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Sample records for women control group

  1. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Jlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  2. Impact of a Participatory Intervention with Womens Groups on Psychological Distress among Mothers in Rural Bangladesh: Secondary Analysis of a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Kelly; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Tasmin; Aumon, Bedowra Haq; Hossen, Mohammed Munir; Beard, James; Costello, Anthony; Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Prost, Audrey; Fottrell, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs) are a major cause of disability among women and disproportionately affect lower income countries. Interventions to address PCMDs are urgently needed in these settings, and group-based and peer-led approaches are potential strategies to increase access to mental health interventions. Participatory womens health groups led by local women previously reduced postpartum psychological distress in eastern India. We assessed the effect of a similar intervention on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. Method We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 18 clusters and an estimated population of 532,996. Nine clusters received an intervention comprising monthly meetings during which womens groups worked through a participatory learning and action cycle to develop strategies for improving womens and childrens health. There was one group for every 309 individuals in the population, 810 groups in total. Mothers in nine control clusters had access to usual perinatal care. Postpartum psychological distress was measured with the 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) between six and 52 weeks after delivery, during the months of January to April, in 2010 and 2011. Results We analysed outcomes for 6275 mothers. Although the cluster mean SRQ-20 score was lower in the intervention arm (mean 5.2, standard deviation 1.8) compared to control (5.3, 1.2), the difference was not significant (? 1.44, 95% CI 0.28, 3.08). Conclusions Despite promising results in India, participatory womens groups focused on womens and childrens health had no significant effect on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. PMID:25329470

  3. Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants

  4. Women in the POSCH trial. Effects of aggressive cholesterol modification in women with coronary heart disease. The POSCH Group. Program on the Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias.

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, H; Campos, C T; Matts, J P; Fitch, L L; Long, J M; Varco, R L

    1992-01-01

    The Program on the Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias (POSCH) provided the clearest and the most convincing evidence supporting the beneficial effects of cholesterol lowering in hypercholesterolemic survivors of a myocardial infarction. In POSCH, 78 of the 838 patients (9.3%) were women, with 32 randomized to the diet-control group and 46 to the diet plus partial ileal bypass surgery-intervention group. At 5 years, the mean per cent change from baseline was -23.9% for total plasma cholesterol (p < 0.0001), -36.1% for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.0001), and +8.5% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = not significant). Because of the small number of women, no statistically significant changes in clinical event rates were observed between the control and the surgery groups. A comparison of 162 coronary arteriography film pairs in the POSCH women, between baseline and 3, 5, 7, and 10 years, consistently showed less disease progression in the surgery group (p = 0.013 for combined assessments of the baseline to the longest follow-up film). Because the lipid and coronary arteriography findings in the POSCH women paralleled these findings in the total POSCH population and in the POSCH men, and because the arteriography changes in POSCH have previously been demonstrated to be statistically significant surrogate end points for certain clinical events and predictors of overall and atherosclerotic coronary heart disease mortality rates, we conclude that the lipid modification achieved in the POSCH women by partial ileal bypass reduced their atherosclerosis progression. The POSCH findings in women support the aggressive treatment of hyperlipidemia in the general management of atherosclerosis in women. Images FIG. 3. PMID:1417188

  5. Severe sepsis in women with group B Streptococcus in pregnancy: an exploratory UK national casecontrol study

    PubMed Central

    Kalin, Asli; Acosta, Colleen; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of severe maternal sepsis due to group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the UK, and to investigate the associated outcomes for mother and infant. Design National casecontrol study. Setting All UK consultant-led maternity units. Participants 30 women with confirmed or suspected severe GBS sepsis, and 757 control women. Main outcome measures Disease incidence, additional maternal morbidity, critical care admission, length of stay, infant infection, mortality. Results The incidences of confirmed and presumed severe maternal GBS sepsis were 1.00 and 2.75 per 100?000 maternities, respectively, giving an overall incidence of 3.75 per 100?000. Compared with controls, severe GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of additional maternal morbidity (OR 12.35, 95% CI 3.96 to 35.0), requiring level 2 (OR 39.3, 95% CI 16.0 to 99.3) or level 3 (OR 182, 95% CI 21.0 to 8701) care and longer hospital stay (median stay in cases and controls was 7?days (range 329?days) and 2?days (range 016?days), respectively, p<0.001). None of the women died. Severe maternal GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of infant sepsis (OR 32.7, 95% CI 8.99 to 119.0); 79% of infants, however, did not develop sepsis. There were no associated stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Conclusions Severe maternal GBS sepsis is a rare occurrence in the UK. It is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:26450426

  6. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's

  7. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  8. Organizing Women in Physics Working Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausch, Corinna; Butcher, Gillian; Barbosa, Marcia; Ivie, Rachel

    2009-04-01

    The creation and maintenance of women in physics working groups requires human resources, ideas, planning, and funds. Working groups facilitate the improvement of women's situations in physics around the globe. Physical societies, which could help fund working group activities, financially support few working groups for women in physics. This paper presents recommendations and examples of best practices resulting from the workshop, Organizing Women in Physics Working Groups, presented as part of the Third IUPAP Women in Physics Conference, Seoul, 2008.

  9. Womens Experiences of Group Prenatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Cohen, Sally S.; Groce, Nora E.; Knafl, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Group prenatal care (GPNC) is an innovative alternative to individual prenatal care. In this longitudinal study we used ethnographic methods to explore African American and Hispanic womens experiences of receiving GPNC in two urban clinics. Methods included individual, in-depth, semistructured interviews of women and group leaders in GPNC, participant observation of GPNC sessions, and medical record review. GPNC offered positive experiences and met many of the womens expressed preferences regarding prenatal care. Six themes were identified, which represented separate aspects of womens experiences: investment, collaborative venture, a social gathering, relationships with boundaries, learning in the group, and changing self. Taken together, the themes conveyed the overall experience of GPNC. Women were especially enthusiastic about learning in groups, about their relationships with group leaders, and about having their pregnancy-related changes and fears normalized. There were also important boundaries on relationships between participants, and some women wished for greater privacy during physical examinations. PMID:20693516

  10. The Group Treatment of Battered Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elissa M.

    This paper describes some problems encountered in therapy groups of battered women and reviews several studies of these groups reported in recent literature. The five basic needs of battered women and a list of specific strategies developed to meet these needs are presented in an initial section. Three common goals of the group counseling strategy

  11. Women Emerging: Group Approaches. Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michele, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provides a rationale for women's groups and describes benefits to group members. The seven articles in this special issue deal with using a group approach to deal with anger, rape, lesbianism, sexuality awareness, issues for Black women and overcoming internal barriers to career development. (Author/JAC)

  12. The effect of participatory women's groups on infant feeding and child health knowledge, behaviour and outcomes in rural Bangladesh: a controlled before-and-after study

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Leila; Houweling, Tanja A J; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Haq, Bedowra; Nahar, Tasmin; Hossen, Munir; Beard, James; Copas, Andrew; Prost, Audrey; Costello, Anthony; Fottrell, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite efforts to reduce under-5 mortality rates worldwide, an estimated 6.6 million under-5 children die every year. Community mobilisation through participatory women's groups has been shown to improve maternal and newborn health in rural settings, but little is known about the potential of this approach to improve care and health in children after the newborn period. Methods Following on from a cluster-randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of participatory women's groups on maternal and neonatal health outcomes in rural Bangladesh, 162 women's groups continued to meet between April 2010 and December 2011 to identify, prioritise and address issues that affect the health of children under 5?years. A controlled before-and-after study design and difference-in-difference analysis was used to assess morbidity outcomes and changes in knowledge and practices related to child feeding, hygiene and care-seeking behaviour. Findings Significant improvements were measured in mothers knowledge of disease prevention and management, danger signs and hand washing at critical times. Significant increases were seen in exclusive breast feeding for at least 6?months (15.3% (4.2% to 26.5%)), and mean duration of breast feeding (37.9?days (17.4 to 58.3)). Maternal reports of under-5 morbidities fell in intervention compared with control areas, including reports of fever (?10.5% (?15.1% to ?6.0%)) and acute respiratory infections (?12.2% (?15.6% to ?8.8%)). No differences were observed in dietary diversity scores or immunisation uptake. Conclusions Community mobilisation through participatory women's groups can be successfully adapted to address health knowledge and practice in relation to child's health, leading to improvements in a number of child health indicators and behaviours. PMID:25472635

  13. Women in Mixed Groups: Some Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamola, Claire

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the research dealing with women in leadership roles within groups of both sexes. Some research indicates a reluctance of women to assume leadership roles. Other findings indicate women are more likely to be strong leaders when the task solution is given. (LPG)

  14. Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes

  15. Provisional norms by age group for Japanese women on the controlled force exertion test using a quasi-random display.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2010-04-01

    This study examined age group and individual differences in the controlled force exertion test using quasi-random display and proposed a provisional norm in 249 female participants who were right-handed and aged 15 to 84 years. The participants matched their submaximal grip strength exertions to changing demand values, appearing as a quasi-random wave on the display of a personal computer. The quasi-random waveform changed in pi with amplitude and in pi/2 with frequency (peak and mean frequency were 0.1 Hz in both waveforms). The participants performed the controlled force exertion test three times at 1-min. intervals (single trials were 40 sec.), after one practice trial using the dominant hand. The total sum of the percent of differences between the demand value and the grip exertion value for 25 sec. was used as an evaluation parameter. Measurements showed a right-skewed distribution, which was normal after logarithmic transformation. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in the means of each age group, and test performance decreased after 50 years of age. Norms for each age group were established. An individual's controlled force exertion by the provisional norm as devised in this study can be properly evaluated. PMID:20499570

  16. Evaluating Culturally Responsive Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.; Warner, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a culturally congruent group treatment model, entitled "Claiming Your Connections" (CYC) aimed at reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress, and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black women. Method: A total of 58 Black women recruited from health

  17. Evaluating Culturally Responsive Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.; Warner, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a culturally congruent group treatment model, entitled "Claiming Your Connections" (CYC) aimed at reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress, and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black women. Method: A total of 58 Black women recruited from health…

  18. Evaluation of a group based cognitive behavioural therapy programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities: protocol for a mixed methods controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Menstrual pain which is severe enough to impact on daily activities is very common amongst menstruating females. Research suggests that menstrual pain which impacts on daily functioning may be even more prevalent amongst those with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, little research attention has focused on pain management programmes for those with intellectual disabilities. The aims of this pilot study were to develop and evaluate a theory-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities. Methods/Design The study utilised a mixed methods controlled clinical trial to evaluate elements from a CBT programme called Feeling Better (McGuire & McManus, 2010). The Feeling Better programme is a modular, manualised intervention designed for people with an intellectual disability and their carers. The programme was delivered to 36 young women aged 12 – 30 years who have a Mild - Moderate Intellectual Disability, split between two conditions. The treatment group received the Feeling Better intervention and the control group received treatment as usual. To evaluate the effectiveness of the programme, measures were taken of key pain variables including impact, knowledge, self-efficacy and coping. Process evaluation was conducted to examine which elements of the programme were most successful in promoting change. Discussion Participants in the intervention group were expected to report the use of a greater number of coping strategies and have greater knowledge of pain management strategies following participation in the intervention and at three month follow-up, when compared to control group participants. A significant advantage of the study was the use of mixed methods and inclusion of process evaluation to determine which elements of a cognitive behavioural therapy programme work best for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN75567759 PMID:25201648

  19. Interpersonal Group Therapy for Women Experiencing Bulimia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…

  20. Interpersonal Group Therapy for Women Experiencing Bulimia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides

  1. Smoking cessation for weight-concerned women: group vs. individually tailored, dietary, and weight-control follow-up sessions.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Amy L; Martin, Pamela D; Geiselman, Paula J; Rash, Carla J; Kendzor, Darla E

    2006-01-01

    Postcessation weight gain is of concern to many female cigarette smokers. A multidisciplinary treatment combining psychological, dietary, and exercise components followed a 2-week smoking cessation program. Participants were randomly assigned to receive six follow-up relapse prevention sessions (in a group format or in an individually tailored format) directed by trained representatives from clinical psychology, dietary counseling, and exercise physiology. As predicted, abstinence rates were significantly higher among the individually tailored follow-up participants than among those assigned to the group follow-up condition at 3 and 6 months posttreatment. Differences between conditions in postcessation weight gain were not significant. However, the postcessation weight gain that did occur was significantly associated with subsequent smoking relapse in the group follow-up condition only. PMID:15925449

  2. Themes in Reminiscence Groups with Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnside, Irene

    1993-01-01

    Examined use of themes in reminiscence therapy groups for older women. Themes used in protocols for three research studies were analyzed. Results revealed that, for one of the three studies, the female participants' (n=67) most-discussed themes were favorite holiday, first pet, and first job. (Author/NB)

  3. Effect of womens groups and volunteer peer counselling on rates of mortality, morbidity, and health behaviours in mothers and children in rural Malawi (MaiMwana): a factorial, cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lewycka, Sonia; Mwansambo, Charles; Rosato, Mikey; Kazembe, Peter; Phiri, Tambosi; Mganga, Andrew; Chapota, Hilda; Malamba, Florida; Kainja, Esther; Newell, Marie-Louise; Greco, Giulia; Pulkki-Brnnstrm, Anni-Maria; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Vergnano, Stefania; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Womens groups and health education by peer counsellors can improve the health of mothers and children. We assessed their effects on mortality and breastfeeding rates in rural Malawi. Methods We did a 22 factorial, cluster-randomised trial in 185 888 people in Mchinji district. 48 equal-sized clusters were randomly allocated to four groups with a computer-generated number sequence. 24 facilitators guided groups through a community action cycle to tackle maternal and child health problems. 72 trained volunteer peer counsellors made home visits at five timepoints during pregnancy and after birth to support breastfeeding and infant care. Primary outcomes for the womens group intervention were maternal, perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates (MMR, PMR, NMR, and IMR, respectively); and for the peer counselling were IMR and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered as ISRCTN06477126. Findings We monitored outcomes of 26 262 births between 2005 and 2009. In a factorial model adjusted only for clustering and the volunteer peer counselling intervention, in womens group areas, for years 2 and 3, we noted non-significant decreases in NMR (odds ratio 093, 064135) and MMR (054, 028104). After adjustment for parity, socioeconomic quintile, and baseline measures, effects were larger for NMR (085, 059122) and MMR (048, 026091). Because of the interaction between the two interventions, a stratified analysis was done. For womens groups, in adjusted analyses, MMR fell by 74% (026, 010070), and NMR by 41% (059, 040086) in areas with no peer counsellors, but there was no effect in areas with counsellors (109, 040298, and 138, 075254). Factorial analysis for the peer counselling intervention for years 13 showed a fall in IMR of 18% (082, 067100) and an improvement in EBF rates (242, 148396). The results of the stratified, adjusted analysis showed a 36% reduction in IMR (064, 048085) but no effect on EBF (118, 063225) in areas without womens groups, and in areas with womens groups there was no effect on IMR (105, 082136) and an increase in EBF (502, 267944) . The cost of womens groups was US$114 per year of life lost (YLL) averted and that of peer counsellors was $33 per YLL averted, using stratified data from single intervention comparisons. Interpretation Community mobilisation through womens groups and volunteer peer counsellor health education are methods to improve maternal and child health outcomes in poor rural populations in Africa. Funding Saving Newborn Lives, UK Department for International Development, and Wellcome Trust. PMID:23683639

  4. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  5. Reproductive and other factors and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: an Australian case-control study. Survey of Women's Health Study Group.

    PubMed

    Purdie, D; Green, A; Bain, C; Siskind, V; Ward, B; Hacker, N; Quinn, M; Wright, G; Russell, P; Susil, B

    1995-09-15

    Of the few factors known to be associated with epithelial ovarian cancer, the most consistently observed relate to women's reproductive function, although even here uncertainties remain. We have undertaken a case-control study involving personal interviews with over 1,600 women, the largest of its kind to date, to investigate further the associations between women's reproductive histories and other factors and the development of ovarian cancer. Cases were drawn from women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer in 3 Australian states, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, between August 1990 and December 1993, and controls were drawn at random from the electoral roll, stratified by age and geographic region. Trained interviewers administered standard questionnaires to obtain detailed information about women's reproductive and contraceptive histories and other factors of interest, such as smoking and family history of ovarian or other cancer. Findings were based on data from 824 cases and 860 controls and confirmed the reduced risk of ovarian cancer associated with increasing parity and duration of use of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP), hysterectomy and tubal ligation. The strongest association of all was seen with use of the OCP for 10 years or more. An inverse association between ovarian cancer and age at first birth was observed, but this was not statistically significant. There were no associations between development of ovarian cancer and number of incomplete pregnancies, use of hormone replacement therapy or menstrual history. Among other factors considered, education after leaving school was negatively associated and high body mass index, family history of ovarian cancer, use of talc in the abdominal or perineal region and smoking were positively associated with occurrence of ovarian cancer. PMID:7558414

  6. Enabling Older Homeless Minority Women to Overcome Homelessness by Using a Life Management Enhancement Group Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of a life management enhancement (LME) group intervention for older minority women in developing personal control and self-confidence in social relationships as they overcome homelessness. Women in the treatment group showed significantly greater personal control and higher levels of self-confidence following the six-week intervention than women in the control group. Increasing personal control and developing self-confidence in social relationships can help individuals achieve desired outcomes as a result of their actions, efforts, and abilities. These attributes can help women increase and sustain appropriate coping methods and overcome homelessness. PMID:19212866

  7. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions. PMID:26578458

  8. Women's health groups to improve perinatal care in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Joanna; Tamang, Suresh; Mesko, Natasha; Osrin, David; Shrestha, Bhim; Manandhar, Madan; Manandhar, Dharma; Standing, Hilary; Costello, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Background Neonatal mortality rates are high in rural Nepal where more than 90% of deliveries are in the home. Evidence suggests that death rates can be reduced by interventions at community level. We describe an intervention which aimed to harness the power of community planning and decision making to improve maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Methods The development of 111 women's groups in a population of 86 704 in Makwanpur district, Nepal is described. The groups, facilitated by local women, were the intervention component of a randomized controlled trial to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. Through participant observation and analysis of reports, we describe the implementation of this intervention: the community entry process, the facilitation of monthly meetings through a participatory action cycle of problem identification, community planning, and implementation and evaluation of strategies to tackle the identified problems. Results In response to the needs of the group, participatory health education was added to the intervention and the women's groups developed varied strategies to tackle problems of maternal and newborn care: establishing mother and child health funds, producing clean home delivery kits and operating stretcher schemes. Close linkages with community leaders and community health workers improved strategy implementation. There were also indications of positive effects on group members and health services, and most groups remained active after 30 months. Conclusion A large scale and potentially sustainable participatory intervention with women's groups, which focused on pregnancy, childbirth and the newborn period, resulted in innovative strategies identified by local communities to tackle perinatal care problems. PMID:15771772

  9. Women's groups and individual entrepreneurs: a Ugandan case study.

    PubMed

    Pickering, H; Kajura, E; Katongole, G; Whitworth, J

    1996-10-01

    This study is based on interviews conducted among 8 women's income-generating groups and 12 individual women entrepreneurs in 15 villages in Masaka district, Uganda. The Baganda are the main tribe in the study villages. The study evaluates the economic achievement, objectives, and social characteristics of the groups. Groups ranged in size from 9-20 members. All had functioned for 3-5 years. A regular membership fee was paid through the sale of agricultural produce. Groups met at least every 2 weeks. This study revealed that the individual goals were to increase individual wealth, while the stated group goals were to invest in the community. Members considered the groups as useful in providing an easy way to raise capital. Most members considered financial status as a criterion for group membership. Elderly women tended to join social and handicraft groups. The women's group members tended to be friends before the establishment of the group and tended to be currently married to men residing in the area. Of the 12 women entrepreneurs, only 5 were currently married. All 12 women entrepreneurs had considerable initiative. The 12 women and the women's group members derived income from two or more sources: agricultural projects, animal husbandry, craft production, alcohol production and sale, or other activities. Study findings indicate that decisions were often delayed or avoided in order to preserve social cohesion. In a market-oriented enterprise, quick response time is needed and the bureaucratic dynamics would hinder some agricultural ventures. The poorest women experienced barriers to group membership. Women entrepreneurs were more successful than group women. PMID:12347716

  10. Can the Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Be Delayed by a Group-Based Lifestyle Intervention in Women with Prediabetes following Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)? Findings from a Randomized Control Mixed Methods Trial

    PubMed Central

    O'Dea, Angela; Tierney, Marie; McGuire, Brian E.; Newell, John; Glynn, Liam G.; Gibson, Irene; Noctor, Eoin; Danyliv, Andrii; Connolly, Susan B.; Dunne, Fidelma P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention programme for women with prediabetes following gestational diabetes (GDM). Design. A two-group, mixed methods randomized controlled trial in which 50 women with a history of GDM and abnormal glucose tolerance postpartum were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 24) or wait control (n = 26) and postintervention qualitative interviews with participants. Main Outcome Measures. Modifiable biochemical, anthropometric, behavioural, and psychosocial risk factors associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The primary outcome variable was the change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) from study entry to one-year follow-up. Results. At one-year follow-up, the intervention group showed significant improvements over the wait control group on stress, diet self-efficacy, and quality of life. There was no evidence of an effect of the intervention on measures of biochemistry or anthropometry; the effect on one health behaviour, diet adherence, was close to significance. Conclusions. Prevention programmes must tackle the barriers to participation faced by this population; home-based interventions should be investigated. Strategies for promoting long-term health self-management need to be developed and tested. PMID:26347894

  11. Characteristics of Midlife Women Recruited Through Internet Communities/Groups

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-ok

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics of a specific online population, midlife women recruited through Internet communities (ICs) or groups, and to provide future direction for Internet research among midlife women. Using a feminist perspective, the study focused on ethnic variations in the characteristics of the midlife women. A total of 192 midlife women were recruited through ICs. The Internet survey included questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health/illness status. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that midlife women recruited through ICs tended to be Caucasian, young, married, and affluent. The findings also indicated significant ethnic differences in sociodemographic characteristics. The findings suggest that researchers need to consider that midlife women recruited from ICs tend to be a specific group of midlife women. PMID:18091620

  12. Women Together Again: A Phenomenological Study of Leaderless Women's Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kees, Nathalie L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents results of a study of eight leaderless groups. Findings included a serendipitous forming process, minimal norming, a support system extending beyond the group, a spontaneous and flexible group process, and unresolved issues. Focus and purpose of the groups were found to be the factors that have changed over time. Discusses results in…

  13. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  14. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:

  15. From the inside Out: Group Work with Women of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.

    2014-01-01

    This article will present two models for conducting group work with Women of Color (WOC): the SisterCircle Approach and the Group Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of group work that can assist group workers to conduct individual and group-level

  16. Sexual Enhancement Groups for Dysfunctional Women: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiblum, Sandra R.; Ersner-Hershfield, Robin

    1977-01-01

    Three groups of women with sexual dysfunction were evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment. Two groups did not involve partner participation, while the third group included partners on two occasions. Results for all groups were similar. The question of whether orgasm through coitus alone is a reasonable goal is raised and challenged. (Author)

  17. Control systems on Lie groups.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

  18. Psychometric Evaluation of the Midlife Womens Symptom Index (MSI) in Multiethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bokim; Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2011-01-01

    The Midlife Womens Symptom Index (MSI) was designed to measure menopausal symptoms specifically in a multiethnic sample of midlife women. This study is a psychometric property test to evaluate MSI among 512 multiethnic groups of midlife women (White, Hispanic, African American, and Asian American). Across the ethnic groups, MSI had an adequate internal consistency in all subdomains except psychosomatic symptoms. The item-to-total correlation coefficients of lost weight and nosebleeds were less than 0.20 among all ethnic groups. The discriminant validity was confirmed among all ethnic groups except Asian Americans. Overall, MSI may work better for Whites and not as well for Asian Americans, compared with other ethnic groups. Additional studies with diverse groups of multiethnic midlife women are needed, however, to confirm MSI psychometric properties. PMID:20606074

  19. A Consciousness-Raising Group for Obese Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, Ruth; Grayer, Elinor D.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes three consciousness-raising groups for obese women which met to explore what it is like to be fat in a thin-oriented society, to enhance their self-esteem, and to help the women recognize that being fat is one of many choices a person may legitimately make for herself. (Author/EJT)

  20. The Mothering of Women Abused by Their Partner: An Outcome Evaluation of a Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Perel, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Findings of an outcome evaluation of a mothering group intervention with women abused by their partners are presented, based on measurements of intervention and control groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. At Time 1, both groups reported moderate well-being, high parental self-efficacy, and low mothering-related

  1. The Mothering of Women Abused by Their Partner: An Outcome Evaluation of a Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Perel, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Findings of an outcome evaluation of a mothering group intervention with women abused by their partners are presented, based on measurements of intervention and control groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. At Time 1, both groups reported moderate well-being, high parental self-efficacy, and low mothering-related…

  2. Assessment of female sexual function in a group of uncircumcised obese Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, A R M; Ibrahim, N H; Ahmed, H-Eh; Hassanin, A M; Elgawady, M A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess female sexual function in an obese group (250 women) and to compare it with a control group (100 women), among 25-35-year-old uncircumcised Egyptian women, using female sexual function index (FSFI) score. FSFI total score of ?26.55 was considered diagnostic of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). The percentage of FSD in the obese group was 73.6% while it was 71% in the control group, which was statistically insignificant (P>0.05). The difference between both groups regarding the total (FSFI) score was insignificant (P>0.05), but arousal and satisfaction domains scores were significantly lower in the obese group. In the obese group, a strong negative correlation between body mass index and arousal, orgasm and the total FSFI score was found. Women with excessive obesity had the lowest total FSFI score. In the obese group, college graduates had the highest total scores and all domain scores of FSFI followed by high school graduates while the least educated women had the lowest scores and when these subgroups were compared, significant differences were found among them. We conclude that in uncircumcised 25-35-year-old Egyptian women, obesity is not a major detrimental factor for FSD, but it may affect some sexual domains such as arousal and satisfaction, although excessive obesity is associated with FSD. Also, educational and cultural factors may have an impact on perception of sex and pleasure. PMID:26155831

  3. Estimating coverage of a womens group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention coverage in resource and data poor settings is rarely documented. This paper describes four different methods, and their underlying assumptions, to estimate coverage of a community mobilisation womens group intervention for maternal and newborn health among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. Methods Primary and secondary data sources were used to estimate the interventions coverage among pregnant women. Four methods were used: (1) direct measurement of a proxy indicator using intervention survey data; (2) direct measurement among intervention participants and modelled extrapolation based on routine longitudinal surveillance of births; (3) direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on cross-sectional measurements and national data; and (4) direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on published national data. Results The estimated womens group interventions coverage among pregnant women ranged from 30% to 34%, depending on method used. Differences likely reflect differing assumptions and methodological biases of the various methods. Conclusion In the absence of complete and timely population data, choice of coverage estimation method must be based on the strengths and limitations of available methods, capacity and resources for measurement and the ultimate end user needs. Each of the methods presented and discussed here is likely to provide a useful understanding of intervention coverage at a single point in time and Methods 1 and 2 may also provide more reliable estimates of coverage trends. Footnotes 1Unpublished data from three focus group discussions with womens group members and facilitators participating in the Womens Groups intervention. PMID:22747973

  4. One dozen considerations when working with women in substance abuse groups.

    PubMed

    Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Osborne, Victoria A; Greif, Geoffrey L

    2011-01-01

    Women and men have different histories, presentations, and behaviors in substance abuse groups. Twelve considerations are offered for the beginning group leader when encountering women with substance abuse issues. These include understanding sexism, what brings women to treatment, and how women behave in group treatment. Implications for clinical practice with women in single-gender and mixed-gender groups are included. PMID:21615009

  5. Women's Participation in Physics Internationally: the IUPAP Working Group on Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Judy

    2001-04-01

    In 1999 the General Assembly of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) voted to establish a Working Group on Women in Physics with the following charge: to survey the situation for women in physics in IUPAP member countries; to analyze and report the data collected along with suggestions on how to improve the situation; to suggest ways that women can become more involved in IUPAP, including the Liaison Committees, the Commissions, the Council, and the General Assemblies; and to report all findings at the next General Assembly in 2002. The Working Group was established in 2000 with 11 members representing North and South America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East/Africa. The Group has been gathering data on women in physics and is planning to hold an International Conference on Women in Physics at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris in March, 2002. I will discuss some of the findings and the plans for the future.

  6. Women's Liberation Scale (WLS): A Measure of Attitudes Toward Positions Advocated by Women's Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Carlos

    The Women's Liberation Scale (WLS) is a 14-item, Likert-type scale designed to measure attitudes toward positions advocated by women's groups. The WLS and its four-alternative response schema is presented, along with descriptive statistics of scores based on male and female college samples. Reliability and validity measures are reported, and the

  7. Not Far Enough: Women vs. Smoking. A Workshop for Women's Group and Women's Health Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Highlights from a series of papers on the role of smoking in women's disease and death, women's smoking behavior, and the role of the tobacco industry are included in this document. Conference participants included public health and women's organizations. Brief summaries of the papers introduce the document. An outline of network strategies

  8. Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed. PMID:23423547

  9. Effects of a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet on plasma sex hormones in premenopausal women: results from a randomized controlled trial. Canadian Diet and Breast Cancer Prevention Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, N. F.; Lockwood, G. A.; Greenberg, C. V.; Martin, L. J.; Tritchler, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    We are conducting a long-term randomized controlled trial to determine if intervention with a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet reduces breast cancer risk. The present study examines the effects of 2 years of dietary intervention on serum sex hormone levels in premenopausal women. Subjects with extensive mammographic densities were enrolled in a dietary intervention trial. The intervention involved intensive individual counselling aimed at reducing total dietary fat to 15% of calories. Control subjects received general advice about diet but were not counselled to change their fat intake. Serum sex hormone levels were measured in 220 premenopausal subjects at entry and 2 years after randomization. Two years after randomization oestradiol levels were 20% (70 pmol l(-1)) lower (P = 0.04) and progesterone levels were 35% (1.0 nmol l(-1)) lower (P = 0.004) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were 7% (1 IU) higher (P = 0.38) in the intervention group than in the control group. The FSH-oestradiol ratio was 13% higher in the intervention group (P = 0.18). Samples analysed accounting for the timing of the blood sample in relation to the menstrual cycle showed that, in the intervention group, oestradiol and progesterone levels were lower and FSH levels higher in subjects with blood samples taken more than 30 days after the last menstrual period. Because of the strong evidence linking ovarian hormonal activity to breast cancer risk, these results suggest that a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet may reduce risk of breast cancer by reducing exposure to ovarian hormones that are a stimulus to cell division in the breast. PMID:9218745

  10. A community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among middle-aged African American women in rural Alabama: Findings from a group randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Scarinci, Isabel C.; Moore, Artisha; Wynn, Theresa; Cherrington, Andrea; Fouad, Mona; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the efficacy of a community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among African American (AA) women between the ages of 4565 years, residing in rural Alabama. Methods We conducted a group randomized controlled trial with counties as the unit of randomization that evaluated two interventions based on health priorities identified by the community: (1) promotion of healthy eating and physical activity; and (2) promotion of breast and cervical cancer screening. A total of 6 counties with 565 participants were enrolled in the study between November 2009 and October 2011. Results The overall retention rate at 24-month follow-up was 54.7%. Higher retention rate was observed in the healthy lifestyle arm (63.1%) as compared to the screening arm (45.3%). Participants in the healthy lifestyle arm showed significant positive changes compared to the screening arm at 12-month follow-up with regard to decrease in fried food consumption and an increase in both fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity. At 24-month follow-up, these positive changes were maintained with healthy eating behaviors, but not engagement in physical activity. Conclusions A culturally relevant intervention, developed in collaboration with the target audience, can improve (and maintain) healthy eating among AA women living in rural areas. PMID:25152504

  11. Domestic group, status of women, and fertility.

    PubMed

    Patel, T

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made in this paper to explain the fertility behavior of Patels; a major peasant caste in village Mogra in Rajasthan, India. The Patels make up 162 of the 404 households in the village and nearly 50% of the village's population of 2610. The Patels claim to have migrated from Gujarat a few centuries ago. This paper is based on a study of 140 randomly selected Patel households comprising 168 couples by using the method of intensive fieldwork over a period of about 6 months. Every household in Mogra, with the possible exception of 1 household of a Bania trader, is involved in agriculture in 1 capacity or another. The Patels are the major landowning caste, and all but 2 of the households in the sample of 140 own land. The Patels marry early, and the practice of child marriage remains common today. Being a patrilineal people, Patels consider sons as heirs to family property and status. Of the 140 households in the sample, 65 are complex in composition while 75 are simple. All the simple households are consequences of the partition of complex households. The consummation of marriage marks an immediate loss of independence to the woman. The Patels of Mogra have sound economic reasons for having a large number of children. They prefer to use family labor to the maximum possible extent. When labor is the major input, the land can absorb whatever labor is available. A great demand exists for labor in the domestic sphere as well. Compared to the returns, the cost of bringing up children is negligible. The expenditure on their clothing and education is minimal. Economics alone do not explain high fertility. Sons are essential to continue the line and for old age security. The marriage of daughters brings in bride price and religious merit. 1 son may find the burden of carrying out the kinship obligations inherited from his parents too high. When there are several sons, they can share the burden among themselves. Religious values and the obligations of kinship and marriage impel couples toward large families. It is this conjunction of forces rather than any single factor which is crucial. All these forces find expression in interpersonal relations within the family. The young mother is the person most interested in restricting births, but she is also interested in the additional labor supply that children would bring in. It is difficult for her to carry the load of domestic and farm work, childbearing and child rearing. When her reproductive career is at the peak, the woman's own power within the domestic group is at its lowest. It is through the process of giving birth to many children that she gains in power and status. PMID:12279417

  12. Community mobilisation with women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to improve maternal and newborn health in underserved areas of Jharkhand and Orissa: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Around a quarter of the world's neonatal and maternal deaths occur in India. Morbidity and mortality are highest in rural areas and among the poorest wealth quintiles. Few interventions to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes with government-mandated community health workers have been rigorously evaluated at scale in this setting. The study aims to assess the impact of a community mobilisation intervention with women's groups facilitated by ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes among rural tribal communities of Jharkhand and Orissa. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial and will be implemented in five districts, three in Jharkhand and two in Orissa. The unit of randomisation is a rural cluster of approximately 5000 population. We identified villages within rural, tribal areas of five districts, approached them for participation in the study and enrolled them into 30 clusters, with approximately 10 ASHAs per cluster. Within each district, 6 clusters were randomly allocated to receive the community intervention or to the control group, resulting in 15 intervention and 15 control clusters. Randomisation was carried out in the presence of local stakeholders who selected the cluster numbers and allocated them to intervention or control using a pre-generated random number sequence. The intervention is a participatory learning and action cycle where ASHAs support community women's groups through a four-phase process in which they identify and prioritise local maternal and newborn health problems, implement strategies to address these and evaluate the result. The cycle is designed to fit with the ASHAs' mandate to mobilise communities for health and to complement their other tasks, including increasing institutional delivery rates and providing home visits to mothers and newborns. The trial's primary endpoint is neonatal mortality during 24 months of intervention. Additional endpoints include home care practices and health care-seeking in the antenatal, delivery and postnatal period. The impact of the intervention will be measured through a prospective surveillance system implemented by the project team, through which mothers will be interviewed around six weeks after delivery. Cost data and qualitative data are collected for cost-effectiveness and process evaluations. Study registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN31567106 PMID:21787392

  13. The Comparative Experiences of Women in Control

    PubMed Central

    Mako, Morgan; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Barnes, Linda; Stone, Abriella; Rosal, Milagros C.; Wiecha, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to characterize participants experiences of a diabetes self-management (DSM) education program delivered via a virtual world (VW) versus a face-to-face (F2F) format. Participants included a randomly selected sample of participants who completed the Women in Control study. Four focus groups were conducted with 32 participants. Four researchers coded the data and conducted a qualitative thematic analysis. Four overarching themes were identified. Three domains apply to both VW and F2F formats, including (1) the value of DSM knowledge gained, (2) cultivating DSM attitudes and skills, and (3) the value of peer-derived social support. The fourth domain is labeled positive technological development for DSM (VW condition only). VW and F2F groups both reported mastery of DSM knowledge, attitudes, and skills, and there were no differences in peer-derived social support between groups. The technological aspects of VW participation afforded VW participants a unique sense of personal agency and diabetes self-efficacy not reported by F2F participants. DSM education in a VW is feasible and educational outcomes are similar to a F2F classroom experience. Furthermore, learning DSM skills in a VW offers unique advantages in supporting personal agency for health behavior change. Further research is warranted. PMID:25212580

  14. Improved neonatal survival after participatory learning and action with womens groups: a prospective study in rural eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Swati Sarbani; Mahapatra, Rajendra; Rath, Shibanand; Bajpai, Aparna; Singh, Vijay; Rath, Suchitra; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Gope, Raj Kumar; Sinha, Rajesh; Costello, Anthony; Pagel, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether a womens group intervention involving participatory learning and action has a sustainable and replicable effect on neonatal survival in rural, eastern India. Methods From 2004 to 2011, births and neonatal deaths in 36 geographical clusters in Jharkhand and Odisha were monitored. Between 2005 and 2008, these clusters were part of a randomized controlled trial of how womens group meetings involving participatory learning and action influence maternal and neonatal health. Between 2008 and 2011, groups in the original intervention clusters (zone1) continued to meet to discuss post-neonatal issues and new groups in the original control clusters (zone2) met to discuss neonatal health. Logistic regression was used to examine neonatal mortality rates after 2008 in the two zones. Findings Data on 41?191 births were analysed. In zone1, the interventions effect was sustained: the cluster-mean neonatal mortality rate was 34.2 per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval, CI: 28.340.0) between 2008 and 2011, compared with 41.3 per 1000 live births (95%CI:35.447.1) between 2005 and 2008. The effect of the intervention was replicated in zone2: the cluster-mean neonatal mortality rate decreased from 61.8 to 40.5 per 1000 live births between two periods: 20062008 and 20092011 (odds ratio: 0.69, 95%CI:0.570.83). Hygiene during delivery, thermal care of the neonate and exclusive breastfeeding were important factors. Conclusion The effect of participatory womens groups on neonatal survival in rural India, where neonatal mortality is high, was sustainable and replicable. PMID:24052679

  15. Thermal Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslett, Robert; Mahefkey, E. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The Thermal Control Working Group limited its evaluation to issues associated with Earth orbiting and planetary spacecraft with power levels up to 50 kW. It was concluded that the space station technology is a necessary precursor but does not meet S/C 2000 needs (life, high heat flux, long term cryogenics, and survivability). Additional basic and applied research are required (fluid/materials compatibility and two phase system modeling). Scaling, the key issue, must define accelerated life test criteria. The two phase systems require 0g to 1 g correlation. Additional ground test beds are required and combined space environment tests of materials.

  16. Traditional Healing Methods with First Nations Women in Group Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbron, Carrie L.; Guttman, Mary Alice Julius

    2000-01-01

    Utilizes a traditional aboriginal healing ceremony, called the healing circle, in a counseling group comprised of First Nations and non-aboriginal women survivors of child sexual abuse. Examines ceremony and aboriginal beliefs for their impact on the counseling process. Results indicate that the ceremony and beliefs established a spiritual

  17. Too Many Pregnant Women Gain Too Much Weight: Doctors' Group

    MedlinePLUS

    ... increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, cesarean delivery, stillbirth and having a baby with a birth defect, the group said in an ACOG news release. In addition, obese pregnant women are more likely to have health problems. These issues can include heart problems, sleep apnea, ...

  18. The Effects of 16 Hour Long Marathon Groups on the Ways that Female Drug Users Perceive Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of three 16-hour-long unstructured marathon groups composed of female illicit drug users in a woman's prison (N=78), using evaluative adjective pairs of the semantic differential concept Women. Marathon groups rated women as more successful and more pleasurable than did controls. (JAC)

  19. Self-care agency in two groups of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hart, M A; Foster, S N

    1998-01-01

    Self-care agency, a multidimensional concept in Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory, includes motivation, decision-making, energy, and knowledge necessary to perform self-care actions. Basic conditioning factors affect individuals' development and exercise of self-care agency. Secondary analysis of Appraisal of Self-Care Agency (ASA) scores in two groups of pregnant women, (1) a childbirth education group (n = 119) and (2) a clinic group (n = 127) was completed. Group 2 had significantly higher ASA scores. Several basic conditioning factors influenced ASA scores. Results offer implications for Orem's theory and maternity nursing practice. PMID:10214234

  20. Women and Wasta: The Use of Focus Groups for Understanding Social Capital and Middle Eastern Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Deborah C.

    2012-01-01

    Social capital is the use of informal networking to secure access to resources and opportunities. Often identified as an asset for offsetting deficiencies in societies, research on the phenomena is limited. This paper describes a qualitative study using focus groups with young adult Emeriti women representing three social-economic groups who were

  1. Eating problems and interpersonal functioning among several groups of women.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, J F; Hollwey, S

    1995-05-01

    This paper examines the relationship between eating disorders and problems in interpersonal functioning. Questionnaires that measure eating problems, interpersonal adjustment, and general neuroticism were completed by several groups of women: anorexic patients, persons whose interests or occupations involved a concern about bodily shape or condition (dancers, models, and athletes), and members of the general public. A substantial and significant relationship was found between eating symptomatology and interpersonal functioning in all groups. However, this association survived only in the anorexic patient group when general neuroticism was partialled out. We take this to imply that psychosocial difficulties are unlikely to play a strong role in the initial development of eating problems. PMID:7560134

  2. Our Place at the Table: An Introduction to the Special Issue on Women's Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kees, Nathalie L.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes that the goal for this issue is to help move the study of women's groups beyond survival and recovery issues to the thriving that can and does occur for women through their participation in women's groups. This collection of articles helps build on a growing body of literature attempting to study women's groups as a phenomena in their…

  3. Promoting urinary continence in women after delivery: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiarelli, Pauline; Cockburn, Jill

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the effectiveness of a physiotherapist delivered intervention designed to prevent urinary incontinence among women three months after giving birth. Design Prospective randomised controlled trial with women randomised to receive the intervention (which entailed training in pelvic floor exercises and incorporated strategies to improve adherence) or usual postpartum care. Setting Postpartum wards of three tertiary teaching hospitals in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Participants Women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or whose babies had a high birth weight (⩾4000 g), or both—676 (348 in the intervention group and 328 in the usual care group) provided endpoint data at three months. Main outcome measures Urinary incontinence at three months measured as a dichotomous variable. The severity of incontinence was also measured. Self report of the frequency of performance of pelvic floor exercises was recorded. Results At three months after delivery, the prevalence of incontinence in the intervention group was 31.0% (108 women) and in the usual care group 38.4% (125 women); difference 7.4% (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 14.6%, P=0.044). At follow up significantly fewer women with incontinence were classified as severe in the intervention group (10.1%) v (17.0%), difference 7.0%, 1.6% to 11.8%). The proportions of women reporting doing pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels was 84% (80% to 88%) for the intervention group and 58% (52% to 63%) for the usual care group (P=0.001). Conclusions The intervention promoting urinary continence reduced the prevalence of urinary incontinence after giving birth, particularly its severity, and promoted the performance of pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels; both continence and adherence to the programme were measured at three months after delivery in women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or babies weighing 4000 g or more. What is already known on this topicIntensive pelvic floor exercise programmes can reduce urinary incontinence in selected groups of female patientsThe effectiveness of interventions promoting continence in reducing urinary incontinence in the female population overall has not been investigatedPelvic floor exercises are widely held to be an important component of continence promotion programmesWhat this study addsContinence promotion programmes delivered to a selected population are able to prevent urinary incontinence in that populationFew studies have examined the efficacy of compliance aiding strategies in helping women adhere to prescribed pelvic floor exercise programmes PMID:12028976

  4. EPRI Nuclear Power Group`s Instrumentation and Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Machiels, A.J.

    1995-03-01

    EPRI`s Nuclear Power Group`s Instrumentation and Control Program is outlined. The topics discussed include an introduction, I and C obsolescence cost control initiative, and EPRI as a strategic partner. The cost control initiative included a multiyear effort to assist utilities in planning, implementing, and licensing digital instrumentation and control upgrades in nuclear power plants; the approach is intended to be pragmatic and flexible; and active utility participation is anticipated through tailored-collaboration-funded plant demonstrations.

  5. Women Healing Women: Time-Limited, Psychoeducational Group Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweig, Terri L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a time-limited, psychoeducational group in its 16th consecutive year of providing a safe and supportive milieu that breaks down isolation while helping women understand the impact of abuse on their lives and empowering them to alter their victim identity. Cognitive, affective, and expressive arts approaches are used to address aspects of

  6. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication. PMID:26101911

  7. A Qualitative Analysis of Womens Experiences in Single-Gender versus Mixed-Gender Substance Abuse Group Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Shelly F.; Cummings, Amanda M.; Kuper, Laura E.; Wigderson, Sara B.; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2013-01-01

    The present study of women with substance use disorders used grounded theory to examine womens experiences in both the Womens Recovery Group (WRG) and a mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC). Semi-structured interviews were completed in 2005 by twenty-eight women in a U.S. metropolitan area. Compared to GDC, women in WRG more frequently endorsed feeling safe, embracing all aspects of ones self, having their needs met, feeling intimacy, empathy, and honesty. Additionally, group cohesion and support allowed women to focus on gender-relevant topics supporting their recovery. These advantages of single gender group therapy can increase treatment satisfaction and improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23607675

  8. Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group

  9. Group Process in the single-gender Women's Recovery Group compared with mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Shelly F.; Kuper, Laura E.; Cummings, Amanda M.; Robbins, Michael S.; Gallop, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced affiliation among members is thought to provide increased support for women in single-gender compared with mixed-gender group therapy for substance use disorders (SUDs) and to provide a potential mechanism of action for its efficacy. In a Stage I trial of single-gender versus mixed-gender group therapy for SUDs we examined affiliative statements made by members in two group treatments, single-gender Women's Recovery Group (WRG) and mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC). Twenty-eight WRG and 17 GDC group therapy tapes were coded and compared for five types of affiliative statements. Three types of affiliative statements (agreement, supportive, and completing a thought) were highly correlated and were more frequent in WRG than GDC (D=0.882, p=0.27). In GDC, women were more likely to provide an affiliative statement to a male group member than any other combination of directionality (p<0.01). Compared with mixed-gender, single-gender group therapy for SUDs may enhance support through greater frequency of affiliative statements. PMID:24294145

  10. Cardiovascular Control in Men and Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qi

    Women, primarily young women, have a greater incidence of orthostatic intolerance than agematched men. This difference is especially dramatic in the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS, also called Chronic Orthostatic Intolerance, in which patients are unable to stand or remain upright for prolonged periods of time due to intolerable light headedness, weakness, and near-syncope). However, the mechanisms underlying this gender difference are still not completely understood. It is likely that certain gender-specific factors such as the normal menstrual cycle, differences in some hormonal levels which may affect the neurohumoral regulation of blood pressure, or physical characteristics such as a smaller and less "distensible" heart may influence orthostatic blood pressure control. The authors review what has been done on the effects of gender and the menstrual cycle on sympathetic neural control of hemodynamics during shortand long-term orthostasis in healthy young individuals and in female patients with POTS. In addition, the role of cardiac size and function, a non-neural mechanism, in gender differences in orthostatic tolerance is also reviewed. It is suggested that sympathetic neural control and vasoconstrictor responses during orthostasis are comparable between healthy men and women, and are enhanced but not impaired in POTS patients. There is a gender-specific difference in cardiac size even in the healthy population, while this difference is exaggerated in female patients with POTS.

  11. Attitude Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Daniel F.; Studer, Phillip A.

    1986-01-01

    The goals were to establish the Attitude Control System (ACS) requirements, constraints, technology assessment, technology shortfalls, expected in the year 2000. These were based upon all missions, military and civil, for LEO and GEO. The critical ACS technology issues were identified and ACS programs developed to address these critical issues.

