women who have sex with women, and the relationship between dam use and sexual risk for this group. In 2004, a self-completion questionnaire was distributed to women attending the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras Fair Day and lesbian community venues and health services in Sydney (n = 543). Among the 330 women who had had oral sex with a woman in the previous 6 months, 9.7% had used a dental dam and 2.1% had used one 'often'. There was little evidence of dam use for prevention of sexually transmissible infections. Although women who practised rimming (oral-anal contact) or had fetish sex involving blood were more likely to have used a dam, dam use was not significantly more common among women who had more partners, or had casual or group sex. Some women avoided oral sex during menstruation or had oral sex with a tampon in place. Latex gloves and condoms were used by more women and more often than dams. PMID:20465981

  8. Identifying two potential mechanisms for changes in alcohol use among college-attending and non-college-attending emerging adults.

    PubMed

    White, Helene R; Fleming, Charles B; Kim, Min Jung; Catalano, Richard F; McMorris, Barbara J

    2008-11-01

    This study tested whether pro-alcohol peer influences and prosocial involvement account for increases in drinking during the transition into emerging adulthood and whether these mechanisms differ depending on college attendance and/or moving away from home. The authors used structural equation modeling of prospective data from 825 young men and women. For 4 groups defined by college and residential status, more drinking in the spring of 12th grade predicted more pro-alcohol peer influences the following fall, and more pro-alcohol peer influences in the fall predicted increases in drinking the following spring. Going to college while living at home was a protective factor against increases in drinking and selection of pro-alcohol peer involvements. Prosocial involvement (measured by involvement in religious activities and volunteer work) was not significantly related to post-high school drinking except among college students living away from home. Prevention efforts should focus on (a) reducing opportunities for heavy drinking for college and noncollege emerging adults as they leave home and (b) increasing prosocial involvement among college students not living at home. PMID:18999326

  9. The Study of HIV and Antenatal Care Integration in Pregnancy in Kenya: Design, Methods, and Baseline Results of a Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Janet M.; Steinfeld, Rachel L.; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Woods, Meghan; Shade, Starley B.; Washington, Sierra; Marima, Reson; Penner, Jeremy; Ackers, Marta L.; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Cohen, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite strong evidence for the effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy for improving the health of women living with HIV and for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), HIV persists as a major maternal and child health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In most settings antenatal care (ANC) services and HIV treatment services are offered in separate clinics. Integrating these services may result in better uptake of services, reduction of the time to treatment initiation, better adherence, and reduction of stigma. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospective cluster randomized controlled trial design was used to evaluate the effects of integrating HIV treatment into ANC clinics at government health facilities in rural Kenya. Twelve facilities were randomized to provide either fully integrated services (ANC, PMTCT, and HIV treatment services all delivered in the ANC clinic) or non-integrated services (ANC clinics provided ANC and basic PMTCT services and referred clients to a separate HIV clinic for HIV treatment). During June 2009– March 2011, 1,172 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The main study outcomes are rates of maternal enrollment in HIV care and treatment, infant HIV testing uptake, and HIV-free infant survival. Baseline results revealed that the intervention and control cohorts were similar with respect to socio-demographics, male partner HIV testing, sero-discordance of the couple, obstetric history, baseline CD4 count, and WHO Stage. Challenges faced while conducting this trial at low-resource rural health facilities included frequent staff turnover, stock-outs of essential supplies, transportation challenges, and changes in national guidelines. Conclusions/Significance This is the first randomized trial of ANC and HIV service integration to be conducted in rural Africa. It is expected that the study will provide critical evidence regarding the implementation and effectiveness of this service delivery strategy, with important implications for programs striving to eliminate vertical transmission of HIV and improve maternal health. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00931216 NCT00931216. PMID:22970177

  10. Integrating HIV Risk Reduction into Family Programs for Women Offenders: A Family Relationship Perspective. Innovative Strategies & Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehlmann, Julie; White, Tiffany; Bjerke, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Although HIV risk reduction interventions and family programs are crucial elements of the rehabilitation process for women offenders, these programs have operated in isolation from each other. HIV interventions for women offenders have not attended to family relationships, and family programs for women offenders have not focused on HIV-related…

  11. Monitoring Severe Pre-Eclampsia and Eclampsia Treatment in Resource Poor Countries: Skilled Birth Attendant Perception of a New Treatment and Monitoring Chart (LIVKAN Chart)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. AmehChristine; Christine I. Ekechi; Jamilu Tukur

