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1

Women's Adventure Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a six-year period, the author has led 14 groups of women in a program consisting of three sessions of yoga, a dance therapy session, an initiatives course in the woods, and a four-day rock climbing experience. Women with diagnoses of major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, dysthymia, anxiety, and adjustment disorder participated in a bi-weekly group meeting eight times, in

Margaret J. Kessell

1994-01-01

2

Psychosocial status of women requesting breast reduction surgery as compared with a control group of large-breasted women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breast has special significance for women but unlike women seeking breast augmentation little research has been carried out on those seeking breast reduction. The few studies to date have not used well-recognized instruments nor appropriate controls. The present study compared 33 patients on a waiting list with 22 large-breasted controls using a semistructured questionnaire and well-validated instruments. Patients experienced

Elsepeth Guthrie; Eileen Bradbury; Peter Davenport; Frederick Souza Faria

1998-01-01

3

Effect of a participatory intervention with women's groups on birth outcomes in Nepal: cluster-randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods We pair-matched 42 geopolitical clusters in Makwanpur district, Nepal, selected 12 pairs randomly, and randomly assigned one of each pair to intervention or control. In each intervention cluster (average population 7000), a female facilitator convened nine women's group meetings every month. The facilitator supported groups through an action-learning cycle in which they identified local perinatal problems and formulated strategies

Dharma S Manandhar; David Osrin; Bhim Prasad Shrestha; Natasha Mesko; Joanna Morrison; Kirti Man Tumbahangphe; Suresh Tamang; Sushma Thapa; Dej Shrestha; Bidur Thapa; Jyoti Raj Shrestha; Angie Wade; Josephine Borghi; Madan Manandhar

2004-01-01

4

Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

2008-01-01

5

Psychosocial risk factors which may differentiate between women with Functional Voice Disorder, Organic Voice Disorder and a Control group.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore psychosocial factors contributing to the development of functional voice disorders (FVD) and those differentiating between organic voice disorders (OVD) and a non-voice-disordered control group. A case-control study was undertaken of 194 women aged 18-80 years diagnosed with FVD (n = 73), OVD (n = 55), and controls (n = 66). FVD women were allocated into psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) (n = 37) and muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD) (n = 36) for sub-group analysis. Dependent variables included biographical and voice assessment data, the number and severity of life events and difficulties and conflict over speaking out (COSO) situations derived from the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS), and psychological traits including emotional expressiveness scales. Four psychosocial components differentiated between the FVD and control group accounting for 84.9% of the variance: severe events, moderate events, severe COSO, and mild COSO difficulties. Severe events, severe and mild COSO difficulties differentiated between FVD and OVD groups, accounting for 80.5% of the variance. Moderate events differentiated between PVD and MTVD sub-groups, accounting for 58.9% of the variance. Psychological traits did not differentiate between groups. Stressful life events and COSO situations best differentiated FVD from OVD and control groups. More refined aetiological studies are needed to differentiate between PVD and MTVD. PMID:23075157

Baker, Janet; Ben-Tovim, David; Butcher, Andrew; Esterman, Adrian; McLaughlin, Kristin

2013-12-01

6

Elevated levels of whole blood nickel in a group of Sri Lankan women with endometriosis: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background Endometriosis is characterized by the persistence of endometrial tissue in ectopic sites outside the uterine cavity. Presence of nickel, cadmium and lead in ectopic endometrial tissue has been reported previously. While any association between blood levels of nickel and endometriosis is yet to be described in literature, conflicting reports are available with regards to cadmium and lead levels in blood and urine. Findings In fifty patients with endometriosis and fifty age-matched controls confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy, whole blood samples were collected and digested using supra pure 65% HNO3. Whole blood levels of nickel and lead were measured using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) while cadmium levels were evaluated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFASS). Women with endometriosis had significantly higher (P=0.016) geometric mean (95% CI) whole blood nickel levels [2.6(1.9-3.3) ?g/L] as compared to women without endometriosis [0.8 (0.7-0.9) ?g/L]. Whole blood levels of cadmium and lead were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Although women with endometriosis in this study population had higher levels of nickel in whole blood compared to controls, whether nickel could be considered as an aetiological factor in endometriosis remains inconclusive in view of the smaller sample that was evaluated. PMID:23317102

2013-01-01

7

Impact of a Participatory Intervention with Women's Groups on Psychological Distress among Mothers in Rural Bangladesh: Secondary Analysis of a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs) are a major cause of disability among women and disproportionately affect lower income countries. Interventions to address PCMDs are urgently needed in these settings, and group-based and peer-led approaches are potential strategies to increase access to mental health interventions. Participatory women’s health groups led by local women previously reduced postpartum psychological distress in eastern India. We assessed the effect of a similar intervention on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. Method We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 18 clusters and an estimated population of 532,996. Nine clusters received an intervention comprising monthly meetings during which women’s groups worked through a participatory learning and action cycle to develop strategies for improving women’s and children’s health. There was one group for every 309 individuals in the population, 810 groups in total. Mothers in nine control clusters had access to usual perinatal care. Postpartum psychological distress was measured with the 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) between six and 52 weeks after delivery, during the months of January to April, in 2010 and 2011. Results We analysed outcomes for 6275 mothers. Although the cluster mean SRQ-20 score was lower in the intervention arm (mean 5.2, standard deviation 1.8) compared to control (5.3, 1.2), the difference was not significant (? 1.44, 95% CI 0.28, 3.08). Conclusions Despite promising results in India, participatory women’s groups focused on women’s and children’s health had no significant effect on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. PMID:25329470