  12. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a protective role, regardless age and weight. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the potential deleterious effect of lipid metabolism-related components, including fat intake and body fatness and worse lipid profile, on bone mass and metabolism in healthy women. PMID:22409945

  13. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Eisenberg, V H

    1997-07-01

    There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to procreate or reproduce; the process of in vitro fertilization itself-is it morally acceptable to interfere in the reproduction process?; the moral status of the embryo; the involvement of a third party in the reproductive process by genetic material donation; the practice of surrogacy, cryopreservation of pre-embryos; genetic manipulation; experiments on pre-embryos, etc. Induced abortion raises ethical issues related to the rights of the woman versus the rights of the fetus. For those who consider life to begin at conception abortion always equals murder and is therefore forbidden. Those who believe in the absolute autonomy of the woman over her body take the other extreme approach. The discussion surrounding abortion usually centers on whether it should be legal or illegal. Access to safe abortion is critical to the health of women and to their autonomy. The development of new effective contraceptive methods has a profound impact on women's lives. By the use of contraception it is possible to lessen maternal, infant and child mortality and to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Research and development of new effective reversible contraceptives for women and men is needed. Dissemination of information about the safety and effectiveness of contraceptive methods is of great importance. Female genital mutilation is still practiced worldwide due to customs and tradition among various ethnic groups. The procedure is considered to be medically detrimental to the physical and mental health of women and girls, and is considered by many as oppression of women. The practice has to be stopped. Recognition of the fetus as a 'patient' has a potential effect on women's right for autonomy; they have no legal obligation to undergo invasive procedures and to risk their health for the sake of their fetuses. The woman carries ethical obligations toward her fetus. This obligation should not be enforced by the law. At present women bear most of the burden of reproductive health. All of them have a right of access to fertility regulation. Governments and society must ensure the women's equal rights to health care just as men have in the regulation of their fertility. PMID:9253679

  14. Low-dose dexamethasone as a treatment for women with heavy menstrual bleeding: protocol for response-adaptive randomised placebo-controlled dose-finding parallel group trial (DexFEM)

    PubMed Central

    Warner, P; Weir, C J; Hansen, C H; Douglas, A; Madhra, M; Hillier, S G; Saunders, P T K; Iredale, J P; Semple, S; Walker, B R; Critchley, H O D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) diminishes individual quality-of-life and poses substantial societal burden. In HMB endometrium, inactivation of cortisol (by enzyme 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2)), may cause local endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency and hence increased angiogenesis and impaired vasoconstriction. We propose that ‘rescue’ of luteal phase endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency could reduce menstrual bleeding. Methods and analysis DexFEM is a double-blind response-adaptive parallel-group placebo-controlled trial in women with HMB (108 to be randomised), with active treatment the potent oral synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, which is relatively resistant to 11βHSD2 inactivation. Participants will be aged over 18 years, with mean measured menstrual blood loss (MBL) for two screening cycles ≥50 mL. The primary outcome is reduction in MBL from screening. Secondary end points are questionnaire assessments of treatment effect and acceptability. Treatment will be for 5 days in the mid-luteal phases of three treatment menstrual cycles. Six doses of low-dose dexamethasone (ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 mg twice daily) will be compared with placebo, to ascertain optimal dose, and whether this has advantage over placebo. Statistical efficiency is maximised by allowing randomisation probabilities to ‘adapt’ at five points during enrolment phase, based on the response data available so far, to favour doses expected to provide greatest additional information on the dose–response. Bayesian Normal Dynamic Linear Modelling, with baseline MBL included as covariate, will determine optimal dose (re reduction in MBL). Secondary end points will be analysed using generalised dynamic linear models. For each dose for all end points, a 95% credible interval will be calculated for effect versus placebo. Ethics and dissemination Dexamethasone is widely used and hence well-characterised safety-wise. Ethical approval has been obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee (12/SS/0147). Trial findings will be disseminated via open-access peer-reviewed publications, conferences, clinical networks, public lectures, and our websites. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01769820; EudractCT 2012-003405-98. PMID:25588784

  15. Results of the Burkina Faso Women in Physics Working Group's activities at the University of Ouagadougou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, Ptronille; Zerbo, Issa

    2015-12-01

    The Burkina Faso Women in Physics Working Group was formed as a result of the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2008. The effect of the Working Group's activities on the amount and success of women in physics in Burkina Faso are presented.

  16. Group methods for advanced column control compared

    SciTech Connect

    Haskins, D.E.; Chauvin, L.; Tolfo, F.

    1985-05-01

    Group method calculations are suited for distillation column advanced controls in real time. Five calculation methods are discussed and compared for accuracy by computing the internal reflux for several columns and operating conditions. Practical design criteria are defined and illustrated by comparing two distillation column reflex control schemes. The resulting conclusions include the best location and preferred order of group method calculations. Because group methods are simpler than stage-to-stage or successive approximation methods, they are more suitable to online computer calculations. Group methods are considered accurate enough for control purposes.

  17. Study of impulse control disorders among women presenting nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Kerner, Laurent; Thauvin, Isabelle; Loi, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Objective. Impulse control disorders (ICDs) include intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, trichotillomania, pyromania and pathological gambling. Several studies have showed an association between ICDs and alcohol use disorders. The rate of co-occurrence ICDs and nicotine dependence has never been investigated. We thus assessed the frequency of all ICDs in a population of nicotine-dependent women compared to non-smoking women. We also checked criteria of two other impulsive behaviours, compulsive buying and bulimia. Methods. Five hundred consecutive patients were assessed by a general practitioner in Paris (France). One hundred and twenty-seven women presenting the DSM-IV-R criteria for nicotine dependence were included. They were compared to 127 women consulting the same practitioner but who did not smoke. Diagnosis of ICD (pyromania, kleptomania, trichotillomania, intermittent explosive disorder, pathological gambling) and of bulimia was based on DSM-IV criteria and a modified version of the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview (MIDI). Diagnosis of compulsive buying was made with the McElroy et al. criteria and a specific questionnaire. Cigarette smoking was studied using the Fagerstrm questionnaire and the DSM-IV-R criteria for nicotine dependence. Alcohol use disorders were assessed with the DSM-IV-R criteria for dependence and the CAGE and the MAST questionnaires. Results. Thirteen patients presented trichotillomania, 22 explosive intermittent disorder and 12 pathological gambling. All these diagnoses were equally frequent in the nicotine-positive and nicotine-negative groups. We found no case of pyromania. Compulsive buying was the most frequent impulse control disorder. It was significantly more frequent in the nicotine-positive group than in the nicotine-negative group (58 vs. 39 cases, P=0.01). Scores of the compulsive buying scale were higher in the nicotine-positive group (4.07 vs. 2.9, P=0.01). None of the patients presented an association of two or more ICDs. Patients from the nicotine-positive group drunk higher quantities of alcohol each day, consumed alcohol more frequently each week and were more often intoxicated each week with alcohol. Their mean MAST scores of alcohol abuse disorders were higher. Conclusion. A total of 45.6% of the nicotine-dependent women presented compulsive buying and 23.6% bulimia. Compulsive buying was significantly more frequent among nicotine-dependent subjects than controls. Other impulse control disorders were as frequent among nicotine-dependent women as in controls. A total of 8.6% presented explosive intermittent disorder, 4.7% pathological gambling and 5% trichotillomania. Nicotine dependence in women was also associated with a higher level of alcohol consumption. These results indicate the possible need to systematically screen nicotine-dependent women, regardless of their motivation for consultation, for alcohol dependence, bulimia and compulsive buying. PMID:24941141

  18. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  19. Historical note: How bringing women's health advocacy groups to WHO helped change the research agenda.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, Jane

    2015-05-01

    The politics of population control and its sometimes coercive methods in developing countries documented during the 1960s, 70s and 80s, gave rise to strong opposition by women's groups, and put into question the safety of contraceptive methods that were being developed and introduced into countries. In 1991, the Special Programme on Human Reproduction at the World Health Organization, a research programme focused on development of new methods and safety assessments of existing fertility regulation methods, started a process of "dialogue" meetings between scientists and women's health advocacy groups which lasted for nearly a decade. This paper describes the process of these meetings and what they achieved in terms of bringing new or different research topics into the agenda, and some of the actions taken as a result. PMID:26278829

  20. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about womens experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. Results A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Conclusion Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern. PMID:24148317

  1. The Use of the Courts by Women's Groups to Obtain Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Karen

    This study examines how women's groups have made use of litigation strategy to gain favorable policy decisions from the U.S. Supreme Court. The litigation strategies associated with four groups are discussed in the major portion of the report. These groups are: (1) the National Women's Suffrage Association (NWSA), active from 1869 to 1875; (2) the

  2. The Use of the Courts by Women's Groups to Obtain Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Karen

    This study examines how women's groups have made use of litigation strategy to gain favorable policy decisions from the U.S. Supreme Court. The litigation strategies associated with four groups are discussed in the major portion of the report. These groups are: (1) the National Women's Suffrage Association (NWSA), active from 1869 to 1875; (2) the…

  3. Reclaiming the Maiden: Use of Archetypes in a 6-Week Women's Empowerment Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese; Hofsess, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a 6-week, semi-structured group counseling experience for university women students (undergraduate and graduate) from diverse backgrounds exploring archetypes and using group empowerment skills. Theoretical perspectives on women's empowerment groups and the use of archetypes in counseling are discussed as

  4. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the “leaky pipeline” problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created “microenvironments” (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students’ academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women’s academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women’s verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  5. Predictors of plasma concentrations of DDE and PCBs in a group of U.S. women.

    PubMed Central

    Laden, F; Neas, L M; Spiegelman, D; Hankinson, S E; Willett, W C; Ireland, K; Wolff, M S; Hunter, D J

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated predictors of plasma concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a group of 240 women, controls from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study. We considered personal attributes such as age, serum cholesterol, region of residence, adiposity, lactation, and dietary intake. DDE levels increased 0.17 ppb/year of age (p = 0.0003), and PCBs increased 0.08 ppb (p = 0.0001). DDE and PCBs increased 0.20 (p = 0.02) and 0.13 ppb (p = 0.001), respectively, per 10 mg/dl serum cholesterol. Women living in the western United States had higher levels of DDE (mean = 11.0 ppb; p = 0.003), and women in the Northeast and Midwest had higher levels of PCBs (mean = 5.6 ppb; p = 0.0002) as compared to women from other parts of the country (mean DDE = 6.3; mean PCBs = 4. 5 ppb). Levels of DDE could not be predicted from consumption of meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and grains. There was a positive association between fish consumption and PCB concentrations among women in the Northeast and Midwest. Using data from the cases in the nested case-control study to assess the predictive ability of the models, we confirmed that the most reliable predictors of DDE were age and serum cholesterol, and the most important predictors of PCBs were age, serum cholesterol, and residence in the Midwest or Northeast. The null results for the majority of the food variables suggest that specific dietary factors, other than fish, are not currently a substantial contributor to human exposure to DDE and PCBs. PMID:9872720

  6. Preventing Depression: Culturally Relevant Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.

    2008-01-01

    Recent estimates indicate that 10% to 25% of women in the United States report clinically significant depressive symptoms and that Black women are less likely to obtain care for depression and to receive appropriate treatment when they do seek care. Current mental and social health services necessitate a search for strength-based treatment models

  7. Different intensities of glycaemic control for pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Philippa; Crowther, Caroline A; Simmonds, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Background The optimal glycaemic control target in pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes is unclear, although there is a clear link between high glucose concentrations and adverse birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of different intensities of glycaemic control in pregnant women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Groups Trials Register (30 April 2012). Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials comparing different glycaemic control targets in pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Main results We included three trials all in women with type 1 diabetes (223 women and babies), and all with a high risk of bias. Two trials compared very tight (3.33 to 5.0 mmol/L fasting blood glucose (FBG)) with tight-moderate (4.45 to 6.38) glycaemic control targets, with one trial of 22 babies reporting no perinatal deaths or serious perinatal morbidity. In the same trial, there were two birth defects in the very tight and none in the tight-moderate group with no significant differences in caesarean section between groups (risk ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 1.73). In these two trials glycaemic control was not significantly different between the very tight and tight-moderate groups by the third trimester, although one trial of 22 women found significantly less maternal hypoglycaemia in the tight-moderate group. In a trial of 60 women and babies comparing tight ( 5.6 mmol/L FBG); moderate (5.6 to 6.7); and loose (6.7 to 8.9) glycaemic control targets, there were two neonatal deaths in the loose and none in the tight or moderate groups. There were significantly fewer women with pre-eclampsia, fewer caesareans and fewer birthweights greater than 90th centile in the combined tight-moderate compared with the loose group. Authors conclusions In a very limited body of evidence, few differences in outcomes were seen between very tight and tight-moderate glycaemic control targets in pregnant women with pre-existing type 1 diabetes, including actual glycaemic control achieved. There is evidence of harm (increased pre-eclampsia, caesareans and birthweights greater than 90th centile) for loose control (FBG above 7 mmol/L). Future trials comparing interventions, rather than glycaemic control targets, may be more feasible particularly for pregnant women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:22895976

  8. Effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Exercise on Postural Control among Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jihe; Chang, Shuwan; Cong, Yan; Qin, Meiqin; Sun, Wei; Lian, Jianhua; Yao, Jian; Li, Weiping; Hong, Youlian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Quan on the postural control of elderly women. A total of 43 women aged 55-68 years participated in the study. A Tai Chi group (n = 22) underwent an organized Tai Chi exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) maintained a habitual, no-regular-exercise lifestyle. A Good Balance tester (Metitur, Finland) was used to measure the time, paths and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) of subjects during stance while shifting COP to targeted positions shown on a monitor. After 24 weeks, the Tai Chi group showed significantly shorter total (18.6%, p = 0.005), mediolateral (21.9%, p = 0.002) and anteroposterior (18.3%, p = 0.002) COP sway paths than the control group. The results indicate that 24 weeks of the Tai Chi exercise improved the efficiency of postural control for elderly women. PMID:26223978

  9. Cardiopulmonary effects of traditional Thai dance on menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Phusririt, Chonticha; Angkapattamakul, Sariya; Hurst, Cameron P; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of Thai dance on cardiopulmonary factors in menopausal women. [Subjects] Sixty-six menopausal women aged 40?years or more. [Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to either the Thai dance or control group. The Thai dance group performed a traditional Thai dancing exercise program for 60 minutes, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. The control group received general health guidance. The 6-minutewalk test, peak expiratory flow, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and chest expansion were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. [Results] Sixty-six menopausal women were eligible. At the end of the study, all variables were significantly better in the Thai dance group than the control group. Moreover, all variables improved significantly compared to baseline in the Thai dance group but not in the control group. For example, the mean 6-minutewalk test result in Thai dance group at the end of the study was 285.4 m, which was significantly higher than that at baseline (254.8 m) and the control group at baseline (247.0 m). [Conclusion] A 6-week Thai dance program improves cardiorespiratory endurance in menopausal women. PMID:26357441

  10. Cardiopulmonary effects of traditional Thai dance on menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Phusririt, Chonticha; Angkapattamakul, Sariya; Hurst, Cameron P.; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of Thai dance on cardiopulmonary factors in menopausal women. [Subjects] Sixty-six menopausal women aged 40 years or more. [Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to either the Thai dance or control group. The Thai dance group performed a traditional Thai dancing exercise program for 60 minutes, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. The control group received general health guidance. The 6-minutewalk test, peak expiratory flow, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and chest expansion were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. [Results] Sixty-six menopausal women were eligible. At the end of the study, all variables were significantly better in the Thai dance group than the control group. Moreover, all variables improved significantly compared to baseline in the Thai dance group but not in the control group. For example, the mean 6-minutewalk test result in Thai dance group at the end of the study was 285.4 m, which was significantly higher than that at baseline (254.8 m) and the control group at baseline (247.0 m). [Conclusion] A 6-week Thai dance program improves cardiorespiratory endurance in menopausal women. PMID:26357441

  11. Acupuncture to Treat Primary Dysmenorrhea in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caroline A.; Crowther, Caroline A.; Petrucco, Oswald; Beilby, Justin; Dent, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of acupuncture to reduce the severity and intensity of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized controlled trial compared acupuncture with control acupuncture using a placebo needle. Eligible women were aged 1425 years with a diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea. Women received nine sessions of the study treatment over 3 months. The primary outcomes were menstrual pain intensity and duration, overall improvement in dysmenorrhea symptoms and reduced need for additional analgesia, measured at 3, 6 and 12 months from trial entry. A total of 92 women were randomly assigned to the intervention (acupuncture n = 46 and control n = 46). At 3 months although pain outcomes were lower for women in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, there was no significant difference between groups. Women receiving acupuncture reported a small reduction in mood changes compared with the control group, relative risk (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.531.00, P = .05. Follow-up at 6 months found a significant reduction in the duration of menstrual pain in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, mean difference 9.6, 95% CI 18.9 to 0.3, P = .04, and the need for additional analgesia was significantly lower in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.490.96, P = .03, but the follow-up at 12 months found lack of treatment effect. To conclude, although acupuncture improved menstrual mood symptoms in women with primary dysmenorrhea during the treatment phase, the trend in the improvement of symptoms during the active phase of treatment, and at 6 and 12 months was non-significant, indicating that a small treatment effect from acupuncture on dysmenorrhea may exist. In the study, acupuncture was acceptable and safe, but further appropriately powered trials are needed before recommendations for clinical practice can be made. PMID:21799683

  12. Microlevel determinants of blood pressure among women of two ethnic groups in a periurban area of Kolkata city, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rohini

    2007-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) trends vary cross-culturally, and studies on the risk factors associated with hypertension are limited in periurban regions of India. This study was conducted to examine the effect of socioeconomic factors (income, expenditure, activity time) and anthropometric measurements (skinfolds of biceps, triceps, subscapular, supra iliac, and body mass index) on 102 Munda (tribe) and 135 Pod (caste) women of childbearing age in a periurban area of Kolkata city. Results indicate that Munda women had significantly higher diastolic BP in the 30+ age group. However, no difference in the systolic and diastolic BP was observed between the two groups, when the socioanthropometric factors were controlled as covariates. Also, according to the JNC (JNC, 2004, The JNC 7 Report NIH Publication No. 04-5230) classification of hypertension, no significant difference in hypertension was noted between the women of the two social groups. But the risk factors associated with hypertension varied between the two ethnic groups. Expenditure on alcohol and activity time was associated with hypertension among the Munda, while body mass index was significantly associated with hypertension among the Pod women. Alcohol consumption is a rare phenomenon among Indian women. Yet, Munda women in this transitional periurban environment, in spite of high poverty were more inclined to spent their earnings in alcohol consumption (due to their cultural preferences), increasing the risk of hypertension in their childbearing age. PMID:17420997

  13. Measurement of Attitudes of Rural Women towards Self-Help Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meena, M. S.; Jain, Dilip; Meena, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's

  14. Measurement of Attitudes of Rural Women towards Self-Help Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meena, M. S.; Jain, Dilip; Meena, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's…

  15. 78 FR 46851 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... controlled group rules should be applied in connection with the RIC ``asset diversification'' test. This...)(B) provides that, to qualify as a RIC, a taxpayer must meet an asset diversification test pursuant... the asset diversification test has been met, the proportion of any investment in the securities...

  16. Early intervention in pregnant women with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms: efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Antje; Peukert, Judith; Zimmermann, Cornelia; Junge-Hoffmeister, Juliane; Parker, Lisa S; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Weidner, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether a cognitive-behavioral group program among pregnant women with elevated levels of anxiety or depression may reduce anxious and depressive symptoms and has a positive impact on risk factors for anxiety disorders and depression. A total of 753 participants were recruited. After completion of the clinical standardized interview, 160 participants were randomized to an intervention group or a control condition. Psychometric assessments took place at T1 (preintervention), T2 (antenatal follow-up), and T3 (3 months postpartum). Analyses included women who took part in all 3 assessments (intervention group, N = 21; control group, N = 53). The subjective program evaluation by the participants was highly positive, but with the exception of a short-term effect on the quality of an intimate partnership (F1/67 = 4.056; P < .05], intervention effects on anxiety or depressive symptoms were not found. However, there was an intervention effect 3 months postpartum for participants with high depressive symptoms at T1 (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ≥10) (F1/69 = 5.410; P < .05). The results argue against a general efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program for pregnant women with rather low levels of anxiety and depression. For women with higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy, a cognitive-behavioral group program may have a positive impact on the course of depressive symptoms during the postpartum period. PMID:25062520

  17. Stressors influencing Middle Eastern women's perceptions of the risk of cardiovascular disease: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Leila; Digiacomo, Michelle; Salamonson, Yenna; Davidson, Patricia M

    2011-08-01

    To better understand Australia-dwelling Middle Eastern women's lack of service utilization in cardiovascular health, we undertook a study to investigate their understandings and meanings of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors. Eight focus groups were conducted in community settings with Turkish, Persian, and Arab women. We found that the women understated their risk of CVD, faced many barriers in reducing their risks, and perceived stress as the most significant contributor to CVD. Women described their stress as primarily emanating from issues surrounding migration and acculturation. Implications for development and delivery of tailored health interventions for Middle Eastern women are discussed. PMID:21767097

  18. Obstetric outcome of ethnic Turkish women in London: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kanthasamy, M; Bognanno, A; Subramanian, V; Macneilly, L; Miguel, L; Dong, S; Taiwo, E; Nauta, M; Yoong, W

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that the maternal mortality in ethnic minority women is significantly greater than that of Caucasian British women. The objective of this study was to compare the demographic and obstetric outcomes between these two groups. Data were collected retrospectively over a 2-year period from 148 index and 148 control cases. The study group had statistically similar maternal age, labour duration, blood loss and mode of delivery compared with Caucasian British women (p > 0.05). A total of 68% of Turkish women spoke little or no English; were more likely to be non-smokers and also more likely to be married to unemployed spouses (p = 0.0001). This is the first study comparing obstetric outcomes of immigrant Turkish women with their Caucasian British counterparts. There was no significant difference in maternal or fetal outcomes, which could be attributed to the 'healthy migrant' theory, coupled with increased vigilance in ethnic minority pregnancies. PMID:23654317

  19. Effectiveness of Group Training Based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Anxiety and Depression of Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Maleki-Rizi, Fatemeh; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women that as a sudden event has profound effects on all aspects of patients lives. Psychosocial interventions may play important roles in reducing anxiety and depression among breast-cancer survivors. Therefore, group training based on acceptance and commitment therapy may help women to cope better with their condition, and decrease their anxiety and depression. Methods In a quasi-experimental study, 30 patients with breast cancer were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly assigned to 2 experimental and control groups. The experimental group attended acceptance and commitment training classes for 8 weeks continuously (each class lasting 90 minutes). Participants in both the experimental and control groups completed Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BHI-II) as a pretest and posttest. Analysis of Covariance was used as the statistical method. Results In acceptance and commitment group training, anxiety and depression significantly decreased (p<0/05). These changes were not observed in the control group. Conclusion The results showed that group training based on acceptance and commitment therapy is an effective method in reducing anxiety and depression. Hence psychological interventions can be used to reduce psychological difficulties of women with breast cancer. PMID:25960844

  20. Women Entering the Elite Group: A Limited Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yunshan; Wang, Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    Based on studies of literature and the freshman admission data from 1978 to 2005 in Peking University, the research reveals how female student enrollments grew from nil to a considerable size, and how the exclusion of women college admission was overcome to achieve gender balance. However, the paper argues that this progress is limited in that…

  1. Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…

  2. Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult

  3. Women Entering the Elite Group: A Limited Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yunshan; Wang, Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    Based on studies of literature and the freshman admission data from 1978 to 2005 in Peking University, the research reveals how female student enrollments grew from nil to a considerable size, and how the exclusion of women college admission was overcome to achieve gender balance. However, the paper argues that this progress is limited in that

  4. Women's Empowerment and Education: Panchayats and Women's Self-Help Groups in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna; Chakravarti, Paromita; Mansi, Kumari

    2015-01-01

    While women have made many advances, their inferior status to men continues to be a global phenomenon. At a time of unprecedented economic growth, India is experiencing a dramatic intensification of violence against women and the majority of girls are still not getting equal educational opportunity. In one of the most important steps for the

  5. "Nice Girl": Social Control of Women through a Value Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Greer Litton

    1977-01-01

    Social control of women through the normative constructs has the virtue of subtlety. It gives the appearance of nonrestriction and noncontrol, thus reducing the potential for resistance. The "nice girl" construct keeps women out of men's way, while ostensibly keeping them out of harm's way. (Author/GC)

  6. The Effect of Acupressure on Sleep Quality in Menopausal Women: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Abedian, Zahra; Eskandari, Leila; Abdi, Hamid; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the common problems in menopausal women is sleep disorder. Traditional Chinese acupressure is a noninvasive and safe technique. Menopausal women can easily learn the technique and a self-care method to manage their sleep disorder. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure on sleep quality of postmenopausal women in Mashhad during 2009. Methods This double blind, randomized clinical trial was performed on 120 qualified menopausal women at the age of 41-65 years. Their sleep quality was measured according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Participants were randomly assigned to an acupressure group (n=37), a sham acupressure group (n=36) and a control group (n=32) by two time randomized method (systematic and simple randomized). These interventions were carried out for four consecutive weeks. The participants in the acupressure and sham acupressure groups learned to carry out the acupressure technique as a self-care at home with simultaneous massage techniques that were to be performed 2 hours before sleep, whereas only conversation was used in the control group. The data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 17. Results The results indicated significant differences in total PSQI scores among the three groups (P<0.001). Tukey’s test revealed that there were significant differences between the acupressure group and the control group (P<0.001), the acupressure group and sham acupressure group (P<0.001), and the sham acupressure and the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion Acupressure can be used as a complementary treatment to relieve sleep disorders in menopausal women; and is offered as an efficient method to manage sleep quality. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013100614910N1. PMID:26170519

  7. A battered women's movement perspective of Coercive Control.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Gretchen

    2009-12-01

    In Coercive Control, Evan Stark calls on battered women's activists to reorient their understanding of abusive relationships. Rather than being primarily about physical violence, he maintains, domestic violence is better conceptualized as men's attempts to destroy women's autonomy and reinstate patriarchy in intimate relationships. His analysis suggests important changes to defending battered women in court, modifications to the kinds of support services the movement provides for battered women, and changes in the laws and law enforcement regarding battering. Stark also maintains that, to end coercive control, the battered women's movement must renew its commitment not only to ensuring the safety of individual women but also to attaining the feminist goal of substantive freedom and equality for women in both public and private life. I contend that Stark's reframing of woman abuse is useful for battered women's advocates and may, in some cases but not in others, lead to more effective practices in battered women's programs. At the same time, it is likely to complicate activists' efforts to mobilize public opinion, resources, and public policy to address the problem of woman abuse. PMID:19820176

  8. Group B Streptococcus: compliance with the information in prenatal card records and knowledge of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Dbora Silva; Tsunechiro, Maria Alice; Mendelski, Caroline Atade; Pierre, Sandra Abib; Silva, Atalanta Ruiz; Padoveze, Maria Clara

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the rate of compliance on prenatal cards and the women's knowledge and feelings regarding Group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening in a maternity ward in So Paulo City, Brazil. Structured interviews and a review of prenatal card records of 391 women were performed. The GBS screening was not recorded in more than half of prenatal cards (51.4%, n=201); 169 women reported no knowledge or not remembering the GBS screening. PMID:25702842

  9. The Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women: Report to the President and the Commission for Women--Recommendation Package #4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

    The document presents partial recommendations of a Pennsylvania State University Study Group on the Status of Women at the University. Recommendations concern: special populations, sexual harassment in the workplace, sexual violence against women, women's athletics, and health services for women students. Among specific recommendations are the

  10. Crowding, grouping, and gain control in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Roinishvili, Maya; Cappe, Cline; Shaqiri, Albulena; Brand, Andreas; Rrup, Linda; Chkonia, Eka; Herzog, Michael H

    2015-04-30

    Visual paradigms are versatile tools to investigate the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Contextual modulation refers to a class of paradigms where a target is flanked by neighbouring elements, which either deteriorate or facilitate target perception. It is often proposed that contextual modulation is weakened in schizophrenia compared to controls, with facilitating contexts being less facilitating and deteriorating contexts being less deteriorating. However, results are mixed. In addition, facilitating and deteriorating effects are usually determined in different paradigms, making comparisons difficult. Here, we used a crowding paradigm in which both facilitation and deterioration effects can be determined all together. We found a main effect of group, i.e., patients performed worse in all conditions compared to controls. However, when we discounted for this main effect, facilitation and deterioration were well comparable to controls. Our results indicate that contextual modulation can be intact in schizophrenia patients. PMID:25681007

  11. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  12. Honoring the Ways of American Indian Women: A Group Therapy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.; Robbins, Rockey; Vaughn, Karen; Youngbull, Natalie; Burks, Derek; Willmon-Haque, Sadie; Schuetz, Suzan; Brandes, Joyce A.; Nael, Andrea Zainab Omidy

    2010-01-01

    A culturally grounded group intervention for a typically underserved population of urban American Indian women is described. The intervention is designed to increase interpersonal connection, improve inter-tribal acceptance and trust, and enhance psychological well being of marginalized urban American Indian women. Topics used to structure the

  13. Honoring the Ways of American Indian Women: A Group Therapy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.; Robbins, Rockey; Vaughn, Karen; Youngbull, Natalie; Burks, Derek; Willmon-Haque, Sadie; Schuetz, Suzan; Brandes, Joyce A.; Nael, Andrea Zainab Omidy

    2010-01-01

    A culturally grounded group intervention for a typically underserved population of urban American Indian women is described. The intervention is designed to increase interpersonal connection, improve inter-tribal acceptance and trust, and enhance psychological well being of marginalized urban American Indian women. Topics used to structure the…

  14. An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social

  15. An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

  16. Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, R; John, S; Ling, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Despite a recent surge in tobacco advertising and the recent advertising ban (pending enforcement at the time of this study), there are few studies describing current cigarette marketing in India. This study sought to assess cigarette companies' marketing strategies in Mumbai, India. Methods: A two week field study was conducted in Mumbai in September 2003, observing, documenting, and collecting cigarette advertising on billboards, storefronts and at point of sale along two major thoroughfares, and performing a content analysis of news, film industry, and women's magazines and three newspapers. Results: Cigarette advertising was ubiquitous in the environment, present in news and in film magazines, but not in women's magazines or the newspapers. The four major advertising campaigns all associated smoking with aspiration; the premium brands targeting the higher socioeconomic status market utilised tangible images of westernisation and affluence whereas the "bingo" (low priced) segment advertisements invited smokers to belong to a league of their own and "rise to the taste" using intangible images. Women were not depicted smoking, but were present in cigarette advertisements—for example, a woman almost always accompanied a man in "the man with the smooth edge" Four Square campaign. Advertisements and product placements at low heights and next to candies at point of sale were easily accessible by children. In view of the iminent enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertisements, cigarette companies are increasing advertising for the existing brand images, launching brand extensions, and brand stretching. Conclusion: Cigarette companies have developed sophisticated campaigns targeting men, women, and children in different socioeconomic groups. Many of these strategies circumvent the Indian tobacco advertising ban. Understanding these marketing strategies is critical to mimimise the exploitation of loopholes in tobacco control legislation. PMID:15923471

  17. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5mg/day) or placebo for 4weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Results Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p?groups. Conclusions Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted. PMID:24773615

  18. Strategies developed and implemented by women's groups to improve mother and infant health and reduce mortality in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Rosato, M; Malamba, F; Kunyenge, B; Phiri, T; Mwansambo, C; Kazembe, P; Costello, A; Lewycka, S

    2012-09-01

    We evaluated the strategies to tackle maternal and infant health problems developed by women's groups in rural Malawi. Quantitative data were analyzed on strategies developed by 184 groups at two of the meetings in the community action cycle (attended by 3365 and 3047 women). Data on strategies implemented was collected through a survey of the 197 groups active in January 2010. Qualitative data on the identification and implementation of strategies was collected through 17 focus group discussions and 12 interviews with men and women. To address the maternal and child health problems identified the five most common strategies identified were: health education sessions, bicycle ambulances, training of traditional birth attendants, wetland vegetable garden (dimba garden) cultivation and distribution of insecticide treated bednets (ITNs). The five most common strategies actually implemented were: dimba garden cultivation, health education sessions, ITN distribution, health programme radio listening clubs and clearing house surroundings. The rationale behind the strategies and the factors facilitating and hindering implementation are presented. The potential impact of the strategies on health is discussed. Women's groups help communities to take control of their health issues and have the potential to reduce neonatal, infant and maternal mortality and morbidity in the longer term. PMID:24029397

  19. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-11-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2015; 8(6):265-272.]. PMID:26020580

  20. Pain control: mastery through group experience.

    PubMed

    Herman, E; Baptiste, S

    1981-02-01

    This paper describes a group program which is part of the therapeutic management of out-patients with chronic pain at the multidisciplinary Pain Clinic in Hamilton, Ontario (McMaster Division, Chedoke-McMaster Hospital). The programme seeks to assist chronic pain sufferers in developing more adaptive coping styles. Groups of 12--14 patients meet for 9 weeks, 3 h/week, under the co-leadership of a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist with backgrounds in psychology and psychiatry. Seventy-five patients with diverse aetiologies of chronic pain have completed these "pain control classes". Outcome was assessed on the basis of several parameters. Results indicate a considerable reduction in depression, pain perception and analgesic intake. Conversely, employment figures increased from 20 to 48% after completion of the program. 21% were considered failures. Significant variables differentiating successes from failures were sex, marital status, work incentive, employment and absence of litigation or Workmen's Compensation claims. PMID:7232014

  1. The Relationship between Objectified Body Consciousness and Wellness in a Group of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Stacey L.; Myers, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Objectified body consciousness theory provides a framework for understanding young women's negative body experiences and their impact on well-being. This study examined the impact of body surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs, the 3 components of objectified body consciousness, on wellness in college women. Data indicated a

  2. The Relationship between Objectified Body Consciousness and Wellness in a Group of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Stacey L.; Myers, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Objectified body consciousness theory provides a framework for understanding young women's negative body experiences and their impact on well-being. This study examined the impact of body surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs, the 3 components of objectified body consciousness, on wellness in college women. Data indicated a…

  3. Low-energy reporting in women at risk for breast cancer recurrence. Women's Healthy Eating and Living Group.

    PubMed

    Caan, B J; Flatt, S W; Rock, C L; Ritenbaugh, C; Newman, V; Pierce, J P

    2000-10-01

    This study examined the extent of low-energy reporting and its relationship with demographic and lifestyle factors in women previously treated for breast cancer. This study used data from a large multisite clinical trial testing the efficacy of a dietary intervention to reduce risk for breast cancer recurrence (Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study). Using the Schofield equation to estimate energy needs and four 24-h dietary recalls to estimate energy intakes, we identified women who reported lower than expected energy intakes using criteria developed by G. R. Goldberg et al. (Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 45: 569-581, 1991). We examined data from 1137 women diagnosed with stage I, stage II, or stage IIIA primary, operable breast cancer. Women were 18-70 years of age at diagnosis and were enrolled in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study between August 19, 1995, and April 1, 1998, within 4 years after diagnosis. The Goldberg criteria classified about one-quarter (25.6%) as low-energy reporters (LERs) and 10.8% as very LERs. Women who had a body mass index >30 were almost twice (odds ratio, 1.95) as likely to be LERs. Women with a history of weight gain or weight fluctuations were one and a half times as likely (odds ratio, 1.55) to be LERs as those who were weight stable or weight losers. Age, ethnicity, alcohol intake, supplement use, and exercise level were also related to LER. Characteristics (such as body mass index, age, ethnicity, and weight history) that are associated with low-energy reporting in this group of cancer survivors are similar to those observed in other populations and might affect observed diet and breast cancer associations in epidemiological studies. PMID:11045793

  4. [Is blood pressure control different in women than in men?].

    PubMed

    Oliveras, A; Sans-Atxer, L; Vázquez, S

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) evolves with age; until the 50's it is higher in men than in women, equaling and even then increasing in women. The prevalence of controlled BP appears to be similar between the sexes, but the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is higher in women than in men. The possibility that BP influences the cardiovascular risk differently according to sex must therefore be considered. While some studies suggest no difference exists, others have shown evidence of an increased risk in women with respect to men despite equal BP. In this way, it seems that the measurement of ambulatory BP, but not office BP, would mark the differences in the association between BP-gender and cardiovascular risk. It should therefore be investigated the possibility of a different BP goal for women and men, especially by evaluating ambulatory BP. PMID:26486463

  5. Reducing Postpartum Weight Retention and Improving Breastfeeding Outcomes in Overweight Women: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julia; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Hure, Alexis; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity is prevalent among women of reproductive age (42% BMI > 25 kg/m2) and parity is associated with risk of weight gain. Weight gain greater than that recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM )is also associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in women. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial is to examine the feasibility of recruiting and maintaining a cohort of pregnant women with the view of reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes. Women (BMI of 25–35 kg/m2 (n = 36)) were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were stratified by BMI and randomised to one of three groups with follow-up to six months postpartum. Women received a dietary intervention with or without breastfeeding support from a lactation consultant, or were assigned to a wait-list control group where the dietary intervention was issued at three months postpartum. Feasibility and acceptability was assessed by participation rates and questionnaire. Analysis of variance and covariance was conducted to determine any differences between groups. Sixty-nine per cent of the participants were still enrolled at six months postpartum. This pilot demonstrated some difficulties in recruiting women from antenatal clinics and retaining them in the trial. Although underpowered; the results on weight; biomarkers and breastfeeding outcomes indicated improved metabolic health. PMID:25723973

  6. Reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes in overweight women: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julia; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Hure, Alexis; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E

    2015-03-01

    Overweight and obesity is prevalent among women of reproductive age (42% BMI > 25 kg/m2) and parity is associated with risk of weight gain. Weight gain greater than that recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM )is also associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in women. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial is to examine the feasibility of recruiting and maintaining a cohort of pregnant women with the view of reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes. Women (BMI of 25-35 kg/m2 (n = 36)) were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were stratified by BMI and randomised to one of three groups with follow-up to six months postpartum. Women received a dietary intervention with or without breastfeeding support from a lactation consultant, or were assigned to a wait-list control group where the dietary intervention was issued at three months postpartum. Feasibility and acceptability was assessed by participation rates and questionnaire. Analysis of variance and covariance was conducted to determine any differences between groups. Sixty-nine per cent of the participants were still enrolled at six months postpartum. This pilot demonstrated some difficulties in recruiting women from antenatal clinics and retaining them in the trial. Although underpowered; the results on weight; biomarkers and breastfeeding outcomes indicated improved metabolic health. PMID:25723973

  7. Family group decision making: protecting children and women.

    PubMed

    Pennell, J; Burford, G

    2000-01-01

    With rising demands on child welfare, workers need to consider new options, including strategies that promote a collaborative effort of family, community, and government. Family group conferencing integrates efforts to advance child and adult safety and strengthens family unity while expanding its meaning. The conclusions in this article are based on family interviews and child protective services' file comparison from an outcome study of the Family Group Decision Making Project. PMID:10732256

  8. The stool microbiota of insulin resistant women with recent gestational diabetes, a high risk group for type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fugmann, Marina; Breier, Michaela; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Banning, Friederike; Ferrari, Uta; Sacco, Vanessa; Grallert, Harald; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Seissler, Jochen; Clavel, Thomas; Lechner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to metabolic diseases. However, information on the microbiome of young adults at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to investigate whether insulin resistant women with previous gestational diabetes (pGDM), a high risk group for T2D, differ in their stool microbiota from women after a normoglycemic pregnancy (controls). Bacterial communities were analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing using fecal samples from 42 pGDM and 35 control subjects 3–16 months after delivery. Clinical characterization included a 5-point OGTT, anthropometrics, clinical chemistry markers and a food frequency questionnaire. Women with a Prevotellaceae-dominated intestinal microbiome were overrepresented in the pGDM group (p < 0.0001). Additionally, the relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes was significantly lower in women pGDM (median 48.5 vs. 56.8%; p = 0.013). Taxa richness (alpha diversity) was similar between the two groups and with correction for multiple testing we observed no significant differences on lower taxonomic levels. These results suggest that distinctive features of the intestinal microbiota are already present in young adults at risk for T2D and that further investigations of a potential pathophysiological role of gut bacteria in early T2D development are warranted. PMID:26279179

  9. The stool microbiota of insulin resistant women with recent gestational diabetes, a high risk group for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, Marina; Breier, Michaela; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Banning, Friederike; Ferrari, Uta; Sacco, Vanessa; Grallert, Harald; Parhofer, Klaus G; Seissler, Jochen; Clavel, Thomas; Lechner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to metabolic diseases. However, information on the microbiome of young adults at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to investigate whether insulin resistant women with previous gestational diabetes (pGDM), a high risk group for T2D, differ in their stool microbiota from women after a normoglycemic pregnancy (controls). Bacterial communities were analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing using fecal samples from 42 pGDM and 35 control subjects 3-16 months after delivery. Clinical characterization included a 5-point OGTT, anthropometrics, clinical chemistry markers and a food frequency questionnaire. Women with a Prevotellaceae-dominated intestinal microbiome were overrepresented in the pGDM group (p < 0.0001). Additionally, the relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes was significantly lower in women pGDM (median 48.5 vs. 56.8%; p = 0.013). Taxa richness (alpha diversity) was similar between the two groups and with correction for multiple testing we observed no significant differences on lower taxonomic levels. These results suggest that distinctive features of the intestinal microbiota are already present in young adults at risk for T2D and that further investigations of a potential pathophysiological role of gut bacteria in early T2D development are warranted. PMID:26279179

  10. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pregnant Women: A Seroprevalence and Case-Control Study in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wei; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Zhou, Na; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Very limited information is available concerning the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in eastern China. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in this population group and to identify risk factors and possible routes of contamination. Serum samples were collected from 965 pregnant women and 965 age-matched nonpregnant control subjects in Qingdao and Weihai between October 2011 and July 2013. These were screened with enzyme linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. 147 (15.2%) pregnant women and 167 (17.3%) control subjects were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, while 28 (2.9%) pregnant women and 37 (3.8%) controls were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (P = 0.256). There was no significant difference between pregnant women and nonpregnant controls with regard to the seroprevalence of either anti-T. gondii IgG or IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with location, cats in home, contact with cats and dogs, and exposure to soil. The results indicated that the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women is high compared to most other regions of China and other East Asian countries with similar climatic conditions. PMID:26539465

  11. Support Groups, Marriage, and the Management of Ambiguity among HIV-Positive Women in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Rhine, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the African HIV epidemic, support groups are not simply spaces for discussions of social and health well-being; neither are they institutions functioning solely to cultivate self-responsible and economically empowered patients. HIV-positive women in northern Nigeria have appropriated a support group to facilitate their marriage arrangements. In this group, women negotiate the threats of stigma and the promises of respectable marriage through what I call the management of ambiguity surrounding their HIV status. I further argue that the practice of support group matchmaking reveals the local political economic dynamics that shape social and illness trajectories in resource-poor settings. PMID:23946544

  12. Early Screening and Treatment of Women with Prediabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Osmundson, Sarah S; Norton, Mary E; El-Sayed, Yasser Y; Carter, Susan; Faig, Jeffrey C; Kitzmiller, John L

    2016-01-01

    Objective?To examine whether women with prediabetes benefit from early treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Study Design?Women with a glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (A1C) of 5.7 to 6.4% at <14 weeks were recruited. Participants were randomized to usual care or treatment for GDM with diet, blood glucose monitoring, and insulin as needed. The primary outcome was a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 26 to 28 weeks. Secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery, birthweight, weight gain, and A1C change. Results?Between May 2012 and June 2014, 95 women were enrolled and 83 had data for analysis; 42 were randomized to treatment and 41 to usual care. The groups were similar in baseline characteristics with 40% obese. There was no difference in the primary outcome (treatment 45.2% vs. control 56.1%; relative risk [RR] 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53-1.24) except that women in the treatment group had a significantly lower A1C over time than women in the control group (p?=?0.04). Nonobese women (n?=?50) treated for GDM experienced a 50% reduction in GDM compared with controls (29.6 vs. 60.9%; RR 0.49; 95% CI 0.25-0.95). Conclusion?Early treatment for women with a first-trimester A1C of 5.7 to 6.4% did not significantly reduce the risk of GDM except in nonobese women. PMID:26344009

  13. Postpartum emotional distress: a controlled study of Nigerian women after caesarean childbirth.

    PubMed

    Ukpong, D I; Owolabi, A T

    2006-02-01

    The study investigated postpartum emotional distress including depression among 47 Nigerian women who had a caesarean section by comparing them at 6-8 weeks following childbirth with 47 matched controls who had normal vaginal delivery. Analysis of scores on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) showed that women that delivered by caesarean section were significantly different from the controls on the GHQ and BDI scores in the postpartum period. Apart from marital status, other sociodemographic variables did not significantly contribute to psychopathology in this group of women. This observation is in support of the view that caesarean childbirth may predispose Nigerian women to adverse psychological sequelae. PMID:16483968

  14. Knowledge, perceptions, and decision-making about human papillomavirus vaccination among Korean American women: A focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Boyoung; Choi, Eunsuk; Song, Youngshin; Han, Hae-Ra

    2014-01-01

    Objective As one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in the United States, Korean American (KA) women experience a heightened cervical cancer burden. The advent of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine offers an unprecedented opportunity to eliminate cervical cancer disparities in KA women. Yet, the uptake of HPV vaccine among KA adolescents remains suboptimal. Hence, we set out to explore knowledge, perceptions, and decision-making about HPV vaccination among KA women. Methods We conducted four focus groups of 26 KA women who participated in a community-based randomized controlled trial to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Focus group data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Four main themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) limited awareness and knowledge of HPV vaccine, (2) perceptions and beliefs about HPV vaccination (acceptance, negative perceptions, ambivalence), (3) patterns of decision-making about HPV vaccination (hierarchical, peer-influenced, autonomous, and collaborative), and (4) promoting HPV education and information-sharing in the Korean community. Conclusion KA women are generally favorable toward HPV vaccination but lack awareness and knowledge about HPV. Culturally tailored HPV education programs based on KA women’s decision-making patterns and effective information-sharing by trustworthy sources in comfortable environments are suggested strategies to promote HPV vaccination in the KA community. The findings point to the need for a multi-level approach to addressing linguistic, cultural, and system barriers that the recent immigrant community faces in promoting HPV vaccinations. In the development of targeted interventions for KA women, educational strategies and patterns of decision-making need to be considered. PMID:25747518

  15. A Women's Support Group for Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Joetta L.; Koyama, Miki; Thiagarajan, Monica

    2003-01-01

    International students underuse counseling services, which are grounded in Western cultural values. The authors describe a support group for Asian international students that they launched at a large midwestern university to help students feel at ease with American university life, address homesickness, language problems, and academic and social…

  16. Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic

  17. Women's knowledge about heart disease: Differences among ethnic and cultural groups in the Israeli Women's Health in Midlife Study.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Tzvia; Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to assess levels of knowledge about risk factors for heart disease among midlife Israeli women, and to evaluate the relationship of knowledge to personal risk factors and vulnerability to heart disease. Face-to-face interviews with women aged 45-64 years were conducted during 2004-2006 within three population groups: long-term Jewish residents (LTR), immigrants from the former Soviet Union, and Arab women. The survey instrument included six knowledge statements relating to: the risk after menopause, family history, elevated cholesterol level, diabetes, obesity, and warning signs of a heart attack. The findings showed wide disparities in knowledge by educational level and between immigrants and LTR, after taking into account personal risk factors and education. Personal risk factors were not significantly related to the knowledge items, except for personal history of cardiovascular disease, which was associated with knowledge about "warning signs of a heart attack" and "family history." Women who perceived themselves as more vulnerable to heart disease were more likely to identify several risk factors correctly. These findings stress the need to increase knowledge about heart disease, especially among less educated and minority women, and to emphasize the risk of patients' personal status by health providers. PMID:26214539

  18. Mutual support groups to reduce alcohol consumption by pregnant women: marketing implications.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M A; Coleman, N C; Murray, J P

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of social support and alcohol consumption of 153 women during pregnancy. The majority of women changed their alcohol intake patterns during pregnancy because of concern for the health of the fetus. Most women decreased the amount and frequency of drinking and changed their beverage of choice. Social support was found to be significantly related to reduction in alcohol use during pregnancy. Social support came from relationships with specific individuals and groups of individuals. Health care providers may be able to extend the range of their work by designing specific prevention strategies targeted toward the development and implementation of mutual support groups for pregnant women. The marketing discipline has identified certain characteristics of the mutual benefit association, an organization which exists exclusively for the benefit of its members. The authors propose that the mutual support group, often used to promote health-related behaviors, is a special case of the mutual benefit association; further, that appropriate application of established marketing principles and practices will be effective in promulgating the mutual support group. The authors offer a marketing strategy for the mutual support of pregnant women, a strategy which should be effective in further reducing the alcohol intake of pregnant women. PMID:10105907

  19. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160

  20. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy in a group of Australian women

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Della A; Denning, Angela; Wills, Gemma; Bolger, Melissa; McCarthy, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a public tertiary maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Secondary aims were to explore why women took the herbal medicine, where they received advice, what form the supplements took and if they perceived the supplements to be helpful. Methods Consecutive pregnant women were approached in the antenatal clinic and the birth centre at around 36–38 weeks gestation. A questionnaire was developed and self-administered in English, as well as being translated into the four most common languages of women attending the hospital: Cantonese, Vietnamese, Turkish and Arabic. Back translation into English was undertaken by different professional translators to verify accuracy of both words and concepts. Data collected included demographic information, model of pregnancy care and herbal supplement use. Descriptive statistics were used initially, with stratified and regression analysis to compare sub-groups. Results Of 705 eligible women, 588 (83%) agreed to participate. Of these, 88 (15%) completed the questionnaire in a language other than English. Thirty-six percent of women took at least one herbal supplement during the current pregnancy. The most common supplements taken were raspberry leaf (14%), ginger (12%) and chamomile (11%). Women were more likely to take herbal supplements if they were older, tertiary educated, English speaking, non-smokers and primiparous. Conclusion Use of herbal supplements in pregnancy is likely to be relatively high and it is important to ascertain what supplements (if any) women are taking. Pregnancy care providers should be aware of the common herbal supplements used by women, and of the evidence regarding potential benefits or harm. PMID:16780602

  1. Womens Sexual Arousal: Effects of High Alcohol Dosages and Self-Control Instructions

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    The basic relationship between alcohol and womens sexual arousal especially genital arousal received little research attention for nearly 30 years (e.g. Wilson & Lawson, 1978) until very recently (e.g. George et al., 2009). To investigate hypotheses based on earlier findings and Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT), two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of vaginal responding and self-reported sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, self-control instructions to maximize (versus suppress) arousal increased peak and average Vaginal Pulse Amplitude (VPA) change. Self-control also interacted with a target BAC of .08% (versus .00%) to influence latency to peak arousal onset: Intoxicated women instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to peak arousal than did intoxicated women instructed to suppress; however, sober women showed the same pattern. Also, in Experiment 1, the target BAC of .08% had no effect on VPA or subjective arousal measures. In Experiment 2, a target BAC of .10% (versus .00%) attenuated peak change and average change in VPA, but this dosage had no effects on latency to peak achieved arousal, or on subjective arousal. Instructions to maximize arousal (versus no instruction) had no effect on any arousal measures. Overall, among young moderate drinking women, alcohol had attenuating effects but only at the higher dosage. Maximize versus suppress instructions about arousal had predicted effects on arousal and interactive effects on latency, but only at the lower dosage. The findings highlight the importance of dosage and contextual factors in alcohols impact on the variability of womens sexual responding. PMID:21439287

  2. Feminist Group Counseling with South Asian Women Who Have Survived Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is presented.