    The lack of easy to use protocols and monitoring charts in the management of pre-eclampsia\\/eclampsia contribute to substandard\\u000a care of women in resource poor settings. A treatment monitoring tool (LIVKAN chart) has been developed to improve the quality\\u000a of care for these women. Based on feedback from skilled birth attendants (SBAs), a two page document which provides a visual\\u000a record

  12. Religious Attendance and Loneliness in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Rote, Sunshine; Hill, Terrence D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: ?Studies show that loneliness is a major risk factor for health issues in later life. Although research suggests that religious involvement can protect against loneliness, explanations for this general pattern are underdeveloped and undertested. In this paper, we propose and test a theoretical model, which suggests that social integration and social support are key mechanisms that link religious attendance and loneliness. Design and Methods: ?To formally test our theoretical model, we use data from the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (2005/2006), a large national probability sample of older adults aged 57–85 years. Results: ?We find that religious attendance is associated with higher levels of social integration and social support and that social integration and social support are associated with lower levels of loneliness. A series of mediation tests confirm our theoretical model. Implications: ?Taken together, our results suggest that involvement in religious institutions may protect against loneliness in later life by integrating older adults into larger and more supportive social networks. Future research should test whether these processes are valid across theoretically relevant subgroups. PMID:22555887

  13. A Community-Supported Clinic-Based Program for Prevention of Violence against Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Janet M.; Hatcher, Abigail M.; Odero, Merab; Onono, Maricianah; Kodero, Jannes; Romito, Patrizia; Mangone, Emily; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to adverse outcomes related to HIV infection and gender-based violence (GBV). We aimed at developing a program for prevention and mitigation of the effects of GBV among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in rural Kenya. Methods. Based on formative research with pregnant women, male partners, and service providers, we developed a GBV program including comprehensive clinic training, risk assessments in the clinic, referrals supported by community volunteers, and community mobilization. To evaluate the program, we analyzed data from risk assessment forms and conducted focus groups (n = 2 groups) and in-depth interviews (n = 25) with healthcare workers and community members. Results. A total of 134 pregnant women were assessed during a 5-month period: 49 (37%) reported violence and of those 53% accepted referrals to local support resources. Qualitative findings suggested that the program was acceptable and feasible, as it aided pregnant women in accessing GBV services and raised awareness of GBV. Community collaboration was crucial in this low-resource setting. Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa. PMID:23738056

  14. A randomized study of a domiciliary antenatal care scheme: the effect on hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Dawson, A J; Middlemiss, C; Coles, E C; Gough, N A; Jones, M E

    1989-11-01

    A preliminary randomized study has been made of a domiciliary management scheme which incorporates telephonic fetal heart rate monitoring for women with high-risk pregnancies. In this paper we report effects of the scheme on the pattern of hospital admissions. Sixty women were randomized 2:1 for domiciliary surveillance or for conventional hospital care, with 40 and 17 records finally available for analysis. The groups were well matched for maternal, obstetric and socio-economic characteristics. In the domiciliary group, 21 (53%) of the women avoided hospital admission altogether, the admission rate was more than halved, and the mean proportion of the time spent in hospital was reduced from 50% to 16% of the observation period. The women who received domiciliary care were generally satisfied with the scheme. Our study confirms expectations that carefully planned domiciliary surveillance can reduce the number and duration of hospital admissions. PMID:2611171

  15. Stellar Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Maria

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1900s, researchers at the Harvard College Observatory conducted an astonishing amount of astronomical research. A handful of women were integral to this research. Describes the professional lives and scientific findings of five of these women scientists at Harvard to inspire students. Classroom activities are included. (PVD)

  16. AMERICAN WOMEN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Commission on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

    FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE COMMISSION AND SEVEN COMMITTEES WHO ASSESSED THE STATUS OF WOMEN ARE REPORTED. THE COMMITTEES MADE RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE AREAS--WOMEN'S EDUCATION AND COUNSELING, HOME AND COMMUNITY SERVICES, PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT (THAT UNDER FEDERAL CONTRACTS), EMPLOYMENT IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, LABOR STANDARDS, FEDERAL SOCIAL…

  17. Empowering Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    Empowering Women is a traveling exhibition of folk art that focuses on ten cooperatives from four continents and ten countries. The exhibition is a window into the ways that cooperatives empower women to: (1) preserve and reinvigorate their country's traditional arts; (2) generate steady livelihoods for their families; (3) send their children to…

  18. Blind separation of multiple physiological sources from a single-channel recording: a preprocessing approach for antenatal surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Gonzalez, Aída; James, Christopher J.