Clarke, Kelly; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Tasmin; Aumon, Bedowra Haq; Hossen, Mohammed Munir; Beard, James; Costello, Anthony; Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Prost, Audrey; Fottrell, Edward

2014-01-01

8

Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

2005-01-01

9

Efficacy of a single-session HIV prevention intervention for black women: a group randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

SisterLove Inc., a community-based organization (CBO) in Atlanta, Georgia, evaluated the efficacy of its highly interactive, single-session HIV prevention intervention for black women, the Healthy Love Workshop (HLW). HLW is delivered to pre-existing groups of women (e.g., friends, sororities) in settings of their choosing. Eligible groups of women were randomly assigned to receive the intervention (15 groups; 161 women) or a comparison workshop (15 groups; 152 women). Behavioral assessments were conducted at baseline and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Among sexually active women at the 3-month follow-up, HLW participants were more likely than comparison participants to report having used condoms during vaginal sex with any male partner or with a primary male partner, and to have used condoms at last vaginal, anal or oral sex with any male partner. At the 6-month follow-up, HLW participants were more likely to report condom use at last vaginal, anal or oral sex with any male partner, and having an HIV test and receiving their test results. The study findings suggest that a single-session intervention delivered to pre-existing groups of black women is an efficacious approach to HIV prevention. This study also demonstrates that a CBO can develop and deliver a culturally appropriate, effective HIV prevention intervention for the population it serves and, with adequate resources and technical assistance, rigorously evaluate its intervention. PMID:20135214

Diallo, Dázon Dixon; Moore, Trent Wade; Ngalame, Paulyne M; White, Lisa Diane; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Painter, Thomas M

2010-06-01

10

Cognitive–Behavioral Group Therapy Versus a Wait-List Control in the Treatment of African American Women with Panic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the efficacy of group Panic Control Therapy (PCT; D. H. Barlow & M. G. Craske, 1994) for African Americans. Twenty-five African American women were assigned to either a treatment or wait-list control (WLC). Treatment was 11 group sessions, and wait-list participants did not receive any treatment for the same duration. At pretreatment, both groups were moderately anxious

Michele M. Carter; Tracy Sbrocco; Kristie L. Gore; Nancy Watt Marin; Evelyn L. Lewis

2003-01-01

11

Trunk motion and gait characteristics of pregnant women when walking: report of a longitudinal study with a control group  

PubMed Central

Background A longitudinal repeated measures design over pregnancy and post-birth, with a control group would provide insight into the mechanical adaptations of the body under conditions of changing load during a common female human lifespan condition, while minimizing the influences of inter human differences. The objective was to investigate systematic changes in the range of motion for the pelvic and thoracic segments of the spine, the motion between these segments (thoracolumbar spine) and temporospatial characteristics of step width, stride length and velocity during walking as pregnancy progresses and post-birth. Methods Nine pregnant women were investigated when walking along a walkway at a self-selected velocity using an 8 camera motion analysis system on four occasions throughout pregnancy and once post birth. A control group of twelve non-pregnant nulliparous women were tested on three occasions over the same time period. The existence of linear trends for change was investigated. Results As pregnancy progresses there was a significant linear trend for increase in step width (p?=?0.05) and a significant linear trend for decrease in stride length (p?=?0.05). Concurrently there was a significant linear trend for decrease in the range of motion of the pelvic segment (p?=?0.03) and thoracolumbar spine (p?=?0.01) about a vertical axis (side to side rotation), and the pelvic segment (p?=?0.04) range of motion around an anterio-posterior axis (side tilt). Post-birth, step width readapted whereas pelvic (p?=?0.02) and thoracic (p?

2013-01-01

12

The Group Treatment of Battered Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes some problems encountered in therapy groups of battered women and reviews several studies of these groups reported in recent literature. The five basic needs of battered women and a list of specific strategies developed to meet these needs are presented in an initial section. Three common goals of the group counseling strategy…

Lewis, Elissa M.

13

Where women take control.  

PubMed

On the Philippines island of Panay, south of Luzon and Mindoro in the province of Capiz, women's development projects were supported by the Philippine Agriculture Department, the Manila office of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and funded by the UN Population Fund. The island population survives mostly on the fishing industry, which has suffered from chronic overfishing and devastation of mangrove swamps by development of fish farms. The population is very poor, with little opportunity to raise the living standards of the next generation. Access to maternal and child health care and family planning is limited or nonexistent; fertility is 4-6 children per woman. The Governor of Capiz's program has contributed to the formation of 30 women's groups of 829 women, who play central roles in village development efforts. Their investments have generated over 200,000 pesos or $7700 in savings. The approach was to concentrate on basic development first, followed by family planning. In Libas village, near the capital of Capiz Province, the first women's group formed in 1990. There were 34 members, who were trained in community organization, small business development, financing, and family welfare (nutrition, health, and family planning). The initial loans were for $75 and were to be repaid within the year. Many invested in fish vending of their husband's catches, or vegetable gardens, or the raising of pigs, ducks, and chickens. All loans were repaid, and the women were able to save about 20-30 pesos a month. Many have invested their savings in maintaining the education of their children. Family planning has been accepted by all members, who before the group's formation did not practice any family planning. The president of the Libas Group, Rose Antion, reported that the group was strong as a unit and gained influence over the family and the community; the women's status has increased, and confidence has been gained. The next project will be the construction of a fish processing plant, which will help the economy of the entire region. PMID:12287490