  3. Enhancing Women's Lives: The Role of Support Groups among Breast Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Spiegel, David

    1999-01-01

    Reviews research indicating that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. States that Supportive-Expressive group therapy has been effective in assisting patients in reducing anxiety related to death and dying, strengthening interpersonal relationships, and improving the quality of

  4. Evaluating a Survivors Group Pilot for Women with Significant Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Howlett, Susan; Corbett, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse has been associated with trauma, low self-esteem, anger, depression and challenging behaviours. This pilot study builds on a small published literature by evaluating a survivors group (SG) for women with an intellectual disability and an educational support group (ESG) for their carers. Method: The SG was delivered weekly…

  5. Evaluating a Survivors Group Pilot for Women with Significant Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Howlett, Susan; Corbett, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse has been associated with trauma, low self-esteem, anger, depression and challenging behaviours. This pilot study builds on a small published literature by evaluating a survivors group (SG) for women with an intellectual disability and an educational support group (ESG) for their carers. Method: The SG was delivered weekly

  6. Health care utilization patterns of Russian-speaking immigrant women across age groups.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, L Louise; Buck, K

    2002-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 substantially increased the numbers of refugees and immigrants to the United States from the former Soviet Union. Little research has been conducted with this population although studies found that immigrant's access to health care services are based on patterns of utilization in their countries of origin. The purpose of this study was to learn about the experiences of immigrant women from three former Soviet Republics (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine) with women's health care services. Three focus groups of women were formed; ages 20-30, 37-46, and 60 and above. A focus-group guide was used to learn about their health care experiences. These immigrant women did access health care services based on patterns of utilization in their countries of origin. Greater understanding of immigrant populations' cultural patterns of health care utilization is needed to improve access and delivery of health care services to these populations. PMID:16228751

  7. The Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women: Report to the President and the Commission for Women--Recommendation Package #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

    The document presents partial recommendations of a Pennsylvania State University Study Group on the Status of Women at the University. Recommendations concern job assessment and evaluation, recruitment of women faculty, part-time benefits and compensation, and recruitment of women administrators. Among specific recommendations are the following:

  8. Improving Participation Rates for Women of Color in Health Research: The Role of Group Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community physical activity program for women of color. African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N=310) completed measurements at baseline and post-intervention and participated in a social cohesion intervention to improve physical activity and dietary habits. Women were assigned to a physical activity or fruit and vegetable intervention group. Social and task cohesion was measured using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGE-Q). Attendance was recorded at each of six intervention sessions. Women were generally middle-age (M age = 46.4 years, SD=9.1) and obese (M BMI = 34.4 kg/m2, SD=7.7). The estimate of the mediated effect was significant for all group cohesion constructs, indicating both task constructs—attraction to the group’s task (SE=0.096, CI: −0.599 to −0.221) and group integration around the task (SE=0.060, CI: −0.092 to −0.328)—and social constructs—attraction to the group’s social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: −0.546 to −0.366) and group integration around social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: −0.546 to −0.366)—significantly mediated the association between group assignment and attendance. Both task and social constructs are important to improve attendance in health promotion interventions for women of color. PMID:21826476

  9. Dynamics of colonization with group B streptococci in relation to normal flora in women during subsequent trimesters of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brzychczy-W?och, Monika; Pabian, Wojciech; Majewska, Elzbieta; Zuk, Ma Gorzata; Kielbik, Jadwiga; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Bulanda, Ma Gorzata

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of the study was to compare the qualitative and quantitative composition of vaginal and rectal flora in GBS-positive (n=15) and GBS-negative (n=27) pregnant women examined in three subsequent trimesters of their pregnancy. Study samples consisted of vaginal and rectal smears and urine samples. GBS numbers were determined by the quantitatively cultured method [cfu/ml] and with the use of qPCR. Five GBS colonies were isolated per each positive sample and genotyped by PFGE and serotyping. The normal flora components: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Candida were quantitatively cultured. Carriage of GBS in subsequent trimesters in vagina/anus was variable and fluctuated between 17% and 28%. Quantitative GBS analyses showed that the vaginal population was at a constant level with the mean value equal to 3.94104 cfu/ml, in contrast to the rectal population where the highest values appeared in the third trimester 4.37105. The use of qPCR gave 7% more positive results for vaginal/rectal swabs. Genetic similarity analysis showed that one GBS clone was present in 73% of carriers during pregnancy, while in 27% of patients, 2 clones were found. H2O2-positive vaginal lactobacilli were detected in all women, while H2O2-negative lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium occurred more frequently in the anus in about 50% of women. Candida was present in the vagina in 30% of women. The analysis of women in three consecutive trimesters of pregnancy on the basis of a study group and control group showed no statistically significant differences in either the species (qualitative) or quantitative composition in vaginal and rectal flora in both of the groups. Therefore, GBS should be considered as a component of the microbiota and an opportunistic microorganism rather than a typical pathogen, because it does not distort the composition of women's normal genital tract flora. PMID:25180845

  10. Exploring the Self/Group Initiated and On-the-Job Learning Activities of Low Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterwick, Shauna

    The self- and group-initiated and on-the-job learning activities of low-income women were explored in a study of a small group of low-income mothers living in the greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Canada. During the study, the low-income women attended meetings during which a participating researcher documented the women's experiences.…

  11. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  12. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background. PMID:18489287

  13. Does Screening or Providing Information on Resources for Intimate Partner Violence Increase Womens Knowledge? Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Klevens, Joanne; Sadowski, Laura S.; Kee, Romina; Garcia, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background Screening for IPV in health care settings might increase women's knowledge or awareness around its frequency and its impact on health. When IPV is disclosed, assuring women it is not their fault should improve their knowledge that IPV is the perpetrator's responsibility. Providing information about IPV resources may also increase women's knowledge about the availability of solutions. Methods Women (n=2708) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) partner violence screen plus video referral and list of local partner violence resources if screening was positive (n=909); (2) partner violence resource list only without screen (n=893); and (3) a no-screen, no-partner violence resource list control group (n=898). One year later, 2364 women (87%) were re-contacted and asked questions assessing their knowledge of the frequency of partner violence, its impact on physical and mental health, the availability of resources to help women experiencing partner violence, and that it is the perpetrator's fault. Results There were no differences between women screened and provided with a partner violence resource list compared to a control group as to women's knowledge of the frequency of IPV, its impact on physical or mental health, or the availability of IPV services in their community. However, among women who experienced IPV in the year before or year after enrolling in the trial, those who were provided a list of IPV resources without screening were significantly less likely to know that IPV is not the victim's fault than those in the control or list plus screening conditions. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that providing information on partner violence resources, with or without asking questions about partner violence, did not result in improved knowledge. PMID:26740959

  14. The Intersection of Everyday Life and Group Prenatal Care for Women in Two Urban Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Groce, Nora Ellen; Kennedy, Holly Powell

    2013-01-01

    Women from vulnerable populations encounter challenging circumstances that generate stress and may adversely affect their health. Group prenatal care (GPNC) incorporates features which address social stressors, and has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes and prenatal care experiences. In this qualitative study, we describe the complex circumstances in the lives of women receiving care in two urban clinics and how GPNC attenuated them. Stressors included problems with transportation and child care, demanding jobs, poverty, homelessness, difficult relationships with partners, limited family support, and frustrating health care experiences. Receiving prenatal care in groups allowed women to strengthen relationships with significant others, gain social support, and develop meaningful relationships with group leaders. By eliminating waits and providing the opportunity to participate in care, GPNC also offered sanctuary from frustrations encountered in receiving individual care. Reducing such stressors may help improve pregnancy outcomes; however, more evidence is needed on mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:22643609

  15. Safety planning in focus groups of Malawian women living with HIV: helping each other deal with violence and abuse.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Stevens, Patricia E; Kako, Peninnah M; Dressel, Anne

    2013-11-01

    In this critical ethnography, 72 HIV-infected women in Southern Malawi participated in 12 focus groups discussing the impact of HIV and violence. Our analysis, informed by a postcolonial feminist perspective, revealed women's capacity to collectively engage in safety planning. We present our findings about women's experiences based on narratives detailing how women collectively strategized safety planning efforts to mitigate the impact of violence. This study helps to fill a gap in the literature on the intersection between HIV and violence in women's lives. Strategies discussed by the women could form a basis for safety planning interventions for women in similar circumstances. PMID:24322953

  16. Efficacy of a Group-Based Multimedia HIV Prevention Intervention for Drug-Involved Women under Community Supervision: Project WORTH

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A.; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Importance This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. Objective We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. Design, Setting, Participants, and Intervention We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Results Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02–0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57–0.90). Conclusion and Relevance The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01784809 PMID:25372149

  17. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups

    PubMed Central

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control. PMID:26074832

  18. Exploring Somali women's reproductive health knowledge and experiences: results from focus group discussions in Mogadishu.

    PubMed

    Gure, Faduma; Yusuf, Marian; Foster, Angel M

    2015-11-01

    With a total fertility ratio of 6.7 children per woman, a maternal mortality ratio over 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births, high rates of sexual and gender-based violence, and the lowest contraceptive prevalence rate in the world, women's reproductive health indices in Somalia prove alarming. The voices of women living in Somalia have long been neglected and we undertook this qualitative study to explore women's reproductive health knowledge and experiences. In 2014, we conducted four focus group discussions with 21 married and unmarried women of reproductive age living in Mogadishu, Somalia. Discussions took place in Somali and we used a constant comparative approach to analyse the discussions for content and themes. Our findings reveal that misinformation, restrictive policies, mistrust of clinicians, and prohibitively expensive services shape women's experiences and health-seeking behaviours. Women identified the need for culturally resonant reproductive health information and services as a significant priority. As Somalia begins to emerge from over two decades of civil war, it is imperative that comprehensive reproductive health issues are included on the national agenda and that women's perspectives are incorporated into future policies and interventions. PMID:26719005

  19. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

  20. Effects of cognitive and experiential group therapy on self-efficacy and perceptions of employability of chemically dependent women.

    PubMed

    Washington, O

    1999-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study assessed effects of cognitive and experiential group therapy on self-efficacy and perceptions of employability for 52 chemically dependent adult women. The sample was 98% African American. Therapy consisted of six 90-min group sessions held twice weekly. The participants were pre- and posttested with the Self-Efficacy Scale (M. Sherer et al., 1982) and the Ghiselli Self-Description Inventory (E. E. Ghiselli, 1975). After the intervention, the cognitive group had significantly higher levels than the experiential group of social self-efficacy and need for self-actualization, an indicator of aspiration for employment. General self-efficacy and decisiveness, indicators of employability, significantly increased over time for both groups. Interventions to enhance people's belief in their ability to successfully perform tasks and control outcomes, promote personal growth, teach responsibility, and enhance self-awareness could be used to develop employability skills that reduce recidivism. PMID:10633639

  1. Actions of the Burkina Faso women in physics working group at the University of Ouagadougou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, Ptronille; Zerbo, Issa

    2013-03-01

    At the University of Ouagadougou, the largest university in Burkina Faso, the percentage of female student enrollment in the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit was 5.1% (for all the levels) from 2006 to 2009-this rate was 2.3% for physics. For the same period, 22 women out of 455 students (4.8%) were enrolled in PhD (all the fields of the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit) and three women out of 180 students (1.7%) registered in physics PhD. During the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2008, the Burkina Faso Working Group proposed some strategies to attract more women to physics and all the sciences. Some actions were initiated at the University of Ouagadougou as well as in secondary schools. These actions and the feedback of female students are presented.

  2. Socio-economic differences in food group and nutrient intakes among young women in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all P<0001), yogurt (P=0001), low-fat spread (P=0002) and fresh meat (P=0003). They also had higher intakes of butter, processed red meats, white bread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P<0001) and full-fat milk (P=0014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P=0017), fat (P<0001), saturated fat (P<0001), refined sugar (P<0001), folate (P=0050), vitamin C (P<0001), vitamin D (P=0047) and Ca (P=0019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions. PMID:23721781

  3. Obstetric outcomes for nulliparous women who received routine individualized treatment for severe fear of childbirth - a retrospective case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To study pregnancy and delivery outcomes in nulliparous women with severe FOC (fear of childbirth), all of whom had received routine treatment for their FOC and to make comparisons with a healthy reference group of nulliparous women. To study the possible relationship between the number of FOC-treatment sessions and the delivery method. Methods All nulliparous women with a diagnose FOC who received routine treatment for FOC (n?=?181) and a reference group of nulliparous women without FOC (n?=?431) at a university and a county hospital in the south east region of Sweden were analysed. Data from antenatal and delivery medical records were used to study outcome. Results The majority of women with severe FOC had a vaginal delivery. The incidence of elective CS was greater in the index group than in the reference group (p?women with a planned CS in the index group was 35 (19.4%) and in the control group 14 (3.2%). Thus, on average five women per year received an elective CS during the study years due to severe FOC. The women in the index group who wished to have a CS were similar to the other women in the index group with reference to age, BMI, chronic disease but had been in in-patient care more often during their pregnancy than those who did not ask for CS (p?=?0.009). Conclusion In this study of women treated for severe FOC, the majority gave birth vaginally and no relationship was found between number of treatment sessions and mode of childbirth. PMID:24694283

  4. Postural changes in women with chronic pelvic pain: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, Mary LLS; Mateus-Vasconcelos, Elaine CL; Rosa e Silva, Jlio C; dos Reis, Francisco J Candido; Nogueira, Antonio A; Poli-Neto, Omero B

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a lower abdominal pain lasting at least 6 months, occurring continuously or intermittently and not associated exclusively with menstruation or intercourse. Although the musculoskeletal system has been found to be involved in CPP, few studies have assessed the contribution of posture in women with CPP. We aimed to determine if the frequency of postural changes was higher in women with CPP than healthy subjects. Methods A case-control study included 108 women with CPP of more than 6 months' duration (CPP group) who consecutively attended at the Hospital of the University of So Paulo and 48 healthy female volunteers (control group). Postural assessment was noninvasive and performed in the standing position, with the reference points of Kendall used as normal parameters. Factors associated with CPP were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Logistic regression showed that the independent factors associated with CPP were postural changes in the cervical spine (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.610.7; p < 0.01) and scapulae (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.17.6; p < 0.05). Conclusion Musculoskeletal changes were associated with CPP in 34% of women. These findings suggest that a more detailed assessment of women with CPP is necessary for better diagnosis and for more effective treatment. PMID:19583850

  5. Dynamics and controls working group summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The technology status of the dynamics and controls discipline as it applies to energy storage wheel systems was evaluated. No problems were identified for which an adequate solution could not be proposed. Design issues that influence control were addressed. The dynamics and control aspects associated with the energy storage system concept and its various constituent parts, and the control tasks attendant to large, manned spacecraft are discussed.

  6. Informal and Formal Support Groups Retain Women and Minorities in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Maria

    2005-10-01

    Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of "acceptable" appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of "accruing capital." Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.

  7. Pain expression in the perioperative period: insights from a focus group of Somali women.

    PubMed

    Ness, Sheryl M

    2009-06-01

    In recent years, the number of Somali persons treated in the U.S. has increased significantly. Understanding the concepts of pain and pain expression is an important aspect of nursing care. However, pain expression within this specific cultural group has not been extensively studied. This study, guided by core concepts from Margaret Newman's theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness used a focus group design to evaluate the concepts of pain expression within this population. The results of this study provide insight into how Somali women express pain, using verbal and nonverbal communication, and reveal other dynamics that are interconnected with the pain experience. The results show that pain expression for Somali women include verbal expressions that may be unique to the Somali culture. The results are helpful in developing a tool that can be used by others working with Somali women who are experiencing pain. Implications for improving transcultural nursing care, including pain assessment, management, and patient education are summarized. PMID:19481045

  8. Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiota among Sexual Risk Behavior Groups of Women with Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Muzny, Christina A.; Sunesara, Imran R.; Kumar, Ranjit; Mena, Leandro A.; Griswold, Michael E.; Martin, David H.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Schwebke, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) remains elusive. BV may be more common among women who have sex with women (WSW). The objective of this study was to use 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the vaginal microbiome of WSW, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM), and women who have sex with men (WSM) with BV to determine if there are differences in organism composition between groups that may inform new hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of BV. Methods Vaginal swab specimens from eligible women with BV at the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic were used. After DNA extraction, 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences was performed. Sequence data was classified using the Ribosomal Database Program classifer. Complete linkage clustering analysis was performed to compare bacterial community composition among samples. Differences in operational taxonomic units with an abundance of ?2% between risk behavior groups were determined. Alpha and beta diversity were measured using Shannons Index implemented in QIIME and Unifrac analysis, respectively. Results 33 WSW, 35 WSWM, and 44 WSM were included. The vaginal bacterial communities of all women clustered into four taxonomic groups with the dominant taxonomic group in each being Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, and Sneathia. Regarding differences in organism composition between risk behavior groups, the abundance of Atopobium (relative ratio (RR)=0.24; 95%CI 0.11-0.54) and Parvimonas (RR=0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.93) were significantly lower in WSW than WSM, the abundance of Prevotella was significantly higher in WSW than WSWM (RR=1.77; 95%CI 1.10-2.86), and the abundance of Atopobium (RR=0.41; 95%CI 0.18-0.88) was significantly lower in WSWM than WSM. Overall, WSM had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Conclusion The microbiology of BV among women in different risk behavior groups is heterogeneous. WSM in this study had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Additional studies are needed to better understand these differences. PMID:24236175

  9. The Delivery of a Survivors' Group for Learning Disabled Women with Significant Learning Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Corbett, Alan; Howlett, Susan; McKee, Alan; Pattison, Sue

    2007-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are more likely to experience sexual things happening to them when they do not want them to. This is called sexual abuse. A group was started to help women who have been sexually abused. The group met once a week and lasted for 20 weeks. Women who were interested in attending this group were given information

  10. Control Group Methods for HPT Program Evaluation and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Establishes a theoretical foundation for control groups; defines four types of control groups applicable to HPT (human performance technology) program evaluation and measurement; explores their validity; and presents scenarios for an electronic learning program to demonstrate the applicability of the control group methods for HPT program

  11. Empowering rural women's groups for strengthening economic linkages: some Indian experiments.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal

    1999-05-01

    Through organizing informal self-help groups (SHGs), rural women in India are provided credit and extension support for various production-oriented income-generating activities. These activities usually include garment-making, embroidery, food processing, bee-keeping, basketry, gem cutting, weaving, and knitting. SHGs are self-governed, with decisions about production and marketing taken collectively, although the group leader is responsible for identifying potential marketing centers and consumers. These groups represent a new culture in rural development, breaking with traditional bureaucracy and top-down management. Informal groups empower rural women to manage rural industries and make decisions collectively for their common economic interests. Experience with SHGs in Orissa, lessons from nongovernmental organization intervention, and a model for empowering poor people in a small town in Kerala are discussed. PMID:12295206

  12. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg…

  13. Group Interventions with Low-Income African American Women Recovering from Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.

    2003-01-01

    Presents finding from an investigation of two group therapy modalities involving 93 women with dependent children and limited education and income levels. An overview of intervention activities that participants found beneficial is presented. Programs were found to help participants develop a sense of community, reduce stress, improve

  14. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg

  15. Incivility among Group Mates in English Classes at a Japanese Women's University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; Kimura, Harumi; Greliche, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Incivilities are words and actions that may be perceived as impolite. This article reports a study of perceptions of and experiences with incivilities during group activities in English class. Participants were 119 students at a women's university in Japan. They completed the Pair/Groupwork Incivility Scale, a Japanese-language instrument, which…

  16. Deconstructing the Mirror's Reflection: Narrative Therapy Groups for Women Dissatisfied with Their Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duba, Jill D.; Kindsvatter, Aaron; Priddy, Constance J.

    2010-01-01

    Women facing middle age and beyond are pressured by a cultural ideal of slimness. The authors review literature pertaining to the factors affecting the societal perceptions of body image and address relevant counseling interventions, specifically, group therapy based on narrative theory, that are aimed at this population.

  17. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  18. Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.

  19. Group Psychotherapy for Women with a History of Incest: The Research Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and

  20. A Creative Model for a Post-Treatment Group for Women with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slakov, June; Leslie, Mary

    2003-01-01

    A four-week experiential group for women at the British Columbia Cancer Agency offers the creative tools of art, meditation, and journal writing to help focus the inner work of healing in the presence of others. Using comments from the participants, a brief history, framework, and overview are outlined. (Contains 24 references.) (GCP)

  1. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None

  2. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Strizzi, Jenna; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Pappadis, Monique; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Valdivia Tangarife, Edgar Ricardo; Fernandez Agis, Inmaculada; Perrin, Paul B.; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can substantially alter many areas of a person's life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls) from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS). Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p < 0.001), FSFI subscales of desire (p < 0.05), arousal (p < 0.05), lubrication (p < 0.05), orgasm (p < 0.05), and satisfaction (p < 0.05), and the ISS (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs. PMID:26556951

  3. THE AUXILIARY TREATMENT OF PSYCHOTIC WOMENGroup Therapy for Their Husbands

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Gene; Bowman, Karl M.

    1953-01-01

    Group therapy for the husbands of hospitalized psychotic women relieved the anxiety and feeling of guilt of the husbands and led to better communication between husband and wife. It was particularly helpful just before and after the wife came home from the hospital. The group meetings saved various members of the hospital staff considerable time which they otherwise would have had to devote to the husbands individually. PMID:13042665

  4. Using Focus Groups To Develop a Heart Disease Prevention Program for Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettleman, Lynn; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2000-01-01

    Focus groups with diverse low-income women generated ideas about cardiovascular disease interventions. Women preferred programs that: addressed multiple risk factors; emphasized staying healthy for themselves; taught skills for adopting heart-healthy behaviors; and offered choices in effecting behavior change. Women stressed the need for health

  5. Decisions about prenatal testing for chromosomal disorders: perceptions of a diverse group of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Moyer, A; Brown, B; Gates, E; Daniels, M; Brown, H D; Kuppermann, M

    1999-05-01

    We conducted a study to elucidate factors influencing women's decisions regarding prenatal genetic screening for and diagnosis of chromosomal disorders and to learn about their experiences with these tests and with the medical system. Using focus group interviews and questionnaire assessments, we obtained detailed impressions of a diverse group of 75 pregnant women. Participants varied with respect to race/ethnicity, religious background, and reproductive history, as well as in their decisions about use of prenatal screening and diagnostic testing. Substantial variation surfaced in attitudes toward testing. Factors influencing women's views included available resources, feelings about having a child with Down syndrome, moral beliefs, family and social influences, perceptions of one's own health, the difficulty of becoming pregnant, and willingness to put the fetus at elevated miscarriage risk. Such findings indicate that age-based policies regarding access to prenatal diagnoses that, among other reasons, are based on the balance of risks between bearing a child with a chromosomal abnormality versus procedure-related loss are incompatible with the range of concerns that women bring to this decision and the weight individual women may assign to the outcomes. PMID:10839707

  6. A complex intervention to improve pregnancy outcome in obese women; the UPBEAT randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread recognition that obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, there is no intervention proven to reduce the risk of these complications. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess in obese pregnant women, whether a complex behavioural intervention, based on changing diet (to foods with a lower glycemic index) and physical activity, will reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and delivery of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. A secondary aim is to determine whether the intervention lowers the long term risk of obesity in the offspring. Methods/Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing a behavioural intervention designed to improve glycemic control with standard antenatal care in obese pregnant women. Inclusion criteria; women with a BMI ?30kg/m2 and a singleton pregnancy between 15+0weeks and 18+6weeks gestation. Exclusion criteria; pre-defined, pre-existing diseases and multiple pregnancy. Randomisation is on-line by a computer generated programme and is minimised by BMI category, maternal age, ethnicity, parity and centre. Intervention; this is delivered by a health trainer over 8 sessions. Based on control theory, with elements of social cognitive theory, the intervention is designed to improve maternal glycemic control. Women randomised to the control arm receive standard antenatal care until delivery according to local guidelines. All women have a 75g oral glucose tolerance test at 27+0- 28+6weeks gestation. Primary outcome; Maternal: diagnosis of GDM, according to the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria. Neonatal; infant LGA defined as >90th customised birth weight centile. Sample size; 1546 women to provide 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the incidence of GDM and a 30% reduction in infants large for gestational age. Discussion All aspects of this protocol have been evaluated in a pilot randomised controlled trial, with subsequent optimisation of the intervention. The findings of this trial will inform whether lifestyle mediated improvement of glycemic control in obese pregnant women can minimise the risk of pregnancy complications. Trial registration Current controlled trials; ISRCTN89971375. PMID:24533897

  7. The role of focus groups in health education for cervical cancer among minority women.

    PubMed

    Dignan, M; Michielutte, R; Sharp, P; Bahnson, J; Young, L; Beal, P

    1990-12-01

    Focus groups were used in the development of community-based public health education designed to reduce mortality from cervical cancer among black women in Forsyth County, North Carolina. The educational goals of this National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded project were to increase the proportion of black women, age 18 and older, who obtain Pap smears on a regular basis and return for followup care when necessary. A series of four focus groups were conducted to help develop the conceptual basis for designing educational messages and materials. The groups were led by a black, female professional focus group moderator, and explored a variety of health-related topics ranging from general, ordinary concerns of daily living to knowledge and attitudes about cancer screening. The group discussions suggested that health is regarded as very important to the target population, particularly when related to family functioning. Regarding the Pap smear, most women knew about the test, but had little awareness of its role in the early detection of cervical cancer. Fear and fatalism were clearly the dominant, top-of-mind reactions to cancer, and there was little differentiation among sites or types of cancer. Despite the overall pessimism, the groups agreed that early diagnosis and treatment provide the best hope for good outcomes with cancer. PMID:2280036

  8. Group Versus Individual Phone-Based Obesity Treatment for Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    Befort, Christie A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Perri, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Rural women have among the highest rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyle, yet few studies have examined strategies for delivering state-of-the-art obesity treatment to hard-to-reach rural areas. The purpose of this pilot trial was to examine the impact and cost-effectiveness of a 6-month behavioral weight loss program delivered to rural women by phone either one-on-one with a counselor or to a group via conference call. Thirty-four rural women (mean BMI=34.4, SD=4.6) were randomized to group phone-based treatment or individual phone-based treatment. Completers analysis showed that weight loss was greater in the group condition (mean=14.9 kg=, SD=4.4) compared to the individual condition (mean=9.5 kg, SD=5.2; p=.03). Among the total sample, 62% of participants in the group condition achieved the 10% weight loss goal compared to 50% in the individual condition, and group treatment was found to be more cost-effective. Future research is warranted to examine the benefits of group phone-based treatment for long-term management of obesity among rural populations. PMID:19962115

  9. Control Group Design: Enhancing Rigor in Research of Mind-Body Therapies for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research. PMID:23662111

  10. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts. PMID:11161200

  11. The equity impact of participatory womens groups to reduce neonatal mortality in India: secondary analysis of a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Houweling, Tanja AJ; Tripathy, Prasanta; Nair, Nirmala; Rath, Shibanand; Rath, Suchitra; Gope, Rajkumar; Sinha, Rajesh; Looman, Caspar W; Costello, Anthony; Prost, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has been uneven. Inequalities in child health are large and effective interventions rarely reach the most in need. Little is known about how to reduce these inequalities. We describe and explain the equity impact of a womens group intervention in India that strongly reduced the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) in a cluster-randomised trial. We conducted secondary analyses of the trial data, obtained through prospective surveillance of a population of 228 186. The intervention effects were estimated separately, through random effects logistic regression, for the most and less socio-economically marginalised groups. Among the most marginalised, the NMR was 59% lower in intervention than in control clusters in years 2 and 3 (70%, year 3); among the less marginalised, the NMR was 36% lower (35%, year 3). The intervention effect was stronger among the most than among the less marginalised (P-value for difference = 0.028, years 2-3; P-value for difference = 0.009, year 3). The stronger effect was concentrated in winter, particularly for early NMR. There was no effect on the use of health-care services in either group, and improvements in home care were comparable. Participatory community interventions can substantially reduce socio-economic inequalities in neonatal mortality and contribute to an equitable achievement of the unfinished MDG agenda. PMID:23509239

  12. Young Women with Breast Cancer: A Focus Group Study of Unmet Needs

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Mary L.; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Meyer, Meghan E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Young women with breast cancer suffer distress both at the time of diagnosis and afterwards. This study aimed to elucidate which issues are most disturbing to this population and which might be amenable to intervention. Methods: English-speaking women treated or involved in research at the DanaFarber Cancer Institute for stage IIII breast cancer while aged 1842 years were invited to participate in one of four focus groups. A trained moderator led each 90-minute audio-recorded group using a semi-structured interview guide. All transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis with NVivo software. Results: Thirty-six women participated. Three major themes emerged from the analyses of these focus groups' data: (1) participants felt different from older breast cancer patients with regard to relationships, fertility, menopausal symptoms, treatment side effects, and work/finances; (2) participants faced unique challenges transitioning into the survivorship phase of care; and (3) participants desired assistance, including connections with other young patients, help navigating the healthcare system, educational materials, and lists of appropriate counselors. Conclusion: Young women with breast cancer have unmet needs for psychosocial support, education, and symptom management, and can identify potential support that may help meet these needs. PMID:24380034

  13. Looking Out for The Secret Wound: The Effect of E-Cognitive Group Therapy with Emotional Disclosure on The Status of Mental Health in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Morshed Behbahani, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considering the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among infertile women, it seems that gynecologists, psychiatrists, and psychologists should be more attentive to identify and treat these disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of E-cognitive group therapy with emotional disclosure on mentwal health status of infertile women who are receiving assisted reproduction. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 80 infertile women who were receiving hormonal therapy or other assisted reproductive technologies (ART) were randomly allocated to the cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) group or the control group. The CBT group had a weekly 12-hour meeting for a period of three months. They also participated in some painting sessions (art therapy) and written and verbal emotional disclosure (both individually and in group presentation). The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) test and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) were used for data gathering. Results: Results showed the level of psychological distress decreased in the control group, but not significantly. Psychological intervention in the treatment group significantly lowered the level of psychological distress; the mean score of DASS in all aspects was significant. The difference between the mean score of the two groups after intervention was significant (p=0.001) and also according to ANCOVA (p=0.002). Differences were significant between the mean scores of both groups in the PSWQ (p=0.001), Inventory Test (p=0.001), which was confirmed by ANCOVA (p=0.009). Conclusion: These finding suggest that CBT with emotional self-disclosure promotes coping strategies among infertile women. Results also show that these approaches develop mental health and decrease stress in infertile women. Using a psychiatric approach in medical settings could help infertile women to promote their adjustment with mental health problems due to of in infertility. (Registration Number: IRCT201108247407N2). PMID:25493164

  14. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: Results from a focus groups assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n=28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3±8.9 years; BMI 40.4±8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g. from children, people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

  15. Adrenergic control of lipolysis in women compared with men

    PubMed Central

    Bessesen, Daniel H.; Stotz, Sarah; Peelor, Frederick F.; Miller, Benjamin F.; Horton, Tracy J.

    2014-01-01

    Data suggest women are more sensitive to the lipolytic action of epinephrine compared with men while maintaining similar glucoregulatory effects (Horton et al. J Appl Physiol 107: 200210, 2009). This study aimed to determine the specific adrenergic receptor(s) that may mediate these sex differences. Lean women (n = 14) and men (n = 16) were studied on 4 nonconsecutive days during the following treatment infusions: saline (S: control), epinephrine [E: mixed ?-adrenergic (lipolytic) and ?2-adrenergic (antilipolytic) stimulation], epinephrine + phentolamine (E + P: mixed ?-adrenergic stimulation only), and terbutaline (T: selective ?2-adrenergic stimulation). Tracer infusions of glycerol, palmitate, and glucose were administered to determine systemic lipolysis, free fatty acid (FFA) release, and glucose turnover, respectively. Following basal measurements, substrate and hormone concentrations were measured in all subjects over 90 min of treatment and tracer infusion. Women had greater increases in glycerol and FFA concentrations with all three hormone infusions compared with men (P < 0.01). Glycerol and palmitate rate of appearance (Ra) and rate of disappearance (Rd) per kilogram body weight were greater with E infusion in women compared with men (P < 0.05), whereas no sex differences were observed with other treatments. Glucose concentration and kinetics were not different between sexes with any infusion. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the greater rate of lipolysis in women with infusion of E was likely due to lesser ?2 antilipolytic activation. These findings may help explain why women have greater lipolysis and fat oxidation during exercise, a time when epinephrine concentration is elevated. PMID:25190743

  16. Adrenergic control of lipolysis in women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stacy L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Stotz, Sarah; Peelor, Frederick F; Miller, Benjamin F; Horton, Tracy J

    2014-11-01

    Data suggest women are more sensitive to the lipolytic action of epinephrine compared with men while maintaining similar glucoregulatory effects (Horton et al. J Appl Physiol 107: 200-210, 2009). This study aimed to determine the specific adrenergic receptor(s) that may mediate these sex differences. Lean women (n = 14) and men (n = 16) were studied on 4 nonconsecutive days during the following treatment infusions: saline (S: control), epinephrine [E: mixed β-adrenergic (lipolytic) and α2-adrenergic (antilipolytic) stimulation], epinephrine + phentolamine (E + P: mixed β-adrenergic stimulation only), and terbutaline (T: selective β2-adrenergic stimulation). Tracer infusions of glycerol, palmitate, and glucose were administered to determine systemic lipolysis, free fatty acid (FFA) release, and glucose turnover, respectively. Following basal measurements, substrate and hormone concentrations were measured in all subjects over 90 min of treatment and tracer infusion. Women had greater increases in glycerol and FFA concentrations with all three hormone infusions compared with men (P < 0.01). Glycerol and palmitate rate of appearance (Ra) and rate of disappearance (Rd) per kilogram body weight were greater with E infusion in women compared with men (P < 0.05), whereas no sex differences were observed with other treatments. Glucose concentration and kinetics were not different between sexes with any infusion. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the greater rate of lipolysis in women with infusion of E was likely due to lesser α2 antilipolytic activation. These findings may help explain why women have greater lipolysis and fat oxidation during exercise, a time when epinephrine concentration is elevated. PMID:25190743

  17. Barriers to disclosing and reporting violence among women in Pakistan: findings from a national household survey and focus group discussions.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic violence. Nearly one third of the 23,430 women interviewed had experienced physical violence. Only 35% of them had told anyone about it, almost always someone within their own family. Several personal and family factors were associated with disclosure. Having discussed the issue and feeling empowered to discuss violence were consistent associations. Of the 7,895 women who had suffered physical violence, only 14 had reported the matter to the police. Female focus groups said women who report violence risk their reputation and bring dishonor to the family; women fear reporting violence because it may exacerbate the problem and may lead to separation or divorce and loss of their children. Focus groups of men and women were skeptical about community leaders, councilors, and religious leaders supporting reporting of violence. They suggested setting up local groups where abused women could seek help and advice. There are strong disincentives to reporting violence in Pakistan, which are well known to women. Until better systems for reporting and dealing with reported cases are in place, domestic violence will continue to be a hidden scourge here and elsewhere. PMID:20007557

  18. Soy proteins and isoflavones affect bone mineral density in older women: a randomized controlled trial123

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Anne M; Mangano, Kelsey M; Abourizk, Robin H; Bruno, Richard S; Anamani, Denise E; Kleppinger, Alison; Walsh, Stephen J; Prestwood, Karen M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Soy foods contain several components (isoflavones and amino acids) that potentially affect bone. Few long-term, large clinical trials of soy as a means of improving bone mineral density (BMD) in late postmenopausal women have been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the long-term effect of dietary soy protein and/or soy isoflavone consumption on skeletal health in late postmenopausal women. Design: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women aged >60 y. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. After a 1-mo baseline period, subjects were randomly assigned into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g) + isoflavone tablets (105 mg isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein + placebo tablets, control protein + isoflavone tablets, and control protein + placebo tablets. Results: Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone pills did not differ between groups, and compliance with the study powder and pills was 8090%. No significant differences in BMD were observed between groups from baseline to 1 y after the intervention or in BMD change between equol and non-equol producers. However, there were significant negative correlations between total dietary protein (per kg) and markers of bone turnover (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Because soy protein and isoflavones (either alone or together) did not affect BMD, they should not be considered as effective interventions for preserving skeletal health in older women. The negative correlation between dietary protein and bone turnover suggests that increasing protein intakes may suppress skeletal turnover. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00668447. PMID:19474141

  19. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening. PMID:26134040

  20. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt medium for group B streptococcus screening in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andria Frana; Silva, Flvia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lcia Dias; de Pdua, Rbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ? 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paran, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ? 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  1. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt Medium for Group B Streptococcus Screening in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andria Frana; Silva, Flvia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lcia Dias; de Pdua, Rbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ? 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paran, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ? 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  2. Support group processes: Perspectives from HIV-infected women in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mundell, J.P.; Visser, M.J.; Makin, J.D.; Forsyth, B.W.; Sikkema, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the experiences and perceived benefits of support group participation among HIV-infected women in South Africa. From a qualitative analysis of responses, key psychological processes through which support groups are potentially beneficial were identified. These processes included: identification; modeling; acceptance; and empowerment. The participants’ consequent life changes were explored in order to associate these processes with the positive outcomes of support group participation. Through understanding the relationship between the psychological processes within a support group setting and the potential benefits, and by targeting these processes in the development and implementation of future support group interventions, a framework is provided for achieving positive outcomes associated with support group participation. PMID:22514790

  3. Association between ABO blood group and osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder

    2014-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to examine possible associations between ABO blood groups and the risk of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India. This cross-sectional study involved 250 postmenopausal women from North India, ranging in age from 45 to 80 years. Four anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference), blood sample (ABO status and haemoglobin concentration) and grip strength (dominant as well as non-dominant hand) of all the participants were taken. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal femur. Analysis of data revealed that at lumbar spine (L1-L4) osteoporosis was more prevalent among individuals with blood group A (31.58%), followed by those with blood group B (29.67%), AB (28.57%) and then blood group O (15%), whereas for proximal femur individuals with blood group AB (21.43%) showed the highest prevalence of osteoporosis followed by a decreasing trend from blood group A (17.54%) to B (12.08%) and then O (5%). Total prevalence of osteoporosis was 26.4% in lumbar spine and 13.2% in proximal femur, indicating that lumbar spine had an elevated risk for osteoporosis among postmenopausal women. All the anthropometric variables, haemoglobin concentration as well as grip strength of individuals with blood group O demonstrated non-significant differences with non-O blood group except for weight and body mass index, where differences were statistically significant. Women with blood group O exhibited significantly higher bone mineral density for lumbar spine (0.90 g/cm(2) vs. 0.85 g/cm(2), p<0.05) and proximal femur (0.87 g/cm(2) vs. 0.79 g/cm(2), p<0.05) as compared to those with non-O blood group, thereby suggesting an increasing risk of osteoporosis among individuals with non-O blood group. PMID:25451514

  4. The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African…

  5. The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African

  6. A Systematic Review of Training Interventions Addressing Sexual Violence against Marginalized At-Risk Groups of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with…

  7. Organizational Repertoires and Institutional Change: Women's Groups and the Transformation of U.S. Politics, 1890-1920.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elisabeth S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses social changes brought about in the United States as a result of the women's suffrage movement. Explains that groups marginalized by existing institutions must create alternative organizations if they are to be successful. Describes political innovations used by women's groups in the struggle for voting rights. (CFR)

  8. A Systematic Review of Training Interventions Addressing Sexual Violence against Marginalized At-Risk Groups of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with

  9. A randomised controlled trial of caseload midwifery care: M@NGO (Midwives @ New Group practice Options)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Australia has an enviable record of safety for women in childbirth. There is nevertheless growing concern at the increasing level of intervention and consequent morbidity amongst childbearing women. Not only do interventions impact on the cost of services, they carry with them the potential for serious morbidities for mother and infant. Models of midwifery have proliferated in an attempt to offer women less fragmented hospital care. One of these models that is gaining widespread consumer, disciplinary and political support is caseload midwifery care. Caseload midwives manage the care of approximately 35-40 a year within a small Midwifery Group Practice (usually 4-6 midwives who plan their on call and leave within the Group Practice.) We propose to compare the outcomes and costs of caseload midwifery care compared to standard or routine hospital care through a randomised controlled trial. Methods/design A two-arm RCT design will be used. Women will be recruited from tertiary women's hospitals in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Women allocated to the caseload intervention will receive care from a named caseload midwife within a Midwifery Group Practice. Control women will be allocated to standard or routine hospital care. Women allocated to standard care will receive their care from hospital rostered midwives, public hospital obstetric care and community based general medical practitioner care. All midwives will collaborate with obstetricians and other health professionals as necessary according to the woman's needs. Discussion Data will be collected at recruitment, 36 weeks antenatally, six weeks and six months postpartum by web based or postal survey. With 750 women or more in each of the intervention and control arms the study is powered (based on 80% power; alpha 0.05) to detect a difference in caesarean section rates of 29.4 to 22.9%; instrumental birth rates from 11.0% to 6.8%; and rates of admission to neonatal intensive care of all neonates from 9.9% to 5.8% (requires 721 in each arm). The study is not powered to detect infant or maternal mortality, however all deaths will be reported. Other significant findings will be reported, including a comprehensive process and economic evaluation. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000349246 PMID:22029746

  10. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P.; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Cánovas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomaríz-Peñalver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E.; Cárceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Martínez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7) and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3). Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus. PMID:24142184

  11. Preventing Weight Gain in Women in Rural Communities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Catherine; Harrison, Cheryce; Kozica, Samantha; Zoungas, Sophia; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Teede, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information. Methods and Findings We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters) randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21) or control (n = 20). Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her) consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women’s health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/− SD 6.7) and BMI of 28.8 kg/m2 (+/− SD 6.9) with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI −0.09 to 0.97) and in the intervention group −0.48kg (95% CI −0.99 to 0.03) with an unadjusted between group difference of −0.92 kg (95% CI −1.67 to −0.16) or −0.87 kg (95% CI −1.62 to −0.13) adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures. Conclusions A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the persistent weight gain observed in women. Key features included community integration, nonprescriptive simple health messages, small changes to behaviour, low participant burden, self-weighing, and delivery including a mix of group, phone, and SMS text reminders. The findings support population strategies to halt the rise in obesity prevalence. PMID:26785406

  12. Examining the Efficacy of a Brief Group Protective Behavioral Strategies Skills Training Alcohol Intervention With College Women

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    College students’ use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students’ use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women randomized to either a PBS skills training intervention or study skills control condition. Participants attended a 45-min group session and completed online surveys pre- and postintervention (1 month and 6 months). We conducted a series of 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANCOVAs with condition and baseline mental health (anxiety/depression) as the between-subjects factors and time as the within-subjects factor. Intervention participants, relative to controls, reported significantly greater increases in PBS use and reductions in both heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consequences. The intervention was particularly effective in increasing PBS use at 1 month among participants with high anxiety. Further, tests of moderated mediation showed a significant conditional indirect effect of condition on 1-month consequences through PBS use among participants with high levels of anxiety. Findings provide preliminary support for a brief PBS-specific group intervention to reduce alcohol risk among college women, particularly anxious women. Future research is needed to strengthen the long-term effectiveness of the present approach and further explore the moderating effects of mental health. PMID:25347024

  13. Getting more than they realized they needed: a qualitative study of women's experience of group prenatal care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pregnant women in Canada have traditionally received prenatal care individually from their physicians, with some women attending prenatal education classes. Group prenatal care is a departure from these practices providing a forum for women to experience medical care and child birth education simultaneously and in a group setting. Although other qualitative studies have described the experience of group prenatal care, this is the first which sought to understand the central meaning or core of the experience. The purpose of this study was to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for women who participated in CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada. Methods The study used a phenomenological approach. Twelve women participated postpartum in a one-on-one interview and/or a group validation session between June 2009 and July 2010. Results Six themes emerged: (1) "getting more in one place at one time"; (2) "feeling supported"; (3) "learning and gaining meaningful information"; (4) "not feeling alone in the experience"; (5) "connecting"; and (6) "actively participating and taking on ownership of care". These themes contributed to the core phenomenon of women "getting more than they realized they needed". The active sharing among those in the group allowed women to have both their known and subconscious needs met. Conclusions Women's experience of group prenatal care reflected strong elements of social support in that women had different types of needs met and felt supported. The findings also broadened the understanding of some aspects of social support beyond current theories. In a contemporary North American society, the results of this study indicate that women gain from group prenatal care in terms of empowerment, efficiency, social support and education in ways not routinely available through individual care. This model of care could play a key role in addressing women's needs and improving health outcomes. PMID:22436393

  14. Coping, quality of life and psychological symptoms in three groups of sub-fertile women.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Olga B A

    2005-05-01

    The process of assisted reproductive technology (ART), surrogacy and adoption pose different physical and psychological burdens on sub-fertile populations. Sub-fertile women (n = 176) were assessed retrospectively by questionnaire to determine if process (undergoing ART, surrogacy or adoption) or outcome (having a successful versus unsuccessful outcome) affected quality of life, coping style and psychological symptoms. The ART group was significantly younger, had a shorter period of sub-fertility, and was least likely to have a child than the adoptive and surrogate groups. Quality of life and psychological symptoms were not significantly different between groups, although significantly higher Mental Disengagement and Denial coping strategy scores were obtained for the ART group. Social, psychological, health and functioning quality of life, and Denial coping strategies were good predictors of outcome group. Treatment specific counselling of individuals use of coping strategies early on in their in/subfertility career to cope with the reality of prolonged childlessness is indicated. PMID:15911191

  15. Using focus groups to develop contingent valuation scenarios--a case study of women's groups in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Josephine; Shrestha, Daya L; Shrestha, Deepa; Jan, Stephen

    2007-02-01

    The construction of a contingent valuation (CV) scenario forms a critical component of willingness-to-pay (WTP) survey design, especially when working across diverse cultural and socio-economic settings. However, the methods used to develop CV scenarios have not been well reported in the health economics literature. This paper begins by describing how qualitative methods can be used to develop CV surveys. It then presents a case study illustrating how focus groups were used to develop a CV survey to value a women's group intervention in rural Nepal. A series of focus group discussions were conducted with three stakeholder groups. These were used to determine the most appropriate description of the good to be valued and the means by which payment would be elicited. These methods were very helpful in designing the survey tool and choosing the key attributes to describe the intervention. They also familiarised field workers with the concept of WTP. Further work of this kind will help to highlight additional advantages and limitations of qualitative approaches to survey design. PMID:17107740

  16. Continuity of midwifery care and gestational weight gain in obese women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of obesity in pregnant women in Australia and other developed countries is a significant public health concern. Obese women are at increased risk of serious perinatal complications and guidelines recommend weight gain restriction and additional care. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of dietary and physical activity lifestyle interventions in preventing adverse perinatal outcomes and new strategies need to be evaluated. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of continuity of midwifery care on restricting gestational weight gain in obese women to the recommended range. The secondary aims of the study are to assess the impact of continuity of midwifery care on: women's experience of pregnancy care; women's satisfaction with care and a range of psychological factors. Methods/Design A two arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted with primigravid women recruited from maternity services in Victoria, Australia. Participants will be primigravid women, with a BMI≥30 who are less than 17 weeks gestation. Women allocated to the intervention arm will be cared for in a midwifery continuity of care model and receive an informational leaflet on managing weight gain in pregnancy. Women allocated to the control group will receive routine care in addition to the same informational leaflet. Weight gain during pregnancy, standards of care, medical and obstetric information will be extracted from medical records. Data collected at recruitment (self administered survey) and at 36 weeks by postal survey will include socio-demographic information and the use of validated scales to measure secondary outcomes. Discussion Continuity of midwifery care models are well aligned with current Victorian, Australian and many international government policies on maternity care. Increasingly, midwifery continuity models of care are being introduced in low risk maternity care, and information on their application in high risk populations is required. There is an identified need to trial alternative antenatal interventions to reduce perinatal risk factors for women who are obese and the findings from this project may have application in other maternity services. In addition this study will inform a larger trial that will focus on birth and postnatal outcomes. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610001078044. PMID:21426582

  17. Autonomic control of cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Irina W.; Kiselev, Anton R.; Karavaev, Antoly S.; Prokhorov, Mikhail D.; Gridnev, Vladimir I.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I.; Bezruchko, Boris P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the features of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women. Material and Methods We studied 185 postmenopausal women aged 59.38.5 years (meanSD) and 104 premenopausal women aged 45.15.8 years. Standard indices of heart rate variability (HRV) (mean heart rate, coefficient of variation, standard deviation of the NN interval (the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram with normal sinus rhythm) (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), proportion derived by dividing RR50, the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms, by the total number of NN intervals (PNN50), and power of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands in absolute values and percentages of total spectral power) and index S of synchronization between the 0.1-Hz rhythms in heart rate and photoplethysmogram were compared between these two groups at rest. We assessed the following sex hormones: estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone. Results Mean heart rate and power of LF and HF bands were significantly different (p<0.05) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The autonomic indices were similar in women with natural and surgical menopause. Some indices (coefficient of variation, SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50, and power of LF and HF bands) showed weak correlation with menopause time in women with natural menopause. In women with surgical menopause, a moderate statistically significant correlation was observed only between menopause time and S index (r=?0.41, p=0.039). In premenopausal women, only testosterone correlated weakly with coefficient of variation, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, and power of HF band. In postmenopausal women, no correlations were found. We did not find any significant relationship between autonomic indices and hot flashes, assessed by hot flash diary. Conclusion We did not find a clinically important relationship between cardiovascular autonomic control and menopausal status in women. PMID:25788843

  18. Isoflavone Soy Protein Supplementation and Atherosclerosis Progression in Healthy Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hodis, Howard N.; Mack, Wendy J.; Kono, Naoko; Azen, Stanley P.; Shoupe, Donna; Hwang-Levine, Juliana; Petitti, Diana; Whitfield-Maxwell, Lora; Yan, Mingzhu; Franke, Adrian A.; Selzer, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that dietary intake of soy may be cardioprotective, use of isoflavone soy protein (ISP) supplementation as a primary preventive therapy remains unexplored. We determined whether ISP reduces subclinical atherosclerosis assessed as carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 350 postmenopausal women 45–92 years of age without diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were randomized to 2 evenly divided daily doses of 25 g soy protein containing 91 mg aglycon isoflavone equivalents or placebo for 2.7-years. Results Overall, mean (95% confidence interval) CIMT progression rate was 4.77(3.39–6.16) μm/year in the ISP group and 5.68(4.30–7.06) μm/year in the placebo group. Although CIMT progression was reduced on average by 16% in the ISP group relative to the placebo group, this treatment effect was not statistically significant (p=0.36). Among the subgroup of women who were randomized within 5 years of menopause, ISP participants had on average a 68% lower CIMT progression rate than placebo participants 2.16(−1.10–5.43) vs. 6.79(3.56–10.01) μm/year, p=0.05). ISP supplementation had a null effect on women who were >5 years beyond menopause when randomized. There were no major adverse events from ISP supplementation. Conclusion ISP supplementation did not significantly reduce subclinical atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women. Subgroup analysis suggest that ISP supplementation may reduce subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy young (median age, 53 years) women at low-risk for CVD who were <5 years postmenopausal. These first trial results of their kind warrant further investigation. PMID:21903957

  19. Lay support for pregnant women with social risk: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Sara; Jolly, Kate; Hemming, Karla; Hope, Lucy; Blissett, Jackie; Dann, Sophie-Anna; Lilford, Richard; MacArthur, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought evidence of effectiveness of lay support to improve maternal and child outcomes in disadvantaged families. Design Prospective, pragmatic, individually randomised controlled trial. Setting 3 Maternity Trusts in West Midlands, UK. Participants Following routine midwife systematic assessment of social risk factors, 1324 nulliparous women were assigned, using telephone randomisation, to standard maternity care, or addition of referral to a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW) service. Those under 16 years and teenagers recruited to the Family Nurse Partnership trial were excluded. Interventions POWs were trained to provide individual support and case management for the women including home visiting from randomisation to 6 weeks after birth. Standard maternity care (control) included provision for referring women with social risk factors to specialist midwifery services, available to both arms. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were antenatal visits attended and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) 8–12 weeks postpartum. Prespecified, powered, subgroup comparison was among women with 2 or more social risks. Secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal birth outcomes; maternal self-efficacy, and mother-to-infant bonding at 8–12 weeks; child development assessment at 6 weeks, breastfeeding at 6 weeks, and immunisation uptake at 4 months, all collected from routine child health systems. Results Antenatal attendances were high in the standard care control and did not increase further with addition of the POW intervention (10.1 vs 10.1 (mean difference; MD) −0.00, 95% CI (95% CI −0.37 to 0.37)). In the powered subgroup of women with 2 or more social risk factors, mean EPDS (MD −0.79 (95% CI −1.56 to −0.02) was significantly better, although for all women recruited, no significant differences were seen (MD −0.59 (95% CI −1.24 to 0.06). Mother-to-infant bonding was significantly better in the intervention group for all women (MD −0.30 (95% CI −0.61 to −0.00) p=0.05), and there were no differences in other secondary outcomes. Conclusions This trial demonstrates differences in depressive symptomatology with addition of the POW service in the powered subgroup of women with 2 or more social risk factors. Addition to existing evidence indicates benefit from lay interventions in preventing postnatal depression. This finding is important for women and their families given the known effect of maternal depression on longer term childhood outcomes. Trial registration number ISRCTN35027323; Results. PMID:26936901

  20. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios. PMID:23637315

  1. Looking for Celiac Disease in Italian Women with Endometriosis: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Sebastiano; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Gallo, Antonella; Campo, Vincenzo; Palombini, Guglielmo; Santoliquido, Angelo; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, a potential link between endometriosis and celiac disease has been hypothesized since these disorders share some similarities, specifically concerning a potential role of oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunological dysfunctions. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease among Italian women with endometriosis with respect to general population. Consecutive women with a laparoscopic and histological confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis were enrolled; female nurses of our institution, without a known history of endometriosis, were enrolled as controls. IgA endomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies measurement and serum total IgA dosage were performed in both groups. An upper digestive endoscopy with an intestinal biopsy was performed in case of antibodies positivity. Presence of infertility, miscarriage, coexistence of other autoimmune diseases, and family history of autoimmune diseases was also investigated in all subjects. Celiac disease was diagnosed in 5 of 223 women with endometriosis and in 2 of 246 controls (2.2% versus 0.8%; P = 0.265). Patients with endometriosis showed a largely higher rate of infertility compared to control group (27.4% versus 2.4%; P < 0.001). Our results confirm that also in Italian population an increased prevalence of celiac disease among patients with endometriosis is found, although this trend does not reach the statistical significance. PMID:24804204

  2. Intra-group Stigma: Examining Peer Relationships Among Women in Recovery for Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Alana J.; Canada, Kelli E.