    2013-11-01

    Today, it is generally accepted that current methods for biophysical antenatal surveillance do not facilitate a comprehensive and reliable assessment of foetal well-being and thus, that continuing research into alternative methods is necessary to improve antenatal monitoring procedures. Here, attention has been paid to the abdominal phonogram, a signal that is recorded by positioning an acoustic sensor on the maternal womb and contains valuable information about foetal status, but which is hidden by maternal and environmental sources. To recover such information, this work describes single-channel independent component analysis (SCICA) as an alternative signal processing approach for analyzing the abdominal phonogram. The approach, based on the method of delays, the Temporal Decorrelation Source SEParation implementation (TDSEP) of Independent Components Analysis (ICA), and an automatic grouping algorithm, has managed to successfully retrieve estimates of: (1) the foetal cardiac activity (in the form of the foetal phonocardiogram, FPCG), (2) the maternal cardiovascular activity (in the form of the maternal phonocardiogram, MPCG, and/or pulse wave), (3) the maternal respiratory activity (in the form of the maternal respirograma, MResp), and (4) noise (N). These results have been obtained from a dataset of 25 single-channel phonograms and point at the possibilities of using SCICA to address a fundamental problem faced in antenatal surveillance, i.e. the extraction of information from a non-invasive signal like the abdominal phonogram. Future work will test the possibility of using SCICA to recover information regarding the foetal breathing movements (FBM), another physiological parameter of interest in foetal surveillance.

  19. Gender asymmetry in healthcare-facility attendance of people living with HIV/AIDS in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bila, Blandine; Egrot, Marc

    2009-09-01

    Anthropological research in Burkina Faso indicates that more HIV-positive women than HIV-positive men are attending care facilities for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and accessing antiretroviral medicine. This article, situated in the field of study of interactions between gender and AIDS, offers a description of this asymmetry and an anthropological analysis of the socio-cultural determinants, through analysis of data from ethnographic research among PLWH and health actors. Examining social representations of femininity and masculinity in Burkinabe society and the organisation of the healthcare system in connection with gender shed light on the decision-making processes of both sexes around therapeutic choices and the itinerary of care. On the one hand, the social values attached to femininity, maternity and the status of wife create conditions for women that favour their attendance at care facilities for PLWH and encourage a widespread practice where wives take the place of their husbands in healthcare queues. Moreover, health policies and the effects of women's empowerment within the healthcare system strengthen women's access to health services. On the other hand, representations of masculinity are fully implicated in the cultural construction of men's reluctance to attend care facilities for PLWH. The values associated with this masculinity cause men to run great health, economic and social risks, not only for themselves, but also for their wives and children. By better understanding the interaction between gender, the experience of HIV and the institutional organisation of healthcare, we can identify ways to reduce men's reluctance to attend care facilities for PLWH and improve both prevention and treatment-oriented programmes. PMID:19539415

  20. Women’s Walking Program for African American women: Expectations and recommendations from participants as experts

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Diana; Wilbur, JoEllen; McDevitt, Judith; Buchholz, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Effective interventions that increase adherence to physical activity (PA) are important for African American (AA) women because generally they are less active and more obese compared to white American women. The purpose of this study was to elicit from women who began a 12-month PA program between 2002 and 2005: 1) their recollections of outcome expectations and barriers, 2) feedback on program components, and 3) suggestions for program change. In 2007, we conducted qualitative post-intervention focus group interviews with women who had participated in the enhanced treatment group. Thirty-three AA women aged 44–69 years at the time of the study participated in one of four focus groups held at their community intervention site. Focus groups were formed on the basis of low (walked < 50% of expected walks) versus high (walked ?50% of expected walks) adherence and low (0–2) versus high (3–4) attendance at the four workshops held during the 6-month adoption phase. Audio-taped sessions were transcribed and coded independently and then uploaded into NVivo7 for final coding and data analysis. Suggestions for future program components included a lifestyle PA prescription, pedometers for self-monitoring, ongoing group support and automated telephone support. Focus group participants can serve as experts to assist in content development for improving program effectiveness. PMID:21973111