Hinrichsen, D

1994-01-01

14

Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…

Forester-Miller, Holly

1999-01-01

15

Comparison of the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy young women  

PubMed Central

Background: The maintenance of balance is an essential requirement for the performance of daily tasks and sporting activities and muscular fatigue is a factor to impair postural control, so this study was done to compare the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Fifteen healthy female students (24.3 ± 2.6 years) completed three testing session with a break period of at least 2 days. During each session, postural control was assessed during two 30-s trials of bipedal stance with eyes close before and after the fatigue protocol. Fatigue protocols were performed by 60% of their unfatigued Maximum Voluntary Contraction of unilateral ankle plantar flexors, bilateral lumbar extensors and bilateral neck extensors. One of the three fatigue protocols was performed on each session. Results: The result showed that fatigue had a significant effect on COP velocity and it increase COP velocity but there was not found any difference in postural sway between muscle groups. Conclusion: Localized muscle fatigue caused deficits in postural control regardless of the location of fatigue. Authors suggest the possibility of the contributions of central mechanisms to postural deficits due to fatigue and it seems that difference was not between muscle groups due to central fatigue. PMID:24403706

Shirazi, Zahra Rojhani; Jahromi, Fatemeh Nikhalat

2013-01-01

16

Evaluation of a group based cognitive behavioural therapy programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities: protocol for a mixed methods controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Menstrual pain which is severe enough to impact on daily activities is very common amongst menstruating females. Research suggests that menstrual pain which impacts on daily functioning may be even more prevalent amongst those with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, little research attention has focused on pain management programmes for those with intellectual disabilities. The aims of this pilot study were to develop and evaluate a theory-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities. Methods/Design The study utilised a mixed methods controlled clinical trial to evaluate elements from a CBT programme called Feeling Better (McGuire & McManus, 2010). The Feeling Better programme is a modular, manualised intervention designed for people with an intellectual disability and their carers. The programme was delivered to 36 young women aged 12 – 30 years who have a Mild - Moderate Intellectual Disability, split between two conditions. The treatment group received the Feeling Better intervention and the control group received treatment as usual. To evaluate the effectiveness of the programme, measures were taken of key pain variables including impact, knowledge, self-efficacy and coping. Process evaluation was conducted to examine which elements of the programme were most successful in promoting change. Discussion Participants in the intervention group were expected to report the use of a greater number of coping strategies and have greater knowledge of pain management strategies following participation in the intervention and at three month follow-up, when compared to control group participants. A significant advantage of the study was the use of mixed methods and inclusion of process evaluation to determine which elements of a cognitive behavioural therapy programme work best for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN75567759 PMID:25201648

2014-01-01

17

Interpersonal Group Therapy for Women Experiencing Bulimia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…

Choate, Laura

2010-01-01

18

BREAST CANCER GROUP WOMEN'S HEALTH INTERDISCIPLINARY  

E-print Network

BREAST CANCER GROUP May 2009 WOMEN'S HEALTH INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH CENTER [WHIRC] #12;2 Table: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 4 Basic/Translational Research Carcinogenesis and Signaling Group 5R) Signaling in Breast Cancer 6 NF-B Family of Transcription Factors in Breast Cancer 7 Transgenic Mouse

Spence, Harlan Ernest

19

Themes in Reminiscence Groups with Older Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined use of themes in reminiscence therapy groups for older women. Themes used in protocols for three research studies were analyzed. Results revealed that, for one of the three studies, the female participants' (n=67) most-discussed themes were favorite holiday, first pet, and first job. (Author/NB)

Burnside, Irene

1993-01-01

20

From Coping to Creating Change: The Evolution of Women's Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides overview of the types of women's groups that have developed since the initiation of consciousness-raising groups in the 1960s. Documents the important historical processes in women's group work and reviews literature conducted with women's groups, including self-help groups and informal support groups. Concludes that the absence of…

Horne, Sharon

1999-01-01

21

Enabling Older Homeless Minority Women to Overcome Homelessness by Using a Life Management Enhancement Group Intervention  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the importance of a life management enhancement (LME) group intervention for older minority women in developing personal control and self-confidence in social relationships as they overcome homelessness. Women in the treatment group showed significantly greater personal control and higher levels of self-confidence following the six-week intervention than women in the control group. Increasing personal control and developing self-confidence in social relationships can help individuals achieve desired outcomes as a result of their actions, efforts, and abilities. These attributes can help women increase and sustain appropriate coping methods and overcome homelessness. PMID:19212866

Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.

2010-01-01

22

All Pregnant Women Need Flu Shot: Ob/Gyn Group  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. All Pregnant Women Need Flu Shot: Ob/Gyn Group ... A group representing U.S. obstetricians is calling for all pregnant women to get a flu shot. According ...

23

What I need to know about Bladder Control for WomenBladder Control for Women  

E-print Network

common in women. Many women leak urine when they exercise, laugh hard, cough, or sneeze. Often women leak urine when they are pregnant or after they have given birth. Women who have stopped havingWhat I need to know about Bladder Control for WomenBladder Control for Women NATIONAL INSTITUTES

Baker, Chris I.