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory study explores how women with histories of addiction perceive stigma while in treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women participating in a residential drug treatment center. Previous research has found that support from peers during recovery can be critical to managing illnesses. In fact, researchers have postulated that peers can be a more effective form of support than even family. This study extends existing literature indicating that peer support systems can be supportive, however they can also can be perceived as negative support that impose stigmas. Findings reveal that women perceive stigmas due to how various types of drug use violate societal expectations and conflict with notions of deservingness. Specifically, the “hard users” (i.e., women who use heroin or crack cocaine) perceive stigmas regarding how their drug use violates norms of womanhood. Moreover, the “soft users” (i.e., those who use alcohol or marijuana) perceive stigmas that their drug use is considered undeserving of support. This paper explores the factors that contribute to stigma amongst populations who potentially face marginalization from larger society. Implications for treatment and group work are discussed. PMID:26617439

  3. Bioavailability of levonorgestrel from intravaginal rings in women of low income groups.

    PubMed

    Madhavan Nair, K; Sivakumar, B; Prema, K; Narasinga Rao, B S

    1986-03-01

    Two types of intravaginal rings (IVR) containing 50-128 mg of levonorgestrel (LNOG) and 28-60 mg of estradiol were inserted in 18 apparently normal subjects belonging to the low socioeconomic group on day 5 of the cycle. A total of 120 cycles were studied with cyclic insertion and withdrawal. Data on menstrual cycle changes were noted. For bioavailability study, blood samples were collected twice weekly for a period of one month in the first cycle in 8 women. All the plasma samples were analysed for LNOG and progestrone by RIA. Cycle control was excellent in IVR users. Expulsion of the ring was noted in 4 instances. The plasma LNOG levels were found to reach a peak level ranging from 2.7-7.5 ng/ml within 4 days after the IVR insertion. In between day 9 to 24, the plasma levels appeared to be almost steady, and once the ring was removed, the levels dropped off rapidly. The mean plasma LNOG calculated during the steady-state period of the cycle ranged from 1.6-5.1 ng/ml. These mean LNOG levels were found to be inversely correlated with skin-fold at triceps. In all the subjects ovulation was found to be inhibited, as reflected by plasma progesterone values. The range of release rates calculated from plasma steady-state values was 51-119 micrograms/day. The average release rates over the entire period of observation based on area under curve were 102-200 micrograms/day. On the other hand, the release rates obtained from the residual drug in the ring after a period of use ranged from 184-259 micrograms/day. PMID:3087697

  4. Auricular acupuncture for chemically dependent pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial of the NADA protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of maternal drug use during pregnancy in North America has been estimated to be as high as 6-10%. The consequences for the newborn include increased risk for perinatal mortality and ongoing physical, neurobehavioral, and psychosocial problems. Methadone is frequently used to wean women off street drugs but is implicated as a cause of adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes itself. The purpose of our study was to test the ability of maternal acupuncture treatment among mothers who use illicit drugs to reduce the frequency and severity of withdrawal symptoms among their newborns. Methods We randomly assigned chemically dependent pregnant women at BC Women’s Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia to daily acupuncture treatments versus usual care. By necessity, neither our participants nor acupuncturists were blinded as to treatment allocation. Our primary outcome was days of neonatal morphine treatment for symptoms of neonatal withdrawal. Secondary neonatal outcomes included admission to a neonatal ICU and transfer to foster care. Results We randomized 50 women to acupuncture and 39 to standard care. When analyzed by randomized groups, we did not find benefit of acupuncture; the average length of treatment with morphine for newborns in the acupuncture group was 2.7 (6.3) compared to 2.8 (7.0) in the control group. Among newborns of women who were compliant with the acupuncture regime, we observed a reduction of 2.1 and 1.5 days in length of treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome compared to the non-compliant and control groups, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Acupuncture may be a safe and feasible treatment to assist mothers to reduce their dosage of methadone. Our results should encourage ongoing studies to test the ability of acupuncture to mitigate the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome among their newborns. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov registry: W05-0041 PMID:23259913

  5. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 913-year-old children; 4060-year-old adults; and 5075-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%44.1% and 4.2%7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  6. Food group and micronutrient intake adequacy among children, adults and elderly women in Greece.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%-44.1% and 4.2%-7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  7. Cervical Cancer Control for Hispanic Women in Texas: Effective Strategies from Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Maria E.; Savas, Lara S.; Lipizzi, Erica; Smith, Jennifer S.; Vernon, Sally W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hispanic women in Texas have among the highest rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the country. Increasing regular Papanicolaou test screening and HPV vaccination are crucial to reduce the burden of cervical cancer among Hispanics. This paper presents lessons learned from community-based cervical cancer control programs in Texas and highlights effective intervention programs, methods and strategies. Methods We reviewed and summarized cervical cancer control efforts targeting Hispanic women in Texas, focusing on interventions developed by researchers at the University of Texas, School of Public Health. We identified commonalities across programs, highlighted effective methods, and summarized lessons learned to help guide future intervention efforts. Results Community-academic partnerships were fundamental in all steps of program development and implementation. Programs reviewed addressed psychosocial, cultural, and access barriers to cervical cancer control among low-income Hispanic women. Intervention approaches included lay health worker (LHW) and navigation models and used print media, interactive tailored media, photonovellas, client reminders, one-on-one and group education sessions. Conclusions Small media materials combined with LHW and navigation approaches were effective in delivering Pap test screening and HPV vaccination messages and in linking women to services. Common theoretical methods included in these approaches were modeling, verbal persuasion, and facilitating access. Adaptation of programs to an urban environment revealed that intensive navigation was needed to link women with multiple access barriers to health services. Collectively, this review reveals 1) the importance of using a systematic approach for planning and adapting cervical cancer control programs; 2) advantages of collaborative academic-community partnerships to develop feasible interventions with broad reach; 3) the use of small media and LHW approaches and the need for tailored phone navigation in urban settings; and 4) coordination and technical assistance of community-based efforts as a way to maximize resources. PMID:24398135

  8. Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:…

  9. Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:

  10. The Effect of Stationary Walking on the Quality of Life of the Elderly Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dehi, Manijeh; Aghajari, Parvaneh; Shahshahani, Maryam; Takfallah, Leila; Jahangiri, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Aging has a profound effect on all the body organs and quality of life. One of the appropriate interventions is exercises such as walking. Nevertheless, the risk of falling and its complications are lower in stationary walking than walking on ground. Due to the higher life expectancy in women than men, the increasing number of elderly, and the low quality of life of women compared to men, this study aimed to assess the impact of stationary walking on the quality of life of the elderly women. Methods: In this clinical trial, 66 household elderly women covered by health centers of Maragheh were randomly selected and divided into experimental and control groups. Six weeks exercise intervention was conducted. The participants completed the quality of life questionnaire of the elderly, before and after the intervention. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Results: Mean scores of quality of life, in various aspects of the experimental group, before and after intervention, showed significant difference; there was no statistically significant difference in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in the mean and standard deviation of different aspects of quality of life in pre- and post-test of experiment and control groups. Conclusion: Using regular and constant exercise program such as stationary walking can increase the quality of life of the elderly women. It can improve healthy aging and having a healthy life at this age, too. Therefore, it is recommended to have stationary walking program in daily lives of the elderly. PMID:25276753

  11. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of

  12. 26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled groups. 1.267(f)-1 Section 1.267(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible 1.267(f)-1 Controlled groups. (a) In general(1) Purpose. This section provides rules under section...

  13. 26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Controlled groups. 1.267(f)-1 Section 1.267(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible 1.267(f)-1 Controlled groups. (a) In general(1) Purpose. This section provides rules...

  14. Efficacy of a group-based dietary intervention for limiting gestational weight gain among obese women: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Vesco, Kimberly K.; Karanja, Njeri; King, Janet C.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Leo, Michael C.; Perrin, Nancy; McEvoy, Cindy T.; Eckhardt, Cara L.; Smith, K. Sabina; Stevens, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Observational studies suggest that minimal gestational weight gain (GWG) may optimize pregnancy outcomes for obese women. This trial tested the efficacy of a group-based weight management intervention for limiting GWG among obese women. Methods We randomized 114 obese women (BMI [mean±SD] 36.7±4.9 kg/m2) between 7–21 weeks’ (14.9±2.6) gestation to intervention (n=56) or usual care control conditions (n=58). The intervention included individualized calorie goals, advice to maintain weight within 3% of randomization and follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern without sodium restriction, and attendance at weekly group meetings until delivery. Control participants received one-time dietary advice. Our three main outcomes were maternal weight change from randomization to 2 weeks postpartum and from randomization to 34 weeks gestation, and newborn large-for-gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile, LGA). Results Intervention participants gained less weight from randomization to 34 weeks gestation (5.0 vs 8.4 kg, mean difference=−3.4 kg, 95% CI [−5.1, −1.8]), and from randomization to 2 weeks postpartum (−2.6 vs +1.2 kg, mean difference=−3.8 kg, 95% CI [−5.9, −1.7]). They also had a lower proportion of LGA babies (9% vs. 26%, odds ratio=0.28, 95% CI [0.09, 0.84]). Conclusions The intervention resulted in lower GWG and lower prevalence of LGA newborns. PMID:25164259

  15. The Effect of Sleep Health Behavioral Education on the Depression of Pregnant Women With Sleep Disorders: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Elham; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Hagani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 79% of the pregnant women experience sleep disorders and 70% of pregnant women experience some symptoms of the depression. Physiologic, hormonal, and physical changes of pregnancy can predispose mothers to depression these disorders before, during, and after childbirth and might be aggravated by neglecting health behavior. Health behavior education might be useful for the management of depression in pregnant women. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sleep health behavioral education on the improvement of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial, performed on 96 pregnant women with sleep disorder diagnosed according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Tools for data collection included demographic questionnaire and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Easy and accessible sampling was done. Participants were randomly (simple) allocated to intervention and control groups. In intervention group, sleep health behavior education was presented during a four-hour session held in weeks 22, 23, 24, and 25; then the patients were followed up to fill out the BDIQ in follow-up session at weeks 29 and 33 of pregnancy. The control group received no intervention and only received routine prenatal care. The results were assessed by Chi-square tests, independent-samples t-test, and Fischers exact-test by SPSS 16. Results: A statistically significant change was reported in the severity of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders in the intervention group in comparison to the control group at weeks 29 (P < 0.000) and 33 (P < 0.00). Conclusions: Sleep health behavioral education improves depression in pregnant women who are experiencing insomnia. Findings from this study add support to the reported effectiveness of sleep health behavioral education in the prenatal care and clinical management of insomnia in pregnancy. PMID:25763271

  16. Who we were and who we will be: the temporal context of women's in-group stereotype content.

    PubMed

    Morton, Thomas A; Rabinovich, Anna; Postmes, Tom

    2012-06-01

    Research has elaborated considerably on the dimensions of out-group stereotype content and on the origins and functions of different content combinations. Less attention has been given to the origins and functions of in-group stereotype content. We argue that in-group stereotypes are likely to serve different social identity functions, and thus attract different content, dependent on individual differences in in-group identification and on the temporal perspective of the perceiver. Two studies (Ns = 43 and 93) found that women's in-group stereotype content varied as a function of gender group identification and temporal perspective. When the past was primed, highly identified women generated stereotypes that emphasized the warmth (but not competence) of their group. When the future was primed, highly identified women generated stereotypes that emphasized the competence (as well as warmth) of their group. These results are discussed in terms of the use of stereotypes for social creativity versus social change. PMID:21410479

  17. Adiposity and postural balance control: Correlations between bioelectrical impedance and stabilometric signals in elderly Brazilian women

    PubMed Central

    Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira; de Carvalho Rodrigues, Érika; de Oliveira, Juliana Flávia; de Sá Ferreira, Arthur; Dias, Cristina Márcia; dos Santos Silva, André Luís

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between body adiposity and postural control in elderly women. INTRODUCTION: Aging and obesity account for a significant portion of healthcare spending. Life expectancy is increasing worldwide, and Rio de Janeiro has the largest proportion of elderly residents of all Brazilian states. METHODS: A total of 45 women underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis, waist circumference measurements, weight and height measurements, and stabilometric tests in eight different stance conditions (opened and closed bases with both eyes opened and closed and right and left tandem and unilateral stances with eyes opened). During unilateral stances, the number of hand or foot contacts was counted. RESULTS: Weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fat percentage, and fat mass showed statistically significant (p<0.05) and positive correlations with the number of contacts made during unilateral stances. The subjects with greater fat mass showed significantly higher anterior-posterior standard deviation and range when their eyes were closed. The sway area was also greater for this group in opened base when their eyes were closed. DISCUSSION: The results relating body adiposity and postural control can be explained by the difficulty of maintaining a greater quantity of body fat mass within the limits of the individual support base, especially while assuming a unilateral stance. CONCLUSION: The subjects with a greater fat mass exhibited poor balance control, indicating that body adiposity level was associated with postural control in the elderly women examined in the present study. PMID:22179151

  18. Examining Delay Discounting of Condom-Protected Sex Among Opioid-Dependent Women and Non-Drug-Using Control Women

    PubMed Central

    Herrman, Evan S.; Hand, Dennis J.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Badger, Gary J.; Heil, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid-dependent (OD) women tend to engage in unprotected sex with high-risk partners, placing themselves at elevated risk for sexually transmitted HIV infection. This behavior generally persists after completion of interventions that increase sexual HIV risk reduction knowledge and skills, suggesting that decision-making biases may influence HIV transmission among OD women. Methods The primary aim of this report is to examine delay discounting of condom-protected sex among OD women and non-drug-using control women using the novel Sexual Discounting Task (SDT; Johnson and Bruner, 2012). Data were collected from 27 OD women and 33 non-drug-using control women using the SDT, a monetary discounting task, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Results OD women discounted the value of delayed condom-protected sex more steeply than controls for hypothetical sexual partners in the two sets of paired partner conditions examined. Overall, women discounted condom protected sex more steeply for partners they perceived as being lowest STI risk vs. those they perceived as being highest risk. Steeper discounting of condomprotected sex was significantly associated with higher scores on the BIS-11, but not with discounting of money. Conclusions Delay discounting of condom-protected sex differs between OD women and non-drug-using women, is sensitive to perceived partner risk, and is correlated with a self-report measure of impulsivity, the BIS-11. The effect of delay on sexual decision-making is a critical but underappreciated dimension of HIV risk among women, and the SDT appears to be a promising measure of this domain. Further investigation of these relationships is warranted. PMID:25190049

  19. Evaluation of support groups for women with breast cancer: importance of the navigator role

    PubMed Central

    Till, James E

    2003-01-01

    Background At least some forms of breast cancer are increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness, where an emphasis is placed on meeting the various ongoing needs of people living with cancer, their families and other members of their social support networks. This commentary outlines some approaches to the evaluation of cancer-related support groups, with a particular emphasis on those designed to provide long-distance support, via the internet, for women with breast cancer. Discussion The literature on evaluations of community-based cancer support groups indicates that they offer a number of benefits, and that it is more reasonable to expect an impact of such interventions on psychosocial functioning and/or health-related quality of life than on survival. The literature on both face-to-face and online social support groups suggests that they offer many advantages, although evaluation of the latter delivery mechanism presents some ethical issues that need to be addressed. Many popular online support groups are peer-moderated, rather than professionally-moderated. In an evaluation of online support groups, different models of the role of the "navigator" need to be taken into account. Some conceptual models are outlined for the evaluation of the "navigator role" in meeting the informational, decisional and educational needs of women with breast cancer. The Breast-Cancer Mailing List, an example of an unmoderated internet-based peer-support group, is considered within the context of a Shared or Tacit Model of the navigator role. Conclusion Application of the concept of a "navigator role" to support groups in general, and to unmoderated online ones in particular, has received little or no attention in the research literature. The navigator role should be taken into account in research on this increasingly important aspect of cancer communication. PMID:12756054

  20. Antenatal telephone support intervention with and without uterine artery Doppler screening for low risk nulliparous women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of routine antenatal visits provided to low risk nulliparous women has been reduced in the UK, acknowledging this change in care may result in women being less satisfied with their care and having poorer psychosocial outcomes. The primary aim of the study was to investigate whether the provision of proactive telephone support intervention (TSI) with and without uterine artery Doppler screening (UADS) would reduce the total number of antenatal visits required. A secondary aim was to investigate whether the interventions affected psychological outcomes. Methods A three-arm randomised controlled trial involving 840 low risk nulliparous women was conducted at a large maternity unit in North East England. All women received antenatal care in line with current UK guidance. Women in the TSI group (T) received calls from a midwife at 28, 33 and 36weeks and women in the telephone and Doppler group (T?+?D) received the TSI and additional UADS at 20weeks gestation. The main outcome measure was the total number of scheduled and unscheduled antenatal visits received after 20weeks gestation. Results The median number of unscheduled (n?=?2.0), scheduled visits (n?=?7.0) and mean number of total visits (n?=?8.8) were similar in the three groups. The majority (67%) of additional antenatal visits were made to a Maternity Assessment Unit because of commonly occurring pregnancy complications. Additional TSI+/UADS was not associated with differences in clinical outcomes, levels of anxiety, social support or satisfaction with care. There were challenges to the successful delivery of the telephone support intervention; 59% of women were contacted at 29 and 33weeks gestation reducing to 52% of women at 37weeks. Conclusions Provision of additional telephone support (with or without UADS) in low risk nulliparous women did not reduce the number of unscheduled antenatal visits or reduce anxiety. This study provides a useful insight into the reasons why this client group attend for unscheduled visits. Trial registration ISRCTN62354584 PMID:24685072

  1. A Pilot Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Electroacupuncture for Women with Pure Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanfang; Liu, Baoyan; Wu, Jiani; Du, Ruosang; Liu, Xiaoxu; Yu, Jinna; Liu, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is a potential conservative therapy for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). There is limited evidence to support its effectiveness due to the poor quality of existing studies. Methods We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial to preliminarily assess the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) in women with pure SUI. A total of 80 women with pure SUI were randomly assigned to receive EA with deep needling at BL33 and BL35 (n = 40) or sham EA with non-penetrating needling at sham acupoints (n = 40) three sessions per week for 6 weeks. The women were followed for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the amount of urine leakage measured by a 1-hour pad test after 6 weeks. The secondary outcomes included the 72-hour incontinence episode frequency (IEF), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score, and patient self-evaluation of therapeutic effect. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the trial. Results The median decrease from baseline of urine leakage measured by the 1-hour pad test was 2.5 g [interquartile range (IQR): 1.80–14.6 in the EA group, which was greater than the median decrease of 0.05 g (IQR: -2.80–+0.50) in the sham EA group after 6 weeks (p<0.01). The differences between groups in the decrease from baseline of 72-hour IEF became statistically significant at week 30 with a median decrease of 3.25 g (IQR: 1.25–5.69) in the EA group, and a median decrease of 1.00 g (IQR: -0.69–+2.88) in the sham EA group (p = 0.01). The participants in the EA group showed greater decreases in ICIQ-SF score and higher ratings in the help they received from the treatment than those in the sham EA group at weeks 6,18 and 30 (all p<0.05). No obvious AEs were observed in either group. Conclusion EA may effectively and safely relieve urinary incontinence symptoms and improve quality of life in women with pure SUI. EA demonstrated more than a placebo effect. Since this is a pilot study, results should be interpreted with caution. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02445573. PMID:26960195

  2. Effects of a Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Repeat Mammography Screening in Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Molina, Yamile; Roshani, Daem

    2014-01-01

    Background Although mammography use has increased in developed countries, regular screening in developing countries including Iran remains low. Multiple frameworks, including the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), have been used to understand screening practices among Iranians. The HBM includes intrapersonal constructs such as perceptions of breast cancer and mammography. The TPB includes interpersonal and environmental constructs, such as perceived control and subjective norms. Objectives The current study had 2 objectives: (1) to examine changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening in women receiving either intervention and women in the control group and (2) to compare changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening across the 2 interventions. Methods One hundred eight-four women from 3 randomly selected health centers in Sanandaj, Iran, participated. Eligibility criteria were being 50 years or older, having received a mammogram in the past 2 to 3 years, and no intention to obtain a mammogram within the next year. Results The TPB and HBM participants exhibited greater changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and were more likely to have a mammogram relative to control participants. The TPB and HBM participants exhibited comparable changes in constructs and repeat mammography. Conclusion Findings suggest both interventions equally improved mammography screening. Additional studies are furthermore warranted to address nonadherent Iranian womens needs in line with these conceptual models. Implications for Practice Use of the HBM and TPB constructs in clinical practice may be helpful to promote continued screening among this population. PMID:25122130

  3. War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Riffat Moazam

    This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's

  4. War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Riffat Moazam

    This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

  5. Social difficulties influence group psychotherapy adherence in abused, suicidal African American women.

    PubMed

    Ilardi, Dawn L; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2009-12-01

    The social brain model emphasizes improving our understanding of the relational factors that influence treatment adherence. Consistent with this framework, which has been applied to medical adherence, it was hypothesized that insecure attachment styles, interpersonal hassles, and low levels of social support would explain group psychotherapy attendance. Results from 51 abused and suicidal low-income, African American women who attended at least 1 session of an empowerment group psychotherapy indicated that lower attendance was related to (a) insecure attachment styles (fearful) and (b) interpersonal hassles (perceived social differences, lack of social acceptability, social victimization). Perceived social support did not predict group therapy attendance. The value of addressing attachment styles and interpersonal factors to enhance treatment participation is underscored. PMID:19827103

  6. Community-based intervention for women exposed to intimate partner violence: A randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Miller-Graff, Laura

    2015-08-01

    A community-based intervention, The Moms' Empowerment Program, was tested with 181 mothers exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) during the past year. Following consent, a sequential randomized control assignment procedure allocated participants to 3 conditions: mother-plus-child received intervention (M + C), child-only received intervention (CO), and a wait list comparison group (CG). A 2-level hierarchical linear model consisting of repeated observations within individuals and individuals assigned to conditions was used to evaluate the effects of time from baseline to postintervention comparing the 3 conditions and from postintervention to 8-month follow-up for both intervention conditions. Outcomes were individual women's positive parenting and depression. Women in the M + C condition showed the greatest improvement over time of the 3 conditions in both positive parenting and depression. Without intervention parenting grew significantly worse over time for women in the comparison group. Thus, this short-term group intervention program was successful in showing moderate change in both domains. PMID:26030027

  7. Pilot Investigation of the Circadian Plasma Melatonin Rhythm across the Menstrual Cycle in a Small Group of Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari; Lesprance, Paul; Ng Ying Kin, N. M. K.; Boivin, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP) and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under unmasked, time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P?.03) worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P?=?.025) increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (P<.05) decreased melatonin at circadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed. PMID:23284821

  8. Pesticide exposure of two age groups of women and its relationship with their diet.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Ana; Cerrillo, Isabel; Granada, Alicia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2007-08-15

    The widespread presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in human samples may be explained by the environmental exposure of the population. Foods are considered a constant source of exposure, despite compliance with maximum permitted residue levels. This study aimed to examine the relationship between nutritional habits of women in Southeast Spain and their serum concentrations of OCs. A semi-quantitative questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency of consumption of foods by two age groups of women, pre-menopausal (Pre-M) and post-menopausal (Post-M), and their serum pesticide levels were measured by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector and confirmed by GC and mass spectrometry. The Pre-M group showed significantly higher serum concentrations of all OCs studied with the exception of DDE. The groups significantly differed in consumption of all food groups with the exception of fruit. In the Pre-M group, the mean serum p,p-DDT concentration was significantly associated with milk/yoghurt (p<0.045) and red meat (p<0.023), serum o,p-DDT with red meat (p<0.049), serum aldrin with eggs (p<0.038) and poultry (p<0.024), and serum DDE with eggs (p<0.025). In the Post-M group, serum lindane was associated with fresh and cured cheese (p<0.001), red meat (p<0.001) and white and oily fish (p<0.001), and both serum DDE and dieldrin were associated with fresh cheese, cured cheese, red meat, and white and oily fish (p<0.001). These results confirm foods as a source of human exposure to persistent organic molecules. Consideration should be given to the reduction of permitted residue levels to minimize this threat to human and animal health. PMID:17477954

  9. Tubal sterilisation, hysterectomy and decreased risk of ovarian cancer. Survey of Women's Health Study Group.

    PubMed

    Green, A; Purdie, D; Bain, C; Siskind, V; Russell, P; Quinn, M; Ward, B

    1997-06-11

    We have examined the effect of tubal sterilisation and hysterectomy on risk of ovarian cancer in a large case-control study in eastern Australia involving 824 women aged 18-79 years, diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer between 1990 and 1993, and 855 controls randomly selected from the electoral roll. Relative risks for ovarian cancer were estimated using multiple categorical regression to adjust for age, parity, oral contraceptive use and other risk factors. Tubal sterilisation was associated with a 39% reduction in risk of ovarian cancer (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.46-0.85) and hysterectomy with a 36% reduction (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48-0.85). Risk remained low 25 years after surgery and was reduced irrespective of sterilisation technique, and estimates were similar among various types of epithelial ovarian cancer. The greatest reduction (74%) was observed among women with primary peritoneal tumours. Pelvic infection and use of vaginal sprays or contraceptive foams were not related to ovarian cancer, while use of talc in the perineal region slightly but significantly increased risk among women with patent fallopian tubes. Reportedly heavy or painful menses, perhaps associated with retrograde flow, were associated with ovarian cancer, and reduction in risk of disease after hysterectomy was greatest among women who had heavy periods. Our findings support the theory that contaminants from the vagina, such as talc, and from the uterus, such as endometrium, gain access to the peritoneal cavity through patent fallopian tubes and may enhance the malignant transformation of ovarian surface epithelium. Surgical tubal occlusion may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer by preventing the access of such agents. PMID:9185694

  10. The influence of ethnic group variation on victimization and help seeking among Latino women.

    PubMed

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal violence research on Latinos has largely ignored the ethnic group variations that are included under the pan-ethnic term Latino. The current study adds to the literature by utilizing a national sample of Latino women to examine the interpersonal victimization experiences and help-seeking responses to victimization by ethnic group. The sample was drawn from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas Study (SALAS; Cuevas & Sabina, 2010) that surveyed 2,000 self-identified adult Latino women. For the purpose of this study, victimization in the United States was examined among Mexican ethnics (73.3% of sample), Cuban ethnics (14%), and other ethnics (12.8%). Mexican ethnicity was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of experiencing any, physical, sexual, threat, and stalking victimization. Findings also show that higher levels of Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with decreased odds of experiencing any victimization, whereas Anglo orientation, as measured by the Brief ARSMA-II (Cullar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995), was associated with greater odds of experiencing any victimization. Anglo orientation was significantly associated with formal help seeking. Taken as a whole, these findings emphasize the importance of bilingual and culturally competent services and also reveal that culturally competent services includes developing an understanding of the cultural differences between Latino ethnic groups. Specifically, service providers should be aware that Latinos of Mexican ethnicity may face unique risks for victimization. PMID:25111549

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods. All women treated with FCM for anemia during pregnancy between 2010 and 2012 at our institution were included. A matched control group was selected, including women who either were nonanemic or had anemia but were not considered for intravenous iron. Main outcome measures were maternal safety and pregnancy outcomes. Results. The study included 128 patients (FCM: 64; control: 64). Median FCM dose was 1000 mg and median gestational age at the time of first treatment was 34 weeks and 6 days. Median Hb increased from 8.4 g/dL (interquartile range 7.7; 8.9 g/dL) at the first FCM administration to 10.7 g/dL (9.8; 11.5 g/dL; n = 46 with available Hb at delivery) at the time of delivery, achieving levels similar to those in the control group (10.8 g/dL [9.8; 11.8 g/dL; n = 48]). No treatment-related adverse events were reported and no statistically significant differences in pregnancy outcomes were observed between groups. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this case control study, FCM was a safe and efficient treatment of anemia during pregnancy. PMID:26688686

  12. Food group preferences and energy balance in moderately obese postmenopausal women subjected to brisk walking program.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Sophie; Valle, Karine; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Joffroy, Sandra; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Auneau, Grard; Maurige, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of a 16-week walking program on food group preferences and energy balance of sedentary, moderately obese (body mass index, 29-35 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal Caucasian women, aged 60 5 years old. One hundred and fifty-six volunteers were subjected to 3 sessions/week of 45 min of walking at 60% of heart rate reserve. Total energy intake (TEI) and food group preferences (3-day dietary record), total energy expenditure (TEE, 3-day physical activity diary), cardiorespiratory fitness (2-km walking test), anthropometry, and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) were measured before and after walking. Data were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA with repeated measures on 1 factor (time). The modest increase in TEE of 151 24 kcal/day (p < 0.0001) leads to body weight, fat mass losses, and waist girth reduction (p < 0.0001). TEI remained unchanged despite a slight decrease in carbohydrate intake and a minor increase in protein intake (p < 0.05). Analysis of food records revealed a decreased consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and sweet and fatty foods (p < 0.01), but an increase in oil consumption (p < 0.0001) after walking. Women with the highest body weight loss showed the greatest reduction in the consumption of fruits, sugar, sweet foods, and fatty foods (p < 0.05). Women with the greatest fat mass loss showed the highest decrease in fatty food intake (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although our walking program changed some food group consumption patterns, body weight loss was primarily because of the increased TEE. PMID:26140417

  13. Predictors of Plasma DDT and DDE Concentrations among Women Exposed to Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB)

    PubMed Central

    Bornman, Riana M.S.; Archer, Janet I.; Kudumu, Mwenda O.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Wilson, Ralph E.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined predictors of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels among residents in homes sprayed with DDT for malaria control with the aim of identifying exposure-reduction strategies. Methods: The present analysis included 381 women enrolled in the Study of Women and Babies (SOWB) during 20102011, from eight South African villages in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) occurred in half of the villages. Questionnaires regarding various demographic and medical factors were administered and blood samples were obtained. We classified the women into three exposure groups by type of residence: unsprayed village (n = 175), IRS village in household with a low likelihood of DDT use (non-DDT IRS household, n = 106), IRS village in household with a high likelihood of DDT use (DDT IRS household, n = 100). We used multivariable models of natural log-transformed DDT plasma levels (in micrograms per liter) and DDE (in micrograms per liter) to identify predictors for each group. Results: Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in unsprayed villages were 0.3 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.10.9] and 1.7 (IQR: 0.75.5), respectively. Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in DDT IRS households were 2.6 (IQR: 1.16.6) and 8.5 (IQR: 4.718.0), respectively. In unsprayed villages, women with water piped to the yard, rather than a public tap, had 73% lower DDT (95% CI: 83, 57%) and 61% lower DDE (95% CI: 74, 40%) levels. In DDT IRS households, women who reported taking more than six actions to prepare their home before IRS (e.g., covering water and food) had 40% lower DDT levels (95% CI: 63, 0.3%) than women who took fewer than four actions. Conclusion: The predictors of DDT and DDE plasma levels identified in the present study may inform interventions aimed at decreasing exposure. Among households where DDT is likely to be used for IRS, education regarding home preparations may provide an interventional target. Citation: Whitworth KW, Bornman RM, Archer JI, Kudumu MO, Travlos GS, Wilson RE, Longnecker MP. 2014. Predictors of plasma DDT and DDE concentrations among women exposed to indoor residual spraying for malaria control in the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB). Environ Health Perspect 122:545552;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307025 PMID:24577839

  14. A comparison of field methods to assess body composition in a diverse group of sedentary women.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Aluf, Ana; Vincent, Linda; Cooper, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Accurate assessment of body composition is essential in the evaluation of obesity. While laboratory methods are commonly used to assess fat mass, field measures (e.g., skinfold thickness [SKF] and bioelectrical impedance [BIA]) may be more practical for screening large numbers of individuals in intervention studies. In this study, a correlational design was used among 46 racially and ethnically diverse, sedentary women (mean age = 25.73 years) to (a) compare the percentage of body fat as determined by SKF and the upper body BIA and (b) examine the effects of body mass index (BMI), racial/ethnic background, age, and stage of the menstrual cycle on differences in the estimated percentage of body fat obtained using the SKF and BIA. Overall, a significant correlation between SKF and BIA (r = .98, p < .001) was found, with similar findings among Black, Hispanic and White non-Hispanic women. The mean differences between BIA and SKF were not significantly correlated with BMI, age, race/ethnicity or stage of the menstrual cycle. Data from this study suggest that BIA showed similar body fat prediction values compared with SKF and may be a viable alternative to SKF among diverse groups of healthy women. Additional testing and comparison of these field methods with the laboratory methods of hydro-densitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is recommended to further determine whether BIA devices can be routinely recommended as an alternative to the SKF. PMID:19022781

  15. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (1845 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%), vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%), malodor 5 (4.5%), pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%), and dysuria 1 (0.9%). The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30%) cases, of which 18 (54.5%) were C. albicans and 15 (45.5%) non-albicans Candida (NAC) infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n = 10), C. tropicalis (n = 3), and C. krusei (n = 2). BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p = 0.001) and vulval itching/irritation (p = 0.007) was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management. PMID:26351613

  16. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%), vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%), malodor 5 (4.5%), pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%), and dysuria 1 (0.9%). The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30%) cases, of which 18 (54.5%) were C. albicans and 15 (45.5%) non-albicans Candida (NAC) infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n = 10), C. tropicalis (n = 3), and C. krusei (n = 2). BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p = 0.001) and vulval itching/irritation (p = 0.007) was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management. PMID:26351613

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, M.; Pegels, E.; Oviedo, P.; Pereyra, E.; Vergara, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramn Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4%) > levofloxacin (93.5%) > ciprofloxacin (64.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7%) was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 ?g/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women. PMID:24031210

  18. Art therapy improves experienced quality of life among women undergoing treatment for breast cancer: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Svensk, A-C; Oster, I; Thyme, K E; Magnusson, E; Sjödin, M; Eisemann, M; Aström, S; Lindh, J

    2009-01-01

    Women with breast cancer are naturally exposed to strain related to diagnosis and treatment, and this influences their experienced quality of life (QoL). The present paper reports the effect, with regard to QoL aspects, of an art therapy intervention among 41 women undergoing radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer. The women were randomized to an intervention group with individual art therapy sessions for 1 h/week (n = 20), or to a control group (n = 21). The WHOQOL-BREF and EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-BR23, were used for QoL assessment, and administrated on three measurement occasions, before the start of radiotherapy and 2 and 6 months later. The results indicate an overall improvement in QoL aspects among women in the intervention group. A significant increase in total health, total QoL, physical health and psychological health was observed in the art therapy group. A significant positive difference within the art therapy group was also seen, concerning future perspectives, body image and systemic therapy side effects. The present study provides strong support for the use of art therapy to improve QoL for women undergoing radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer. PMID:19473224

  19. Group Interventions were not Effective for Female Turkish Migrants with Recurrent Depression – Recommendations from a Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Walter; Berry, John W.

    2010-01-01

    We tested group interventions for women with a Turkish migration background living in Austria and suffering from recurrent depression. N = 66 participants were randomized to: (1) Self-Help Groups (SHG), (2) Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) Groups, and (3) a Wait-List (WL) Control condition. Neither SHG nor CBT were superior to WL. On an individual basis, about one third of the participants showed significant improvements with respect to symptoms of depression. Younger women, women with a longer duration of stay in Austria and those who had encountered a higher number of traumatic experiences, showed increased improvement of depressive symptoms. The results suggest that individual treatment by ethnic, female psychotherapists should be preferred to group interventions. PMID:21976784

  20. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for myocardial perfusion and diastolic function-reference control values for women.

    PubMed

    Bakir, May; Wei, Janet; Nelson, Michael D; Mehta, Puja K; Haftbaradaran, Afsaneh; Jones, Erika; Gill, Edward; Sharif, Behzad; Slomka, Piotr J; Li, Debiao; Shufelt, Chrisandra L; Minissian, Margo; Berman, Daniel S; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Thomson, Louise E J

    2016-02-01

    Angina, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) are more common in women and are associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is established for assessment of left ventricular (LV) morphology and systolic function and is increasingly used to assess myocardial perfusion and diastolic function. Indeed, stress CMRI allows measurement of myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) using semi-quantitative techniques, and quantification of LV volumetric filling patterns provides valuable insight into LV diastolic function. The utility of these two techniques remains limited, because reference control values for MPRI and LV diastolic function in asymptomatic middle-aged, women have not previously been established. To address this limitation, we recruited twenty women, without clinical cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors, with normal maximal Bruce protocol exercise treadmill testing. Subjects underwent CMRI (1.5 tesla) using a standardized protocol of adenosine stress and rest perfusion and LV cinematic imaging. Commercially available with automated CMRI segmentation was used for calculation of MPRI, LV filling profiles, and ejection fraction. Mean age was 549 years and mean body mass index was 254 kg/m(3). The exercise treadmill testing results demonstrated a normotensive group with normal functional capacity and hemodynamic response. We report reference control values for semi-quantitative MPRI as well as measures of LV systolic and diastolic function including ejection fraction, stroke volume, peak filling rate (PFR), PFR adjusted for end-diastolic volume (EDV) and stroke volume, time to PFR, and EDV index. The data herein provide reference values for MPRI and diastolic function in a cohort of healthy, middle-aged of women. These reference values may be used for comparison with a variety of patient populations, including women with CMD and HFpEF. PMID:26885495

  1. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for myocardial perfusion and diastolic function—reference control values for women

    PubMed Central

    Bakir, May; Wei, Janet; Nelson, Michael D.; Mehta, Puja K.; Haftbaradaran, Afsaneh; Jones, Erika; Gill, Edward; Sharif, Behzad; Slomka, Piotr J.; Li, Debiao; Shufelt, Chrisandra L.; Minissian, Margo; Berman, Daniel S.; Bairey Merz, C. Noel

    2016-01-01

    Angina, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) are more common in women and are associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is established for assessment of left ventricular (LV) morphology and systolic function and is increasingly used to assess myocardial perfusion and diastolic function. Indeed, stress CMRI allows measurement of myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) using semi-quantitative techniques, and quantification of LV volumetric filling patterns provides valuable insight into LV diastolic function. The utility of these two techniques remains limited, because reference control values for MPRI and LV diastolic function in asymptomatic middle-aged, women have not previously been established. To address this limitation, we recruited twenty women, without clinical cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors, with normal maximal Bruce protocol exercise treadmill testing. Subjects underwent CMRI (1.5 tesla) using a standardized protocol of adenosine stress and rest perfusion and LV cinematic imaging. Commercially available with automated CMRI segmentation was used for calculation of MPRI, LV filling profiles, and ejection fraction. Mean age was 54±9 years and mean body mass index was 25±4 kg/m3. The exercise treadmill testing results demonstrated a normotensive group with normal functional capacity and hemodynamic response. We report reference control values for semi-quantitative MPRI as well as measures of LV systolic and diastolic function including ejection fraction, stroke volume, peak filling rate (PFR), PFR adjusted for end-diastolic volume (EDV) and stroke volume, time to PFR, and EDV index. The data herein provide reference values for MPRI and diastolic function in a cohort of healthy, middle-aged of women. These reference values may be used for comparison with a variety of patient populations, including women with CMD and HFpEF. PMID:26885495

  2. The Effect of Education on Sexual Health of Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaviani, Maasumeh; Rahnavard, Tahereh; Azima, Sara; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Asadi, Nasrin; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexuality constitutes an important part of womens life. Healthy and proper sexual functioning is one of the signs of physical and mental health. The present study aimed to identify the effect of education on sexual health of women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 80 married women at reproductive age were randomly divided into a control and an education group. These women participated in this study based on self-reporting of having hypoactive sexual desire disorder. After six weekly educational sessions regarding sexual health, percentage of changes in sexual desire was assayed using Hurlbert index of sexual desire. Independent and paired t-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: After the intervention, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the sexual desire score (P<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference within groups in this regard (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that educational intervention regarding sexual health was effective for the women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Thus, establishing sexual health education units in different health centers is highly necessary. These centers can help couples to promote their sexual knowledge and treat their sexual dysfunctions. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012101911032N2 PMID:25349850

  3. Regular physical activity reduces the effects of Achilles tendon vibration on postural control for older women.

    PubMed

    Maitre, J; Serres, I; Lhuisset, L; Bois, J; Gasnier, Y; Paillard, T

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to determine in what extent physical activity influences postural control when visual, vestibular, and/or proprioceptive systems are disrupted. Two groups of healthy older women: an active group (74.0 3.8 years) who practiced physical activities and a sedentary group (74.7 6.3 years) who did not, underwent 12 postural conditions consisted in altering information emanating from sensory systems by means of sensory manipulations (i.e., eyes closed, cervical collar, tendon vibration, electromyostimulation, galvanic vestibular stimulation, foam surface). The center of foot pressure velocity was recorded on a force platform. Results indicate that the sensory manipulations altered postural control. The sedentary group was more disturbed than the active group by the use of tendon vibration. There was no clear difference between the two groups in the other conditions. This study suggests that the practice of physical activities is beneficial as a means of limiting the effects of tendon vibration on postural control through a better use of the not manipulated sensory systems and/or a more efficient reweighting to proprioceptive information from regions unaffected by the tendon vibration. PMID:24853711

  4. A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Hooshmand, Shirin; Feresin, Rafaela G; Payton, Mark E; Gu, Jennifer; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2015-03-01

    Menopause leads to an increased risk for osteoporosis in women. Although drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer alternative therapies such as dietary supplements, for example, calcium, vitamin D, and collagen hydrolysates for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We have previously shown that a 3-month intervention using a calcium-collagen chelate (CC) dietary supplement was efficacious in improving bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biomarkers of bone turnover in osteopenic postmenopausal women. This study reports the long-term efficacy of CC in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Thirty-nine women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 5?g of CC containing 500?mg of elemental calcium and 200?IU vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) or control (500?mg of calcium and 200?IU vitamin D) daily for 12 months. Total body, lumbar, and hip BMD were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months to assess levels of blood biomarkers of bone turnover. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed using repeated measures analysis of variance pairwise comparisons and multivariate analysis to assess time and group interactions. The loss of whole body BMD in women taking CC was substantially lower than that of the control group at 12 months in those who completed the study and the ITT analysis, respectively (CC: -1.33% and -0.33% vs. control: -3.75% and -2.17%; P=.026, P=.035). The CC group had significantly reduced levels of sclerostin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) (P<.05), and higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase/TRAP5b ratio (P<.05) than control at 6 months. These results support the use of CC in reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. PMID:25314004

  5. The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. Methods and design The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44–50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25–29.9 kg/m2) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n = 28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n = 26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). Discussion The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether a relatively low intensity, health professional led intervention will achieve better weight control in pre-menopausal women than a self-directed intervention. The results will add to the scant body of literature on obesity prevention methods at an under-researched high-risk life stage, and inform the development of population-based interventions. Trial registration ACTRN12611000064909 PMID:24156558

  6. Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)

  7. Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of

  8. Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

  9. Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of…

  10. Becoming farmers: opening spaces for women's resource control in Calakmul, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Radel, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Despite empirical findings on women's varied and often extensive participation in smallholder agriculture in Latin America, their participation continues to be largely invisible. In this article, I argue that the intransigency of farming women's invisibility reflects, in part, a discursive construction of farmers as men. Through a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods, including interviews with one hundred women in Calakmul, Mexico, I demonstrate the material implications of gendered farmer identities for women's control of resources, including land and conservation and development project resources. In particular, I relate the activities of one women's agricultural community-based organization and the members' collective adoption of transgressive identities as farmers. For these women, the process of becoming farmers resulted in increased access to and control over resources. This empirical case study illustrates the possibility of women's collective action to challenge and transform women's continued local invisibility as agricultural actors in rural Latin American spaces. PMID:22069807

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Psycho-Education Intervention by Midwives in Reducing Childbirth Fear in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Toohill, Jocelyn; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Buist, Anne; Turkstra, Erika; Ryding, Elsa-Lena

    2014-01-01

    Background Childbirth fear is associated with increased obstetric interventions and poor emotional and psychological health for women. The purpose of this study is to test an antenatal psycho-education intervention by midwives in reducing women's childbirth fear. Methods Women (n = 1,410) attending three hospitals in South East Queensland, Australia, were recruited into the BELIEF trial. Participants reporting high fear were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 170) or control (n = 169) groups. All women received a decision-aid booklet on childbirth choices. The telephone counseling intervention was offered at 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. The control group received usual care offered by public maternity services. Primary outcome was reduction in childbirth fear (WDEQ-A) from second trimester to 36 weeks’ gestation. Secondary outcomes were improved childbirth self-efficacy, and reduced decisional conflict and depressive symptoms. Demographic, obstetric & psychometric measures were administered at recruitment, and 36 weeks of pregnancy. Results There were significant differences between groups on postintervention scores for fear of birth (p < 0.001) and childbirth self-efficacy (p = 0.002). Decisional conflict and depressive symptoms reduced but were not significant. Conclusion Psycho-education by trained midwives was effective in reducing high childbirth fear levels and increasing childbirth confidence in pregnant women. Improving antenatal emotional well-being may have wider positive social and maternity care implications for optimal childbirth experiences. PMID:25303111

  12. Daughters of Abya Yala: Native Women Regaining Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderete, Wara, Ed.; And Others

    This book compiles testimonies of the struggles, everyday life, and accomplishments of Indian women from Central and South America. Following an introduction to the increasing role of Indian women in international forums and indigenous organizations, the words of individual women describe the problems that affect them and their determination to…

  13. 60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at left, power distribution box at right, all at right of entrance to lcc. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  14. Population-based case-control study of mebendazole in pregnant women for birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Acs, Nndor; Bnhidy, Ferenc; Puh, Erzsbet; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of the study was to check the embryotoxic-teratogenic and fetotoxic effect of mebendazole (Vermox; Richter, Budapest, Hungary) treatment during pregnancy. Mebendazole use during pregnancy was evaluated in mothers of babies born with congenital abnormalities and in matched control mothers of babies born without congenital abnormalities in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. Of 22,843 women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities, 14 were found to have been treated with mebendazole for intestinal nematoda infections/diseases during pregnancy (crude POR: 1.8 with 95% CI: 0.7-4.2). Of 38,151 women who had newborns without any defects (controls), the same number (14) were found to have been treated with mebendazole during pregnancy. Six different congenital abnormality groups were evaluated and a higher prevalence of mebendazole use in these mothers throughout pregnancy was not found. Gestational age and birth weight were analyzed in control infants born to mothers with or without mebendazole treatment. The mean gestational age was somewhat longer and mean birth weight was larger in newborn infants born to mothers with mebendazole treatment. Thus, treatment with mebendazole during pregnancy did not indicate a teratogenic and fetotoxic risk to the embryo or fetus, though the numbers of treated cases and controls in this study were limited. PMID:16131365

  15. Iron status in a group of long-stay mentally handicapped menstruating women: some dietary considerations.

    PubMed

    Razagui, I B; Barlow, P J; Izmeth, M G; Taylor, K D

    1991-07-01

    As part of a longitudinal study aimed at assessing the dietary intakes and nutritional status of a group of long-stay mentally handicapped subjects, 15 women of menstruating age were considered for a substudy to assess the influence of intake levels of dietary iron, energy, tea, coffee and vitamin C on their iron status. The assessment comprised a week-long weighed dietary survey and the measurement of a number of haematological indices that included serum ferritin concentration. Information on duration of menses was also collected and included in the assessment. Two-fifths of the subjects assessed had a serum ferritin concentration less than 12 micrograms/l indicating iron deficiency, including one who was considered anaemic as suggested by a haemoglobin level less than 12 g/dl. Duration of menses showed a negative significant correlation with serum ferritin concentration. The mean iron intake in the group was 9.5 +/- 1.5 mg/day. Energy intakes were low and positively correlated with iron intake. Although serum ferritin showed no correlation with iron intake, it showed significant negative correlations with the daily and meal-time intakes of tea and a significant positive correlation with the meal-time intakes of vitamin C. The six iron-depleted subjects were assessed as a separate group (Group I) in comparison with the other nine subjects who had a serum ferritin concentration greater than 12 micrograms/l. The results of this assessment showed that, while there were no significant differences in duration of menses or the mean daily intakes of iron and energy between the two groups. Group I subjects had significantly higher daily and meal-time intakes of tea and significantly lower meal-time intakes of vitamin C compared to Group II subjects. The study provides some evidence suggestive of an association between the iron deficiency states observed and tea intake in adversely affecting iron status, particularly in the absence of adequate meal-time intakes of vitamin C. The findings from the study also suggest that long-stay mentally handicapped women of menstruating age, in addition to their handicap and dependency states which may often predispose them to a low dietary intake, are at particular risk of iron deficiency. PMID:1935858

  16. Faculty Writing Groups: A Support for Women Balancing Family and Career on the Academic Tightrope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Sharon; Young, Gabrielle; Badenhorst, Cecile; Goodnough, Karen; Hesson, J.; Joy, Rhonda; McLeod, Heather; Pickett, Sarah; Stordy, Mary; Vaandering, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative research project explored the experiences of women who juggle the demands of family or parenthood while engaging in academic careers at a faculty of education. The researcher-participants consisted of 11 women; 9 women provided a written narrative, and all women participated in the data analysis. The data consisted of the

  17. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For... incorporated) are under common control if they are two or more trades or businesses under common control,...