  1. Determinants of institutional delivery among women of childbearing age in rural haiti.

    PubMed

    Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Khan, Maria R; Striley, Catherine W; Boldon, Ellen; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Saint-Fleur, Jean Ernst; Koo, Leslie; Clermont, Miliane

    2015-06-01

    Institutional delivery is an important factor associated with reduced maternal mortality rate (MMR). MMR in Haiti is high (350 per 100,000) and institutional delivery is low-just over 25 % of women delivered at a health facility in 2010. There also exists substantial rural-urban disparity in delivery with more hospital deliveries in urban than in rural areas. We aimed to study the prevalence and determinants of institutional delivery in a sample of women of childbearing age in rural Haiti. The study took place in Fond des Blancs and Villa, as part of a baseline assessment undertaken prior to implementation of a maternal, child health, nutrition, and water and sanitation program. From October to November 2011, women 15-49 years old (N = 575) were selected using a cross-sectional two-stage sampling strategy. We used descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with institutional delivery. The prevalence of institutional delivery was 45.4 %; a rate higher than the national average of 25 %. In adjusted analyses, correlates of institutional delivery were younger maternal age (25 years and younger) (OR 1.82; CI 1.15, 2.90; P = 0.0112), antenatal care receipt (OR 3.70; CI 1.84, 7.43; P = 0.0003) and those who were poor according to our poverty index score classification (OR 2.04; CI 1.13, 3.69; P = 0.0187). This study shows that increased hospital delivery is likely explained by accessibility to antenatal care. Programs that improve access to antenatal care, with concurrent efforts to address structural inequalities that drive socio-economic deprivation, are likely critical to increasing institutional delivery. PMID:25418752

  2. Intimate partner violence against women in eastern Uganda: implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Karamagi, Charles AS; Tumwine, James K; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Heggenhougen, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    Background We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i) determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii) identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii) look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention particularly in the context of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme (PMTCT). Methods The study consisted of a household survey of rural and urban women with infants in Mbale district, complemented with focus group discussions with women and men. Women were interviewed on socio-demographic characteristics of the woman and her husband, antenatal and postnatal experience related to the youngest child, antenatal HIV testing, perceptions regarding the marital relationship, and intimate partner violence. We obtained ethical approval from Makerere University and informed consent from all participants in the study. Results During November and December 2003, we interviewed 457 women in Mbale District. A further 96 women and men participated in the focus group discussions. The prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence was 54% and physical violence in the past year was 14%. Higher education of women (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7) and marriage satisfaction (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7) were associated with lower risk of intimate partner violence, while rural residence (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2–16.2) and the husband having another partner (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.02–5.7) were associated with higher risk of intimate partner violence. There was a strong association between sexual coercion and lifetime physical violence (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5–5.7). Multiple partners and consumption of alcohol were major reasons for intimate partner violence. According to the focus group discussions, women fear to test for HIV, disclose HIV results, and request to use condoms because of fear of intimate partner violence. Conclusion Intimate partner violence is common in eastern Uganda and is related to gender inequality, multiple partners, alcohol, and poverty. Accordingly, programmes for the prevention of intimate partner violence need to target these underlying factors. The suggested link between intimate partner violence and HIV risky behaviours or prevention strategies calls for further studies to clearly establish this relationship. PMID:17116252

  3. Diabetes knowledge, beliefs and practices among people with diabetes attending a university hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rafique, G; Azam, S I; White, F

    2006-09-01

    A structured questionnaire on knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding diabetes was administered to 199 persons with diabetes (92.5% type 2) attending the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Mean age [standard deviation (SD)] was 53 (11) years. Mean duration of diabetes (SD) was 8 (7) years in men and 9 (6) years in women. Men had a significantly better knowledge score than women (P = 0.02); there was no significant difference in the beliefs and practices scores. Scores were classed as good (> 60%) in only 13.6% of participants for knowledge, 17.6% for beliefs and 11.2% for practices. About 38% of the participants had received education on diabetes care. PMID:17333798

  4. Open to ALL CDC'03 Participants All of the CDC participants are invited to attend the workshop and contribute to the discussions

    E-print Network

    Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna

    Open to ALL CDC'03 Participants All of the CDC participants are invited to attend the workshop USA Organized by: Bozenna Pasik-Duncan, Chair, CDC Control Education Activities Sponsored by: USA National Science Foundation, IEEE CSS, CDC'03, IEEE CSS Women in Control Standing ommittee, IEEE CSS