24

Joining and Socialization in Open Source Women's Groups: an Exploratory Study of KDE-Women  

E-print Network

and aggressive posturing exacerbates the confidence difficulties women tend to have [p.5]. Little researchJoining and Socialization in Open Source Women's Groups: an Exploratory Study of KDE-Women Yixin women's groups facilitate people's participation in the open source community by examining the joining

Boyer, Edmond

25

Behaviour change in perinatal care practices among rural women exposed to a women's group intervention in Nepal [ISRCTN31137309  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A randomised controlled trial of participatory women's groups in rural Nepal previously showed reductions in maternal and newborn mortality. In addition to the outcome data we also collected previously unreported information from the subgroup of women who had been pregnant prior to study commencement and conceived during the trial period. To determine the mechanisms via which the intervention worked

Angie Wade; David Osrin; Bhim Prasad Shrestha; Aman Sen; Joanna Morrison; Kirti Man Tumbahangphe; Dharma S Manandhar; Anthony M de L Costello

2006-01-01

26

SEXUAL ASSAULT SURVIVORS GROUP SUPPORT AND HEALING FOR WOMEN WHO  

E-print Network

SEXUAL ASSAULT SURVIVORS GROUP SUPPORT AND HEALING FOR WOMEN WHO HAVE BEEN SEXUALLY ASSAULTED* This 7-week group provides a supportive environment to help sexual assault survivors break their silence and look at how the assault continues to affect day-to-day life. The goal of the group is to help women

Jacobs, Lucia

27

Counseling Groups for African American Women: A Focus on Spirituality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…

Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn

1999-01-01

28

Personal Transformation: A Group Therapy Program for Saudi Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A personal transformation group therapy program was designed to help Saudi women function more effectively in their daily lives. The major cognitive idea of these groups was to enable women to better understand their thinking patterns so that they could learn techniques to change. Personal transformation group topics included: Self-Esteem;…

Pharaon, Nora Alarifi

29

The "Comadre" Group Approach: A Wellness-Based Group Model for Monolingual Mexican Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "comadre" approach to group counseling with immigrant Mexican women creates an environment of sisterhood, trust, support, and education. This article describes a wellness-based, comadre pilot group designed to support monolingual Spanish-speaking, Mexican-born women who recently immigrated to the United States. The need for the group and group

Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Sand, Jennifer K.; Brucato, Toni; Ortega, Jessica

2006-01-01

30

From the inside Out: Group Work with Women of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will present two models for conducting group work with Women of Color (WOC): the SisterCircle Approach and the Group Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of group work that can assist group workers to conduct individual and group-level…

Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.

2014-01-01

31

Women Together Again: A Phenomenological Study of Leaderless Women's Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a study of eight leaderless groups. Findings included a serendipitous forming process, minimal norming, a support system extending beyond the group, a spontaneous and flexible group process, and unresolved issues. Focus and purpose of the groups were found to be the factors that have changed over time. Discusses results in…

Kees, Nathalie L.

1999-01-01

32

Women's perceptions of group support and adaptation to breast cancer.  

PubMed

Formal cancer support groups are thought to assist women to adapt to the physiological and psychosocial sequelae of breast cancer. To shed some light on this untested clinical assumption, this Roy Adaptation Model of Nursing-based study was designed to explore women's own reports about their adaptation to breast cancer and their participation in support groups. This article reports the results of the quantitative content analysis of structured telephone interviews with 70 women who participated in group social support and education for breast cancer. Almost three-quarters of the women expressed a positive change in attitude towards breast cancer, and all regarded participation in the groups as positive. A majority reported adaptive physiological, self-concept, role function, and interdependence mode effects of breast cancer and group participation. Additional research is needed to show how different types of cancer support groups, including social support and education groups and psychotherapy groups, contribute to women's responses. Research is also needed to separate the effects of group social support and education from other sources of social support that may have contributed to the women's responses, and to further explore feelings of normalization expressed by some women. PMID:9888371

Samarel, N; Fawcett, J; Krippendorf, K; Piacentino, J C; Eliasof, B; Hughes, P; Kowitski, C; Ziegler, E

1998-12-01

33

Family History of Alcohol Abuse Moderates Effectiveness of a Group Motivational Enhancement Intervention in College Women  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether a self-reported family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) moderated the effects of a female-specific group motivational enhancement intervention with first-year college women. First-year college women (N= 287) completed an initial questionnaire and attended an intervention (n=161) or control (n=126) group session, of which 118 reported FH+. Repeated measures ANCOVA models were estimated to investigate whether the effectiveness of the intervention varied as a function of one’s reported family history of alcohol abuse. Results revealed that family history of alcohol abuse moderated intervention efficacy. Although the intervention was effective in producing less risky drinking relative to controls, among those participants who received the intervention, FH+ women drank less across five weeks of follow-up than FH? women. The current findings provide preliminary support for the differential effectiveness of motivational enhancement interventions with FH+ women. Keywords: college women, intervention, alcohol abuse, family history, motivational interviewing PMID:19162406

LaBrie, Joseph W.; Feres, Nashla; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

2012-01-01

34

Factors associated with breastfeeding at six months postpartum in a group of Australian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite high levels of breastfeeding initiation in Australia, only 47 percent of women are breastfeeding (exclusively or partially) six months later, with marked differences between social groups. It is important to identify women who are at increased risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. METHODS: Data from the three arms of a randomised controlled trial were pooled and analysed as

Della A Forster; Helen L McLachlan; Judith Lumley

2006-01-01

35

Persuasive technology for shaping social beliefs of rural women: Development of group based health information kiosk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents, the Group Based Information Kiosk (GIK), which was designed to influence health behaviours of rural women. The objective of the kiosk is to offer health information to rural women to increase their awareness about menses and maternal health. The design and development process of a GIK followed social cues of persuasive technology to increase perceived behaviour control