  18. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For... incorporated) are under common control if they are two or more trades or businesses under common control,...

  19. Dialogical Exposure with Traumatically Bereaved Bosnian Women: Findings from a Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hagl, Maria; Powell, Steve; Rosner, Rita; Butollo, Willi

    2015-11-01

    Objective In this trial, we compared the relative efficacy of dialogical exposure group treatment using Gestalt empty-chair method with a supportive group in the treatment of symptoms stemming from traumatic loss in a post-war society. Methods One-hundred and nineteen women whose husbands were either killed or registered as missing during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina were quasi-randomized to seven sessions of group treatment with dialogical exposure or to an active control condition. Results Both interventions resulted in significant improvement from baseline to post-treatment for both kinds of loss, in terms of post-traumatic symptoms, general mental health and grief reactions, with the exception of depression and traumatic grief in the control condition. Regarding mean effect sizes (Cohen's d), pre-treatment to post-treatment improvements were moderate (d = 0.56) for the dialogical exposure group and small (d = 0.34) for the supportive group. Treatment gains were maintained at least until the 1-year follow-up. In controlled comparisons, dialogical exposure was superior concerning traumatic grief (Cohen's d = 0.37) and post-traumatic avoidance (d = 0.73) at post-treatment. Conclusions Results show that short-term dialogical exposure group treatment was moderately effective in treating traumatically bereaved women. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message Research attests to high levels of symptoms among post-war civil populations, in particular, when a loved one was killed, which can lead not only to trauma reactions but also to severe separation distress. Grieving the loss of a loved one is hampered if the death remains unconfirmed. Unconfirmed loss could be conceptualized as unfinished business in terms of Gestalt therapy, which offers empty-chair dialogue for resolving unfinished business and grief. Dialogical exposure therapy (DET) supports the client in gaining awareness of and expressing his or her inner dialogues concerning the traumatic event, using Gestalt empty-chair method. Short-term DET was effective in treating traumatically bereaved women but showed little additional effects in comparison with a supportive group treatment, so further research is warranted. PMID:25256361

  20. HIV and AIDS, stigma and AIDS support groups: perspectives from women living with HIV and AIDS in central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Haritavorn, Niphattra; Kiatying-Angsulee, Niyada

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, community attitudes toward women living with HIV and AIDS at the present time from the perspectives of women in Thailand are examined. We also look at strategies women use in order to deal with any stigma and discrimination that they may feel or experience in the community. The paper is based on our larger study of the experiences of women living with HIV and AIDS and their participation in clinical trials. In late 2007 and early 2008 we carried out a number of in-depth interviews with women living with HIV and AIDS in central Thailand. We find that women living with HIV and AIDS still deal with stigma and discrimination in their everyday life. However, from the women's narratives, we also find more positive attitudes from local communities. Some women deal with stigma and discrimination by joining and participating in HIV and AIDS support groups that have emerged in response to the AIDS epidemic in Thailand. We argue that women are not passive victims, but that they act in their own agencies to counteract any negativity they might encounter. PMID:19539417

  1. Detection of Group B Streptococcus in Brazilian pregnant women and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Filho, Didier Silveira; da Silva, Vnia Lcia; Nascimento, Thiago Csar; de Toledo Vieira, Marcel; Diniz, Cludio Galuppo

    2010-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is still not routinely screened during pregnancy in Brazil, being prophylaxis and empirical treatment based on identification of risk groups. This study aimed to investigate GBS prevalence in Brazilian pregnant women by culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated to the enrichment culture, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated bacteria, so as to support public health policies and empirical prophylaxis. After an epidemiological survey, vaginal and anorectal specimens were collected from 221 consenting laboring women. Each sample was submitted to enrichment culture and sheep blood agar was used to isolate suggestive GBS. Alternatively, specific PCR was performed from enrichment cultures. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for isolated bacteria by agar diffusion method. No risk groups were identified. Considering the culture-based methodology, GBS was detected in 9.5% of the donors. Twenty five bacterial strains were isolated and identified. Through the culture-PCR methodology, GBS was detected in 32.6% specimens. Bacterial resistance was not detected against ampicillin, cephazolin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin, whereas 22.7% were resistant to erythromycin and 50% were resistant to clindamycin. GBS detection may be improved by the association of PCR and enrichment culture. Considering that colony selection in agar plates may be laboring and technician-dependent, it may not reflect the real prevalence of streptococci. As in Brazil prevention strategies to reduce the GBS associated diseases have not been adopted, prospective studies are needed to anchor public health policies especially considering the regional GBS antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. PMID:24031585

  2. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Suriani; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Latiff, Khalib A.; Saad, Hazizi A.; Majid, Latifah A.; Othman, Fadlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B) and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A). Participants dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01). Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively). Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08), BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01). Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients. PMID:25685394

  3. A study of anticonvulsant medication on ovarian function in a group of women with epilepsy who have only ever taken one anticonvulsant compared with a group of women without epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Betts, Tim; Yarrow, Helen; Dutton, Nicola; Greenhill, Lyn; Rolfe, Ted

    2003-09-01

    A group of 105 women (54 of whom were, and had only ever been, taking valproate for at least a year, and 51 who had only ever taken either lamotrigine or carbamazepine, for at least a year) were compared with a group of 50 women who did not have epilepsy: any oral contraceptive taken at the time of testing was recorded and blood levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), testosterone and prolactin were estimated from days 2 to 6 of the menstrual cycle (day 1 being the first day of bleeding) and an MRI scan made of their pelvis. Women with epilepsy in general were significantly more likely to exhibit evidence on MRI scanning, of polycystic ovaries (PCO): women taking valproate but not an oral contraceptive were significantly more likely to have clinical biochemical evidence of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) with raised LH and/or testosterone levels between days 2 and 6 of their menstrual cycle than women who did not have epilepsy: this was not so for women taking lamotrigine or carbamazepine. Since the polycystic ovary syndrome has potentially serious consequences it is suggested that, where possible, valproate is avoided in women of child bearing potential. PMID:12915077

  4. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Sæteren, Berit

    2016-04-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and focus group interviews, was used. The sample consisted of 19 schoolchildren, aged 12-13 years, 3 of whom were victimized. Six individual interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted. Findings show that support groups contribute to the cessation of bullying and improvements remain 3 months later. The support groups experience feeling important and helping others. It is important for the school nurse and teachers to follow up with victimized children, in collaboration with their parents, to help the victim to no longer be a victim and to take control. PMID:26072469

  5. Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ESR-1) Associations with Psychological Traits in Women with PMDD and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alexandra; Vo, Hoa; Huo, Liang; Roca, Catherine; Schmidt, Peter J.; Rubinow, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a mood disorder affecting about 5% of women and is associated with substantial morbidity. Albeit inconsistently, PMDD is described as being characterized by heritable personality traits. Although PMDD is a heritable disorder, it is unclear whether any of the heritable susceptibility to PMDD resides in heritable personality traits. In groups of carefully characterized women with PMDD (n=68) and controls (n=56), we attempted to determine whether diagnosis-related traits could be confirmed, as well as to determine whether such traits were associated with SNPs in estrogen receptor alpha (ESR-1) that we previously demonstrated were associated with PMDD. We observed 7/25 traits to be significantly different in patients and controls and further showed that 11/12 significant associations observed between these 7 traits and 16 ESR-1 SNPs involved the intron 4 SNPs previously shown to be the locus of the association with PMDD. While several interactions between genotype and diagnosis were observed, the effect of genotype in most instances was in the same direction in patients and controls. These data demonstrate affective state-independent personality traits that distinguish patients with PMDD from controls and further support the relevance of ESR-1 polymorphic variants in the regulation of non-reproductive behaviors. PMID:20172536

  6. Community, social group, and individual level correlates of rural Malawian men's and women's reproductive health intentions and practices

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Bisika, Thomas; deGraft-Johnson, Joseph; Tsui, Amy O.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 656 men and 930 women from rural Malawi in 2000, the authors examined the association between various individual and community level factors, as well as participation in social groups, and four reproductive health outcomes: intentions to use any contraceptives in the next six months, current use of modern contraceptives, wanting an HIV test, and having had an HIV test. Women in social groups have higher odds of reporting intentions to use contraceptives, wanting an HIV test, and of having had an HIV test than those not in groups. Among men, social group participation is only slightly associated with having had an HIV test. For all, education is positively associated with all four outcomes, and number of children is associated with intentions to use and actual use of contraceptives. At a community level, proximity to a health center or school is positively associated with three outcomes for women and with use of modern contraceptive methods for men. PMID:23437500

  7. The Influence of Perception Training on Communication Between Polarized Groups of Officers and Inmates at the Colorado Women's Correctional Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Denamae Dawson

    Those who wish to bring about positive communication between two groups with strongly polarized attitudes cannot do so merely by bringing the groups together for interaction. A study of inmates and officers at a women's prison revealed the potential of perception training for changing initially polarized conceptions. Analyses of subjects'

  8. Influenza Vaccine Text Message Reminders for Urban, Low-Income Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Melissa S.; Westhoff, Carolyn; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Vargas, Celibell Y.; Camargo, Stewin; Vawdrey, David K.; Castao, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the impact of influenza vaccine text message reminders in a low-income obstetric population. Methods. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that enrolled 1187 obstetric patients from 5 community-based clinics in New York City. The intervention group received 5 weekly text messages regarding influenza vaccination starting mid-September 2011 and 2 text message appointment reminders. Both groups received standard automated telephone appointment reminders. The prespecified endpoints were receipt of either pre- or postpartum influenza vaccination calculated cumulatively at the end of each month (SeptemberDecember 2011). Results. After adjusting for gestational age and number of clinic visits, women who received the intervention were 30% more likely to be vaccinated as of December 2011 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.003, 1.69 end of September: AOR?=?1.34; 95% CI?=?0.98, 1.85; October: AOR?=?1.35; 95% CI?=?1.05, 1.75; November: AOR?=?1.27; 95% CI?=?0.98, 1.65). The subgroup of women early in the third trimester at randomization showed the greatest intervention effect (December 31: 61.9% intervention vs 49.0% control; AOR?=?1.88; 95% CI?=?1.12, 3.15). Conclusions. In this low-income obstetric population, text messaging was associated with increased influenza vaccination, especially in those who received messages early in their third trimester. PMID:24354839

  9. A Pilot Study of a Group-Based HIV and STI Prevention Intervention for Lesbian, Bisexual, Queer, and Other Women Who Have Sex with Women in Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Weaver, James; Navia, Daniela; Este, David

    2015-06-01

    Limited research has evaluated interventions to reduce HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) vulnerability among lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women, and other women who have sex with women. The Queer Women Conversations (QWC) study examined the effectiveness of a group-based psycho-educational HIV/STI intervention with LBQ women in Toronto and Calgary, Canada. We conducted a nonrandomized cohort pilot study. Participants completed a pre-test, post-test, and 6-week follow-up. The primary outcome was sexual risk practices, while secondary objectives included intrapersonal (self-esteem, STI knowledge, resilient coping, depression), interpersonal (safer sex self-efficacy), community (community connectedness, social support), and structural (sexual stigma, access to healthcare) factors. The study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov. Forty-four women (mean age 28.7 years) participated in a weekend retreat consisting of six consecutive sessions tailored for LBQ women. Sessions covered a range of topics addressing behavioral and social-structural determinants of HIV/STI risk, including STI information, safer sex negotiation skills, and addressing sexual stigma. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, sexual risk practices (β2=-2.96, 95% CI -4.43, -1.50), barrier use self-efficacy (β2=1.52, 95% CI 0.51, 2.53), STI knowledge (β2=4.41, 95% CI 3.52, 5.30), and sexual stigma (β2=-2.62, 95% CI -3.48, -1.75) scores showed statistically significant changes 6 weeks post-intervention. Initial increases in safer sex self-efficacy, social support, and community connectedness were not sustained at 6-week follow up, highlighting the need for booster sessions or alternative approaches to address social factors. Study results may inform HIV/STI prevention interventions, sexual health care provision, and support services tailored for LBQ women. PMID:25867642

  10. Controlling Images, Media, and Women's Development: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Tonya R.

    2009-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and controlling images are embedded in the cultural textbook of cinema. Women are disempowered and marginalized by these images, and it is important to explore the existence and prevalence of these images in order to examine their effects on women's development. A review of the literature concerning controlling images and the

  11. Controlling Images, Media, and Women's Development: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Tonya R.

    2009-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and controlling images are embedded in the cultural textbook of cinema. Women are disempowered and marginalized by these images, and it is important to explore the existence and prevalence of these images in order to examine their effects on women's development. A review of the literature concerning controlling images and the…

  12. Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanton, Carmela R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.

  13. Home ovulation tests and stress in women trying to conceive: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tiplady, S.; Jones, G.; Campbell, M.; Johnson, S.; Ledger, W.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does the use of a digital home ovulation test have any effect on the level of stress in women seeking to conceive? SUMMARY ANSWER No difference was found in levels of stress between women using digital ovulation tests to time intercourse compared with women who were trying to conceive without any additional aids: in addition, their use did not negatively impact time to conception in users but may provide additional benefits, including an increased understanding of the menstrual cycle, reassurance and confidence in focusing conception attempts to the correct time in the cycle. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY It has been suggested that timing of intercourse in such a way that it coincides with ovulation by using ovulation tests can lead to emotional distress; however, no study has been conducted to investigate this hypothesis specifically, until now. STUDY DESIGN, SIZEAND DURATION The study was performed over two complete menstrual cycles as a prospective, randomized, controlled trial including quantitative and qualitative methods. The intervention (test) group were given digital ovulation tests to time intercourse to the most fertile time of the cycle and the control group were provided with the current National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for increasing the chances of conception (intercourse every 23 days) and asked not to use any additional methods to time when ovulation occurs. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND METHODS A total of 210 women who were seeking to conceive were recruited from the general UK population. A total of 115 women were randomized to the test group and 95 to the control group through block randomization. The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) were used to measure subjective stress levels, the Short-Form 12 health survey was used as a measure of general health and well-being and urine samples were measured for biochemical markers of stress including urinary cortisol. Qualitative data were collected in the form of a telephone interview upon study completion. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no evidence for a difference either in total stress as measured using the PSS or in total positive or negative affect using the PANAS questionnaire between the test and control groups at any time point for the duration of the study. During cycle 1, for example, on Day 6, the difference in total stress score (testcontrol) was ?0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) ?2.47 to 1.24] and on the day of the LH surge, it was 0.53 (95% CI ?1.38 to 2.44). In addition, no correlation was observed between time trying to conceive and levels of stress, or between age and levels of stress, and no evidence was found to show that stress affected whether or not a pregnancy was achieved. There is also no evidence that the biochemistry measurements are related to whether a pregnancy was achieved or of a difference in biochemistry between the treatment groups. The use of digital ovulation tests did not negatively affect time to conception and with an adequately sized study, could potentially show improvement. To ensure that the results of this study were not affected by chance, we used a number of different methods for measuring stress, each of which had been independently validated. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Randomization occurred before the start of the study because of the need to provide the ovulation tests in readiness for Day 6 of the first cycle. As a consequence, a number of women fell pregnant during this period (22 and 13 in the test and control groups, respectively). A further 15 women were either lost to follow-up or withdrew consent prior to study start. Pregnancy rate was higher overall in the test group, so to ensure that there were sufficient data from women who failed to become pregnant in the test group, we implemented an additional biased recruitment. This second cohort may have been different from the first, although no significant differences were observed between the two

  14. Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043

  15. Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Matthew C; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043

  16. Characterization of a Normal Control Group: Are they Healthy?

    PubMed Central

    Aine, CJ; Sanfratello, L; Adair, JC; Knoefel, JE; Qualls, C; Lundy, SL; Caprihan, A; Stone, D; Stephen, JM

    2013-01-01

    We examined the health of a control group (1881 years) in our aging study, which is similar to control groups used in other neuroimaging studies. The current study was motivated by our previous results showing that one third of the elder control group had moderate to severe white matter hyperintensities and/or cortical volume loss which correlated with poor performance on memory tasks. Therefore, we predicted that cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, high cholesterol) within the control group would account for significant variance on working memory task performance. Fifty-five participants completed 4 verbal and spatial working memory tasks, neuropsychological exams, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and blood tests to assess vascular risk. In addition to using a repeated measures ANOVA design, a cluster analysis was applied to the vascular risk measures as a data reduction step to characterize relationships between conjoint risk factors. The cluster groupings were used to predict working memory performance. The results show that higher levels of systolic blood pressure were associated with: 1) poor spatial working memory accuracy; and 2) lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple brain regions. In contrast, higher levels of total cholesterol corresponded with increased accuracy in verbal working memory. An association between lower FA values and higher cholesterol levels were identified in different brain regions from those associated with systolic blood pressure. The conjoint risk analysis revealed that Risk Cluster Group 3 (the group with the greatest number of risk factors) displayed: 1) the poorest performance on the spatial working memory tasks; 2) the longest reaction times across both spatial and verbal memory tasks; and 3) the lowest FA values across widespread brain regions. Our results confirm that a considerable range of vascular risk factors are present in a typical control group, even in younger individuals, which have robust effects on brain anatomy and function. These results present a new challenge to neuroimaging studies both for defining a cohort from which to characterize `normative' brain circuitry and for establishing a control group to compare with other clinical populations. PMID:24060318

  17. A qualitative evaluation of online chat groups for women completing a psychological intervention for female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hucker, Alice; McCabe, Marita P

    2014-01-01

    Because of the embarrassment that can surround female sexual dysfunctions, online interventions offer an anonymous and private treatment alternative. Recently, an online cognitive-behavioral treatment for female sexual dysfunctions was evaluated. Although significant improvements were observed in sexual functioning, the treatment was primarily a behavioral intervention because of difficulties with engaging participants in cognitive therapy over e-mail. To address this limitation, the use of chat groups was incorporated into a new online treatment for female sexual dysfunctions-the PursuingPleasure program. Thirty-eight women participated in the PursuingPleasure chat groups. The goals of the chat groups were to address and overcome challenges as women progressed through PursuingPleasure and to create a social support network where group therapy processes could be used. The chat groups aimed to address misunderstandings, monitor changes, and receive feedback. A qualitative analysis of the chat groups revealed that they helped to facilitate the cognitive-affective aspects of the program, as well as fulfill their other intended functions. This study demonstrates how the use of chat groups in the online treatment of female sexual dysfunctions is a useful addition to Internet-based treatment. Feedback suggests that the chat groups were one of the most helpful aspects of the program, although a small group of women reported finding the groups unhelpful. PMID:23768099

  18. The Black Woman Worker: A Minority Group Perspective on Women at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    1986-01-01

    Being black and female is a double disadvantage in the labor market. Black women work in higher proportions than other women, but their wages are less and many have undesirable jobs. Some black women are experiencing more employment success, but as racial discrimination lessens, they face sexism. (VM)

  19. A Group-Based Program of Emotional Recovery for Younger Women Following Myocardial Infarction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Michele J.; Buchanan, Marla J.

    2007-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of illness, disability, and death among women in Canada. Myocardial infarction (MI) accounts for almost half of these deaths yearly. The purpose of this study was to understand younger women's experience of recovery from MI. A purposive sample consisting of six younger women diagnosed with MI participated in …

  20. Moving beyond safe sex to women-controlled safe sex: A concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kamila A.; Coleman, Christopher L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Jemott, Loretta S.

    2011-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of a conceptual analysis of women-controlled safe sex. Background Women bear disproportionate burdens from sexually-related health compromising outcomes. Imbalanced societal gender and power positions contribute to high morbidities. The expression, women-controlled safe sex, aims to empower women to gain control of their sexual lives. Few researchers focus on contextualized socio-cultural definitions of sexual safety among women. Data Sources The sample included scientific literature from Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Sociological Abstracts. Papers were published 2000–2010. Review Methods Critical analyses of literature about women-controlled safe sex were performed using Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis methods. The search focused on social and cultural influences on sexual practices aimed at increasing women’s control over their sexual safety. Results The analysis uncovered five attributes of women-controlled safe sex: technology; access to choices; women at-risk; “condom migration” panic; and communication. Three antecedents included: male partner influence; body awareness; and self-efficacy. Consequences were categorized as positive or negative. Nine surrogate terms included: empowerment; gender power; female-controlled sexual barrier method; microbicides; diaphragm; sexual negotiation and communication; female condom; women-initiated disease transmission prevention; and spermicides. Finally, a consensus definition was identified: a socio- culturally influenced multilevel process for initiating sexual safety by women deemed at-risk for sexually-related dangers, usually sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV/AIDS. Conclusion This concept analysis described current significance, uses, and applications of women-controlled safe sex in the scientific literature. The authors clarified its limited nature and conclude that additional conceptual refinement in nursing is necessary to influence women’s health. PMID:22111843

  1. Determinants of Weight Gain Prevention in Young Adult and Midlife Women: Study Design and Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of overweight and obesity through body weight reduction has been monumentally ineffective as few individuals are able to sustain weight loss. Rather than treating weight gain once it has become problematic, prevention of weight gain over time may be more effective. Objective The aim of this research is to preclude the burden of adult obesity in women by identifying the determinants of weight gain prevention. The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to compare a weight gain prevention intervention delivered by the registered dietitian versus counselor. Methods This is a 12-month parallel-arm weight gain prevention RCT designed to increase self-efficacy, self-regulation, outcome expectations and family and social support through the use of a nutrition education intervention in women, aged 18-45 years, from the Urbana-Champaign (Illinois, USA) area. Women have been randomized to registered dietitian, counselor or wait-list control groups (August 2014) and are undergoing weekly nutrition education sessions for four months, followed by monthly sessions for eight months (through August 2015). Outcome measures, including: (1) dietary intake, (2) physical activity, (3) anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, (4) biochemical markers of health, (5) eating behaviors and health perceptions, and (6) mediators of behavior change, were collected before the intervention began (baseline) and will be collected at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of the study. Results In total, 87 women have been randomized to intervention groups, and 81 women have completed first week of the study. Results are expected in early 2016. Conclusions This RCT is one of the first to examine weight gain prevention in women across normal, overweight, and obese body mass index categories. Results of this research are expected to have application to evidence-based practice in weight gain prevention for women and possibly have implication for policy regarding decreasing the encumbrance of overweight and obesity in the United States. PMID:25831450

  2. Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

  3. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  4. 76 FR 31543 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Register on Thursday, April 21, 2011 (76 FR 22336). Persons who wish to present oral comments at the... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on proposed rulemaking....

  5. 76 FR 19907 - Clarification of Controlled Group Qualification Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... FR 49829). The NPRM proposed to amend Sec. 1.1563-1 to clarify that a corporation described in... controlled group of corporations for purposes of section 41, which provides a tax credit to taxpayers for... regulation is Grid Glyer of the Office of Associate Chief Counsel (Corporate). However, other personnel...

  6. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice..., 2013 Vol. 78 No. 206. This new meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who...

  7. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products to the Department of Defense (DoD), and GPS simulator users, both government and DoD...

  8. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply...

  9. 76 FR 30052 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... published in the Federal Register on Thursday, April 21, 2011 (76 FR 22336). The proposed regulations... rulemaking which is the subject of FR Doc. 2011-9606 is corrected as follows: On page 22336, in the preamble... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses;...

  10. Control Group Studies of Suicide Survivors: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews empirical studies of suicide survivors with designs that include control groups. Discusses investigations individually with respect to those in which participating survivors are friends or combination of different relationships to deceased, parents of deceased child, and spouses. Discusses commonalities of findings and most frequent…

  11. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Methods A five group design included a comparison group and a 2 × 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. Results At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Conclusions Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial intervention period, but only dietary changes persisted Enhanced social support and the ability to interact with others during the show were not effective complementary intervention components as conducted in this trial. Future research to strengthen the ability of this approach to achieve long term effects may offer even more promising outcomes. PMID:24373253

  12. Innovative psycho-educational program to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a before and after controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Universal interventions to prevent postnatal mental disorders in women have had limited success, perhaps because they were insufficiently theorised, not gender-informed and overlooked relevant risk factors. This study aimed to determine whether an innovative brief psycho-educational program for mothers, fathers and first newborns, which addressed salient learning needs about infant behaviour management and adjustment tasks in the intimate partner relationship, prevented postpartum mental health problems in primiparous women. Methods A before and after controlled study was conducted in primary care in seven local government areas in Victoria, Australia. English-speaking couples with one-week old infants were invited consecutively to participate by the maternal and child health nurse at the universal first home visit. Two groups were recruited and followed sequentially: both completed telephone interviews at four weeks and six months postpartum and received standard health care. Intervention group participants were also invited to attend a half-day program with up to five couples and one month old infants, facilitated by trained, supervised nurses. The main outcome was any Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) diagnosis of Depression or Anxiety or Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Anxiety, or Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood in the first six months postpartum. Factors associated with the outcome were established by logistic regression controlling for potential confounders and analysis was by intention to treat. Results In total 399/646 (62%) women were recruited; 210 received only standard care and 189 were also offered the intervention; 364 (91%) were retained at follow up six months postpartum. In women without a psychiatric history (232/364; 64%), 36/125 (29%) were diagnosed with Depression or Anxiety or Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Anxiety, or Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood in the control group, compared with 16/107 (15%) in the intervention group. In those without a psychiatric history, the adjusted odds ratio for diagnosis of a common postpartum mental disorder was 0.43 (95% CI 0.21, 0.89) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusions A universal, brief psycho-educational group program for English-speaking first time parents and babies in primary care reduces de novo postpartum mental disorders in women. A universal approach supplemented by an additional program may improve effectiveness for women with a psychiatric history. Trial registration ACTRN 12605000567628. PMID:20653934

  13. [Colonization with group B streptococcus in pregnant women taken into the care of unit K and hospitalized in the department of obstetric pathology].

    PubMed

    Szponar, M; Gali?ski, J; Bolt, L; Ordyniec, E

    1992-01-01

    Colonization with group B streptococci (GBS) in 714 pregnant women was investigated. Among 232 were hospitalised in department of pathological pregnancy and 512 were under ambulatory control. In 13.4% of hospitalised patients and 2.8% healthy pregnant women the colonization of vagina or throat with GBS was stated. The greatest percentage of vagina colonization was found in patients hospitalised in connection with gestosis or because of abortions, premature delivery and inanimate fetus. No correlation was found between range of GBS colonization and trimester of pregnancy. Almost all GBS strains proved to be susceptible for commonly used antibiotics but resistant to biseptol (88.2%). Patients of hospitalised group were more often colonized not only GBS but also other potentially pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:1304502

  14. Preventing HIV infection: the effects of community linkages, time, and money on recruiting and retaining women in intervention groups.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J; Lifshay, J; Van Devanter, N; Gonzales, V; Celentano, D

    1998-06-01

    Few studies have addressed recruitment and retention of participants in preventive interventions directed at human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and these generally have not focused on women. In this study, part of the Women in Group Support (WINGS) project, we examine the experience of three sites in recruiting 444 high-risk women for a small group intervention to reduce risky sexual behavior. The intervention included six structured sessions, followed by a continuing series of client-focused, drop-in sessions. Incentives for participants included child care, food, and transportation tokens. Attendees at each structured session also received a cash incentive of $10-$20. Forty-six percent of the women were recruited from community sources, 35% from clinics, and 19% from drug programs. Across all recruitment sources, almost a third of the women reported having had a sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the past year, 88%-94% reported a risky male partner (who, they believed, had sex with other partners or with sex workers, was an injecting drug user, or was HIV positive), and 10%-36% reported trading sex for money or drugs. During 18 months of recruitment, each site averaged 34 screening interviews monthly to secure 8 eligible women a month who completed baseline interviews and reported for randomization. The average number of paid sessions attended by participants was five of six (83%). Average attendance at unpaid sessions was 1 of 12 (8%). Key facilitators to recruitment and retention included linkages with community agencies and monetary incentives. Our findings suggest that researchers and community service providers need to explore alternative strategies to paying women for attending group sessions (e.g., incorporating group interventions into existing program requirements) and balance these against the costs and recruitment effectiveness. PMID:9650160

  15. Exercising Choice and Control--Women with Learning Disabilities and Contraception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This research project used semi-structured in-depth interviews to ask women with learning disabilities about the experience of being prescribed contraception. It also asked general practitioners about their prescribing practices through a postal survey. A service user group was involved at different stages of the project. Most of the women

  16. Exploring Iranian Women's Perceptions regarding Control and Prevention of Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Eileen; Escandon, Socorro; Lamyian, Minoor; Ahmadi, Fazlolah; Setoode, Sam Mohammad; Golkho, Shokoofe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian women's perceptions, behaviors, and beliefs related to breast cancer screening, breast cancer, and follow up care. A qualitative descriptive inquiry with both individual and focus group interviews was conducted in Tehran with 31 Farsi-speaking women, age 35 to 65 years of age. A constant comparison…

  17. A systematic review of training interventions addressing sexual violence against marginalized at-risk groups of women.

    PubMed

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-12-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with sexual violence. A systematic review was applied. Inclusion criteria were English language published between 2003 and 2013; reporting on delivery and/or evaluation; focusing on any form of sexual violence; delivered to professionals, affected or at-risk women; targeting migrant, at-risk women or domestic workers. Data were extracted on the setting, content, evaluation process and target population. Four studies which focused on prevention or responding to sexual violence were included. One study provided sexual violence training to vulnerable female and one provided a HIV prevention intervention to marginalized women. Learning objectives included increasing knowledge around issues of sexual violence and/or gender and human rights, prevention and response strategies. Two studies aimed to train trainers. All studies conducted an outcome evaluation and two a process evaluation. It seems there is a gap on participatory empowerment training for marginalized women. Community train-the-trainer interventions are imperative to protect themselves and deal with the risk of sexual violence. PMID:26590245

  18. Detection of Thyroid Autoimmunity Markers in Euthyroid Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Case-Control Study From Syria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saab, Raghad; Haddad, Shaden

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies in women in reproductive age. In many cases, PCOS is associated with infertility and increased risk of miscarriage. Recent studies have detected the presence of several organ specific and nonspecific autoantibodies in women with PCOS. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and levels of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid women with PCOS in Syria. Patients and Methods: This study included 56 euthyroid women with PCOS and 30 healthy women as a control group. PCOS was defined according to the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria. Thyroid function was evaluated by measurement of serum TSH and FT4 levels. Antithyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies (anti-TPO and anti-TG, respectively) were detected as markers for thyroid autoimmunity. All parameters were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: Women with PCOS had higher serum levels of anti-TPO in comparison to controls (39.9 59.5 and 18.9 11.2 IU/mL, respectively; P < 0.05) and no significant difference was found in serum levels of anti-TG, TSH, or FT4 between the two groups. Patients with PCOS had a higher prevalence of positive results for anti-TG and/or anti-TPO in comparison to controls (28.6% and 3.3%, respectively; P<0.05), anti-TPO alone (19.6% and 3.3%, respectively; P < 0.05) and anti-TG alone (21.4% and 3.3%, respectively; P < 0.05). No significant associations were found between antibodies and studied hormones. Conclusions: High prevalence of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid patients with PCOS refers to the importance of investigation for thyroid autoimmune state in those patients. PMID:25237328

  19. Assessing the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.

  20. Effects of endurance and resistance training on total daily energy expenditure in young women: a controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Poehlman, Eric T; Denino, Walter F; Beckett, Travis; Kinaman, Kristen A; Dionne, Isabelle J; Dvorak, Roman; Ades, Philip A

    2002-03-01

    There exists considerable controversy regarding the impact of different modes of exercise training on total daily energy expenditure (TEE). To examine this question, young, nonobese women were randomly assigned to a supervised 6-month program of endurance training, resistance training, or control condition. TEE was measured before and 10 d after a 6-month exercise program was completed with doubly labeled water. Body composition was determined from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, maximum aerobic capacity from a treadmill test to exhaustion, and muscular strength from one-repetition maximum tests. Results showed that body composition did not change in endurance-trained women, but maximum aerobic capacity increased by 18%. Resistance-trained women increased muscular strength and fat-free mass (1.3 kg). TEE did not significantly change when measured subsequent to the endurance or resistance training programs. Absolute resting metabolic rate increased in resistance-trained women but not when adjusted for fat-free mass. No change in physical activity energy expenditure was found in any of the groups. These results suggest that endurance and resistance training does not chronically alter TEE in free-living young women. Thus, the energy-enhancing benefits of exercise training are primarily derived from the direct energy cost of exercise and not from a chronic elevation in daily energy expenditure in young, nonobese women. PMID:11889152

  1. Depression and Obesity/Overweight Association in Elderly Women: a Community-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Seyed Mehdi; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2015-11-01

    Overweight/obesity and depression are common among women especially in the elderly and can lead to unfavorable outcomes. We aimed to determine the association of overweight with depression and also to find any correlation of depression with some anthropometric indices in old women. A total of 94 depressed elderly women were compared with 99 non-depressed controls. The structured diagnostic interview based on DSM-IV were performed to diagnose depression, and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was completed to rate it. Anthropometric indices were measured and compared between groups. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined for linear relations between variables. Odds Ratio of obesity and overweight in depressed subjects comparing with normal participants was 1.45 (95%CI=0.63-3.32). A significant correlation was observed between BMI and GDS score (r=0.231, P-value=0.001). Total body fat (P-value=0.001) and BMI (P-value=0.016) were significantly higher in depressed women than non-depressed women. Despite the significantly higher total body fat and BMI among old women with depression, only a weak correlation was seen between BMI and GDS score. PMID:26786989

  2. Group therapy in a general practice setting for frequent attenders: a controlled study of mothers with pre-school children

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Pauline; Turk, Theresa

    1988-01-01

    The frequent attendance of women suffering from anxiety and depression is a common problem in general practice and the problems are often externalized through the women's children. A small controlled study was carried out in a general practice surgery to see whether demand for medical attention by mothers of pre-school children would decrease after they attended a discussion group. Twenty women who fulfilled the study criteria of more than double the national average consultation rate for their age group and of having at least one pre-school child, were sequentially allocated to a treatment or control group. The group therapy was held over two terms of 10 sessions, each of 90 minutes, and was led by a psychologist and a general practitioner. Consultation rates (including surgery visits, house calls and prescription requests) were recorded for five consecutive six-month periods before and after the intervention. At follow-up six months after the end of the treatment a significant reduction in consultation rate had been achieved and maintained by the treated group compared with the controls (P<0.01). This study shows the value of attending to the cause of frequent consultation as well as to the complaints presented. PMID:3267741

  3. Risky business: focus-group analysis of sexual behaviors, drug use and victimization among incarcerated women in St. Louis.

    PubMed

    Millay, Tamara A; Satyanarayana, Veena A; O'Leary, Catina C; Crecelius, Robert; Cottler, Linda B

    2009-09-01

    Incarcerated women report multiple vulnerabilities and, yet, are under-represented in research. This study used focus-group methodology to explore high-risk sexual behaviors, drug use, and victimization among female offenders in St. Louis. Inmates of the St. Louis Medium Security Institution (MSI) were invited to participate in one of five focus groups between May and September 2005 in preparation for an NIH/NINR HIV-prevention intervention study among female offenders in Drug Court. The focus group sample of 30 women was 70% African-American, with a mean age of 36 years. Results indicated that oral sex was the most common sex trade activity. Consistent with the literature, condom usage was described as irregular. In terms of drug use, participants reported that crack was most commonly used, with binges often lasting for several days. Regarding victimization, women frequently reported sexual abuse in childhood, and some described abusive relationships as adults. Participants also reported being beaten and raped by customers, which led to their concealing knives in purses and razors under the tongue. Consequently, perpetrated violence, including murder, was reported as protection against further violence. These findings confirm the vulnerability of this population of women who are at high risk for HIV. Effective HIV-prevention interventions are needed to assist these incarcerated women in making lifestyle changes during incarceration and sustaining them after release. PMID:19533363

  4. Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.; Maibodi, M.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.

  5. Nonproliferation and arms control technology working group. RD database focus group. 1996 annual report. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In response to guidance from the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Group (NPAC TWG), the Proliferation Modeling Focus Group (PMFG) formulated objectives and terms of reference from which to conduct its activities. A major recommendation of this group in its report last year was that NPAC TWG needed to establish a separate focus group to develop and implement communications and data sharing within the larger NPAC TWG and among its various focus groups. The need was recognized for communicating and data sharing at both classified and unclassified levels. In response to this recommendation, the NPAC TWG established the Research and Development Database Focus Group. To facilitate our communication needs, it was decided to use a three-tier approach on three parallel communications networks: the Internet`s World Wide Web, Secret Internet Protocol Router Network`s (SIPRNET) INTELINK-S, and Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System`s (JWICS) INTELINK. Since all three networks at all classification levels use WEB browsers (Mosaic, Netscape, Microsoft`s Navigator, and others) and Internet tools to search and display data, and all networks are or could be made available to all members, it was propitious to use them as the infrastructure for NPAC TWG`s information sharing requirements.

  6. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Yoga in Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chandwani, Kavita D.; Perkins, George; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Raghuram, Nelamangala V.; Spelman, Amy; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Johnson, Kayla; Fortier, Adoneca; Arun, Banu; Wei, Qi; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Haddad, Robin; Morris, G. Stephen; Scheetz, Janet; Chaoul, Alejandro; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous research incorporating yoga (YG) into radiotherapy (XRT) for women with breast cancer finds improved quality of life (QOL). However, shortcomings in this research limit the findings. Patients and Methods Patients with stages 0 to III breast cancer were recruited before starting XRT and were randomly assigned to YG (n = 53) or stretching (ST; n = 56) three times a week for 6 weeks during XRT or waitlist (WL; n = 54) control. Self-report measures of QOL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form survey; primary outcomes), fatigue, depression, and sleep quality, and five saliva samples per day for 3 consecutive days were collected at baseline, end of treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months later. Results The YG group had significantly greater increases in physical component scale scores compared with the WL group at 1 and 3 months after XRT (P = .01 and P = .01). At 1, 3, and 6 months, the YG group had greater increases in physical functioning compared with both ST and WL groups (P < .05), with ST and WL differences at only 3 months (P < .02). The group differences were similar for general health reports. By the end of XRT, the YG and ST groups also had a reduction in fatigue (P < .05). There were no group differences for mental health and sleep quality. Cortisol slope was steepest for the YG group compared with the ST and WL groups at the end (P = .023 and P = .008) and 1 month after XRT (P = .05 and P = .04). Conclusion YG improved QOL and physiological changes associated with XRT beyond the benefits of simple ST exercises, and these benefits appear to have long-term durability. PMID:24590636

  7. Consumption of Calcium-Fortified Cereal Bars to Improve Dietary Calcium Intake of Healthy Women: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer T.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Radcliffe, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day) (intervention) to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control). At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d) when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001) or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001) periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01508689 PMID:25941810

  8. Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control

    PubMed Central

    Dellar, Rachael C; Dlamini, Sarah; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2015-01-01

    Introduction At the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, adolescent girls and young women aged 1524 contribute a disproportionate ~30% of all new infections and seroconvert 57 years earlier than their male peers. This agesex disparity in HIV acquisition continues to sustain unprecedentedly high incidence rates, and preventing HIV infection in this age group is a pre-requisite for achieving an AIDS-free generation and attaining epidemic control. Discussion Adolescent girls and young women in southern Africa are uniquely vulnerable to HIV and have up to eight times more infection than their male peers. While the cause of this vulnerability has not been fully elucidated, it is compounded by structural, social and biological factors. These factors include but are not limited to: engagement in age-disparate and/or transactional relationships, few years of schooling, experience of food insecurity, experience of gender-based violence, increased genital inflammation, and amplification of effects of transmission co-factors. Despite the large and immediate HIV prevention need of adolescent girls and young women, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to reduce their risk. The exclusion of adolescents in biomedical research is a huge barrier. School and community-based education programmes are commonplace in many settings, yet few have been evaluated and none have demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Promising data are emerging on prophylactic use of anti-retrovirals and conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention in these populations. Conclusions There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural interventions are urgently needed for epidemic control. In the interim, a pragmatic approach of integrating existing HIV prevention efforts into broader sexual reproductive health services is a public health imperative. PMID:25724504

  9. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  10. PTS performance by flight- and control-group macaques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.