  5. Validation of Using Fitness Center Attendance Electronic Records to Assess the Frequency of Moderate/Vigorous Leisure-Time Physical Activity among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amireault, Steve; Godin, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide three construct validity evidence for using fitness center attendance electronic records to objectively assess the frequency of leisure-time physical activity among adults. One hundred members of a fitness center (45 women and 55 men; aged 18 to 64 years) completed a self-report leisure-time physical…

  6. Brief education to increase uptake of influenza vaccine among pregnant women: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnant women are the highest priority group for annual influenza vaccination. Studies have shown unacceptably low uptake of both seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccination among pregnant women. This paper will describe the study protocol and methodology of a randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in improving the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine among pregnant women in Hong Kong. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted with pregnant women in at least the second trimester of pregnancy from four publicly funded hospital antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. Participants will be randomly assigned to either one of the two treatment groups: standard care (control) or standard care plus brief education (intervention). Pregnant women in the standard care group will receive the usual antenatal care with an educational pamphlet developed by the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection and those in the intervention group will be provided with usual care plus a brief ten-minute education intervention. Content of the education session will cover four core components recommended in the research literature. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants who have received influenza vaccine during their pregnancy. A total of 184 pregnant women (92 per group) will be required to give an 80% power to detect a treatment effect of 15%. Discussion Most intervention studies aimed at improving influenza vaccination rates in pregnant women have targeted obstetric-care providers and the results of the two patient-oriented RCT interventions are conflicting. The high priority for vaccination given to pregnant women and the low influenza vaccination rate among pregnant women worldwide strongly indicates a need for interventions to improve uptake. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry at www.clinicaltrials.gov(NCT01772901). PMID:24423245

  7. Assessment of Burden of Depression During Pregnancy Among Pregnant Women Residing in Rural Setting of Chennai

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Nivetha; Murthy, Shruti; Singh, Awnish K; Upadhyay, Vandana; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Depression during perinatal period leads to adverse pregnancy outcome and of child growth. Our study aimed to examine the burden of antenatal depression and associated risk factors among pregnant women living in rural settings of Chennai, a southern state of India. Materials and Methods A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural settings of Chennai, one of the Southern States of India during August through September 2013. Hundred pregnant women who agreed to participate were enrolled in this study. Edinburg postnatal depression scale was used to assess the depression level of the study participants. Information was also gathered about socio-demographics, obstetric and disease history, social support and marital satisfaction was gathered. Descriptive analysis was performed using univariate statistics to report means and standard deviations for the continuous variables and frequency distribution for the categorical variables. Results Majority of the participants (65%) had scored 13 or higher on the Edinburg Depression Scale reflecting high likelihood of depression. Majority of the participants (66%) had been bothered due to low feeling, depressed or hopelessness during the previous month. Enriched marital satisfaction scale (p=.025) had shown significant association with Edinburg depression scale. Conclusion Pregnancy is very crucial period not only for mother but whole family. This study has shown very high frequency of depression among the participants. There is a need for a longitudinal study to design interventions that can address emerging burden of antenatal depression among pregnant women living in rural settings. PMID:26023573

  8. Antenatal Diagnosis of Jeune Syndrome (Asphyxiating Thoracic Dysplasia) with Micromelia and Facial Dysmorphism on Second-Trimester Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Kewal A.; Suthar, Pokhraj P.; Bhesania, Siddharth R.; Patel, Ankitkumar

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Jeune syndrome is a rare congenital malformation with a reported incidence of 1 in 100,000–130,000 live births. Thoracic hypoplasia is the most striking abnormality of this disorder. Here we report a case of Jeune syndrome with marked thoracic hypoplasia, micromelia and facial dysmorphism, which was diagnosed on a second-trimester antenatal real-time three-dimensional ultrasound. Case Report A 24-year-old primigravida came for routine anomaly scan at 19 weeks of gestation. Transabdominal grey scale and real time 3D ultrasound (US) was done with GE Logiq P5 with curvilinear array transducers (4C and 4D3C-L). US findings were consistent with the diagnosis of Jeune syndrome (Asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia). Conclusions Jeune syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder with a spectrum of abnormalities of which thoracic hypoplasia is the most striking. It can be diagnosed on early antenatal US by its characteristic skeletal and morphological features which can guide further management of pregnancy in form of termination or preparation for surgical correction of the deformity.