Vikram Parmar

36

Group cognitive-behavioral therapy for women with PTSD and substance use disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD). The need for specialized treatment derives from the high incidence of these comorbid disorders among women as well as from their particular clinical presentation and treatment needs. The treatment educates patients about the two disorders, promotes self-control skills

Lisa M Najavits; Roger D Weiss; Bruce S Liese

1996-01-01

37

Sexual Enhancement Groups for Dysfunctional Women: An Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three groups of women with sexual dysfunction were evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment. Two groups did not involve partner participation, while the third group included partners on two occasions. Results for all groups were similar. The question of whether orgasm through coitus alone is a reasonable goal is raised and challenged. (Author)

Leiblum, Sandra R.; Ersner-Hershfield, Robin

1977-01-01

38

Control systems on Lie groups.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.

1972-01-01

39

Psychometric Evaluation of the Midlife Women’s Symptom Index (MSI) in Multiethnic Groups  

PubMed Central

The Midlife Women’s Symptom Index (MSI) was designed to measure menopausal symptoms specifically in a multiethnic sample of midlife women. This study is a psychometric property test to evaluate MSI among 512 multiethnic groups of midlife women (White, Hispanic, African American, and Asian American). Across the ethnic groups, MSI had an adequate internal consistency in all subdomains except psychosomatic symptoms. The item-to-total correlation coefficients of “lost weight” and “nosebleeds” were less than 0.20 among all ethnic groups. The discriminant validity was confirmed among all ethnic groups except Asian Americans. Overall, MSI may work better for Whites and not as well for Asian Americans, compared with other ethnic groups. Additional studies with diverse groups of multiethnic midlife women are needed, however, to confirm MSI psychometric properties. PMID:20606074

Lee, Bokim; Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

2011-01-01

40

Support and education groups for children of battered women.  

PubMed

The children of battered women have been called the forgotten victims of domestic violence. Indeed, few clinicians have published accounts of their work with these children. This article describes in detail a support and education group program for children of battered women. Five hundred and seventy-five children have participated in the program, with promising results on several measures of success. PMID:3168608

Grusznski, R J; Brink, J C; Edleson, J L

1988-01-01

41

One Dozen Considerations When Working with Women in Substance Abuse Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women and men have different histories, presentations, and behaviors in substance abuse groups. Twelve considerations are offered for the beginning group leader when encountering women with substance abuse issues. These include understanding sexism, what brings women to treatment, and how women behave in group treatment. Implications for clinical practice with women in single-gender and mixed-gender groups are included.

Charlotte Lyn Bright; Victoria A. Osborne; Geoffrey L. Greif

2011-01-01

42

Hip Axis Length Variation: Its correlation to anthropometric measurements in women from three ethnic groups  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hip axis length (HAL) has been reported to be an independent predictor of hip fracture. Significant ethnic differences in HAL have been noted, but no direct comparison has been made between African-American, Mexican-American, and non-Hispanic white women using the same protocol. Methods We compared 157 non-Hispanic white women from the Rancho Bernardo Study, 292 women from the Health Assessment Study of African-American Women, and 210 women from the Skeletal Health of Mexican-American Women Project. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain medical history; height, weight, waist girth, and hip girth were measured; and percent body fat and HAL were obtained using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. All HAL comparisons were adjusted for maximum hip girth to control for differences in size magnification by fan-beam absorptiometry. Results Though there were ethnic differences in the unadjusted HAL measurement, after adjusting for hip circumference, there were no residual differences in HAL by ethnicity: 10.7 cm in Mexican-American women vs. 10.8 in non-Hispanic white women and African-American women (p=0.61) Conclusions There were no ethnic differences in HAL in women from the 3 ethnic groups. Differences in fracture risk among these groups cannot be explained by ethnic differences in HAL. PMID:18301856

Clark, Patricia; Tesoriero, Linda J.; Morton, Deborah J.; Talavera, Juan O.; Karlamangla, Arun; Schneider, Diane L.; Wooten, Wilma J.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

43

Does Group Prenatal Care Affect Satisfaction And Prenatal Care Utilization in Iranian Pregnant Women?  

PubMed Central

Background: The need to provide high quality prenatal care services, which take account of women’s views and specifically address their need for information, support and communication, has been advocated and group prenatal care, had been suggested as one of the ways to achieve this objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of group versus individual prenatal care on satisfaction and prenatal care use. Methods: This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with the health center as the randomization unit that conducted in 2007. Satisfaction was measured through a standardized questionnaire, and the Kotelchuck Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was used to measure prenatal care utilization. Results: We recruited 678 women (group prenatal care, (N= 344) and individual prenatal care, (N=334) in the study. Women in group prenatal care model were more satisfied than women in individual prenatal care model in all areas evaluated, including information, communication, co-ordination and quality of care. Group care women were significantly more likely to have adequate prenatal care than individual care women were (OR=1.35 95% CI=1.26–1.44). Conclusions: Group prenatal care was associated with a significant improvement in client satisfaction and prenatal care utilization. This model of care has implications for the planning and provision of prenatal services within public health system, which is moving toward a better quality health care, and increasing use of services. PMID:23113007

Jafari, F; Eftekhar, H; Mohammad, K; Fotouhi, A

2010-01-01

44

Thermal Control Working Group report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal Control Working Group limited its evaluation to issues associated with Earth orbiting and planetary spacecraft with power levels up to 50 kW. It was concluded that the space station technology is a necessary precursor but does not meet S/C 2000 needs (life, high heat flux, long term cryogenics, and survivability). Additional basic and applied research are required (fluid/materials compatibility and two phase system modeling). Scaling, the key issue, must define accelerated life test criteria. The two phase systems require 0g to 1 g correlation. Additional ground test beds are required and combined space environment tests of materials.