  11. Belief in Divine Control, Coping, and Race/Ethnicity among Older Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Umezawa, Yoshiko; You, Jin; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Leake, Barbara; Maly, Rose C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Belief in divine control is often assumed to be fatalistic. However, the assumption has rarely been investigated in racial/ethnic minorities. Objectives This study aims to examine the association between belief in divine control and coping and how the association was moderated by ethnicity/acculturation in a multi-ethnic sample of breast cancer patients. Methods Latina, African American, and non-Hispanic White older women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (N=257) from a population-based survey completed the scale of Belief in Divine Control and the Brief COPE. Results Belief in divine control was positively related to approach coping (i.e., positive reframing, active coping, and planning) in all ethnic groups. Belief in divine control was positively related to acceptance and negatively related to avoidance coping (i.e., denial and behavioral disengagement) among low-acculturated Latinas. Conclusions Negative presumptions about fatalistic implications of belief in divine control should be critically reappraised, especially when such skepticism is applied to racial/ethnic minority patients. PMID:22529040

  12. Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for weight loss in midlife women: a controlled study with follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Filipa; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, Joo; Ramos, Catarina

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be effective in weight reduction. This study explores whether individual, 8-session CBT can promote weight loss in midlife women. Methods Anthropometric (weight, abdominal perimeter, and body mass index calculation), psychological (health-related and sexual quality of life, stress, anxiety, and depression), and behavioral measures (binge eating disorder and restrained, external, and emotional eating) were assessed at baseline (T1), posttreatment (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3), for a total of 21 women at baseline; the CBT group (n = 11) and the control group (n = 10; waiting list) were compared. Results Statistically significant effects that were dependent on the intervention were observed on weight (F = 4.402; P = 0.035; ?p2 = 0.404; ? = 0.652) and body mass index (F = 3.804; P = 0.050; ?p2 = 0.369; ? = 0.585); furthermore, marginally significant effects were observed on external eating (F = 2.844; P = 0.095; ?p2 = 0.304; ? = 0.461). At follow-up, women in the CBT group presented with lower weight, abdominal perimeter, body mass index, and external eating; higher health-related quality-of-life and restrained eating were also observed in this group. Most differences identified were at a marginally significant level. Moreover, at follow-up, none of the participants of the CBT group met the criteria for binge eating disorder, whereas the number of women with binge eating disorder in the control group remained the same through all three assessments. Conclusion An effective, though small, weight loss was achieved. Changes in quality of life were also observed. Moreover, changes in external eating behavior were successful. PMID:23091402

  13. A combination of misoprostol and estradiol for preoperative cervical ripening in postmenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Oppegaard, KS; Lieng, M; Berg, A; Istre, O; Qvigstad, E; Nesheim, B-I

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the impact of 1000 ?g of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus self-administered vaginal placebo on preoperative cervical ripening after 2 weeks of pretreatment with estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women prior to day-care operative hysteroscopy. Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled sequential trial. Setting Norwegian university teaching hospital. Population Sixty-seven postmenopausal women referred for day-care operative hysteroscopy. Methods The women were randomised to receive either 1000 ?g of self-administered vaginal misoprostol or self-administered vaginal placebo on the evening before day-care operative hysteroscopy. All women had administered a 25-?g vaginal estradiol tablet daily for 14 days prior to the operation. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: preoperative cervical dilatation at hysteroscopy. Secondary outcomes: difference in dilatation at recruitment and before hysteroscopy, number of women who achieved a preoperative cervical dilatation of 5 mm or more, acceptability, complications and adverse effects. Results The mean cervical dilatation was 5.7 mm (SD, 1.6 mm) in the misoprostol group and 4.7 mm (SD, 1.5 mm) in the placebo group, the mean difference in cervical dilatation being 1.0 mm (95% CI, 0.21.7 mm). Self-administered vaginal misoprostol of 1000 ?g at home on the evening before day-care hysteroscopy is safe and highly acceptable, although a small proportion of women experienced lower abdominal pain. Conclusions One thousand micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol, 12 hours prior to day-care hysteroscopy, after 14 days of pretreatment with vaginal estradiol, has a significant cervical ripening effect compared with placebo in postmenopausal women. PMID:20002369

  14. Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD) loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength) are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks. Methods/Design A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen), bone formation (osteocalcin), and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16) to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal mechanical loads and postural control as mediators of fracture risk. Discussion Results of this study will provide preliminary evidence regarding the value of Tai Chi as an intervention for decreasing fracture risk in osteopenic women. They will also inform the feasibility, value and potential limitations related to the use of pragmatic designs for the study of Tai Chi and related mind-body exercise. If the results are positive, this will help focus future, more in-depth, research on the most promising potential mechanisms of action identified by this study. Trial registration This trial is registered in Clinical Trials.gov, with the ID number of NCT01039012. PMID:20193083

  15. No differences in rates of energy expenditure between post-obese women and their matched, lean controls.

    PubMed

    de Peuter, R; Withers, R T; Brinkman, M; Tomas, F M; Clark, D G

    1992-10-01

    Rates of energy expenditure at rest, during different daily activities and following a standardized liquid meal were compared in eight post-obese women, with a mean weight loss of 21.5 kg (range 14.1 to 33.3 kg) and eight controls who had never been overweight. Age, height, body mass index, fat-free mass and average daily energy intake were similar for both experimental groups. Resting metabolic rate averaged 23.04 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 1.14) in the post-obese and 22.70 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 0.64) in the controls on their first visit to the laboratory. Metabolic rates in the two groups rose in parallel as energy expenditure was increased by sitting, standing and walking at three different speeds (2.4, 3.9 and 5.4 km/h). At the highest walking speed energy expenditure averaged 95.30 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 4.18) in the post-obese and 93.42 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 2.97) in the control women. Comparisons of postprandial thermogenesis revealed no significant differences between the two groups. The results of the present study do not support the thesis that rates of energy expenditure, whether at rest, during different activities, or after eating, are reduced in post-obese women. PMID:1330959

  16. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities), calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI) 0.38 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value <.001) of receiving a cervical screening test; an OR of 2.05 (CI 1.88 2.22; X2: 24.236; p.value <.001) of being ceased from screening; and an OR of 0.14 (CI 0.001 0.28; X2: 286.341; p.value <0.001 of being a non-responder compared to age and practice-matched women without learning disabilities. Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities. PMID:18218106

  17. Testing a Violence-Prevention Intervention for Incarcerated Women Using a Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kim, Woo Jong; Fedock, Gina; Bybee, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Beyond Violence (BV), a new prevention program for women with assaultive offenses, demonstrated feasibility in previous studies. This study's purpose is to assess the efficacy of BV using a randomized control trial. Method: Eligible women were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) and the experimental condition (BV). Measures of

  18. Psychological Separation, Self-Control, and Weight Preoccupation among Elite Women Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Myrna L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined weight preoccupation among 55 elite women swimmers from 5 universities. Results showed that 10.9% of respondents could be characterized as "weight preoccupied," a percentage comparable to general population of college women. Athletes reported using significantly more benign than punitive self-control strategies, suggesting for them,

  19. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

  20. Everyday Conflict and Stress among Older African American Women: Findngs from a Focus Group Study and Pilot Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, Patricia Flynn; Dunigan, Robert; Hawkins, Robert L.; Weitzman, Eben A.; Levkoff, Sue E.

    2002-01-01

    Three focus groups examined stress and conflict among 30 older African American women in Boston. Stress stemmed from worries about functional disability, accessing transportation, conflicts with family and peers, and grandchildren's lack of respect. Participants tended to use avoidant strategies to deal with stress and conflict. A training program

  1. Differential Therapeutic Outcomes of Community-Based Group Interventions for Women and Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.

    2011-01-01

    Two community-based group therapies, emotion focused versus goal oriented, are compared among women exposed to intimate partner violence (n = 46) and their children (n = 48) aged between 6 and 12 years. A series of repeated measures analyses are employed to evaluate the effects of time from baseline to postintervention following random assignment.

  2. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.

  3. Everyday Conflict and Stress among Older African American Women: Findngs from a Focus Group Study and Pilot Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, Patricia Flynn; Dunigan, Robert; Hawkins, Robert L.; Weitzman, Eben A.; Levkoff, Sue E.

    2002-01-01

    Three focus groups examined stress and conflict among 30 older African American women in Boston. Stress stemmed from worries about functional disability, accessing transportation, conflicts with family and peers, and grandchildren's lack of respect. Participants tended to use avoidant strategies to deal with stress and conflict. A training program…

  4. [Women of Guatemala City: facilitating AIDS prevention in a vulnerable group].

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, A; Arathoon, E; Lundgren, R; Bezmalinovic, B

    1992-01-01

    Despite the mistaken belief in Central America that AIDS is primarily a disease of male homosexuals, some 21% of reported cases in Guatemala have been women 15-44 years old. Many Guatemalan women are at risk of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) because of their lack of sexual bargaining power and negotiating skills, the widespread acceptance of male infidelity in marriage, tolerance of bisexual relations and frequenting of prostitutes, and ignorance of women about sexuality. Condom use is infrequent in Guatemala. Most men and women lack knowledge of AIDS and other STDs and have no perception of their own vulnerability. Male alcohol use and violence against women diminishes the ability of women to protect themselves. Sex education and information about STDs should be provided for both men and women to slow the spread of AIDS. AIDS educators should direct their messages to women toward promoting condom use, increasing knowledge of AIDS and STDs, providing basic sex education, questioning stereotypes of AIDS patients as persons with disordered lifestyles, encouraging realistic assessment of risks, and assisting women to increase their negotiating ability in sexual relations. Three crucial ways of helping women protect themselves are by making them aware of the influence of gender roles in their reproductive lives, teaching them communication and negotiating skills, and providing strategies for them to confront alcohol abuse and gender violence. Survey results indicate that Guatemalan women were extremely motivated to protect their children and secondarily to maintain their homes and be good wives. Motivational messages for AIDS prevention should be related to children and the family. Men were found to be concerned about their families as well and to fear the stigma of HIV infection. Educational techniques for AIDS prevention should be accessible to the illiterate and should focus on life stories or similar methods that make AIDS seem less abstract to those who have had no direct experience with the disease. PMID:12290622

  5. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba extract on sexual desire in postmenopausal women in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Pebdani, Mina Amiri; Taavoni, Simin; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Haghani, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the menopausal period, sexual desire may decrease. Therefore, restoring the sexual desire may help to improve sexual functioning in this group of women. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: In this triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 80 healthy female volunteers attending three healthcare centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) were enrolled. The instrument of this study had two main parts. The first part covered the personal characteristics of the volunteers and the second part used the Sabbatsberg Sexual Rating Scale (SSRS) to subjectively evaluate sexual desire before and after intervention. The participants received GBE at a dose of 120-240 mg (n = 40) or received placebo (n = 40) daily for 30 days. The results were analyzed using MannWhitney test. All analyses were performed using SPSS software. Results: The sexual desire was significantly improved in the GBE group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.02). Conclusions: In this study, we found that GBE had a positive effect on sexual desire of menopausal women; thus, these findings support the positive effect of GBE on the sexual function of menopausal women. PMID:24949064

  6. Coercive control and abused women's decisions about their pets when seeking shelter.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Jennifer L; Khaw, Lyndal; Ridgway, Marcella D; Weber, Cheryl; Miles, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    The importance of pets in families, especially during major life stressors, is well documented. Research suggests links between pet ownership and intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored abused women's decisions about pets when seeking help from a shelter. Interviews were conducted with 19 women who were pet owners. Using grounded theory methods, two patterns emerged surrounding abusers' treatment of pets, bonds to pets, women's decisions about pets upon seeking shelter, and future plans for pets. The presence of coercive control was central to these patterns. Women also discussed their experiences with and needs from shelter professionals and veterinarians with implications for practice. PMID:23670287

  7. Safety and efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for pregnant women to prevent excessive maternal weight gain: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with short- and long-term health problems among mothers and their offspring. There is a strong need for effective intervention strategies targeting excessive GWG to prevent adverse outcomes. Methods We performed a cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial in eight gynecological practices evaluating the feasibility and effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention presented to all pregnant women; 250 healthy, pregnant women were recruited for the study. The intervention program consisted of two individually delivered counseling sessions focusing on diet, physical activity, and weight monitoring. The primary outcome was the proportion of pregnant women exceeding weight gain recommendations of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Secondary outcome variables were maternal weight retention and short-term obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Results The intervention resulted in a lower proportion of women exceeding IOM guidelines among women in the intervention group (38%) compared with the control group (60%) (odds ratio (OR): 0.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3 to 0.9) without prompting an increase in the proportion of pregnancies with suboptimal weight gain (19% vs. 21%). Participants in the intervention group gained significantly less weight than those in the control group. Only 17% of the women in the intervention group showed substantial weight retention of more than 5kg compared with 31% of those in the control group at month four postpartum (pp) (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9). There were no significant differences in obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Conclusions Lifestyle counseling given to pregnant women reduced the proportion of pregnancies with excessive GWG without increasing suboptimal weight gain, and may exert favorable effects on pp weight retention. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003801. PMID:23865624

  8. Body Image and Quality of Life in a Group of African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks; Thomas, Dana-Marie; Ard, Jamy D.

    2010-01-01

    African American (AA) women's preference for a larger body size and underestimation of their body weight may affect the relationship between their body weight and weight-related quality of life (QOL). We wanted to examine the relationship between weight-related QOL and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of overweight AA women. Thirty-three…

  9. Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape Concerns among a Group of College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines three potential factors that might mediate the relationship between reading women's magazines and body shape and size concern. Finds that health and fitness magazine reading by college-aged women was linked directly to body shape concerns, indirectly through beliefs about men's thinness expectations. Explains that beauty and fashion

  10. Body Image and Quality of Life in a Group of African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks; Thomas, Dana-Marie; Ard, Jamy D.

    2010-01-01

    African American (AA) women's preference for a larger body size and underestimation of their body weight may affect the relationship between their body weight and weight-related quality of life (QOL). We wanted to examine the relationship between weight-related QOL and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of overweight AA women. Thirty-three

  11. Unconscious Communication of Internalized Oppression among African American Women: A Small Group Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Laura Kathleen

    This paper attempts to fill the gap in the field of communication concerning African American women. It postulates that the African American woman's unique experience with both racism and sexism influences specific types of communication when she is called upon to communicate solely with other African American women. It builds upon the…

  12. A randomized control trial of a chronic care intervention for homeless women with alcohol use problems.

    PubMed

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2015-04-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n = 82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a primary care provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a care manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest that screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  13. Greater anterior insula activation during anticipation of food images in women recovered from anorexia nervosa versus controls.

    PubMed

    Oberndorfer, Tyson; Simmons, Alan; McCurdy, Danyale; Strigo, Irina; Matthews, Scott; Yang, Tony; Irvine, Zoe; Kaye, Walter

    2013-11-30

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict food consumption and become severely emaciated. Eating food, even thinking of eating food, is often associated with heightened anxiety. However, food cue anticipation in AN is poorly understood. Fourteen women recovered from AN and 12 matched healthy control women performed an anticipation task viewing images of food and object images during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing anticipation of food versus object images between control women and recovered AN groups showed significant interaction only in the right ventral anterior insula, with greater activation in recovered AN anticipating food images. These data support the hypothesis of a disconnect between anticipating and experiencing food stimuli in recovered AN. Insula activation positively correlated with pleasantness ratings of palatable foods in control women, while no such relationship existed in recovered AN, which is further evidence of altered interoceptive function. Finally, these findings raise the possibility that enhanced anterior insula anticipatory response to food cues in recovered AN could contribute to exaggerated sensitivity and anxiety related to food and eating. PMID:23993362

  14. Greater anterior insula activation during anticipation of food images in women recovered from anorexia nervosa versus controls

    PubMed Central

    Oberndorfer, Tyson; Simmons, Alan; McCurdy, Danyale; Strigo, Irina; Matthews, Scott; Yang, Tony; Irvine, Zoe; Kaye, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict food consumption and become severely emaciated. Eating food, even thinking of eating food, is often associated with heightened anxiety. However, food cue anticipation in AN is poorly understood. Fourteen women recovered from AN and 12 matched healthy control women performed an anticipation task viewing images of food and object images during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing anticipation of food versus object images between control women and recovered AN groups showed significant interaction only in the right ventral anterior insula, with greater activation in recovered AN anticipating food images. These data support the hypothesis of a disconnect between anticipating and experiencing food stimuli in recovered AN. Insula activation positively correlated with pleasantness ratings of palatable foods in control women, while no such relationship existed in recovered AN, which is further evidence of altered interoceptive function. Finally, these findings raise the possibility that enhanced anterior insula anticipatory response to food cues in recovered AN could contribute to exaggerated sensitivity and anxiety related to food and eating. PMID:23993362

  15. Effect of culturally appropriate health education on glycaemic control and knowledge of diabetes in British Pakistani women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, K

    2001-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a growing problem in people of South Asian origin. It is associated with severe complications if it is not adequately controlled. This paper is a secondary assessment of 105 British Pakistani women within a larger randomized controlled trial of 200 Pakistani patients with diabetes. The trial used one-to-one structured diabetes health education, delivered by a linkworker with pictorial flashcards as a visual aid. Earlier published results from this study have shown that the women in the study knew less about diabetes and had poorer glycaemic control than men, which is why this assessment was performed to see what happened to them when they received appropriate health education. All patients were assessed before and 6 months after intervention by questionnaire and haemoglobin A1c blood tests to measure their overall blood sugar control. Nearly everyone improved their knowledge scores after 6 months in the intervention group, with women showing a catch-up improvement such that they equalled men. Multiple regression analysis found that glycaemic control improved in women receiving health education. Although this method of health education improved knowledge and glycaemic control in women in this sample, illiterate women did not do as well as their literate peers, continuing to score less on knowledge parameters. They also did not show an improvement in glycaemic control. Further work is needed to discover methods that will reach this sizeable subsection of the community. PMID:11497119

  16. Married Iranian Women's Knowledge, Attitude and Sense of Self-efficacy about Oral Contraceptives: Focus Group Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Peyman, Nooshin; Oakley, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Oral contraceptive pills effectiveness is lower in actual use than in clinical trials. The views of a group of married Iranian women were sought as a step toward improving the enhanced use of contraceptive pills. Methods Two focus groups of current pill users (n=13) and two focus groups of women not currently taking the pills (n=14) were held. Leaders trained facilitators; themes were identified from line-by-line analysis of transcripts. Results The majority of the participants were primary school graduates with a mean age of 34 years. Knowledge about mechanisms of action was low; some women wanted more information. Both users and non-users recognized positive and negative characteristics of contraceptive pills. For non-users, physical and emotional side-effects were the most important; and anecdotal information from their social network was more important. They tended to trust more traditional methods. For users, their own experience and more reality-based understanding of side-effects mitigated concerns about side-effects. They also felt that health clinic staff had a negative attitude toward the pills. A stronger expression of self-efficacy seemed to be associated with more positive attitudes toward oral contraceptive pills. Conclusion Although Iran has had a government-funded family planning program since 1990, and pills are the single most popular modern contraceptive method, women who take OCPs can provide important information that could increase effective health education about their use. PMID:23926515

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Physical Activity among Women with Menopause Symptoms: Findings from a Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kolu, Pivi; Raitanen, Jani; Nygrd, Clas-Hkan; Toms, Eija; Luoto, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is a period that may predispose one to a decrease in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and quality of life. A study was carried out to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women displaying symptoms of menopause. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on data from a six-month randomised controlled trial (n = 151). The women in the intervention group engaged in an unsupervised session of at least 50 minutes of physical activity four times a week. The control group continued their physical activity as before. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated in terms of maximal oxygen consumption, lean muscle mass, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. A bootstrap technique was utilised to estimate uncertainty around the point estimate for ICER associated with the intervention. The mean total cost in the intervention group was 1,307 (SEM: 311) and in the control group was 1,253 (SEM: 279, p = 0.10) per person. The mean intervention cost was 208 per person. After six months of the behaviour-change intervention, the ICER was 63 for a 1 ml/kg/min improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, the additional cost per one-gram increase in lean muscle mass was 126, and the cost per QALY gained was 46. According to the findings, physical activity among menopausal women was cost-effective for cardiorespiratory fitness, for lean muscle mass, and for QALYs gained, since the intervention was more effective than the actions within the control group and the additional effects of physical activity were gained at a very low price. From the societal perspective, the intervention used may promote ability to work and thereby save on further costs associated with early retirement or disability pension if the physical-activity level remains at least the same as during the intervention. PMID:26258804

  18. Cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women with menopause symptoms: findings from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Tomás, Eija; Luoto, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is a period that may predispose one to a decrease in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and quality of life. A study was carried out to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women displaying symptoms of menopause. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on data from a six-month randomised controlled trial (n = 151). The women in the intervention group engaged in an unsupervised session of at least 50 minutes of physical activity four times a week. The control group continued their physical activity as before. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated in terms of maximal oxygen consumption, lean muscle mass, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. A bootstrap technique was utilised to estimate uncertainty around the point estimate for ICER associated with the intervention. The mean total cost in the intervention group was €1,307 (SEM: €311) and in the control group was €1,253 (SEM: €279, p = 0.10) per person. The mean intervention cost was €208 per person. After six months of the behaviour-change intervention, the ICER was €63 for a 1 ml/kg/min improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, the additional cost per one-gram increase in lean muscle mass was €126, and the cost per QALY gained was €46. According to the findings, physical activity among menopausal women was cost-effective for cardiorespiratory fitness, for lean muscle mass, and for QALYs gained, since the intervention was more effective than the actions within the control group and the additional effects of physical activity were gained at a very low price. From the societal perspective, the intervention used may promote ability to work and thereby save on further costs associated with early retirement or disability pension if the physical-activity level remains at least the same as during the intervention. PMID:26258804

  19. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Amos A; Greaves L; Nichter M; Bloch M

    2012-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed.METHODS: Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries.RESULTS: Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries.CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  20. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Tiffany L.; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Sharonda; Townsend, Sh'Nese; Ard, Jamy D.; Meneses, Karen; Partridge, Edward E.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2015-01-01

    Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n = 355) provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10), and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall) data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m2) and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16) and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group). Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake. PMID:25821595

  1. Prevalence of Group B Streptococcus serotypes III and V in pregnant women of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Georgia Cristina Tavolaro; Alviano, Daniela Sales; da Silva Santos, Gabriela; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Nagao, Prescilla Emy

    2013-01-01

    GBS serotypes III and V were the most prevalent in pregnant women and exhibited resistance to tetracycline, clindamycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Serotype III showed high sialic acid content and PFGE analysis discerned 33 heterogeneous profiles. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization could be relevant to control GBS infections unaffected by intra-partum chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24516454

  2. Multiscale entropy identifies differences in complexity in postural control in women with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Busa, Michael A; Jones, Stephanie L; Hamill, Joseph; van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2016-03-01

    Loss of postural center-of-pressure complexity (COP complexity) has been associated with reduced adaptability that accompanies disease and aging. The aim of this study was to identify if COP complexity is reduced: (1) in those with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) compared to controls; (2) when vision is limited compared to remaining intact; and (3) during more demanding postural conditions compared to quiet standing. Additionally, we explored the relationship between the COP complexity and disease severity, fatigue, cutaneous sensation and central motor drive. Twelve women with MS and 12 age-matched controls were tested under quiet standing and postural maximal lean conditions with normal and limited vision. The key dependent variable was the complexity index (CI) of the center of pressure. We observed a lower CI in the MS group compared to controls in both anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions (p's<0.002), during the performance of maximal self-regulated leans (AP: p<0.001; ML: p=0.018), and under limited vision (AP: p=0.001; ML: p=0.006). No group-by-vision interaction (p>0.05) was observed, indicating that limiting vision did not impact COP complexity differently in the two groups. Decreased cutaneous sensitivity was associated with lower CI values in the AP direction among those with MS (r(2)=0.57); all other measures did not exhibit significant relationships. The findings reported here suggest that (1) MS is associated with diminished COP complexity under both normal and challenging postures, and (2) complexity is strongly correlated with cutaneous sensitivity, suggesting the unique contribution of impaired somatosensation on postural control deficits in persons with MS. PMID:26979875

  3. Antioxidant effect of isoflavones: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study in oophorectomized women

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rakesh; Mittal, Niti; Hota, Debasish; Suri, Vanita; Aggarwal, Neelam; Chakrabarti, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the postulated mechanism for cardioprotective potential of isoflavones is their ability to exert antioxidant action. However, various reports give conflicting results in this area. Aim: The present study was conducted with an objective to probe into the cardioprotective mechanism of isoflavones by evaluating their antioxidant potential in oophorectomized women. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo controlled study. A total of 43 women were randomized to receive 75 mg/day isoflavones tablet or placebo for 12 weeks. Red blood cell antioxidant parameters including lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined at baseline and at the end of the study. Results: After 12 weeks of administration of isoflavones, there was no statistically significant difference in lipid peroxidation (P value for isoflavones: 0.37; for placebo: 0.37), catalase (P value for isoflavones: 0.35; for placebo: 0.84), SOD (P value for isoflavones: 0.41; for placebo: 0.28) and GSH-Px (P value for isoflavones: 0.92; for placebo: 0.29). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients experiencing adverse events in the two groups (P -1.00). Conclusion: The study strengthens the concept that the cardioprotective mechanism of isoflavones might be due to some other reason apart from the antioxidant pathway. PMID:24600575

  4. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely given that >150 million women, many of childbearing age, are involved in microfinance globally. PMID:24812071

  5. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Therapist-Assisted, Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Women with Maternal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Nicole E.; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D.; Dirkse, Dale

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum depression impacts up to 15% of Canadian women following childbirth. Remarkably, many women suffering from this disorder do not receive appropriate treatment. The aim of this study was to conduct a parallel-group randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of Therapist-Assisted Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TA-ICBT) for the treatment of postpartum depression. This study was registered with the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials (ISRCTN: 85456371) and received funding from Canadian Institutes of Health Research (#101526) and the Saskatchewan Health Research Foundation. Fifty women who gave birth to an infant in the past year, who scored above 10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and who resided in Saskatchewan, Canada were eligible to participate. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either TA-ICBT (n = 25) or waitlist control (n = 25). The efficacy of the treatment was investigated at baseline and at seven- to 10-week follow-up. TA-ICBT participants were also contacted four-weeks following treatment completion. Symptoms of postpartum depression decreased more for participants in the TA-ICBT group (average reduction of 6.24 points on the EPDS; n = 21 included in analyses) compared to those participants in the waitlist control group (average reduction of 2.42 points on the EPDS; n = 20 included in analyses), and these results were clinically significant and maintained at four-week follow-up. TA-ICBT participants demonstrated a reduction in postnatal anxiety, general stress, and parental distress, and an increase in psychological and environmental quality of life when compared to the waitlist control participants. Study implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN85456371 PMID:26930488

  6. Oxytocin Levels are Lower in Premenopausal Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Compared to Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kujath, Amber S.; Quinn, Lauretta; Elliott, Mary E.; Varady, Krista A.; LeCaire, Tamara J.; Carter, C. Sue; Danielson, Kirstie K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OT), a hormone most commonly associated with parturition and lactation, may have additional roles in diabetes complications. We determined OT levels in premenopausal women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) compared to nondiabetic controls; and examined associations of OT with health behaviors, clinical factors, biomarkers, kidney function, and bone health. Lower OT was hypothesized for T1DM. Methods Cross-sectional study of premenopausal women with T1DM (n=88) from the Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study, a population-based cohort of incident T1DM cases, and matched nondiabetic controls (n=74). Results Women with T1DM had lower OT levels than controls adjusting for caffeine and alcohol use (p=0.03). Health behaviors associated with OT differed between women with and without T1DM: OT was negatively associated with hormonal contraceptive use (quantified as lifetime contraceptive estrogen exposure) in women with T1DM (p=0.003) while positively related to hormonal contraceptive use (quantified as never/former/current) in controls (p<0.001). OT had a positive association with adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio and leptin) in women with T1DM and a negative relationship with adiposity (weight gain) in controls. In T1DM only, OT was positively associated with caffeine intake (p=0.01) and negatively associated with alcohol use (p=0.01). OT was not related to glycemic control, kidney function, or bone health in T1DM. Conclusions OT levels are lower in women with T1DM than matched controls. OT also has opposing associations with hormonal contraceptives and adiposity in women with and without T1DM. Research is needed to determine if the altered OT milieu in T1DM is associated with other health outcomes. PMID:25044726

  7. [Women and smoking. A challenge for the tobacco control policy in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fleitmann, S; Dohnke, B; Balke, K; Rustler, C; Sonntag, U

    2010-02-01

    In Germany, smoking rates among women have been slightly declining since 2003. However, smoking rates among young women and girls are high and are reaching the smoking rates of their male counterparts. Only about half of pregnant smokers below the age of 25 stop smoking. Women and girls with low education and low level jobs, those who are unemployed, as well as single parents have the highest smoking rates. The tobacco industry promotes smoking behavior of women and girls through marketing campaigns, thus, systematically counteracting smoking prevention activities. Within the framework of the annual conference 2008 of the Federal Drug Commissioner on the theme of "Women and Smoking", recommendations for a gender-specific tobacco control policy in Germany were developed. The main demands relate to the necessity of a targeted policy approach which takes into account the needs and life circumstances of women and girls, the development of integrated prevention programs for pregnant women, improved medical and preventive care, the involvement of women from the media and culture, from health professions and politics to promote a smoke-free culture, gender-specific research, and the improvement of tobacco control legislation. FACT (Frauen aktiv contra Tabak e.V.) actively supports the implementation of these policy recommendations. PMID:20069267

  8. Patient and Physician Decision Styles and Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Use in Older Women: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Protocol 369901

    PubMed Central

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; Faul, Leigh Anne; Luta, George; Makgoeng, Solomon B.; Isaacs, Claudine; Taylor, Kathryn; Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Tallarico, Michelle; Barry, William T.; Cohen, Harvey J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Physician and patient decision styles may influence breast cancer care for patients ≥ 65 years (“older”) because there is uncertainty about chemotherapy benefits in this group. We evaluate associations between decision-making styles and actual treatment. Methods Data were collected from women treated outside of clinical trials for newly diagnosed stage I to III breast cancer (83% response) from January 2004 through April 2011 in 75 cooperative group sites. Physicians completed a one-time mailed survey (91% response), and clinical data were abstracted from charts. Patient decision style was measured on a five-point scale. Oncologists' preference for prescribing chemotherapy was based on standardized vignettes. Regression and multiple imputation were used to assess associations between chemotherapy and other variables. Results There were 1,174 women seen by 212 oncologists; 43% of women received chemotherapy. One-third of women preferred to make their own treatment decision. Patient and physician decision styles were independently associated with chemotherapy. Women who preferred less physician input had lower odds of chemotherapy than women who preferred more input (odds ratio [OR] = 0.79 per 1-point change; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.97; P = .02) after considering covariates. Patients whose oncologists had a high chemotherapy preference had higher odds of receiving chemotherapy (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.80 to 3.89; P < .001) than those who saw oncologists with a low preference. Conclusion Physicians' and older patients' decision styles are each associated with breast cancer chemotherapy use. It will be important to re-evaluate the impact of decision styles when there is greater empirical evidence about the benefits and risks of chemotherapy in older patients. PMID:22614985

  9. Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Korean American Women: A Mixed-Methods Study Using Surveys and Focus Group Interviews.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Kreps, Gary L; Lee, Eunice E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high risk of cancer to the population, Korean Americans are known to have lower knowledge about cancer related information and a lower level of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. This indicates the necessity of cancer interventions targeting the Korean American population. To reach this population effectively, it is imperative to understand Korean Americans' cancer information seeking behaviors. This study (a) identified cancer information sources that are trusted and used by Korean American women and (b) examined how general media exposure and trust in cancer information sources are related to the use of these sources. It also (c) explored perceived usefulness and limitations of cancer information sources. A mixed methods study using seven focus group interviews with 34 Korean American women and surveys with 152 Korean American women was conducted in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area from 2011 to 2012. The results indicate that Korean American women viewed health care professionals as the most trusted cancer information source but used the Internet and Korean ethnic media more often for cancer information seeking because of language, cultural, and economic barriers. Korean American women were most likely to obtain cancer information from media they used frequently for general purposes. Correlations between usage frequency and trust in doctor/health providers and the Internet as cancer information sources were negligible. When seeking cancer information, important factors for Korean American women were accessibility, affordability, and language proficiency, cultural sensitivity, meeting immediate needs, understandability, convenience, and reliability of cancer information sources. Findings from this study support developing interventions using Korean language media, including print, television and the Internet for health promotion and cancer prevention targeting Korean American women. PMID:25950369

  10. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  11. Control group response variability in short-term toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.C.; Shimp, C.; Wang, Q.; Shukla, R.; Fulk, F.

    1995-12-31

    The US EPA`s National Reference Toxicant Database (NRTDB) has afforded an excellent opportunity to examine and document variability in responses within control groups (i.e. zero concentration of the toxicant.) The NRTDB has compiled acute and chronic reference toxicant test results for eight species and currently contains results for 32 laboratories and generally eight to ten tests for a species within each laboratory. The Ceriodaphnia dubia Survival and Reproduction test and the Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Survival and Growth test are the most frequently represented chronic tests with 331 and 144 sets of test data, respectively. For this presentation, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction data, expressed as total numbers of young in the test period, and fathead minnow survival and growth data were analyzed using a variance components model. The information regarding the control population is useful in examining the sources of inter and intralaboratory variability of chronic testing. In addition, this control population response variability information will be valuable for characterizing what can be termed as ``practically equivalent responses`` between a control and an effluent. The preliminary analysis indicates considerable between-test variability; however, this variability is not consistent across laboratories. Results of further exploration on this issue will be presented.

  12. Contextualizing older women's body images: Time dimensions, multiple reference groups, and age codings of appearance.

    PubMed

    Krekula, Clary

    2016-01-01

    The article sheds light on older women's body images and problematizes assumptions that women's aging is more painful and shameful than men's aging since men are not expected to live up to youthful beauty norms, the so-called double standard of aging hypothesis. Based on 12 qualitative interviews with women from the age of 75 from the Swedish capital area, I argue that older women have access to a double perspective of beauty, which means that they can relate to both youthful and age-related beauty norms. The results also illustrate that women's body image is created in a context where previous body images are central and that this time perspective can contribute toward a positive body image. Further, the results show how age codings of appearance-related qualities create a narrow framework for older women's body images and point to the benefits of shifting the analytical focus toward a material-semiotic body where corporeality and discourse are seen as interwoven. PMID:26744085

  13. Benefits of repeated individual dietary counselling in long-term weight control in women after delivery.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Johanna; Isolauri, Erika; Poussa, Tuija; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    As pregnancy may trigger overweight in women, new means for its prevention are being sought. The aim here was to investigate the effect of individual dietary counselling during and after pregnancy on post-partum weight and waist circumference up to 4 years post-partum. A cohort of women (n = 256) were randomized to receive repeated individual dietary counselling by a nutritionist during and after pregnancy, or as controls not receiving dietary counselling, from the first trimester of pregnancy until 6 months after delivery. Counselling aimed to bring dietary intake into line with recommendations, with particular focus on the increase in the intake of unsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated. Pre-pregnancy weight was taken from welfare clinic records. Weight and waist circumference were measured at 4 years after delivery. The proportion of overweight women increased from 26% prior to pregnancy to 30% at 4 years after delivery among women receiving dietary counselling, as against considerably more, from 32% to 57%, among controls. The prevalence of central adiposity was 31% in women receiving dietary counselling, 64% in controls. Likewise, both the risk of overweight (odds ratio: 0.23, 0.08-0.63, P = 0.005) and central adiposity (odds ratio: 0.18, 0.06-0.52, P = 0.002) were lower in women receiving dietary counselling compared with controls. Repeated dietary counselling initiated in early pregnancy can be beneficial in long-term weight control after delivery. PMID:24521459

  14. The Development of Guidelines for Community College Peer Group Counseling Evolving From a Study of Programs for Adult Re-Entry Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elledge, Muriel K.

    The effectiveness of peer group counseling on self-concept among adult re-entry women in Women's Education Development Incentive (WENDI) programs and other related programs was studied to develop a set of guidelines for community college peer group counseling. The study involved using the Adult Nowicke-Strickland Internal-External Scale for pre-…

  15. Improved Postoperative Pain Control for Cytoreductive Surgery in Women With Ovarian Cancer Using Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Yumi; Yun, Jung Yeon; Yeon, Seungmin; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have compared different methods of postoperative pain management in abdominal laparotomy patients; however, the conclusions have been inconsistent and controversial. This study aimed to compare the pain scores and complications of patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer and used either patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) or patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain management. We hypothesized that PCEA would be superior to PCA for postoperative pain management in ovarian cancer surgery. Materials and Methods The medical records of women who underwent ovarian cancer surgery in 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Pain scores for postoperative days (PODs) 0 to 5 days and the incidence of complications were examined and compared in patients who received PCEA and PCA. Means were compared using an independent sample t test or Wilcoxon rank sum test, and proportions were compared using Fisher exact test or a ?2 test at each time point. A mixed-effects model was applied to determine correlations among repeated measurements. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results Of the 105 study patients, 38 received PCEA and 67 received PCA. Pain scores were significantly lower in the PCEA group than the PCA group at POD 0 (2.47 1.75 vs 4.39 1.17; P < 0.001), 1 (2.65 1.02 vs 3.32 1.09; P < 0.001), and 3 (2.17 1.13 vs 2.79 1.08; P = 0.011), and tended to be lower in the PCEA group at PODs 2, 4, and 5. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia provided significantly better pain relief as analyzed by a mixed-effect model. Complications were not significantly different between both groups. There was no significant difference in pain relief between both groups at PODs 4 and 5. Conclusions Patient-controlled epidural analgesia was more effective for postoperative pain management compared with PCA from POD 0 to POD 3 in patients with ovarian cancer who underwent cytoreductive surgery, without increasing the morbidity. PMID:26825838

  16. Adverse pregnancy outcomes with assisted reproductive technology in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ae Ra; Cha, Sun Wha; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jin Yeong; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Inn Soo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate adverse pregnancy outcomes in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with obese-PCOS and control groups. Methods Women with PCOS who underwent assisted reproductive technology (ART) from August, 2003 to December, 2007, were considered. A total of 336 women with PCOS were included in the study group and 1,003 infertile women who had tubal factor as an indication for ART were collected as controls. They were divided into four groups: a non-obese PCOS group, obese-PCOS group, non-obese tubal factor group, and obese tubal factor group, with obesity defined by a body mass index over 25 kg/m2, and reviewed focusing on the basal characteristics, ART outcomes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Results There was no difference among the groups' the clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate. Regarding adverse pregnancy outcomes, the miscarriage rate, multiple pregnancy rate, and prevalence of preterm delivery and pregnancy induced hypertension were not different among the four groups. The incidence of small for gestational age infant was higher in the PCOS groups than the tubal factor groups (p<0.02). On the other hand, the morbidity of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was not high in the non-obese PCOS group but was in the obese groups. And in the obese PCOS group, the newborns were heavier than in the other groups (p<0.02). Conclusion Non-obese PCOS presents many differences compared with obese PCOS, not only in the IVF-parameters but also in the morbidity of adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially in GDM and fetal macrosomia. PMID:22384427

  17. Efficacy of advice from healthcare professionals to pregnant women on avoiding constrictive clothing around the trunk: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Kenji; Kato, Sachiko; Sasaki, Aiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kakee, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Noguchi, Yuko; Aoki, Tomoko; Inoue, Eisuke; Nitta, Chieko; Ishii, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As a component of midwife care, eliminating clothing that constricts the trunk has been shown to markedly elevate the uterine fundus, soften the uterus and abdomen, and reduce the abdominal wall tension in women admitted to hospital due to the risk of miscarriage or premature delivery. However, no prospective study has conclusively verified the efficacy of avoiding constrictive clothes around the trunk in pregnant women. We aim to verify the efficacy of instructing pregnant women to wear loose clothing that does not constrict the trunk to reduce the risk of premature birth and improve quality of life (QoL) during pregnancy. Methods and analysis We will conduct a randomised controlled trial of pregnant women scheduled to deliver at the National Center for Child Health and Development in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 616 pregnant women, from whom written informed consent will be obtained, will be allocated randomly to an intervention group or a control group. Women in the control group will be provided with anaemia prevention leaflets at 20 weeks’ gestation and skin-care leaflets at 30 weeks’ gestation. Women in the intervention group will be provided with the same leaflets and will also receive health advice from health professionals to avoid constrictive clothing around the trunk. The primary outcome will be a difference between these groups in the frequency of any one of the following category variables: (1) cervical length <30 mm up to 28 weeks’ gestation, (2) hospital admission for threatened premature delivery, or (3) premature delivery. Secondary outcomes will include QoL during pregnancy, maternal state of health, and status of fetal development. Ethics and dissemination The Institutional Review Board and Ethics Committee at the National Center for Child Health and Development, Japan, has approved this study. Our findings will be widely disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number UMIN000016853. PMID:26423851

  18. The effect of group mindfulness - based stress reduction program and conscious yoga on the fatigue severity and global and specific life quality in women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Soheila; Talepasand, Siavash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is not merely an event with a certain end, but it is a permanent and vague situation that is determined by delayed effects due to the disease, its treatment and its related psychological issues. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program and conscious yoga on the mental fatigue severity and life quality of women with breast cancer. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test and control group. In this study, 24 patients with the diagnosis of breast cancer were selected among the patients who referred to the Division of Oncology and Radiotherapy of Imam Hossein hospital in Tehran using available sampling method, and were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. All the participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale, Global Life Quality of Cancer Patient and Specific Life Quality of Cancer Patient questionnaires. Data were analyzed by multivariate repeated measurement variance analysis model. Results: Findings revealed that the mindfulness-based stress reduction treatment significantly improved the overall quality of life, role, cognitive, emotion, social functions and pain and fatigue symptoms in global life quality in the experimental group. It also significantly improved the body image, future functions and therapy side effects in specific life quality of the experimental group compared to the control group. In addition, fatigue severity caused by cancer was reduced significantly. Conclusion: The results showed that the mindfulness - based stress reduction treatment can be effective in improving global and specific life quality and fatigue severity in women with breast cancer. PMID:26034728

  19. Effectiveness of two year balance training programme on prevention of fall induced injuries in at risk women aged 75-85 living in community: Ossbo randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Cassou, Bernard; Latouche, Aurlien; Aegerter, Philippe; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a two year exercise programme of progressive balance retraining in reducing injurious falls among women aged 75-85 at increased risk of falls and injuries and living in the community. Design Pragmatic multicentre, two arm, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. Setting 20 study sites in 16 medium to large cities throughout France. Participants 706 women aged 75-85, living in their own home, and with diminished balance and gait capacities, randomly allocated to the experimental intervention group (exercise programme, n=352) or the control group (no intervention, n=354). Intervention Weekly supervised group sessions of progressive balance training offered in community based premises for two years, supplemented by individually prescribed home exercises. Outcome measures A geriatrician blinded to group assignment classified falls into one of three categories (no consequence, moderate, severe) based on physical damage and medical care. The primary outcome was the rate of injurious falls (moderate and severe). The two groups were compared for rates of injurious falls with a shared frailty model. Other outcomes included the rates of all falls, physical functional capacities (balance and motor function test results), fear of falling (FES-I), physical activity level, and perceived health related quality of life (SF-36). Analysis was by intention to treat. Results There were 305 injurious falls in the intervention group and 397 in the control group (hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.99). The difference in severe injuries (68 in intervention group v 87 in control group) was of the same order of magnitude (0.83, 0.60 to 1.16). At two years, women in the intervention group performed significantly better on all physical tests and had significantly better perception of their overall physical function than women in the control group. Among women who started the intervention (n=294), the median number of group sessions attended was 53 (interquartile range 16-71). Five injurious falls related to the intervention were recorded. Conclusion A two year progressive balance retraining programme combining weekly group and individual sessions was effective in reducing injurious falls and in improving measured and perceived physical function in women aged 75-85 at risk of falling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00545350). PMID:26201510

  20. Decreasing prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 antibodies in selected groups of women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berntsson, Matilda; Tunbck, Petra; Ellstrm, Agneta; Krantz, Ingela; Lwhagen, Gun-Britt

    2009-11-01

    High estimates of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) seroprevalence have been reported for women who were pregnant in Sweden in the 1980s, probably reflecting sexual risk-taking during the 1960s and 1970s. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the HSV-2 seroprevalence in pregnant women and in the female attendees at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in Sweden at the beginning of the 21st century and to compare the results with those of earlier Swedish studies. Sera were collected during the period 2000 to 2002 from 299 pregnant women at an antenatal clinic and from 290 female attendees at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in Gothenburg. To enable comparison with earlier seroprevalence data the same test method was used; Helix pomatia antigen in an enzyme-linked immunoassay. The overall HSV-2 prevalence was 10.4% for the pregnant women and 25.2% for the female attendees at the clinic for sexually transmitted infections. The seroprevalence of HSV-2 in pregnant women appears to have decreased in Sweden during the past decade, which may reflect changes in sexual behaviour. PMID:19997695

  1. The telling my story quilting workshop: innovative group work with older African American women transitioning out of homelessness.

    PubMed

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois Jean

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the use of a quilting workshop as a strategy for helping older African American women address the consequences of their homeless experience. In this examination, four studies are addressed: the original, the re-analysis, the interviews, and the quilting intervention. The relationship of quilting to group work and social support is described, and the use of quilting in the Telling My Story homeless research project is demonstrated. The researchers used the lay definition of quilting that implies the general meaning of attaching many disparate and unique pieces of material together into a whole. The researchers also describe the relevance of the group work method inherent in the quilting workshop in helping women successfully transition out of homelessness and progress in their recovery from its consequences. PMID:19921762

  2. An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, Sherryl A.; Robinson, John W. . E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S.; Keats, Melanie R.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

  3. Vitamin D Status in Preeclamptic and Non-preeclamptic Pregnant Women: A Case-Control Study in the North West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadin, Bita; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Pourteymour Fard Tabrizi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are few studies on the vitamin D status in preeclamptic women. The objective of this case-control study was to determine vitamin D status, in preeclamptic women and compare it with that of healthy pregnant controls. Methods: Forty preeclamptic women, aged 18 to 45yr and forty age- and pregnancy weight-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured and its levels of <10, 10-30, 30-90 and >90 nanogram per milliliter (ng/ml) were considered as vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, sufficiency, and toxicity, respectively. Results: Sixty and forty percent of preeclamptic women were vitamin D deficient and insufficient, while in the control group they were 10% and 90%, respectively. No significant difference was found in the median intake of vitamin D between preeclamptic and non preeclamptic women (1.45 and 1.20g/day respectively), but serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in preeclamptic cases compared to controls (10.09 6.66 and 15.73 5.85ng /ml respectively, P= 0.002) . Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is common among preeclamptic and non-preeclamptic pregnant women in the north-west of Iran. Preeclampsia can cause decreasing of serum level of 25(OH)D. PMID:26634196

  4. Reaching the poor with health interventions: programme-incidence analysis of seven randomised trials of women's groups to reduce newborn mortality in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Houweling, Tanja A J; Morrison, Joanna; Alcock, Glyn; Azad, Kishwar; Das, Sushmita; Hossen, Munir; Kuddus, Abdul; Lewycka, Sonia; Looman, Caspar W; Magar, Bharat Budhathoki; Manandhar, Dharma S; Akter, Mahfuza; Dube, Albert Lazarous Nkhata; Rath, Shibanand; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Tripathy, Prasanta; Costello, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Background Efforts to end preventable newborn deaths will fail if the poor are not reached with effective interventions. To understand what works to reach vulnerable groups, we describe and explain the uptake of a highly effective community-based newborn health intervention across social strata in Asia and Africa. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of seven randomised trials of participatory women's groups to reduce newborn mortality in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Malawi. We analysed data on 70?574 pregnancies. Socioeconomic and sociodemographic differences in group attendance were tested using logistic regression. Qualitative data were collected at each trial site (225 focus groups, 20 interviews) to understand our results. Results Socioeconomic differences in women's group attendance were small, except for occasional lower attendance by elites. Sociodemographic differences were large, with lower attendance by young primigravid women in African as well as in South Asian sites. The intervention was considered relevant and interesting to all socioeconomic groups. Local facilitators ensured inclusion of poorer women. Embarrassment and family constraints on movement outside the home restricted attendance among primigravid women. Reproductive health discussions were perceived as inappropriate for them. Conclusions Community-based women's groups can help to reach every newborn with effective interventions. Equitable intervention uptake is enhanced when facilitators actively encourage all women to attend, organise meetings at the participants convenience and use approaches that are easily understandable for the less educated. Focused efforts to include primigravid women are necessary, working with families and communities to decrease social taboos. PMID:26246540

  5. Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate an Abuse Prevention Curriculum for Women and Men With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Hickson, Linda; Khemka, Ishita; Golden, Harriet; Chatzistyli, Aikaterini

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed (a) to assess the impact of the ESCAPE-DD curriculum on the decision-making skills of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in hypothetical situations of abuse, (b) to examine the role of problem awareness, and (c) to identify factors associated with posttest decision-making performance. Fifty-eight women and men with IDD were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a wait-list control group. Participants who experienced ESCAPE-DD made significantly greater gains on measures of overall effective decision making and safe-now effective decision-making relative to participants in the control group. Problem awareness was related to decision making, but it did not improve as a result of the intervention. Implications of the findings for future curriculum-development efforts are discussed. PMID:26505870

  6. Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance education program that can be adopted by universities, to assess whether aspects of the program need to be strengthened, and also to indicate how long the effects of the program last and at which point in time refresher sessions may be necessary. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01338428 PMID:23702221

  7. Attitudes About Sexual Activity Among Postmenopausal Women in Different Ethnic Groups: A Cross-sectional Study in Jahrom, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Javadpour, Shohreh; Mosalanejad, Leili; Parnian, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function is affected by personal and interpersonal factors, familial and social traditions, culture, religion, menopause, and aging. So, ethnicity is a determining factor in sexual function. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and attitudes towards sexuality in postmenopausal women among three different ethnic groups in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women between 50 and 89 years who referred to Honoree clinic, Jahrom in 2013. Among the study participants, 42.4% were Arab, 33.5% were Persian, and 24.1% were Lor. Data were collected about women's socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual function. The descriptive statistics were used for demographic variables. Moreover, ANOVA, post hoc (LSD) was used. Besides, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The participants' mean age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI <26.55) and only 147 women (18.5%) had normal sexual function (FSFI >26.55). Sexual dysfunction was 75.3% in Arabs, 83.2% in Persians, and 86.1% in Lors. Besides, the most prevalent sexual dysfunction was dyspareunia in Arabs and arousal disorder in Persians and Lors. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that sexual dysfunction is considerable among postmenopausal women. The most prevalent sexual dysfunction was dyspareunia in Arabs and arousal disorder in Persians and Lors. PMID:26962483

  8. Creatine supplementation and resistance training in vulnerable older women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gualano, Bruno; Macedo, André Regis; Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Takayama, Liliam; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lucia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation, associated or not with resistance training, in vulnerable older women. A 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed. Sixty subjects were assigned to compose the following groups: placebo (PL), creatine supplementation (CR), placebo with resistance training (PL+RT), and creatine supplementation with resistance training (CR+RT). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after 24weeks. The primary outcome was muscle strength, as assessed by one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests. Secondary outcomes included appendicular lean mass, bone mass, biochemical bone markers, and physical function tests. The changes in 1-RM leg press were significantly greater in the CR+RT group (+19.9%) than in the PL (+2.4%) and the CR groups (+3.7%), but not than in the PL+RT group (+15%) (p=0.002, p=0.002, and p=0.357, respectively). The CR+RT group showed superior gains in 1-RM bench press (+10%) when compared with all the other groups (p≤0.05). The CR+RT group (+1.31%) showed greater appendicular lean mass accrual than the PL (-1.2%), the CR (+0.3%), and the PL+RT groups (-0.2%) (p≤0.05). The CR and the PL+RT groups experienced comparable gains in appendicular lean mass (p=0.62), but superior to those seen in the PL group. Changes in fat mass, bone mass and serum bone markers did not significantly differ between the groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, creatine supplementation combined with resistance training improved appendicular lean mass and muscle function, but not bone mass, in older vulnerable women. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01472393. PMID:24530883

  9. One angry woman: Anger expression increases influence for men, but decreases influence for women, during group deliberation.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jessica M; Peter-Hagene, Liana C

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether expressing anger increases social influence for men, but diminishes social influence for women, during group deliberation. In a deception paradigm, participants believed they were engaged in a computer-mediated mock jury deliberation about a murder case. In actuality, the interaction was scripted. The script included 5 other mock jurors who provided verdicts and comments in support of the verdicts; 4 agreed with the participant and 1 was a "holdout" dissenter. Holdouts expressed their opinions with no emotion, anger, or fear and had either male or female names. Holdouts exerted no influence on participants' opinions when they expressed no emotion or fear. Participants' confidence in their own verdict dropped significantly, however, after male holdouts expressed anger. Yet, anger expression undermined female holdouts: Participants became significantly more confident in their original verdicts after female holdouts expressed anger-even though they were expressing the exact same opinion and emotion as the male holdouts. Mediation analyses revealed that participants drew different inferences from male versus female anger, which created a gender gap in influence during group deliberation. The current study has implications for group decisions in general, and jury deliberations in particular, by suggesting that expressing anger might lead men to gain influence, but women to lose influence over others (even when making identical arguments). These diverging consequences might result in women potentially having less influence on societally important decisions than men, such as jury verdicts. PMID:26322952

  10. A Pilot Study of a Readiness Group to Increase Initiation of Smoking Cessation Services among Women in Residential Addiction Treatment.