  9. Maternal HIV status and infant feeding practices among Ugandan women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pius Okong; Praxedes Kituuka Namaganda; Luciana Bassani; Mary Mbidde Tabaro; Francesca Zanetto; Edith Birungi Mwebaze; Liliana Weimer; Lina Tomasoni; Francesco Castelli; Marina Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    To describe the infant feeding practices in the general population in Uganda, and to assess the impact of maternal HIV status on these practices, a questionnaire was administered to women attending the follow-up clinics for child vaccination. Among the mothers who were still breastfeeding at the time of interview (N=838), 61.4% of the HIV-infected women had planned to breastfeed for

  10. Hispanic Women's Expectations of Campus-Based Health Clinics Addressing Sexual Health Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Dionne P.; Thomas, Tami L.

    2011-01-01

    Although the number of Hispanic women attending postsecondary institutions has significantly increased in the past decade, knowledge about their use of campus health services to address sexuality-related issues remains low. Increased information about this population is crucial given that sexual health indicators have shown Hispanic women in…

  11. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  12. Exploring Career Decision-Making Experiences of Mexican American Re-Entry Community College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Cecilia Sophia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological investigation was to increase understanding of the career perspectives of 12 Mexican American, re-entry women who were attending a community college. The questions guiding this investigation were: (a) How do Mexican American re-entry college women describe their career decision-making experiences, (b) What do…

  13. Academic Records of Recipients of LACC Women's Faculty Club Scholarships, 1958-67.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Ruth S.

    The academic performance of 177 women students who received financial aid from the faculty women of Los Angeles City College was examined according to (1) high school attended, (2) declared major at entry, (3) SCAT scores, (4) pattern of courses, (5) length of time at LACC, (6) GPA at LACC, (7) AA degrees earned, and (8) requests for transcripts…

  14. Factors Influencing Quality of Life of Hungarian Postmenopausal Women Screened by Osteodensitometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroti-Nagy, Agnes; Paulik, Edit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate factors influencing health related quality of life in Hungarian postmenopausal women who underwent osteodensitometry. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out; 359 women aged over 40 years were involved, attending the outpatient Bone Densitometry Centre of Szeged. Two kinds of tools were…

  15. Women Who Learn Computing Like Men: Different Gender Positions on Basic Computer Courses in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen-Karlsson, Minna

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that research on gender and adult learning too often regards men and women as unified and separate groups, and does not take intra-gender variation into account. It presents one possible approach to address this problem, in a study of 142 women and 35 men attending basic computer courses in Swedish municipal adult education…

  16. Women in Engineering Career Day Conference UMASS Amherst College of Engineering

    E-print Network

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Women in Engineering Career Day Conference UMASS Amherst College of Engineering REGISTRATION School attended WEP Career day in the Past Yes No Student information Clearly write the name & payments are due: OCTOBER 4th 2010 Please make checks/money order payable to Women in Engineering

  17. Racial\\/Ethnic Variations in Women's Health: The Social Embeddedness of Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Williams

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the magnitude of and trends in racial\\/ethnic disparities in health for women in the United States. It emphasizes the importance of attending to diversity in the health pro- files and populations of minority women. Socioeconomic status is a central determinant of racial\\/eth- nic disparities in health, but several other factors, including medical care, geographic

  18. The Inside Story: Non-Alumni Women Philanthropists Connect to Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovese, Suzanne Kim

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of women donors who had given a significant gift to a large Midwestern university. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 women donor participants that were not alumni, not married to alumni and had no children attending the selected university. These participants…

  19. Estimated Incidence and Genotypes of HIV-1 among Pregnant Women in Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Zelma Bernardes; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araujo; de Lima, Yanna Andressa Ramos; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; de Siqueira Filha, Noemia Teixeira; Turchi, Marilia Dalva; Borges, Walter Costa; Filho, Clidenor Gomes; Filho, Jose Vicente Macedo; Minuzzi, Ana Lucia; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of HIV-1 infection among pregnant women from central-western Brazil. Design Observational cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 54,139 pregnant women received antenatal HIV screening from a network of public healthcare centers in 2011. The incidence of confirmed HIV-1 infection was estimated using the Serological Testing Algorithms for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS) methodology and BED-capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA). The yearly incidence was calculated, and adjusted incidence rates were estimated. For a subgroup of patients, protease and partial reverse transcriptase regions were retrotranscribed from plasma HIV-1 RNA and sequenced after performing a nested polymerase chain reaction. Results O