Haslett, Robert; Mahefkey, E. Thomas

1986-01-01

45

The Effects of 16 Hour Long Marathon Groups on the Ways that Female Drug Users Perceive Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the effectiveness of three 16-hour-long unstructured marathon groups composed of female illicit drug users in a woman's prison (N=78), using evaluative adjective pairs of the semantic differential concept Women. Marathon groups rated women as more successful and more pleasurable than did controls. (JAC)

Page, Richard C.

1984-01-01

46

A controlled study of postpartum depression in adult women.  

PubMed

The main purpose of the study was to examine the hypothesis that the postpartum period represents a time of increased risk for depression. The other psychosocial variables on stress, social support and self-esteem were also measured. Adult women, ranging in age from 22 to 45 years, comprised two samples: 148 postnatal women (22 to 44 years) and 148 controls (22 to 45 years). Five sets of instruments were used to collect data: the Demographic Data Form, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, the Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Although the postnatal group tended to have a higher rate of depression, the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences in stress, social support, self-esteem or depression were found between these two groups. However, postnatal women reported significantly higher somatic symptoms of depression than controls. Results of the stepwise multiple regression indicated that the best subset to predict postpartum depression was self-esteem, stress, postnatal complication and work status. The best subset to predict depression of controls included self-esteem, social support, socioeconomic status and stress. Our data indicate that the psychosocial health status of postnatal women is not significantly different from the controls, although the postnatal women complain more about the loss of bodily functions. The possible explanations deserve further research. PMID:10846352

Chen, C H; Wang, S Y; Hwu, H G; Chou, F H

2000-03-01

47

Efficacy of Group Logotherapy on Decreasing Anxiety in Women with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most incident cancer and the fifth cause of death due to malignancies among Iranian women. A strong breast cancer patients' sense of meaning and purpose in life appears to decrease anxiety in their life. The present study has investigated the effectiveness of group Logotherapy on the reduction of anxiety in women with breast cancer. Methods The research was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control group. For this purpose, 30 patients with breast cancer were randomly divided into two experimental group and control group. Then, all patients completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The experimental group received Logotherapy-based group counseling for eight sessions; however, the control group did not receive any specific training. In the end, both groups were tested again. After collecting the questionnaires, data was analyzed by the statistic software SPSS version 18 and using analysis of covariance. Results The research results showed that group Logotherapy was effective in reducing anxiety in women with breast cancer (p<0.005). In other words, this intervention could reduce anxiety in the experimental group. Conclusion The results suggest that in line with current medical treatment, psychosocial interventions can be used to reduce anxiety in the breast cancer patients.

Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Golzari, Mahmoud; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaiel

2014-01-01

48

Organizing Women in Physics Working Groups Corinna Kausch, Gillian Butcher, Marcia Barbosa, and Rachel Ivie  

E-print Network

of women's situations in physics around the globe. Physical societies, which could help fund working group, gender, working groups PACS:01.10.Hx Women in physics (WIP) working groups help improve womenOrganizing Women in Physics Working Groups Corinna Kausch, Gillian Butcher, Marcia Barbosa

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

49

Social network stimulation. Health promotion in a high risk group of middle-aged women.  

PubMed

The article focuses on presenting methods developed in a network stimulation program among a high-risk group of middle-aged women living in Oslo, Norway. The aim of the program was to initiate in the women a process of getting acquainted, and even making friends, - and thus establishing new self-sustaining social networks. In the long run we believed such new relations would increase the quality of life and improve the overall mental health of the participants. During the program period of one year different groups and social activities were established in the neighborhood. Out of 50 women in the experimental group, 26 became active participants. Evaluation of the process was made at certain stages during the entire program. After one year of group participation, the progress of the experimental group (n = 50) was compared to that of the control group (n = 50). The results show that the women participating in the intervention program have improved their social networks and increased their quality of life and self-esteem compared to the control group. As to mental symptoms, it seems that their change depends on the degree of activity in the groups: the most active participants make friends, improve their existing networks, increase quality of life, and improve mental status. The passive participants, on the contrary, do not seem to have profited from the program so far. The full effect of the program will be evaluated in a later follow-up. PMID:3481668

Benum, K; Anstorp, T; Dalgard, O S; Sørensen, T

1987-01-01

50

Against many odds: the dilemmas of women's self-help groups in Mbeere, Kenya.  