    PubMed

    Guydish, Joseph; Gruber, Valerie A; Le, Thao; Tajima, Barbara; Andrews, K Blakely; Leo, Hannah; Zura, Shaina K; Miller, Roland; Tsoh, Janice Y

    2016-04-01

    This study implemented a smoking cessation readiness group (RG) in two women-focused residential substance abuse treatment programs, with the aim of engaging women in smoking cessation services. The primary outcome was defined as attending at least one cessation group after the RG ended. The RG combined features of the Expert Systems (ES) approach with a practice quit attempt. ES is an interactive system which tailors intervention to the smokers' stage of change, while the practice quit attempt rehearses the process of quitting smoking. As a secondary aim we tested whether incentives, used to promote participation and engagement in the RG, would increase initiation of smoking cessation services. Participants (N=75) were women smokers enrolled in two residential programs, and intention to quit smoking was not required for participation. Twelve participant cohorts were randomly assigned to receive the RG with or without incentives. Following the RG intervention, 38.7% of participants (n=29) attended at least one smoking cessation session. Both the number of RG sessions attended and a successful practice quit attempt predicted the later use of cessation services, while incentives did not. From pre- to post-RG, participants reported decreased cigarettes per day (CPD: 11.8 vs. 7.6, p<.0001) and decreased nicotine dependence as measured by the Heaviness Smoking Index (HSI: 2.3 vs. 1.8, p<.001). The 3-session group-format RG intervention was associated with initiation of smoking cessation services and with changes in smoking behavior. PMID:26825975

  11. Treatment of condylomata acuminata with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The results of treatment of condylomata acuminata of the anogenital region in pregnant women are presented. All patients were treated between the 28th and 35th weeks of gestation. The laser surgery was done in 23 patients. One laser procedure was done in 14 women. In 5 patients we performed two and in 4 women 3 laser therapies. Complete destruction of pathological changes was obtained and no recurrences were diagnosed. There were no clinical signs of HPV infection in all neonates. In the authors' opinion the use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control is an efficient and safe method in the treatment of condylomata acuminata in pregnant women. Colposcopic control allows us to discover and coagulate the bleeding spots using the defocused laser beam with low power density.

  12. Space, agency, and withdrawal: birth control choices of women in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sirkeci, Ibrahim; Cindoglu, Dilek

    2012-01-01

    Withdrawal (WD) is not a reliable method for preventing unwanted pregnancies, yet it is still a very popular form of birth control in many societies, including Turkey. We look at the relationship between women's agency and physical space in relation to birth control choices of women in Turkey. Agency in our context refers to a woman's ability to resist domination and subordination to the patriarchal beliefs valuing her reproductivity over her pleasure. Our analysis of the Turkish Demographic Health Survey (TDHS) suggests that (a) the available space in the household for possible private encounters between husband and wife, and (b) the women's capacity to insert her agency into her life choices are closely correlated with WD choices. Women with better social and physical resources prefer WD less. PMID:22681746

  13. Effects of High Performance Inulin Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Antioxidant Status in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar; Asghari Jafar-abadi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high performance inulin supplementation on blood glycemic control and antioxidant status in women with type 2 diabetes. Methods In a randomized, triple-blind controlled trial, 49 females (fiber intake <30 g/day, 25groups in which the participants either received 10 g/day of inulin (intervention, n=24) or maltodextrin (control, n=25) for 2 months. Fasting blood samples were obtained and both glycemic control and antioxidant status were determined at baseline and at the end of the study. Results At the end of the study period, there were significant decreases in fasting plasma glucose (8.47%), glycosylated hemoglobin (10.43%), and malondialdehyde (37.21%) levels and significant increases in total antioxidant capacity (18.82%) and superoxide dismutase activity (4.36%) in the inulin group when compared to the maltodextrin group (P<0.05). Changes in fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and catalase activity were not significant in the inulin group when compared with the maltodextrin group. Glutathione peroxidase activity remained unchanged in both groups. Conclusion Inulin supplementation may improve some glycemic and antioxidant indices and decrease malondialdehyde levels in women with type 2 diabetes. Further investigations are needed in order to confirm the positive effects that inulin may have on the glycemic and antioxidant indices of patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23641355

  14. Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial?,??

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Kelsey M.; Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L.; Kenny, Anne M.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Abourizk, Robin H.; Bruno, Richard S.; Lipcius, Rosanne; Fall, Pamela; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa; Prestwood, Karen M.; Kerstetter, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Soy foods contain several components, notably, isoflavones and amino acids, that may improve cardiovascular health. We evaluated the long-term effect of soy protein and/or soy isoflavones supplementation on serum lipids and inflammatory markers using a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-control, clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women older than 60 years. We hypothesized that soy protein, in combination with isoflavones, would have the largest positive effect on coronary heart disease risk factors (serum lipids and inflammatory markers) compared with either intervention alone and that, within groups receiving isoflavones, equol producers would have more positive effects on coronary heart disease risk factors than nonequol producers. After a 1-month baseline period, participants were randomized into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g/d) and isoflavone tablets (105 mg/d isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein and placebo tablets, control protein and isoflavone tablets, or control protein and placebo tablets. T Tests were used to assess differences between equol and nonequol producers. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone tablets did not differ among groups, and compliance with study powder and tablets was 79% and 90%, respectively. After 1 year, in the entire population, there were either no or little effects on serum lipids and inflammatory markers, regardless of treatment group. Equol producers, when analyzed separately, had significant improvements in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratios (?5.9%, P = .02; ?7.2%, P = .04 respectively). Soy protein and isoflavone (either alone or together) did not impact serum lipids or inflammatory markers. Therefore, they should not be considered an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease because of lipid modification in healthy late postmenopausal women lacking the ability to produce equol. PMID:24267042

  15. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andaluca (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01490281 PMID:22336292

  16. Different labour outcomes in primiparous women that have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse or rape in adulthood: a casecontrol study in a clinical cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nerum, H; Halvorsen, L; Straume, B; Srlie, T; ian, P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the duration and outcome of the first labour in women who have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and women who have been raped in adulthood (RA). Design Casecontrol study in a clinical cohort. Setting University Hospital of North Norway. Sample In all, 373 primiparas: 185 subjected to CSA, 47 to RA and 141 controls without a history of abuse. Methods Data on birth outcomes were retrieved from the patient files. Information on sexual abuse was reported in consultation with specialised midwives in the mental health team. Birth outcomes were analysed by multinominal regression analysis. Main outcome measures Vaginal births, delivery by caesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and duration of labour. Results As compared with controls, the RA group showed a significantly higher risk for caesarean section (adjusted OR 9.9, 95% CI 3.429.4) and operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 12.2, 95% CI 4.433.7). There were no significant differences between the CSA and the control group. The RA group displayed significantly longer duration of labour in all phases as compared with the control and CSA groups. Conclusions There were major differences in the duration of labour and birth outcomes in the two abuse groups. Despite a higher proportion of obstetric risk factors at onset of labour in the CSA group, women subjected to CSA had shorter labours and less risk for caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries than women subjected to RA. The best care for birthing women subjected to sexual abuse needs to be explored in further studies. PMID:23157417

  17. Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Exercise in Pregnant Women with Chronic Hypertension and/or Previous Preeclampsia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Burgos, Camila Schneider Gannuny; do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Ferreira, Nville Oliveira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto e Silva, Joo Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the association between physical exercise supervised in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Method. Randomized controlled trial, which included 116 pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, considered risk of preeclampsia development. They were divided into two groups: study group that performed physical exercise with a stationary bicycle once a week, for 30 minutes; the intensity was controlled (heart rate 20% above resting values), under professional supervision and a control group that was not engaged in any physical exercise. The data was retrieved from medical charts. Significance level assumed was 5%. Results. Women from study group performed 9.24 7.03 of physical exercise sessions. There were no differences between groups comparing type of delivery and maternal outcomes, including maternal morbidity and hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal outcomes, including birth weight, adequacy of weight to gestational age, prematurity, Apgar scale at first and fifth minutes, hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal morbidity. Conclusions. Physical exercise using a stationary bicycle in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, once a week, under professional supervision, did not interfere in the delivery method and did not produce maternal and neonatal risks of the occurrence of morbidity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01395342. PMID:23997960

  18. Nutrition Knowledge and Milk and Milk Product Consumption in a Group of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster-Coull, Lisa; Sabry, Jean Henderson

    1993-01-01

    To examine the relationship between nutrition knowledge and milk/milk product consumption by women, data were collected from 457 female office employees. Statistically significant relationships were found between level of nutrition knowledge and age, education, and occupation. No statistically significant relationships between nutrition knowledge…

  19. Risk factors for Group B Streptococcus colonisation and disease in Gambian women and their infants

    PubMed Central

    Le Doare, K.; Jarju, S.; Darboe, S.; Warburton, F.; Gorringe, A.; Heath, P.T.; Kampmann, B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives To determine risk factors for GBS colonisation in Gambian mothers and in their infants from birth to day 60–89 of age. Methods Swabs and breastmilk from mothers/infant pairs were collected and cultured on selective agar. Negative samples were analysed for GBS DNA via real-time PCR. Positive isolates were serotyped using multiplex PCR and gel-agarose electrophoresis. Results Seven hundred and fifty women/infant pairs were recruited. 253 women (33.7%) were GBS-colonised at delivery. The predominant serotypes were: V (55%), II (16%), III (10%), Ia (8%) and Ib (8%). 186 infants were colonised (24.8%) at birth, 181 (24.1%) at 6 days and 96 at day 60–89 (14%). Infants born before 34 weeks of gestation and to women with rectovaginal and breastmilk colonisation at delivery had increased odds of GBS colonisation at birth. Season of birth was associated with increased odds of persistent infant GBS colonisation (dry season vs. wet season AOR 2.9; 95% CI 1.6–5.2). Conclusion GBS colonisation is common in Gambian women at delivery and in their infants to day 60−89 and is dominated by serotype V. In addition to maternal colonisation, breastmilk and season of birth are important risk factors for infant GBS colonisation. PMID:26763186

  20. Gender, Discrimination Beliefs, Group-Based Guilt, and Responses to Affirmative Action for Australian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckmann, Robert J.; Feather, N. T.

    2007-01-01

    Views of a selection committee's decision to promote a woman over a man on the basis of affirmative action were studied in a random sample of Australians (118 men and 111 women). The relations between perceptions of workplace gender discrimination, feelings of collective responsibility and guilt for discrimination, and judgments of entitlement to…

  1. Gender, Discrimination Beliefs, Group-Based Guilt, and Responses to Affirmative Action for Australian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckmann, Robert J.; Feather, N. T.

    2007-01-01

    Views of a selection committee's decision to promote a woman over a man on the basis of affirmative action were studied in a random sample of Australians (118 men and 111 women). The relations between perceptions of workplace gender discrimination, feelings of collective responsibility and guilt for discrimination, and judgments of entitlement to

  2. Gender and tuberculosis control: perspectives on health seeking behaviour among men and women in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Johansson, E; Long, N H; Diwan, V K; Winkvist, A

    2000-05-01

    This study explores the perspectives of tuberculosis patients on which factors influenced their health seeking behaviour, with special reference to gender differentials in terms of delays in health seeking. In 1996, a multi-disciplinary research team carried out 16 focus group discussions. The study was done in four districts in Vietnam, both in the south and north of the country and in urban and rural areas. Qualitative analysis of data was performed following general principles of modified grounded theory technique. Participants in the focus groups described three main factors as contributing to delay in health seeking. These were fear of social isolation, economic constraints and inadequate staff attitudes and poor quality of health services. A model illustrating different factors influencing health seeking was elaborated and served as a basis for discussion of the findings. The main factor contributing to delay among women was described as fear of social isolation from the family or the community. Stigma was described as closely related to contextual factors such as gender-roles, socio-economic status and level of education and seemed to be mediated via denial and concealment of tuberculosis diagnosis and disease, thus causing delay. The main factor contributing to delay among men was described as fear of individual costs of diagnosis and treatment. Staff attitudes and quality of health service facilities were described as not always corresponding to people's expectations of appropriate health services. Women saw themselves and were seen by others as being more sensitive than men to poor service conditions and staff attitudes. A typical feature of the described health seeking behaviour of men was that they neglected symptoms until the disease reached a serious stage, by which time they tended to go directly to public health services without first visiting private health practitioners. Women, on the other hand, were described as having a tendency to seek out private services and practice self-medication before seeking care at public services. In conclusion, there is a need for better understanding of behavioural factors and for developing strategies, that take these into account. Health workers need to better understand gender and social aspects of tuberculosis control, particularly aspects that influence the likelihood for achieving equity in diagnosis and cure. PMID:10899643

  3. Effects of a Multi-Disciplinary Lifestyle Intervention on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Young Women with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Share, Bianca L.; Naughton, Geraldine A.; Obert, Philippe; Peat, Jennifer K.; Aumand, Elizabeth A.; Kemp, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Young women are under-represented in cardiovascular disease research, with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factor interventions generally targeting older adults. Furthermore, appropriate study designs for young women remain uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of a 12 week multi-disciplinary lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Methods Women aged 18–30 y with abdominal obesity [waist circumference (WC) ≥ 80 cm] were randomised to a 12 week lifestyle intervention (n = 26) of physical activity, nutrition education and cognitive behavioural therapy, or a wait-list control group (n = 17). Both groups completed anthropometric, biochemical, nutrition and fitness testing, at pre (0 weeks) and post (12 weeks), with intervention participants completed follow-up testing at 24 weeks. Results Results from a linear mixed model showed no between-group differences, other than increased physical activity in the intervention group, at post. In the intervention group alone, positive within-group changes were observed in WC, waist-hip-ratio (WHR), waist-height-ratio (WHtR), resting heart rate, blood pressure, predicted VO2max, and total energy intake. Most changes were maintained at 24 weeks post-intervention. Similar within-group improvements were observed in control participants in WC, WHR, WHtR, and systolic blood pressure but no changes were detected in physical activity and nutrition. Conclusions Cardiometabolic risk factors were decreased as a result of a lifestyle intervention in young women with abdominal obesity. It is difficult to describe observations in the control group without greater understanding of the behaviour of wait-list participants. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001017819 PMID:26114854

  4. Relationship between menopausal symptoms and sexual dysfunction among married Turkish women in 40-65 age group.

    PubMed

    Senturk Erenel, Ayten; Golbasi, Zehra; Kavlak, Tulay; Dilbaz, Serdar

    2015-10-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to analyse the relationship between menopausal symptoms and sexual dysfunction among 229 married Turkish women in the 40-65 age group. The study was carried out at a menopause clinic of a state hospital between 1 October and 31 December 2010. Data were collected with Personal Characteristics Form, Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). The average age of the women was 52.33 (SD?=?4.80) years. The average MRS total score was 20.13(SD?=?9.20). The ASEX mean score was 19.97 (SD?=?5.44). It was determined that there is a positive meaningful relationship between ASEX mean score, MRS total mean score and the sub-score of women. From the results obtained from this study, it can be said that women have differing levels of menopausal symptoms, and as the severity of menopausal symptoms increases, there is an increase in sexual dysfunction. PMID:24754542

  5. Wii-Workouts on Chronic Pain, Physical Capabilities and Mood of Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; de Souza, Cntia Pereira; Lattari, Eduardo; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F; Mura, Gioia; Machado, Srgio; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is a public health problem and older women have higher incidence of this symptom, which affect body balance, functional capacity and behavior. The purpose of this study was to verifying the effect of exercises with Nintendo Wii on CLBP, functional capacity and mood of elderly. Thirty older women (68 4 years; 68 12 kg; 154 5 cm) with CLBP participated in this study. Elderly individuals were divided into a Control Exercise Group (n = 14) and an Experimental Wii Group (n = 16). Control Exercise Group did strength exercises and core training, while Experimental Wii Group did ones additionally to exercises with Wii. CLBP, balance, functional capacity and mood were assessed pre and post training by the numeric pain scale, Wii Balance Board, sit to stand test and Profile of Mood States, respectively. Training lasted eight weeks and sessions were performed three times weekly. MANOVA 2 x 2 showed no interaction on pain, siting, stand-up and mood (P = 0.53). However, there was significant difference within groups (P = 0.0001). ANOVA 2 x 2 showed no interaction for each variable (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences within groups in these variables (P < 0.05). Tukey's post-hoc test showed significant difference in pain on both groups (P = 0.0001). Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests identified no significant differences on balance (P > 0.01). Capacity to Sit improved only in Experimental Wii Group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, physical exercises with Nintendo Wii Fit Plus additional to strength and core training were effective only for sitting capacity, but effect size was small. PMID:26556092

  6. A randomised controlled trial on hypolipidemic effects of Nigella Sativa seeds powder in menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increased tremendously among menopausal women, and there is an increasing demand for alternative therapies for managing factors like dyslipidemia that contribute to CVD development. Methods In this study, Nigella sativa was evaluated for its hypolipidemic effects among menopausal women. In a randomised trial, hyperlipidemic menopausal women were assigned to treatment (n?=?19) or placebo groups (n?=?18), and given N. sativa or placebo for two months after their informed consents were sought. At baseline, blood samples were taken and at one month intervals thereafter until one month after the end of the study. Results The results showed that N. sativa significantly improved lipid profiles of menopausal women (decreased total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride, and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol) more than the placebo treatment over 2months of intervention. One month after cessation of treatment, the lipid profiles in the N. sativa-treated group tended to change towards the pretreatment levels. Conclusions N. sativa is thought to have multiple mechanisms of action and is cost-effective. Therefore, it could be used by menopausal women to remedy hypercholesterolemia, with likely more benefits than with single pharmacological agents that may cause side effects. The use of N. sativa as an alternative therapy for hypercholesterolemia could have profound impact on the management of CVD among menopausal women especially in countries where it is readily available. PMID:24685020

  7. Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Chen, Lynn

    2014-11-23

    This study had two purposes: (i) to explore differences in sexual function between women with gynecological or rectal cancer after related pelvic-area treatments and women without cancer; and (ii) to investigate the relationships among body image, anxiety and depression, sexual relationship power, sexual self-schema, and female sexual function. The participants (n = 139) were recruited through Internet cancer support groups and women's health organizations in the USA. Six structured questionnaires were mailed, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that women with gynecological or rectal cancer had significantly worse sexual function than women without cancer. Having gynecological/rectal cancer and a negative sexual self-schema were significantly related to poor sexual function. Furthermore, sexual self-schema moderated the relationship between sexual relationship power and female sexual function. Healthcare providers could give more attention to sexual issues in women who have undergone treatment for gynecological or rectal cancer, especially for those with a negative sexual self-schema and high sexual relationship power, which might improve these women's quality of life. PMID:25417724

  8. Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel

    1990-01-01

    Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional

  9. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  10. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African

  11. Self-hypnosis for intrapartum pain management in pregnant nulliparous women: a randomised controlled trial of clinical effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Downe, S; Finlayson, K; Melvin, C; Spiby, H; Ali, S; Diggle, P; Gyte, G; Hinder, S; Miller, V; Slade, P; Trepel, D; Weeks, A; Whorwell, P; Williamson, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective (Primary) To establish the effect of antenatal group self-hypnosis for nulliparous women on intra-partum epidural use. Design Multi-method randomised control trial (RCT). Setting Three NHS Trusts. Population Nulliparous women not planning elective caesarean, without medication for hypertension and without psychological illness. Methods Randomisation at 28–32 weeks’ gestation to usual care, or to usual care plus brief self-hypnosis training (two × 90-minute groups at around 32 and 35 weeks’ gestation; daily audio self-hypnosis CD). Follow up at 2 and 6 weeks postnatal. Main outcome measures Primary: epidural analgesia. Secondary: associated clinical and psychological outcomes; cost analysis. Results Six hundred and eighty women were randomised. There was no statistically significant difference in epidural use: 27.9% (intervention), 30.3% (control), odds ratio (OR) 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64–1.24], or in 27 of 29 pre-specified secondary clinical and psychological outcomes. Women in the intervention group had lower actual than anticipated levels of fear and anxiety between baseline and 2 weeks post natal (anxiety: mean difference −0.72, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.28, P = 0.001); fear (mean difference −0.62, 95% CI −1.08 to −0.16, P = 0.009) [Correction added on 7 July 2015, after first online publication: ‘Mean difference’ replaced ‘Odds ratio (OR)’ in the preceding sentence.]. Postnatal response rates were 67% overall at 2 weeks. The additional cost in the intervention arm per woman was £4.83 (CI −£257.93 to £267.59). Conclusions Allocation to two-third-trimester group self-hypnosis training sessions did not significantly reduce intra-partum epidural analgesia use or a range of other clinical and psychological variables. The impact of women's anxiety and fear about childbirth needs further investigation. Tweetable abstract Going to 2 prenatal self-hypnosis groups didn't reduce labour epidural use but did reduce birth fear & anxiety postnatally at < £5 per woman. PMID:25958769

  12. Daily Text Messaging for Weight Control Among Racial and Ethnic Minority Women: Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Erica L; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-01-01

    Background Daily self-monitoring of diet and physical activity behaviors is a strong predictor of weight loss success. Text messaging holds promise as a viable self-monitoring modality, particularly among racial/ethnic minority populations. Objective This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of a text messaging intervention for weight loss among predominantly black women. Methods Fifty obese women were randomized to either a 6-month intervention using a fully automated system that included daily text messages for self-monitoring tailored behavioral goals (eg, 10,000 steps per day, no sugary drinks) along with brief feedback and tips (n=26) or to an education control arm (n=24). Weight was objectively measured at baseline and at 6 months. Adherence was defined as the proportion of text messages received in response to self-monitoring prompts. Results The average daily text messaging adherence rate was 49% (SD 27.9) with 85% (22/26) texting self-monitored behavioral goals 2 or more days per week. Approximately 70% (16/23) strongly agreed that daily texting was easy and helpful and 76% (16/21) felt the frequency of texting was appropriate. At 6 months, the intervention arm lost a mean of 1.27 kg (SD 6.51), and the control arm gained a mean of 1.14 kg (SD 2.53; mean difference 2.41 kg, 95% CI 5.22 to 0.39; P=.09). There was a trend toward greater text messaging adherence being associated with greater percent weight loss (r=.36; P=.08), but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant association between goal attainment and text messaging adherence and no significant predictors of adherence. Conclusions Given the increasing penetration of mobile devices, text messaging may be a useful self-monitoring tool for weight control, particularly among populations most in need of intervention. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00939081; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00939081 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6KiIIcnk1). PMID:24246427

  13. Effects of Acute 60 and 80% V[o.sub.2]max Bouts of Aerobic Exercise on State Anxiety of Women of Different Age Groups across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard H.; Thomas, Tom R.; Hinton, Pam S.; Donahue, Owen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on state anxiety of women while controlling for iron status (hemoglobin and serum ferritin). Participants were 24 active women, ages 18-20 years (n=12) and 35-45 years (n=12). In addition to a nonexercise control condition, participants completed one

  14. Pregnancy and Lactation Alter Biomarkers of Biotin Metabolism in Women Consuming a Controlled Diet123

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Cydne A; West, Allyson A; Gayle, Antoinette; Lucas, Lauren K; Yan, Jian; Jiang, Xinyin; Malysheva, Olga; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biotin functions as a cofactor for several carboxylase enzymes with key roles in metabolism. At present, the dietary requirement for biotin is unknown and intake recommendations are provided as Adequate Intakes (AIs). The biotin AI for adults and pregnant women is 30 μg/d, whereas 35 μg/d is recommended for lactating women. However, pregnant and lactating women may require more biotin to meet the demands of these reproductive states. Objective: The current study sought to quantify the impact of reproductive state on biotin status response to a known dietary intake of biotin. Methods: To achieve this aim, we measured a panel of biotin biomarkers among pregnant (gestational week 27 at study entry; n = 26), lactating (postnatal week 5 at study entry; n = 28), and control (n = 21) women who participated in a 10- to 12-wk feeding study providing 57 μg of dietary biotin/d as part of a mixed diet. Results: Over the course of the study, pregnant women excreted 69% more (vs. control; P < 0.001) 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIA), a metabolite that accumulates during the catabolism of leucine when the activity of biotin-dependent methylcrotonyl–coenzyme A carboxylase is impaired. Interestingly, urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (3-HIA-carnitine), a downstream metabolite of 3-HIA, was 27% lower (P = 0.05) among pregnant (vs. control) women, a finding that may arise from carnitine inadequacy during gestation. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected in plasma biotin, urinary biotin, or urinary bisnorbiotin between pregnant and control women. Lactating women excreted 76% more (vs. control; P = 0.001) of the biotin catabolite bisnorbiotin, indicating that lactation accelerates biotin turnover and loss. Notably, with respect to control women, lactating women excreted 23% less (P = 0.04) urinary 3-HIA and 26% less (P = 0.05) urinary 3-HIA-carnitine, suggesting that lactation reduces leucine catabolism and that these metabolites may not be useful indicators of biotin status during lactation. Conclusions: Overall, these data demonstrate significant alterations in markers of biotin metabolism during pregnancy and lactation and suggest that biotin intakes exceeding current recommendations are needed to meet the demands of these reproductive states. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127022. PMID:25122647

  15. Religion, male violence, and the control of women: Pakistani Muslim men in Bradford, UK.

    PubMed

    Macey, M

    1999-03-01

    This paper examines Pakistani Muslim male violence in the public and private spheres in Bradford, UK. The article also explores the relationship between male violence and ideas of culture and religion. The material used was collected over a 4-year period from students and staff in further and higher education institutions; working women (prostitutes); survivors of domestic violence; police personnel who work with Asian women fleeing domestic violence or forced marriages; and staff of a children's society working with teenage prostitutes. Methodologies included lectures, seminars, focus groups, and interviews. Findings reveal that there is a difference between male and female attitudes towards Islam. Some men are using it to justify violence against women, while women of all ages and backgrounds are using it as a source of strength and to negotiate (with ingenuity and humor) the cultural and religious requirements which men try to impose upon them. PMID:12295341

  16. Effect of selenium on markers of risk of pre-eclampsia in UK pregnant women: a randomised, controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Margaret P; Searle, Elizabeth; Kelly, Lynne; Johnsen, Sigurd; Bodman-Smith, Katherine; Bath, Sarah C; Mao, Jinyuan; Redman, Christopher W G

    2014-07-14

    Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Se intake or status has been linked to the occurrence of pre-eclampsia by our own work and that of others. We hypothesised that a small increase in the Se intake of UK pregnant women of inadequate Se status would protect against the risk of pre-eclampsia, as assessed by biomarkers of pre-eclampsia. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial, we randomised 230 primiparous pregnant women to Se (60 ?g/d, as Se-enriched yeast) or placebo treatment from 12 to 14 weeks of gestation until delivery. Whole-blood Se concentration was measured at baseline and 35 weeks, and plasma selenoprotein P (SEPP1) concentration at 35 weeks. The primary outcome measure of the present study was serum soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1), an anti-angiogenic factor linked with the risk of pre-eclampsia. Other serum/plasma components related to the risk of pre-eclampsia were also measured. Between 12 and 35 weeks, whole-blood Se concentration increased significantly in the Se-treated group but decreased significantly in the placebo group. At 35 weeks, significantly higher concentrations of whole-blood Se and plasma SEPP1 were observed in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group. In line with our hypothesis, the concentration of sFlt-1 was significantly lower at 35 weeks in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group in participants in the lowest quartile of Se status at baseline (P= 0039). None of the secondary outcome measures was significantly affected by treatment. The present finding that Se supplementation has the potential to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women of low Se status needs to be validated in an adequately powered trial. PMID:24708917

  17. Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

  18. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, H. M.; Dawkins, J.; Rattray, C.; Wharfe, G.; Reid, M.; Gordon-Strachan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been used for many years as an anti-inflammatory agent. We tested the efficacy of Noni in women with dysmenorrhea. Method. We did a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 100 university students of 18 years and older over three menstrual cycles. Patients were invited to participate and randomly assigned to receive 400?mg Noni capsules or placebo. They were assessed for baseline demographic variables such as age, parity, and BMI. They were also assessed before and after treatment, for pain, menstrual blood loss, and laboratory variables: ESR, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume. Results. Of the 1027 women screened, 100 eligible women were randomized. Of the women completing the study, 42 women were randomized to Noni and 38 to placebo. There were no significant differences in any of the variables at randomization. There were also no significant differences in mean bleeding score or pain score at randomization. Both bleeding and pain scores gradually improved in both groups as the women were observed over three menstrual cycles; however, the improvement was not significantly different in the Noni group when compared to the controls. Conclusion. Noni did not show a reduction in menstrual pain or bleeding when compared to placebo. PMID:23431314

  19. How do memory and attention change with pregnancy and childbirth? A controlled longitudinal examination of neuropsychological functioning in pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Logan, Dustin M; Hill, Kyle R; Jones, Rochelle; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Larson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on cognitive functioning in pregnancy and postpartum is mixed, with most research showing deficits in memory and attention during pregnancy or no difference between pregnant participants and controls with little emphasis on the postpartum period. In the current study, we used a longitudinal controlled design and 42 primarily not depressed participants to compare pregnant women in the third trimester and approximately three months postpartum with matched controls over the same time period on neuropsychological domains including memory, attention, learning, visuospatial, and executive functioning. We also evaluated the role of mood and quality of life as potential moderators of cognitive functioning in pregnancy/postpartum. Results indicated no differences between controls and pregnant/postpartum women on neuropsychological measures at any time points. Self-reported memory difficulties, however, were higher in the pregnant/postpartum women. Pregnant and postpartum women had worse self-reported mood and quality of life than controls. Mood and quality of life slightly moderated specific measures of attention and verbal fluency; however, neither mood nor quality of life moderated overall neuropsychological functioning in either group. Number of previous pregnancies had no effect on the study findings. Results suggest differences in subjective memory complaints, but no differences in objective neuropsychological test results between controls and pregnant/postpartum women who are primarily not diagnosed with depression. PMID:24820853

  20. An Implication of Health Sector Reform for Disadvantaged Women's Struggle for Birth Control: A Case of Kurdish Rural-Urban Migrant Women in Van, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Him, Miki Suzuki; Hoşgör, Ayşe Gündüz

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we examine how socioeconomically disadvantaged women are affected by health sector reform and family planning policy changes in Turkey through a case study of Kurdish women's struggles for birth control. In Turkey, a family planning program became relatively marginalized in primary health care services as a result of health sector reform as well as a shift of population policy toward a moderately pronatal approach. We argue that an emerging health care system would leave disadvantaged women unable to benefit from contraceptives and would perpetuate reproductive health inequalities between women in the country. PMID:24134209

  1. Attitudes towards menopause in a group of women followed in a public service for menopause counseling.

    PubMed

    Betti, S; Orsini, M R; Sciaky, R; Cristini, C; Cesa-Bianchi, G; Zandonini, G F

    2001-08-01

    This preliminary study addressed some specific attitudes towards menopause, and behavioral styles in menopausal women. The study was conducted during the period January-May 1998 at the Menopausal Service of the Magenta Hospital (Milano) in 88 women, representing almost one half of the patients followed during that period; 43 women were treated with HRT. Some traits characterizing women's life during menopause were examined, such as presence of disturbing physical symptoms, changes in interests and discovery of new interests, and feelings of loss and uselessness. We used different psychological tests in order to evaluate anxiety and depression, in particular, the STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), the SDS (Self-rating Depression Scale), and 16 cartoon-like images representing stereotypes of menopause. The answers of our subjects showed high individual variation, with negative symptoms (e.g., hot flashes, memory loss) frequently associated with positive experiences (e.g., new hobbies, new life-styles). However, even the most frequent negative symptom (memory loss) was reported only by 70%. The experience of a change represented by menopause was described both in terms of objective change (e.g., weight increase, hot flashes, memory loss), and of subjective change (e.g., character, feeling of not being attractive, new life-styles). Treatment with HRT seems to reduce the onset of hot flashes considerably. The occurrence of anxious-depressive states was comparable to that observed in other studies; it was not associated with HRT, but rather to losses (loss of desire, memory loss, insomnia). In conclusion, menopause represents a transitional moment in which physical and psychological changes are generally integrated by the persons experiencing them. In order to preserve a good quality of life in menopause, it seems relevant to check memory loss and stabilize the mood in persons who are most "at risk" of psychological disease. PMID:11695502

  2. Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Physical Activity among Insufficiently Active Women Following Their Participation in a Mass Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Aoife; Murphy, Niamh; Bauman, Adrian; Chey, Tien

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of a community based, low-contact intervention on the physical activity habits of insufficiently active women. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Participants: Inactive Irish women. Method: A population sample of women participating in a mass 10 km event were up followed at 2 and 6 months, and those who had

  3. The Effect of Acupressure at GB-21 and SP-6 Acupoints on Anxiety Level and Maternal-Fetal Attachment in Primiparous Women: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Moradi, Parvin; Toosi, Monieh; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Delivery is one of the most stressful events in womens life. Excessive anxiety, in turn, increases delivery and pregnancy complications. Mothers positive experience of delivery leads to more effective maternal-fetal attachment in the first few hours of birth. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of acupressure at two different acupoints on anxiety level and maternal-fetal attachment in primiparous women. Materials and Methods: In this study, 150 primiparous women were allocated to acupressure at GB-21 acupoint, acupressure at SP-6 acupoint, and control group. The women in their active phase of delivery were enrolled in the study and pressure was applied to the acupoints for 20 minutes. Mothers anxiety level was assessed using Spielbergers questionnaire before and one hour after the intervention. In addition, maternal-fetal attachment behaviors were evaluated using Avants questionnaire during the first breastfeeding. Then the data were introduced to the SPSS (v. 13) and were analyzed using t test and one way ANOVA. Results: The results revealed no significant difference among the three groups regarding the anxiety level before the intervention (P > 0.05). One hour after the intervention, this measure was significantly lower in the intervention groups in comparison to the control group (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found between the two intervention groups in this regard (P > 0.05). Moreover, maternal-fetal attachment was higher in the intervention groups in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Acupressure at both acupoints reduced anxiety level and increased maternal-fetal attachment. This method can be easily used in the delivery room. PMID:25699279

  4. Adjunctive estrogen treatment in women with chronic schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Nejatisafa, Ali Akbar; Amini, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Larijani, Bagher; Kashani, Ladan; Raisi, Firoozeh; Kamalipour, Abbas

    2003-09-01

    The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia postulates that estrogen exerts a protective effect against schizophrenia and that this partly explains the observed sex differences in premorbid adjustment, onset age, treatment response, and illness course. It has been suggested that estrogen supplementation can augment the treatment effects of antipsychotics. The purpose of the present investigation was to access the efficacy of ethinyl estradiol as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of premenopausal women with chronic schizophrenia in an 8-week, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Eligible participants in the study were 32 women of childbearing age with schizophrenia. All patients were inpatients, in the active phase of illness, and met DSM-IV criteria for chronic schizophrenia. Patients were allocated in a random fashion, 16 to haloperidol 15 mg/day plus ethinyl estradiol 0.05 mg/day and 16 to haloperidol 15 mg/day plus placebo for an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Although both protocols significantly decreased the score of the positive, negative, and general psychopathological symptoms over the trial period, the combination of haloperidol and ethinyl estradiol showed a significant superiority over haloperidol alone in the treatment of positive and general psychopathology symptoms as well as Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores. Although the means Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale (ESRS) for the placebo group were higher than ethinyl estradiol group, the differences were not significant over the trial. A significant difference was observed between the overall mean biperiden dosages in the two groups. The results of this study suggest that estrogen may be an effective adjuvant agent in the management of women of childbearing age with chronic schizophrenia. Nevertheless, results of larger controlled trials are needed before recommendation for a broad clinical application can be made. PMID:14499318

  5. Bonds to the homeland: Patterns and determinants of women's transnational travel frequency among three immigrant groups in Germany.

    PubMed

    Iarmolenko, Svitlana; Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-04-01

    Technology developments have changed immigrants' adaptation patterns in modern societies, allowing immigrants to sustain dense, complex connections with homeland while adjusting in the host country, a new phenomenon termed transnationalism. As empirical studies on immigrant transnationalism are still scarce, the purpose of this study was to investigate mean levels and determinants of a core component of transnationalism-transnational travel. Hypotheses were based on context of exiting homeland, living conditions in Germany and demographic and sociocultural variables. Transnational travel behaviour was assessed as frequency of return trips in three immigrant groups in Germany: ethnic Germans, Russian Jews and Turks. Interviews were conducted with 894 women participants from these groups. Results showed substantial transnational travel behaviour in all groups with Turks reporting higher levels than ethnic Germans and Russian Jews. Interindividual differences in transnational travel within groups were also examined. Results indicated similarities (e.g. network size in home country related positively to transnational travel frequency in all groups) and group-specific associations (e.g. co-ethnic identifying related positively to transnational travel frequency among Turks, but negatively for the other groups). Our study highlights the need for a new understanding of immigration and emphasises the consideration of group-specific mechanisms in transnational travel behaviour. PMID:25620296

  6. Examination of weight control practices in a non-clinical sample of college women.

    PubMed

    Hayes, S; Napolitano, M A

    2012-09-01

    The current study examined healthy weight control practices among a sample of college women enrolled at an urban university (N=715; age=19.871.16; 77.2% Caucasian; 13.4% African American, 7.2% Asian, 2.2% other races). Participants completed measures as part of an on-line study about health habits, behaviors, and attitudes. Items from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire were selected and evaluated with exploratory factor analysis to create a healthy weight control practices scale. Results revealed that college women, regardless of weight status, used a comparable number (four of eight) of practices. Examination of racial differences between Caucasian and African American women revealed that normal weight African American women used significantly fewer strategies than Caucasian women. Of note, greater use of healthy weight control practices was associated with higher cognitive restraint, drive for thinness, minutes of physical activity, and more frequent use of compensatory strategies. Higher scores on measures of binge and disinhibited eating, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and depressive symptoms were associated with greater use of healthy weight control practices by underweight/normal weight but not by overweight/obese college women. Results suggest that among a sample of college females, a combination of healthy and potentially unhealthy weight control practices occurs. Implications of the findings suggest the need for effective weight management and eating disorder prevention programs for this critical developmental life stage. Such programs should be designed to help students learn how to appropriately use healthy weight control practices, as motivations for use may vary by weight status. PMID:23086250

  7. Engaging South Asian women with type 2 diabetes in a culturally relevant exercise intervention: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Alamelu; Nimbal, Vani C; Ivey, Susan L; Wang, Elsie J; Madsen, Kristine A; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the efficacy of a culturally relevant exercise program in improving glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among South Asian women with type 2 diabetes, compared with usual care. Methods This was a randomized controlled 8-week pilot study of Bollywood dance among South Asian women with type 2 diabetes. The intervention consisted of 1 h Bollywood dance classes offered twice per week. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c. The effect of attendance on this outcome was also examined. Results The intervention group demonstrated a decrease in HbA1c from baseline (−0.18% (0.2%); p=0.018) compared with a non-significant increase in the usual care group (+0.03% (0.2%)); p value for difference between groups was 0.032. Participants attending at least 10 of 16 sessions had a statistically significant reduction in weight (−0.69 kg (0.76 kg)) compared with those attending fewer sessions (+0.86 kg (0.71 kg)). Conclusions These results support culturally relevant dance as a successful exercise intervention to promote HbA1c control, compared with usual care. Trial registration number NCT02061618. PMID:26566446

  8. Can Intrapartum Cardiotocography Predict Uterine Rupture among Women with Prior Caesarean Delivery?: A Population Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Malene M.; Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Krebs, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiotocographic abnormalities recorded during labour in women with prior caesarean delivery (CD) and complete uterine rupture with those recorded in controls with prior CD without uterine rupture. Study Design Women with complete uterine rupture during labour between 1997 and 2008 were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (n = 181). Cases were validated by review of medical records and 53 cases with prior CD, trial of labour, available cardiotocogram (CTG) and complete uterine rupture were included and compared with 43 controls with prior CD, trial of labour and available CTG. The CTG tracings were assessed by 19 independent experts divided into groups of three different experts for each tracing. The assessors were blinded to group, outcome and clinical data. They analyzed occurrence of defined abnormalities and classified the traces as normal, suspicious, pathological or pre-terminal according to international guidelines (FIGO). Results A pathological CTG during the first stage of labour was present in 77% of cases and in 53% of the controls (OR 2.58 [CI: 0.96–6.94] P = 0.066). Fetal tachycardia was more frequent in cases with uterine rupture (OR 2.50 [CI: 1.0–6.26] P = 0.053). Significantly more cases showed more than 10 severe variable decelerations compared with controls (OR 22 [CI: 1.54–314.2] P = 0.022). Uterine tachysystole was not correlated with the presence of uterine rupture. Conclusion A pathological cardiotocogram should lead to particular attention on threatening uterine rupture but cannot be considered a strong predictor as it is common in all women with trial of labour after caesarean delivery. PMID:26872018

  9. A Modest Proposal for Control of Prejudice and Group Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1971-01-01

    Notes that much human activity is monotonous, arduous, or degrading and that most low-caste groups eventually revolt. Suggests that humans use chimpanzees as a permanent minority group that will serve simultaneously as laborers and scapegoats. (MB)

  10. Program in Business Communication at the University of Texas at Austin. A Pre-Test-Post-Test and Experimental-Control Group Analysis of the Personnel Department's Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James D.; Kerr, Deborah

    A study used pretests/posttests and experimental/control groups to evaluate four business communication skills (BCS) programs conducted with employees at the University of Texas at Austin. Of 91 BCS participants, 86 were women and ages for all participants ranged from 20 to 61 years. Del Gaizo's four levels of evaluation (happiness index, learning…

  11. Single Older Women Who Applied for the Giving Life More Lustre Course: Are They the Target Group that Was Aimed for?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremers, Ismay P.; Steverink, Nardi; Albersnagel, Frans A.; Slaets, Joris P. J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the women who applied for the self-management of well-being course Giving life more LUSTRE can be considered the target group that was intended. By comparing the course applicants with a random sample of community dwelling single women, it was found that, as expected, course applicants scored worse on

  12. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health

  13. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  14. Dogmatism and locus of control in young women who support, oppose, or voice no opinion on the Equal Rights Amendment.