PubMed

This article uses data collected through questionnaires and formal interviews to analyze women's self-help groups in Mbeere, Kenya. The discussion begins with a description of the geographic setting, which has low and unpredictable rainfall leading to periodic droughts and famine, and socioeconomic aspects of life in Mbeere, where women's status is defined by men who control important economic aspects of their lives, such as land tenure. In 1982, there were 140 women's groups in Mbeere with memberships ranging from below 10 to over 60 (most 30-50). The groups are formally organized, with a leader, a secretary, and a treasurer. Most of the women in the groups are from the poor peasant socioeconomic class, and residence in the same neighborhood is an important membership criteria. All of the women surveyed were married and had children. The work schedules of the groups depend on the type of project and amount of work to be done. Activities fall into the categories of raising money (general work, cotton farming, basket making); generating income (raising livestock; building stores, lodgings, or social halls; or buying equipment like a truck or grain mill); and general development (water extension, homestead improvements, buying cows or goats for members, or building schools). Of 25 groups sampled, 20 had a cash-crop garden cultivated on borrowed land. Groups gave members financial assistance (all members get equal treatment), labor assistance, and assistance in social matters through the dissemination of information and informal discussions. Groups face internal constraints in terms of the heavy burden women face to uphold their domestic and agricultural responsibilities, food shortages, water scarcity, and inadequate nutrition, poor organization, weak leadership, large allowances demanded by some group leaders, lack of support from husbands, criticisms from outside the groups, and an inability to identify the most viable projects. External constraints include lack of capital, lack of good roads, lack of advisors for feasibility studies of projects, lack of markets, and women's social subordination to men. The success of women's groups will ultimately depend upon the viability of the projects they embrace, and the Mbeere groups need expert income-generation advice. Broad reforms could abolish many of the forms of discrimination faced by women and improve their ability to contribute to the socioeconomic development and food production capacities of their communities. PMID:12290718

Mwaniki, N

1986-01-01

51

"Mind control" and the battering of women.  

PubMed

This paper describes one variation in the battering phenomenon which was initially observed among low-income women. The strategies of coercion and deception utilized by the abusive male in these relationships are described and compared with similar strategies of "mind control" utilized in more traditional "cultic" systems. The debilitating effects of these techniques on the battered female are described, as is the battering male's own separation reaction, and the probable dynamics of the men and women involved in this pathological family system. Some preliminary assessment and treatment guidelines are offered. PMID:4075768

Boulette, T R; Andersen, S M

1985-01-01

52

BIRTH OUTCOMES ACROSS ETHNIC GROUPS OF WOMEN IN NEPAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted at the Western Regional Hospital (WRH), Pokhara, Nepal. We investigated the relationship between selected socioeconomic variables, pregnancy indices, birth weight, and maternal health in women of different ethnic origins. In our cross-sectional data set, 29.8% of infants were born with a low birth weight. Our data analysis showed Indo-Aryan and lower caste ethnic groups had significantly

Pratima Poudel Acharya; Fiona Alpass

2004-01-01

53

Women Healing Women: Time-Limited, Psychoeducational Group Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a time-limited, psychoeducational group in its 16th consecutive year of providing a safe and supportive milieu that breaks down isolation while helping women understand the impact of abuse on their lives and empowering them to alter their victim identity. Cognitive, affective, and expressive arts approaches are used to address aspects of…

Sweig, Terri L.

2000-01-01

54

A Qualitative Study of an Internet-Based Support Group for Women with Sexual Distress Due to Gynecologic Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet-based support groups for cancer patients have been studied extensively; very few have focused on gynecologic cancer.\\u000a We pilot-tested a web-based support group for gynecologic cancer patients and assessed women’s perceptions of the intervention.\\u000a Twenty-seven gynecologic cancer patients were randomized to an immediate intervention or a waitlist control group. Women participated\\u000a in a 12-week, web-based support group focusing on sexuality-related

David Wiljer; Sara Urowitz; Lisa Barbera; Meredith L. Chivers; Naa Kwarley Quartey; Sarah E. Ferguson; Matthew To; Catherine C. Classen

55

Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group

Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

2007-01-01

56

Selective Sexual Harassment: Differential Treatment of Similar Groups of Women Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

If male workers categorize different groups of women coworkers and, subsequently, treat them differently, the experiences of women from one of these groups would not be indicative of the experiences of women from another group. When this different treatment involves hostile environment sexual harassment of one group, but not the other, then the law must recognize the possibility of “selective

Elizabeth A. Hoffmann

2004-01-01

57

Group Process in the single-gender Women's Recovery Group compared with mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling  

PubMed Central

Enhanced affiliation among members is thought to provide increased support for women in single-gender compared with mixed-gender group therapy for substance use disorders (SUDs) and to provide a potential mechanism of action for its efficacy. In a Stage I trial of single-gender versus mixed-gender group therapy for SUDs we examined affiliative statements made by members in two group treatments, single-gender Women's Recovery Group (WRG) and mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC). Twenty-eight WRG and 17 GDC group therapy tapes were coded and compared for five types of affiliative statements. Three types of affiliative statements (agreement, supportive, and completing a thought) were highly correlated and were more frequent in WRG than GDC (D=0.882, p=0.27). In GDC, women were more likely to provide an affiliative statement to a male group member than any other combination of directionality (p<0.01). Compared with mixed-gender, single-gender group therapy for SUDs may enhance support through greater frequency of affiliative statements. PMID:24294145

Greenfield, Shelly F.; Kuper, Laura E.; Cummings, Amanda M.; Robbins, Michael S.; Gallop, Robert J.