    PubMed

    Mlott, S R; Bostick, R T; Lira, F T

    1977-07-01

    This study sought to clarify personality characteristics of supporters of the Women's Liberation Movement (WLM) with specific emphasis on the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). Three matched groups of 50 female college students, which were comprised of supporters, opponents, or those who voiced no opinion on the ERA, were administered the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale and the Rotter I-E Scale. The three groups did not differ significantly on either measure. Participants of all groups were shown to be somewhat externally controlled and to demonstrate personality traits that were not characteristically dogmatic. The disparity of these results with those reported by other researchers was attributed to the matched demographic factors that determined S selection and assignment. PMID:893706

  15. Taking pictures to take control: Photovoice as a tool to facilitate empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic minority women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Teti, Michelle; Pichon, Latrice; Kabel, Allison; Farnan, Rose; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Poor and racial/ethnic minority women comprise the majority of women living with HIV (WLH) in the United States. Race, gender, class, and HIV-based stigmas and inequities limit women’s powers over their health and compromise their quality of life. To help WLH counter this powerlessness, we implemented a photovoice project called Picturing New Possibilities (PNP), and explored how women experienced empowerment through photovoice. PNP participants (N = 30) photographed their life experiences, attended 3 group discussions and a community exhibit of their photos, and completed a follow-up interview. We used strategies of Grounded Theory to identify key empowerment themes. Participants described empowerment through enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, critical thinking skills, and control. Our findings suggest that photovoice is an important tool for WLH. It offers women a way to access internal strengths and use these resources to improve their quality of life and health. PMID:24064314

  16. Women with epilepsy in reproductive age group: special issues and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shehanaaz; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2013-08-01

    Women with epilepsy (WWE) have several gender based problems pertaining to social and biological domains. The stigma of epilepsy and its consequences appear to be more for women than men. They have more difficulty in getting married and sustaining a married life. The cyclical variations in the reproductive hormones can adversely impact the seizure pattern in WWE. Epileptiform discharges in the brain can influence the hypothalamic functions and lead to sexual dysfunction. The Antiepileptic drugs (AED) may alter their metabolic and hormone profile and contribute to this disorder. Most WWE tend to have uneventful pregnancies and healthy babies. Nevertheless, the risk of fetal malformations appears to be increased when AEDs are used during pregnancy. This risk is higher for those who are on polytherapy, or using valproate. Recent studies have also demonstrated that antenatal exposure to AEDs could lead to neurocognitive and developmental impairment, low IQ or language problems in exposed infants. Clinicians need to consider these special issues while initiating AED therapy in adolescent girls. All WWE need to have a detailed pre conception evaluation wherein the need to continue AEDs, the ideal AED and dosage are reassessed. The AED therapy would have to be individualized according to the clinical situations, obstetric background and family concerns. Folic acid should be prescribed to all women who could potentially become pregnant. Detailed screening for fetal malformations by estimation of serum alpha fetoprotein and fetal ultrasonography need to be carried out between 14 - 18 weeks of pregnancy. The dosage of AEDs may have to be escalated in the second half of pregnancy in selected patients. The family should be provided detailed counseling and information on how to cope with the pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and contraception. PMID:24818330

  17. Validation of wet mount microscopy against Trichomonas culture among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Gunasekara, U; Barua, A; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

    2015-06-01

    Wet mount microscopy is the most commonly used diagnostic method for trichomoniasis in clinical diagnostic services all over the world including Sri Lanka due to its availability, simplicity and is relatively inexpensive. However, Trichomonas culture and PCR are the gold standard tests. Unfortunately, neither the culture nor PCR is available for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is important to validate the wet mount microscopy as it is the only available diagnostic test and has not been validated to date in Sri Lanka. The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of wet mount microscopy against gold standard Trichomonas culture among clinic based population of reproductive age group women in Western province, Sri Lanka. Women attending hospital and institutional based clinics were enrolled. They were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis by culture and wet mount microscopy. There were 601 participants in the age group of 15-45 years. Wet mount microscopy showed 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive (PPV) and 98% negative predictive values (NPV) (P=0.001, kappa=0.803) respectively against the gold standard culture. The area under the ROC curve was 0.840. Sensitivity of wet mount microscopy is low. However it has high validity and reliability as a specific diagnostic test for trichomoniasis. If it is to be used among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka, a culture method could be adopted as a second test to confirm the negative wet mount for symptomatic patients. PMID:26691246

  18. Does Nordic walking improves the postural control and gait parameters of women between the age 65 and 74: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Kocur, Piotr; Wiernicka, Marzena; Wilski, Maciej; Kaminska, Ewa; Furmaniuk, Lech; Maslowska, Marta Flis; Lewandowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To assess the effect of 12-weeks Nordic walking training on gait parameters and some elements of postural control. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-seven women aged 65 to 74 years were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into a Nordic Walking group (12 weeks of Nordic walking training, 3 times a week for 75 minutes) and a control group. In both study groups, a set of functional tests were conducted at the beginning and at the end of the study: the Forward Reach Test (FRT) and the Upward Reach Test (URT) on a stabilometric platform, and the analysis of gait parameters on a treadmill. [Results] The NW group showed improvements in: the range of reach in the FRT test and the URT test in compared to the control group. The length of the gait cycle and gait cycle frequency also showed changes in the NW group compared to the control group. [Conclusion] A 12-week NW training program had a positive impact on selected gait parameters and may improve the postural control of women aged over 65 according to the results selected functional tests. PMID:26834341

  19. Lifestyle interventions for hypertension treatment among Iranian women in primary health-care settings: Results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hasandokht, Tolou; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Paknahad, Zamzam; Rajati, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle factors such as weight, salt intake, and physical activity have shown to be important in treating hypertension. The object of this study was to describe feasibility and to assess the effectiveness of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on high blood pressure (BP) of Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in four health centers by recruiting 161 women aged 35-65 years with high BP and randomizing them to a 4-week lifestyle modification (n = 80) or control group (n = 81). BP level and other health behavioral factors were assessed before and after the 4-week intervention and also after 6 months. Results: The mean systolic BP changed from 158.8 (8.1) mmHg to 153.2 (6.4) mmHg during 4-week and to 145.5 (4.6)) mmHg after 6 months in the intervention group (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between two groups of study after 4-week mean = 5.6 (confidence interval [CI] = 5.1-6.6) and 6 months follow mean (CI = 12.3-14.6).(P < 0.001) A significant correlation was detected between systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) with weight, body mass index, waist circumference, salt intake, and physical activity level (P < 0.001). Stepwise regression analyses indicated that the weight, dietary salt intake, and physical activity level were significant predictors of SBP and DBP. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that lifestyle modification program is associated with improvements in BP level in Iranian women. PMID:25767523

  20. Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of a Novel Dissonance-Based Group Treatment for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan; Menke, Katharine S.; Marti, C. Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conduct a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Method Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Body Acceptance Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Results Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (χ2[6] = 34.1, p < .001), producing large effects for thin-ideal internalization (d = 0.79), body dissatisfaction (d = 1.14), and blinded interview-assessed eating disorder symptoms (d = .95), and medium effects for dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). Conclusions This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment. PMID:25577189

  1. HIV-infected Women's Perspectives on the Use of the Internet for Social Support: A Potential Role for Online Group-based Interventions.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Oni J; Shah, Pooja A; Haughton, Lorlette J; Horvath, Keith J; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2015-01-01

    While the development and implementation of HIV-related online interventions has expanded, few have been tailored for women or have leveraged Web 2.0's capabilities to provide social support. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 women with HIV at an urban community health center to understand their perspectives on the potential role of the Internet and the use of an online group format to provide social support. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. We identified six themes: a need for groups and increased sense of connectedness, convenience and accessibility, trust as a precondition for participating, online groups as a potential facilitator or barrier to expression, limited digital access and literacy, and privacy concerns. Overall, women were highly supportive of online group-based interventions but acknowledged the need for increased digital access and Internet navigation training. Hybrid (in-person and online) interventions may be most useful for women with HIV. PMID:25749532

  2. Group vs. individual exercise interventions for women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Both during and after treatment, cancer survivors experience declines in physical and psychosocial quality of life (QoL). Prior research indicates that exercise interventions alleviate problems in physical functioning and some aspects of psychological functioning. For survivors seeking social support, exercise programs that are conducted in group settings may foster optimal QoL improvement (by addressing additional issues related to isolation, social support) over individually-based exercise programs. Methods We reviewed literature on group cohesion in exercise studies, and conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that group as compared to individual exercise interventions for breast cancer survivors would show greater improvement in QoL. Results As currently implemented, group exercise interventions showed no advantage. However, they typically did not provide any evidence that they capitalized upon potentially beneficial group processes. Conclusions Future exercise intervention studies could investigate the effect on QoL of deliberately using group dynamics processes, such as team building experiences and group goal setting to foster group cohesion. PMID:20607139

  3. The Dimensions of Talk in Peer Groups: Negotiating Control in Writing Group Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin

    In this study comparing peer group conversation with conversation in other settings, five college freshmen were observed and taped in the 12th week of the semester during a group discussion about their own writing. Four types of conversational moves were tallied: structural comments, solicitations, responses, and reactions. Comparison of these

  4. Cancer Treatment Adherence among Low-Income Women with Breast or Gynecologic Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Patient Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Xie, Bin; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances R.; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Muderspach, Laila; Russell, Christy; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    Background We implemented a controlled randomized trial that compared two interventions -provision of written resource navigation information (enhanced usual care (EUC)) versus written information plus patient navigation (TPN) aimed at improving adjuvant treatment adherence and follow-up among 487 low-income, predominantly Latinas with breast or gynecologic cancer. Methods Women are randomized to either TPN or EUC. We assess chemotherapy, radiation and hormone therapy and follow-up over 12 months. Breast and gynecologic patients are analyzed separately. Results Overall adherence rates were (87-94%) and there were no significant differences between TPN and EUC groups. Among women with breast cancer, 90% of EUC and 88% of TPN patients completed chemotherapy (14% EUC-26% TPN had delayed completion), 2% EUC-4% TPN failed to complete, and 8% EUC-7% TPN refused, chemotherapy. Radiation treatment adherence was similar between groups 90% completed (40% EUC-42% TPN delayed completion); in both groups, 2% failed completion and 8% refused radiation. Among gynecologic patients, 87% EUC-94% TPN completed chemotherapy (41% EUC-31% TPN with delays), 7% EUC-6% TPN failed completion and 6% EUC refused chemotherapy; 87% EUC-84% TPN completed radiation (51% EUC-42% TPN with delays), 5% EUC-8% TPN failed completion and 8% EUC-5% TPN refused radiation. Conclusions Treatment adherence across randomized groups was notably higher than reported in previous studies, suggesting that active telephone patient navigation or written resource informational materials may facilitate adherence among low-income, predominantly Hispanic women. Adherence may have also been facilitated by federal-state Breast and Cervical Cancer treatment funding. PMID:19551881

  5. Mirtazapine treatment of social phobia in women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Muehlbacher, Moritz; Nickel, Marius K; Nickel, Cerstin; Kettler, Christian; Lahmann, Claas; Pedrosa Gil, Francisco; Leiberich, Peter K; Rother, Nadine; Bachler, Egon; Fartacek, Reinhold; Kaplan, Patrick; Tritt, Karin; Mitterlehner, Ferdinand; Anvar, Javaid; Rother, Wolfhardt K; Loew, Thomas H; Egger, Christoph

    2005-12-01

    Social phobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme fear and phobic avoidance of social and performance situations and by a relatively poor health-related quality of life. The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of mirtazapine versus placebo in the treatment of patients with social phobia. In 2004, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of mirtazapine in 66 female subjects from the general population meeting the criteria for social phobia. The subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 manner to mirtazapine (n = 33) or placebo (n = 33). The treatment lasted 10 weeks. Seven patients dropped out. Primary outcome measures were self-reported changes on the Social Phobia Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and Health Survey (SF-36). In comparison with the placebo group and according to the intent-to-treat principle, significant differences on the Social Phobia Inventory and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale scales (all P < 0.001), as well as on most (5 from 8) scales of SF-36 (all P < 0.001), were observed in the mirtazapine-treated subjects. All patients tolerated mirtazapine relatively well. Mirtazapine appears to be an effective agent in the treatment of social phobia in women and in the improvement of their health-related quality of life. PMID:16282842

  6. Effect of iron supplementation on fatigue in nonanemic menstruating women with low ferritin: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaucher, Paul; Druais, Pierre-Louis; Waldvogel, Sophie; Favrat, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Background: The true benefit of iron supplementation for nonanemic menstruating women with fatigue is unknown. We studied the effect of oral iron therapy on fatigue and quality of life, as well as on hemoglobin, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels, in nonanemic iron-deficient women with unexplained fatigue. Methods: We performed a multicentre, parallel, randomized controlled, closed-label, observer-blinded trial. We recruited from the practices of 44 primary care physicians in France from March to July 2006. We randomly assigned 198 women aged 1853 years who complained of fatigue and who had a ferritin level of less than 50 ug/L and hemoglobin greater than 12.0 g/dL to receive either oral ferrous sulfate (80 mg of elemental iron daily; n = 102) or placebo (n = 96) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was fatigue as measured on the Current and Past Psychological Scale. Biological markers were measured at 6 and 12 weeks. Results: The mean score on the Current and Past Psychological Scale for fatigue decreased by 47.7% in the iron group and by 28.8% in the placebo group (difference 18.9%, 95% CI ?34.5 to ?3.2; p = 0.02), but there were no significant effects on quality of life (p = 0.2), depression (p = 0.97) or anxiety (p = 0.5). Compared with placebo, iron supplementation increased hemoglobin (0.32 g/dL; p = 0.002) and ferritin (11.4 ?g/L; p < 0.001) and decreased soluble transferrin receptor (?0.54 mg/L; p < 0.001) at 12 weeks. Interpretation: Iron supplementation should be considered for women with unexplained fatigue who have ferritin levels below 50 ?g/L. We suggest assessing the efficiency using blood markers after six weeks of treatment. Trial registration no. EudraCT 200600047856. PMID:22777991

  7. Comparison of prevalence of periodontal disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Rahiminejad, Mohammad Ehsan; Moaddab, Amirhossein; Zaryoun, Hassan; Rabiee, Soghra; Moaddab, Arta; Khodadoustan, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, affecting 4-18% of them. Previous studies also showed that periodontal diseases are associated with different components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the association between PCOS and periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 196 women (98 with PCOS and 98 healthy controls) were enrolled. PCOS diagnosis was confirmed by history, clinical signs, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and ultrasound studies. Both cases and controls were examined by the same periodontist. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth, clinical attachment loss (CAL), plaque index, and tooth loss were investigated in all participants. Pregnant women, smokers, individuals with a history of malignancy or osteoporosis, and those taking prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures or receiving periodontal treatment during the 6-month period before examination were excluded. Data were analyzed using t-test, Chi-square test, and linear regression. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: CAL and sites with BOP were significantly higher in women with PCOS (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in the tooth loss rate between PCOS and non-PCOS participants (P = 0.384). Conclusion: The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. This may be related to the role of chronic systemic inflammation in the pathophysiology of both PCOS and periodontal diseases. PMID:26759585

  8. The Sex Panic: Women, Censorship and "Pornography." A Conference of the Working Group on Women, Censorship, and "Pornography" (New York, New York, May 7-8, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition Against Censorship, New York, NY.

    In May 1993, representatives of anti-censorship feminists convened at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York to overturn the myths that censorship is good for women, that women want censorship, and that those who support censorship speak for women. Participants at the convention discussed four major themes: the current panic over

  9. Delivery Pain Anxiety/Fear Control between Midwives among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyira, Emilia James; Mgbekem, Mary; Osuchukwu, Easther Chukwudi; Affiong, Ekpenyong Onoyom; Lukpata, Felicia E.; Ojong-Alasia, Mary Manyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine background of midwives the effectiveness in delivery pain and anxiety/fear control of expectant mothers in Nigeria. Methods: Two null hypotheses were formulated. The survey design with sample of 360 post-natal women was selected from a population of 78,814 through the polio immunization registers of selected health center in…

  10. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  11. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  12. Effect of Nurse Home Visits vs. Usual Care on Reducing Intimate Partner Violence in Young High-Risk Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mejdoubi, Jamila; van den Heijkant, Silvia C. C. M.; van Leerdam, Frank J. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Crijnen, Alfons A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV). The nurse-family partnership (NFP) is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes. Evidence regarding the effect of nurse home visiting on IPV is inconsistent. This study aims to study the effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch NFP, on IPV. Methods A random sample of 460 eligible disadvantaged women <26 years, with no previous live births, was randomized. Women in the control group (C; n=223) received usual care; women in the intervention group (I; n=237) received usual care plus nurse home visits periodically during pregnancy and until the childs second birthday. Results At 32 weeks of pregnancy, women in the intervention group self-reported significantly less IPV victimization than women in the control group in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 56% vs. I: 39%), physical assault level 1 (C: 58% vs. I: 40%) and level 2 (C: 31% vs. I: 20%), and level 1 sexual coercion (C: 16% vs. I: 8%). Furthermore, women in the intervention group reported significantly less IPV perpetration in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 60% vs. I: 46%), level 1 physical assault (C: 65% vs. I: 52%), and level 1 injury (C: 27% vs. I: 17%). At 24 months after birth, IPV victimization was significantly lower in the intervention group for level 1 physical assault (C: 44% vs. I: 26%), and IPV perpetration was significantly lower for level 1 sexual assault (C: 18% vs. I: 3%). Multilevel analyses showed a significant improvement in IPV victimization and perpetration among women in the intervention group at 24 months after birth. Conclusion VoorZorg, compared with the usual care, is effective in reducing IPV during pregnancy and in the two years after birth among young high-risk women. Trial Registration Dutch Trial RegisterNTR854 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=854 PMID:24205150

  13. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Iranian Women: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Mina; Eivazi Ziaei, Jamal; Aghajari, Parvaneh; Vahidi, Maryam; Fateh, Alaviehe; Asghari, Elnaz

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death among women. In Asian countries such as Iran, the incidence of breast cancer is increasing. The present study aimed to assess the risk factors for breast cancer of women in Tabriz, Iran. Methods A hospital-based case-control study was undertaken to identify breast cancer risk factors. The study consisted of 140 cases confirmed via histopathological analysis and 280 group-matched controls without any malignancy. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods via the SPSS software version 18. Results In a multivariate analysis, educational level (odds ratio [OR], 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11-10.83), menopausal status (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.41-4.59), a high-fat diet (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.51-5.04), abortion (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.20-3.79), passive smoking (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.51-5.04), oral contraceptive use (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.80-5.59), stress (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.74-5.36), and migration (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.39-6.90) were factors associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer. Breastfeeding (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.97) and a diet containing sufficient fruit and vegetables (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.12-0.39) had protective roles against breast cancer. Conclusion The study revealed that the risk factors for breast cancer among women in the Tabriz area of Iran are related to the lifestyle. Therefore, the provision of education to change unhealthy lifestyle choices and periodic check-ups for early breast cancer detection are recommended. PMID:25320621

  14. Diet and the risk of lung cancer among women. A hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kubík, A; Zatloukal, P; Tomásek, L; Kríz, J; Petruzelka, L; Plesko, I

    2001-01-01

    Variation in diet has been suspected to be one of cofactors related to geographic variation in lung cancer risk, namely for women, or other population groups with a low exposure to cigarette smoking. The study has been designed to obtain more insight into possible associations between diet and lung cancer risk among women in a country with a Central European socioeconomic background. In a hospital-based case-control study personal interviews of 282 female lung cancer cases and 1120 female controls were done using a structured standard questionnaire. Cigarette smoking was the most important factor associated with excess risk for lung cancer among women. Significantly increased risk was found both among current smokers (OR = 9.22), and ex-smokers (OR = 7.11). Positive dose-response gradients (p < 0.001) were observed between lung cancer risk and the daily number of cigarettes, duration of smoking, and number of pack-years. For squamous-, small- and large-cell cancers combined, significant associations of lung cancer risk with the consumption of red meat and poultry (OR = 2.33, and OR = 8.67, respectively), and an inverse association with the consumption of vegetables (OR = 0.55) were found. No such variations in risk were observed for adenocarcinoma, including the bronchioalveolar cancer type. For all lung cancer types combined, coffee drinking showed a significant inverse association with lung cancer risk risk (OR = 0.66). While smoking is the major risk for lung cancer, diet may have a contributory role. Variations in the intake of some components of diet, namely red meat, poultry, vegetables, and coffee may contribute to understanding variations in the risk of lung cancer among Czech women. PMID:11712676

  15. A study of the effects of latent iron deficiency on measures of cognition: a pilot randomised controlled trial of iron supplementation in young women.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J

    2014-06-01

    Rates of iron deficiency are high amongst healthy young women. Cognitive impairment occurs secondary to iron deficiency in infants and children, but evaluation of the impact on cognition among young women is inconsistent. The aim was to determine the suitability of the IntegNeuro test battery for assessing cognitive function in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient young women. A pilot double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted in iron-deficient (serum ferritin ? 20 ?g/L and haemoglobin > 120 g/L) and iron-sufficient young women (18-35 years). Cognitive function and haematological markers of iron status were measured at baseline and follow-up. Iron-deficient participants (n = 24) were randomised to receive placebo, 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron daily supplements for 16 weeks. A control group of iron-sufficient participants (n = 8) was allocated to placebo. Change scores for Impulsivity and Attention were significantly greater in plasma ferritin improvers than in non-improvers (p = 0.004, p = 0.026). IntegNeuro was easy to administer and acceptable to young women. Based on the differences in Memory and Attention scores between iron-deficient participants on iron treatment and those on placebo, it was decided that between 26 and 84 participants would be required in each iron treatment group for an adequately powered extension of this pilot RCT. PMID:24959952

  16. 29 CFR 4043.62 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... members of the plan's controlled group represent a de minimis 5-percent segment of the plan's old controlled group for the most recent fiscal year(s) ending on or before the effective date of the reportable... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group....

  17. 29 CFR 4043.62 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... members of the plan's controlled group represent a de minimis 5-percent segment of the plan's old controlled group for the most recent fiscal year(s) ending on or before the effective date of the reportable... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group....

  18. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... represent a de minimis 10-percent segment of the plan's old controlled group for the most recent fiscal year... include (1) The name of each member of the plan's old and new controlled groups and the member's... the plan's old or new controlled group, identification of the plan and its contributing sponsor(s)...

  19. 29 CFR 4043.62 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... members of the plan's controlled group represent a de minimis 5-percent segment of the plan's old controlled group for the most recent fiscal year(s) ending on or before the effective date of the reportable... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group....

  20. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... represent a de minimis 10-percent segment of the plan's old controlled group for the most recent fiscal year... include (1) The name of each member of the plan's old and new controlled groups and the member's... the plan's old or new controlled group, identification of the plan and its contributing sponsor(s)...

  1. 29 CFR 4043.62 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... members of the plan's controlled group represent a de minimis 5-percent segment of the plan's old controlled group for the most recent fiscal year(s) ending on or before the effective date of the reportable... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group....

  2. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... represent a de minimis 10-percent segment of the plan's old controlled group for the most recent fiscal year... include (1) The name of each member of the plan's old and new controlled groups and the member's... the plan's old or new controlled group, identification of the plan and its contributing sponsor(s)...

  3. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... represent a de minimis 10-percent segment of the plan's old controlled group for the most recent fiscal year... include (1) The name of each member of the plan's old and new controlled groups and the member's... the plan's old or new controlled group, identification of the plan and its contributing sponsor(s)...

  4. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... represent a de minimis 10-percent segment of the plan's old controlled group for the most recent fiscal year... include (1) The name of each member of the plan's old and new controlled groups and the member's... the plan's old or new controlled group, identification of the plan and its contributing sponsor(s)...

  5. 29 CFR 4043.62 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... members of the plan's controlled group represent a de minimis 5-percent segment of the plan's old controlled group for the most recent fiscal year(s) ending on or before the effective date of the reportable... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group....

  6. Antiobesity Effect of Caraway Extract on Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30?mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377. PMID:24319489

  7. ShopSmart 4 Health Protocol of a skills-based randomised controlled trial promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a need for evidence on the most effective and cost-effective approaches for promoting healthy eating among groups that do not meet dietary recommendations for good health, such as those with low incomes or experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. This paper describes the ShopSmart 4 Health study, a randomised controlled trial conducted by Deakin University, Coles Supermarkets and the Heart Foundation, to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a skill-building intervention for promoting increased purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables amongst women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods/design ShopSmart 4 Health employed a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 1860 years, holding a Coles store loyalty card, who shopped at Coles stores within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and met low-income eligibility criteria were invited to participate. Consenting women completed a baseline survey assessing food shopping and eating habits and food-related behaviours and attitudes. On receipt of their completed survey, women were randomised to either a skill-building intervention or a wait-list control condition. Intervention effects will be evaluated via self-completion surveys and using supermarket transaction sales data, collected at pre- and post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Process evaluation will be undertaken to identify perceived value and effects of intervention components. Discussion This study will provide data to address the currently limited evidence base regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skill-building intervention strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, a target group at high risk of poor diets. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN48771770 PMID:23668896

  8. Evaluation of the ovarian reserve function in patients with metabolic syndrome in relation to healthy controls and different age groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ovarian reserve function in female patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods This study evaluated 136 subjects, 67 with MetS and 69 controls. Subjects were divided into three age groups. Group I included 49 subjects aged 2029 years, 22 with MetS and 27 controls; group II included 45 subjects aged 3039 years, 22 with MetS and 23 controls; and group III included 42 subjects aged 4049 years, 23 with MetS and 19 controls. Demographic characteristics, anthropometrics, blood biochemistry, and gonadotrophic hormones were compared as total ovarian volume and antral follicle count on ovarian transvaginal ultrasonography. Results Serum levels of FSH, LH, E2 and progesterone were similar in the MetS and control groups, while testosterone levels were significantly higher in MetS patients than controls, both in the overall population (p?=?0.024) and in those aged 2029 years (p?=?0.018). Total ovarian volume was significantly lower in MetS patients than controls, in both the overall population (p?=?0.003) and those aged 2029 years (p?=?0.018), while antral follicle counts were similar. Ovarian volume correlated positively with antral follicle count (AFC) (r?=?0.37; p?control subjects, particularly in women aged 2029 years. PMID:24955131

  9. ABO blood group phenotypes influence parity specific immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Malawian women

    PubMed Central

    Senga, Edward; Loscertales, Maria-Paz; Makwakwa, KEB; Liomba, George N; Dzamalala, Charles; Kazembe, Peter N; Brabin, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Background Blood group O has been significantly associated with increased placental malaria infection in primiparae and reduced risk of infection in multiparae in the Gambia, an area with markedly seasonal malaria transmission. This study analyses the association between ABO blood group phenotypes in relation to placental malaria pathology and birth outcomes in southern Malawi, an area with perennial malaria transmission. Methods A cross-sectional study of 647 mother/child pairs delivering in Montfort Hospital, Chikwawa District between February-June 2004 and January-July 2005 was undertaken. Maternal peripheral and cord blood samples were obtained at delivery. Placental tissue was obtained and malaria histology classified as active, past or no malaria infection. Birth anthropometry was recorded. ABO blood group was measured by agglutination. Results In primiparae, blood group O was significantly associated with increased risk of active placental infection (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.154.6, p = 0.02) and an increased foetal-placental weight ratio compared to non-O phenotypes (5.68 versus 5.45, p = 0.03) In multiparae blood group O was significantly associated with less frequent active placental infection (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.360.98, p = 0.04), and a higher newborn ponderal index compared to non-O phenotypes (2.65 versus 2.55, p = 0.007). In multivariate regression parity was independently associated with increased risk of placental malaria (active andpast infection) in primiparae with blood group O (p = 0.034) and reduced risk in multiparae with the same phenotype (p = 0.015). Conclusion Parity related susceptibility to placental malaria is associated with the mothers ABO phenotype. This interaction influences foetal and placental growth and could be an important modifying factor for pregnancy outcomes. The biological explanation could relate to sialic acid dependent placental membrane differences which vary with ABO blood group. PMID:17683546

  10. The impact of sleep healthy behavior education on the quality of life in the pregnant women with sleep disorder: A randomized control trial in the year 2012

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Elham; Moghadam, Zahra Behboodi; Nejat, Saharnaz; Dehghannayeri, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: About 79% of pregnant women in the world suffer from sleep disorders. These disorders result from physiological changes during pregnancy, originate from different factors, and can affect pregnant women's quality of life before, during, and after delivery. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sleep healthy behavior education on the quality of life among pregnant women with sleep disorders in the second trimester. Materials and Methods: This is a clinical trial conducted on 112 pregnant women with sleep disorders referring to two selected health care centers in Makou affiliated to Urmia University of Medical Sciences during June-Oct 2012. Data collection tools included demographic characteristics questionnaire, Pittsburgh Standard Sleep Quality questionnaire, and World Health Organization, Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) WHOQOL-BREEF questionnaire. Sampling was done by convenient sampling. Firstly, Pittsburg Standard Sleep Quality Questionnaire was completed and the pregnant women with sleep disorders were selected as the subjects. After completion of sampling, the subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of study and control. Education of sleep health behavior was provided in the study group by the researcher during four 1-h sessions. Then, WHOQOL-BREEF and Pittsburg Standard Sleep Quality questionnaire were completed again in two groups in the first follow-up session (1 month after educational intervention) and in the second follow-up session (2 months after educational intervention) held by the researcher. Control group only received conventional prenatal care. The obtained data were analyzed by Chi-square test, independent t-test, Fisher's exact and repeated measure tests through SPSS 18. Results: Mean scores of quality of life showed an increase in 1 and 2 months after intervention in the study group compared to the control group. A significant difference was observed in the QOL in the two groups, 1 month (P < 0.000) and 2 months (P < 0.001) after intervention. Conclusions: Education of sleep healthy behaviors was effective on the QOL of pregnant women with sleep disorders. The results obtained in the present study can be used to support the pregnant women with sleep disorders and sleep disorders clinics, as well as for administration of prenatal care. PMID:25400680

  11. Predisposing Individual Characteristics and Perinatal Outcomes of Women in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Who Initiate Prenatal Care Late in Their Pregnancy: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kakogawa, Jun; Sadatsuki, Miyuki; Matsushita, Takeji; Simbo, Takuro

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the individual characteristics and perinatal outcomes of women who initiate prenatal care late in their pregnancy in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Methods. Retrospective study. The study enrolled all women at our hospital who initiated prenatal care after 22 weeks of gestation (late attenders) and control women who initiated prenatal care prior to 11 weeks of gestation participated in the study at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine between January 1, 2007 and June 30, 2011. We compared the maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes of late attenders with those of the control group. Results. A total of 121 late attenders and 1,787 controls were enrolled. Late attenders had a higher incidence of unmarried compared with the control group (P < 0.01). There were no differences in the incidence of preterm delivery and low birth weight; however, babies of the late attenders had a higher incidence of admission to the neonatal intensive care unit compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Our results indicate that there is a pressing need for further steps to promote the importance of receiving prenatal care during pregnancy. PMID:22928116

  12. Group CBT for psychosis: a longitudinal, controlled trial with inpatients.

    PubMed

    Owen, Mary; Sellwood, William; Kan, Stephen; Murray, John; Sarsam, May

    2015-02-01

    Individual cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is a recommended treatment in the acute phase and beyond. However, less is known about the effectiveness of group CBTp in acute care. This mixed methods study explored the implementation and effectiveness of brief group CBTp with inpatients. This prospective trial compared inpatients who received either a four week group CBTp program or treatment as usual (TAU). Participants (n=113at baseline) completed self-report measures of distress, confidence and symptoms of psychosis at baseline, post-intervention and one month follow up. CBTp group participants also completed a brief open-ended satisfaction questionnaire. Using complete case analysis participants who received CBTp showed significantly reduced distress at follow up compared to TAU and significantly increased confidence across the study and follow up period. However, these effects were not demonstrated using a more conservative intention-to-treat analysis. Qualitative analysis of the satisfaction data revealed positive feedback with a number of specific themes. The study suggests that brief group CBTp with inpatients may improve confidence and reduce distress in the longer term. Participants report that the groups are acceptable and helpful. However, given the methodological limitations involved in this 'real world' study more robust evidence is needed. PMID:25577190

  13. Peptide Dimethylation: Fragmentation Control via Distancing the Dimethylamino Group

    PubMed Central

    McShane, Adam J.; Shen, Yuanyuan; Castillo, Mary Joan; Yao, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Direct reductive methylation of peptides is a common method for quantitative proteomics. It is an active derivatization technique; with participation of the dimethylamino group, the derivatized peptides preferentially release intense a1 ions. The advantageous generation of a1 ions for quantitative proteomic profiling, however, is not desirable for targeted proteomic quantitation using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; this mass spectrometric method prefers the derivatizing group to stay with the intact peptide ions and multiple fragments as passive mass tags. This work investigated collisional fragmentation of peptides whose amine groups were derivatized with five linear ω-dimethylamino acids, from 2-(dimethylamino)-acetic acid to 6-(dimethylamino)-hexanoic acid. Tandem mass spectra of the derivatized tryptic peptides revealed different preferential breakdown pathways. Together with energy resolved mass spectrometry, it was found that shutting down the active participation of the terminal dimethylamino group in fragmentation of derivatized peptides is possible. However, it took a separation of five methylene groups between the terminal dimethylamino group and the amide formed upon peptide derivatization. For the first time, the gas-phase fragmentation of peptides derivatized with linear ω-dimethylamino acids of systematically increasing alkyl chain lengths is reported. PMID:25091822

  14. Peptide dimethylation: fragmentation control via distancing the dimethylamino group.

    PubMed

    McShane, Adam J; Shen, Yuanyuan; Castillo, Mary Joan; Yao, Xudong

    2014-10-01

    Direct reductive methylation of peptides is a common method for quantitative proteomics. It is an active derivatization technique; with participation of the dimethylamino group, the derivatized peptides preferentially release intense a1 ions. The advantageous generation of a1 ions for quantitative proteomic profiling, however, is not desirable for targeted proteomic quantitation using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; this mass spectrometric method prefers the derivatizing group to stay with the intact peptide ions and multiple fragments as passive mass tags. This work investigated collisional fragmentation of peptides whose amine groups were derivatized with five linear ?-dimethylamino acids, from 2-(dimethylamino)-acetic acid to 6-(dimethylamino)-hexanoic acid. Tandem mass spectra of the derivatized tryptic peptides revealed different preferential breakdown pathways. Together with energy resolved mass spectrometry, it was found that shutting down the active participation of the terminal dimethylamino group in fragmentation of derivatized peptides is possible. However, it took a separation of five methylene groups between the terminal dimethylamino group and the amide formed upon peptide derivatization. For the first time, the gas-phase fragmentation of peptides derivatized with linear ?-dimethylamino acids of systematically increasing alkyl chain lengths is reported. PMID:25091822

  15. Peptide Dimethylation: Fragmentation Control via Distancing the Dimethylamino Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, Adam J.; Shen, Yuanyuan; Castillo, Mary Joan; Yao, Xudong

    2014-10-01

    Direct reductive methylation of peptides is a common method for quantitative proteomics. It is an active derivatization technique; with participation of the dimethylamino group, the derivatized peptides preferentially release intense a1 ions. The advantageous generation of a1 ions for quantitative proteomic profiling, however, is not desirable for targeted proteomic quantitation using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; this mass spectrometric method prefers the derivatizing group to stay with the intact peptide ions and multiple fragments as passive mass tags. This work investigated collisional fragmentation of peptides whose amine groups were derivatized with five linear ?-dimethylamino acids, from 2-(dimethylamino)-acetic acid to 6-(dimethylamino)-hexanoic acid. Tandem mass spectra of the derivatized tryptic peptides revealed different preferential breakdown pathways. Together with energy resolved mass spectrometry, it was found that shutting down the active participation of the terminal dimethylamino group in fragmentation of derivatized peptides is possible. However, it took a separation of five methylene groups between the terminal dimethylamino group and the amide formed upon peptide derivatization. For the first time, the gas-phase fragmentation of peptides derivatized with linear ?-dimethylamino acids of systematically increasing alkyl chain lengths is reported.

  16. 'My body is mine': Qualitatively exploring agency among internally displaced women participants in a small-group intervention in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; Daniel, CarolAnn

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 earthquake resulted in the breakdown of Haiti's social, economic and health infrastructure. Over one-quarter of a million people remain internally displaced (ID). ID women experience heightened vulnerability to intimate partner violence (IPV) due to increased poverty and reduced community networks. Scant research has examined experiences of IPV among ID women in post-earthquake Haiti. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the impact of participating in Famn an Aksyon Pou Santé Yo (FASY), a small-group HIV prevention intervention, on ID women's agency in Leogane, Haiti. We conducted four focus groups with ID women, FASY participants (n = 40) and in-depth individual interviews with peer health workers (n = 7). Our study was guided by critical ethnography and paid particular attention to power relations. Findings highlighted multiple forms of IPV (e.g., physical, sexual). Participants discussed processes of intrapersonal (confidence), interpersonal (communication), relational (support) and collective (women's rights) agency. Yet structural factors, including patriarchal gender norms and poverty, silenced IPV discussions and constrained women's agency. Findings suggest that agency among ID women is a multi-level, non-linear and incremental process. To effectively address IPV among ID women in Haiti, interventions should address structural contexts of gender inequity and poverty and concurrently facilitate multi-level processes of agency. PMID:25833376

  17. The fear of turning into dust: notes on a group for sexually abused women.

    PubMed

    Tarantelli, Carole Beebe

    2012-03-01

    For 10 years, I have been responsible for a group for adults who were sexually abused during childhood. In this brief paper, I will analyze one aspect of the particular kind of identification that exists between a child and an abusing adult, using Bion's concept of valency and Kaes' theories of unconscious alliances and pacts, in an attempt to further qualify Ferenczi's concept of identification with the aggressor. I will then show how the group encourages the process of disidentification with the aggressor. PMID:22398889

  18. Vitamins C and E for prevention of pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes (DAPIT): a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McCance, David R; Holmes, Valerie A; Maresh, Michael JA; Patterson, Christopher C; Walker, James D; Pearson, Donald WM; Young, Ian S

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Results of several trials of antioxidant use during pregnancy have not shown a reduction in pre-eclampsia, but the effect in women with diabetes is unknown. We aimed to assess whether supplementation with vitamins C and E reduced incidence of pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes. Methods We enrolled women from 25 UK antenatal metabolic clinics in a multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Eligibility criteria were type 1 diabetes preceding pregnancy, presentation between 8 weeks' and 22 weeks' gestation, singleton pregnancy, and age 16 years or older. Women were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive 1000 mg vitamin C and 400 IU vitamin E (?-tocopherol) or matched placebo daily until delivery. The randomisation sequence was stratified by centre with balanced blocks of eight patients. All trial personnel and participants were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was pre-eclampsia, which we defined as gestational hypertension with proteinuria. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. This study is registered, ISRCTN27214045. Findings Between April, 2003, and June, 2008, 762 women were randomly allocated to treatment groups (379 vitamin supplementation, 383 placebo). The primary endpoint was assessed for 375 women allocated to receive vitamins, and 374 allocated to placebo. Rates of pre-eclampsia did not differ between vitamin (15%, n=57) and placebo (19%, 70) groups (risk ratio 081, 95% CI 059112). No adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes were reported. Interpretation Supplementation with vitamins C and E did not reduce risk of pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes. However, the possibility that vitamin supplementation might be beneficial in women with a low antioxidant status at baseline needs further testing. Funding The Wellcome Trust. PMID:20580423

  19. Efficacy of metformin in pregnant obese women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiswick, Carolyn A; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Denison, Fiona C; Whyte, Sonia A; Drake, Amanda J; Newby, David E; Walker, Brian R; Forbes, Shareen; Murray, Gordon D; Quenby, Siobhan; Wray, Susan; Norman, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence suggests obesity has its origins prior to birth. There is clear correlation between maternal obesity, high birthweight and offspring risk of obesity in later life. It is also clear that women who are obese during pregnancy are at greater risk of adverse outcomes, including gestational diabetes and stillbirth. The mechanism(s) by which obesity causes these problems is unknown, although hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are strongly implicated. We present a protocol for a study to test the hypothesis that metformin will improve insulin sensitivity in obese pregnant women, thereby reducing the incidence of high birthweight babies and other pregnancy complications. Methods and analysis The Efficacy of Metformin in Pregnant Obese Women, a Randomised controlled (EMPOWaR) trial is a double-masked randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine whether metformin given to obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2) pregnant women from 16 weeks’ gestation until delivery reduces the incidence of high birthweight babies. A secondary aim is to test the mechanism(s) of any effect. Obese women with a singleton pregnancy and normal glucose tolerance will be recruited prior to 16 weeks’ gestation and prescribed study medication, metformin or placebo, to be taken until delivery. Further study visits will occur at 28 and 36 weeks’ gestation for glucose tolerance testing and to record anthropometric measurements. Birth weight and other measurements will be recorded at time of delivery. Anthropometry of mother and baby will be performed at 3 months postdelivery. As of January 2014, 449 women had been randomised across the UK. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice. A favourable ethical opinion was obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee, reference number 10/MRE00/12. Results will be disseminated at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number ISRCTN51279843. PMID:25588785

  20. Women's sexual arousal: effects of high alcohol dosages and self-control instructions.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Schacht, Rebecca L; Hendershot, Christian S; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2011-05-01

    The basic relationship between alcohol and women's sexual arousal - especially genital arousal - received little research attention for nearly 30 years (e.g. Wilson and Lawson, 1978) until very recently (e.g. George et al., 2009). To investigate hypotheses based on earlier findings and Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT), two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of vaginal responding and self-reported sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, self-control instructions to maximize (versus suppress) arousal increased peak and average Vaginal Pulse Amplitude (VPA) change. Self-control also interacted with a target BAC of .08% (versus .00%) to influence latency to peak arousal onset: Intoxicated women instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to peak arousal than did intoxicated women instructed to suppress; however, sober women showed an undifferentiated pattern. Also, in Experiment 1, the target BAC of .08% had no effect on VPA or subjective arousal measures. In Experiment 2, a target BAC of .10% (versus .00%) attenuated peak change and average change in VPA, but this dosage had no effects on latency to peak achieved arousal, or on subjective arousal. Instructions to maximize arousal (versus no instruction) had no effect on any arousal measures. Overall, among young moderate drinking women, alcohol had attenuating effects but only at the higher dosage. Maximize versus suppress instructions about arousal had predicted effects on arousal and interactive effects on latency, but only at the lower dosage. The findings highlight the importance of dosage and contextual factors in alcohol's impact on the variability of women's sexual responding. PMID:21439287

  1. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Gallbladder Disease: A Hospital-based Case-Control Study in Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Jessri, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gallbladder disease is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders that may result from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. This study examined the association of dietary patterns with gallstone disease among Iranian women. This case-control study was conducted in general teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Participants were 101 female cases and 204 female controls aged 40-65 years who were admitted for problems other than GBD. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis based on food frequency questionnaire. Compared to the control group, cases were less educated, less physically active, and consumed more total energy (p<0.02). Having ?3 livebirths increased the risk of gallstone by more than 5 times, followed by having rapid weight loss, being single, having familial history of gallstone, and consuming high total energy. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified in women (healthy and unhealthy). After adjustment for several confounding variables, healthy dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of gallstone disease (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.048-0.4) while unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk (OR=3.77, 95% CI 1.52-9.36). These findings confirm that dietary pattern approach provides potentially useful and relevant information on the relationship between diet and disease. Identifying risk factors will provide an opportunity for prevention of gallbladder disease in developing countries facing an increased risk of obesity. PMID:25995720

  2. New Tools for Examining Undergraduate Students' STEM Stereotypes: Implications for Women and Other Underrepresented Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Wyer, Mary; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Schneider, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although both domestic U.S. and international statistics on population demographics within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields indicate overall gains and more even representation among various groups, caution must be taken to interpret these gains as suggesting blanket improvement in underrepresentation issues. When

  3. Women's Speech, Women's Strength?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Jennifer

    A discussion of women's oral discourse patterns focuses on the uses made of minimal responses, hedges, and tag questions. The analysis draws on transcriptions of conversations among a group of women friends over a period of months. It is proposed that the conventional treatment of these forms as "weak" is inappropriate in all-female discourse. In

  4. Increased secretory sphingomyelinase activity in the first trimester of pregnancy in women later developing preeclampsia: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Sureda, Vctor; Crovetto, Francesca; Triunfo, Stefania; Snchez, Olga; Crispi, Ftima; Llurba, Elisa; Gratacs, Eduard; Figueras, Francesc; Domnguez, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The pathogenic basis of abnormal placentation and dysfunction in preeclampsia (PE) is highly complex and incompletely understood. Secretory sphyngomyelinase activity (S-ASM) was analyzed in plasma samples from 158 pregnant women developing PE and 112 healthy pregnant controls. Serum PlGF, sFlt-1, s-Endoglin and sVCAM were measured. Results showed S-ASM activity to be higher in women who later developed PE than in those with uncomplicated pregnancies (40.6% and 28.8% higher in the late- and early-onset groups, respectively). Plasma S-ASM activity correlated significantly with circulating markers of endothelial damage in the late-PE group (endoglin and sVCAM-1), with plasma cholesterol and total lipid levels. However, these significant associations were not observed in the early-PE or control groups. This work provides the first evidence of significantly elevated circulating S-ASM activity in the first trimester of pregnancy in women who go on to develop PE; thus, it may be deduced that the circulating form of ASM is biologically active in PE and could contribute to promoting endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular programming. Plasma S-ASM measurement may have clinical relevance as a further potential biomarker contributing to the earliest identification of women at risk of developing preeclampsia. PMID:26756094

  5. Antioxidative Activity of Onion Peel Extract in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yim, Jung-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have anticholesterol, antithrombotic and insulin-sensitizing properties. Here, we investigated the effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidative defense in obese woman. Methods: This study was randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy obese participants were randomly assigned that eighteen subjects received red soft capsuled OPE (100 mg/d, 50 mg bis in die), while the other nineteen subjects received same capsuled placebo for 12 weeks. ROS production and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma were determined by using ROS and SOD assay kits, respectively. Results: Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. Compared with baseline values, OPE consumption significantly reduced waist and hip circumference. Plasma ROS level and SOD activity were decreased in both placebo and OPE groups compared with baseline values. However, plasma ROS level in OPE group was significantly lower than in placebo group while plasma SOD activity in OPE group was significantly higher than in placebo group after 12 weeks of consumption. Conclusions: These findings indicate that OPE consumption may exert antioxidative effect by preventing the decrease of SOD activity as well as the production of ROS in obese women. PMID:26473159

  6. Effects of Stellate Ganglion Block on Vasomotor Symptoms: Findings from a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Walega, David R.; Rubin, Leah H.; Banuvar, Suzanne; Shulman, Lee P.; Maki, Pauline M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Uncontrolled intervention studies, including studies involving breast cancer survivors, have demonstrated improvements in vasomotor symptoms (VMS) following stellate ganglion blockade (SGB) with local anesthetic. This study presents the first randomized, sham-controlled trial of SGB for the treatment of VMS. Methods Participants included 40 postmenopausal women aged 30 to 70 years with moderate-to-severe VMS. The design was a randomized, sham-controlled trial comparing the effect of SGB versus sham injection on the frequency of total and moderate-to-severe VMS as measured by daily diaries. Image-guided SGB was performed with 0.5% bupivacaine 5 mL. Sham injection of saline was performed in the subcutaneous tissue in the neck. VMS were recorded at baseline and for six months thereafter. Objective VMS were recorded using ambulatory sternal skin conductance monitoring over a 24-hour period at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Results There were no significant group differences in overall VMS frequency, but the frequency of moderate-to-very severe VMS was reduced more in the active compared to sham treatment group, RR 0.50, CI 0.350.71, p<0.001. The frequency of objective VMS was also reduced to a greater degree in the SGB group compared to the sham group (RR 0.71, CI 0.640.99, p<0.05). There were no study-related serious adverse events. Conclusions SGB may provide an effective treatment for VMS in women who seek non-hormonal therapies due to safety concerns and personal preference. The finding that SGB significantly reduces objectively measured VMS provides further evidence of efficacy. A larger trial is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:24496086

  7. Improving decision making about clinical trial participation a randomised controlled trial of a decision aid for women considering participation in the IBIS-II breast cancer prevention trial

    PubMed Central

    Juraskova, I; Butow, P; Bonner, C; Bell, M L; Smith, A B; Seccombe, M; Boyle, F; Reaby, L; Cuzick, J; Forbes, J F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Decision aids may improve informed consent in clinical trial recruitment, but have not been evaluated in this context. This study investigated whether decision aids (DAs) can reduce decisional difficulties among women considering participation in the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II (IBIS-II) trial. Methods: The IBIS-II trial investigated breast cancer prevention with anastrazole in two cohorts: women with increased risk (Prevention), and women treated for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom participants were randomised to receive a DA (DA group) or standard trial consent materials (control group). Questionnaires were completed after deciding about participation in IBIS-II (post decision) and 3 months later (follow-up). Results: Data from 112 Prevention and 34 DCIS participants were analysed post decision (73 DA; 73 control); 95 Prevention and 24 DCIS participants were analysed at follow-up (58 DA; 61 control). There was no effect on the primary outcome of decisional conflict. The DCISDA group had higher knowledge post decision, and the Prevention-DA group had lower decisional regret at follow-up. Conclusions: This was the first study to evaluate a DA in the clinical trial setting. The results suggest DAs can potentially increase knowledge and reduce decisional regret about clinical trial participation. PMID:24892447

  8. Patterns of folic acid use in pregnant Saudi women and prevalence of neural tube defects — Results from a nested case–control study☆

    PubMed Central

    Al Rakaf, Maha S.; Kurdi, Ahmed M.; Ammari, Amer N.; Al Hashem, Amal M.; Shoukri, Mohamed M.; Garne, Ester; Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the role of folic acid (FA) in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) is well documented, its optimal intake in pregnant women is still low in many countries. Here, we prospectively studied the prevalence of NTDs in the newborns and the patterns of FA intake in pregnant Saudi mothers. Methods This case–control study was nested within a 3-year project (July 2010 to June 2013) to study the patterns of birth defects in the offspring of Saudi women who received their antenatal care and delivered at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh—Saudi Arabia. Enrolled mothers were divided into 4 groups: group 1 (FA taken before pregnancy and continued regularly after conception), group 2 (FA taken post-conception), group 3 (no FA intake), and group 4 (did not remember or were unsure of taking FA). Control mothers were randomly selected from those with normal first obstetrical ultrasound scan at 18–22 weeks of gestation. Results The cohort included 30,531 mothers giving birth to 28,646 infants. We studied 1179 mothers of babies with birth defects (BDs) and 1262 control mothers. There were 237 (9.7%) mothers in-group 1; 2001 (82%) in-group 2; 154 (6.3%) in-group 3; and 49 (2%) in-group 4. There were 49 babies with NTDs, a prevalence of 1.7/1000 total births. Among the studied mothers 2274 (93%) took FA either full or partial course. Conclusion The high prevalence of NTDs and the low optimal FA intake highlight the need for a strict implementation of staple food fortification and health education program for Saudi women. PMID:26844119

  9. Fructose content of low calorie diets: effect on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Line K; Holven, Kirsten B; Nordstrand, Njord; Mellembakken, Jan R; Tanbo, Tom; Hjelmesæth, Jøran

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether a whole-grain crispbread (CB) low-fructose, low-calorie diet (LCD) might be superior to a traditional LCD based on fructose-rich liquid meal replacements (LMRs) with respect to improvement of various cardiometabolic risk factors and reproductive hormones. Parallel-group randomised controlled clinical trial. Morbidly obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) were randomised to either an 8-week CB-LCD or LMR-LCD (900–1100 kcal/day, fructose 17 g/day or 85 g/day). A total of 51 women completed the study. Body weight, fat mass and waist circumference reduced by mean (s.d.) 10.0 (4.8) kg, 7.4 (4.2) kg and 8.5 (4.4) cm, with no significant differences between groups. Total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and Apo-A1 were significantly reduced within both groups (all P values <0.01), with no significant between-group differences. The triacylglycerol and LDL-cholesterol levels were reduced within the LMR group only, with no significant between-group differences. Blood pressure and most measures of glucose metabolism improved significantly in both diet groups, with no significant between-group difference. Uric acid levels rose by 17.7 (46.4) and 30.6 (71.5) μmol/l in the CB and LMR group, respectively, with no significant difference between groups. Gastrointestinal discomfort was significantly and equally reduced in both intervention groups. Free testosterone index was reduced in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. Morbidly obese women with PCOS who underwent either an 8-week low or high-fructose LCD-diet had similar changes in various cardiometabolic risk factors and reproductive hormones. Registration at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00779571. PMID:26138702

  10. The Soy Isoflavones for Reducing Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: a 3-y randomized controlled trial in postmenopausal women1234

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta D; Koehler, Kenneth J; Hanson, Laura N; Stewart, Jeanne W; Hanson, Kathy B; Kurzer, Mindy S; Peterson, C Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Background: Our previous study indicated that soy protein with isoflavones lessened lumbar spine bone loss in midlife women. Objective: We examined the efficacy of isoflavones (extracted from soy protein) on bone mineral density (BMD) in nonosteoporotic postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that isoflavone tablets would spare BMD, with biological (age, body weight, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) and lifestyle (physical activity, dietary intake) factors modulating BMD loss. Design: Our double-blind, randomized controlled trial (36 mo) included healthy postmenopausal women (aged 45.865.0 y) with intent-to-treat (n = 224) and compliant (n = 208) analyses. Treatment groups consisted of a placebo control group and 2 soy isoflavone groups (80 compared with 120 mg/d); women received 500 mg calcium and 600 IU vitamin D3. Outcomes included lumbar spine, total proximal femur, femoral neck, and whole-body BMD. Results: Analysis of variance for intent-to-treat and compliant (?80%) models, respectively, showed no treatment effect for spine (P = 0.46, P = 0.21), femur (P = 0.86, P = 0.46), neck (P = 0.17, P = 0.14), or whole-body (P = 0.86, P = 0.78) BMD. From baseline to 36 mo, BMD declined regardless of treatment. In intent-to-treat and compliant models, respectively, BMD decreases were as follows: spine (?2.08%, ?1.99%), femur (?1.43%, ?1.38%), neck (?2.56%, ?2.51%), and whole body (?1.66%, ?1.62%). Regression analysis (compliant model) indicated that age, whole-body fat mass, and bone resorption were common predictors of BMD change. After adjustment for these factors, 120 mg (compared with placebo) was protective (P = 0.024) for neck BMD. We observed no treatment effect on adverse events, endometrial thickness, or bone markers. Conclusion: Our results do not show a bone-sparing effect of extracted soy isoflavones, except for a modest effect at the femoral neck. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00043745. PMID:19906801

  11. The effect of TCM acupuncture on hot flushes among menopausal women (ACUFLASH) study: A study protocol of an ongoing multi-centre randomised controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Borud, Einar K; Alraek, Terje; White, Adrian; Fonnebo, Vinjar; Grimsgaard, Sameline

    2007-01-01

    Background After menopause, 1020% of all women have nearly intolerable hot flushes. Long term use of hormone replacement therapy involves a health risk, and many women seek alternative strategies to relieve climacteric complaints. Acupuncture is one of the most frequently used complementary therapies in Norway. We designed a study to evaluate whether Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncture-care together with self-care is more effective than self-care alone to relieve climacteric complaints. Methods/Design The study is a multi-centre pragmatic randomised controlled trial with two parallel arms. Participants are postmenopausal women who document ?7 flushes/24 hours and who are not using hormone replacement therapy or other medication that may inf