2013-01-01

58

Cardiovascular Control in Men and Women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women, primarily young women, have a greater incidence of orthostatic intolerance than agematched men. This difference is especially dramatic in the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS, also called Chronic Orthostatic Intolerance, in which patients are unable to stand or remain upright for prolonged periods of time due to intolerable light headedness, weakness, and near-syncope). However, the mechanisms underlying this gender difference are still not completely understood. It is likely that certain gender-specific factors such as the normal menstrual cycle, differences in some hormonal levels which may affect the neurohumoral regulation of blood pressure, or physical characteristics such as a smaller and less "distensible" heart may influence orthostatic blood pressure control. The authors review what has been done on the effects of gender and the menstrual cycle on sympathetic neural control of hemodynamics during shortand long-term orthostasis in healthy young individuals and in female patients with POTS. In addition, the role of cardiac size and function, a non-neural mechanism, in gender differences in orthostatic tolerance is also reviewed. It is suggested that sympathetic neural control and vasoconstrictor responses during orthostasis are comparable between healthy men and women, and are enhanced but not impaired in POTS patients. There is a gender-specific difference in cardiac size even in the healthy population, while this difference is exaggerated in female patients with POTS.

Fu, Qi

59

Attitude Control Working Group report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals were to establish the Attitude Control System (ACS) requirements, constraints, technology assessment, technology shortfalls, expected in the year 2000. These were based upon all missions, military and civil, for LEO and GEO. The critical ACS technology issues were identified and ACS programs developed to address these critical issues.

Reid, Daniel F.; Studer, Phillip A.

1986-01-01

60

Association for Faculty Women ~ AFW ~ AFW is a broadly inclusive group that promotes successful and satisfying careers for faculty women,  

E-print Network

and maintain salary equity for women faculty on all tracks Promote university initiatives such as daycareAssociation for Faculty Women ~ AFW ~ AFW is a broadly inclusive group that promotes successful and satisfying careers for faculty women, whether you are tenured, tenure track, clinical track, adjunct, or hold

Collins, Gary S.

61

Women Healing Women: Time-limited, Psychoeducational Group Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1980s and throughout the 1990s a burgeoning population of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse has presented for treatment. This paper describes a time-limited, psychoeducational group in its 16th consecutive year of providing a safe, predictable, structured, and supportive milieu that breaks down isolation and mistrust while helping women understand the impact of abuse on their lives

Terri L. Sweig

2000-01-01

62

Study of impulse control disorders among women presenting nicotine dependence.  

PubMed

Objective. Impulse control disorders (ICDs) include intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, trichotillomania, pyromania and pathological gambling. Several studies have showed an association between ICDs and alcohol use disorders. The rate of co-occurrence ICDs and nicotine dependence has never been investigated. We thus assessed the frequency of all ICDs in a population of nicotine-dependent women compared to non-smoking women. We also checked criteria of two other impulsive behaviours, compulsive buying and bulimia. Methods. Five hundred consecutive patients were assessed by a general practitioner in Paris (France). One hundred and twenty-seven women presenting the DSM-IV-R criteria for nicotine dependence were included. They were compared to 127 women consulting the same practitioner but who did not smoke. Diagnosis of ICD (pyromania, kleptomania, trichotillomania, intermittent explosive disorder, pathological gambling) and of bulimia was based on DSM-IV criteria and a modified version of the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview (MIDI). Diagnosis of compulsive buying was made with the McElroy et al. criteria and a specific questionnaire. Cigarette smoking was studied using the Fagerström questionnaire and the DSM-IV-R criteria for nicotine dependence. Alcohol use disorders were assessed with the DSM-IV-R criteria for dependence and the CAGE and the MAST questionnaires. Results. Thirteen patients presented trichotillomania, 22 explosive intermittent disorder and 12 pathological gambling. All these diagnoses were equally frequent in the nicotine-positive and nicotine-negative groups. We found no case of pyromania. Compulsive buying was the most frequent impulse control disorder. It was significantly more frequent in the nicotine-positive group than in the nicotine-negative group (58 vs. 39 cases, P=0.01). Scores of the compulsive buying scale were higher in the nicotine-positive group (4.07 vs. 2.9, P=0.01). None of the patients presented an association of two or more ICDs. Patients from the nicotine-positive group drunk higher quantities of alcohol each day, consumed alcohol more frequently each week and were more often intoxicated each week with alcohol. Their mean MAST scores of alcohol abuse disorders were higher. Conclusion. A total of 45.6% of the nicotine-dependent women presented compulsive buying and 23.6% bulimia. Compulsive buying was significantly more frequent among nicotine-dependent subjects than controls. Other impulse control disorders were as frequent among nicotine-dependent women as in controls. A total of 8.6% presented explosive intermittent disorder, 4.7% pathological gambling and 5% trichotillomania. Nicotine dependence in women was also associated with a higher level of alcohol consumption. These results indicate the possible need to systematically screen nicotine-dependent women, regardless of their motivation for consultation, for alcohol dependence, bulimia and compulsive buying. PMID:24941141

Lejoyeux, Michel; Kerner, Laurent; Thauvin, Isabelle; Loi, Sabrina

2006-01-01

63

Group therapy for women problem gamblers: A space of their own  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a grounded theory analysis produced from in-depth interviews with 14 women participating in group counselling for problem gambling. Themes emerged from this analysis that provided insights into effective counselling practices for women problem gamblers. The results explore the impact of a group therapy approach in addressing the needs of these women. Participants indicated that

Noëlla Piquette-Tomei; Erika Norman; Sonya Corbin Dwyer; Evelyn McCaslin

2008-01-01

64

UN Women Executive Director's Global Civil Society Advisory Group: Terms of Reference Introduction  

E-print Network

1 UN Women Executive Director's Global Civil Society Advisory Group: Terms of Reference Introduction The UN Women Executive Director's Global Civil Society Advisory Group will be a consultative forum, established by Michelle Bachelet, the Executive Director of UN Women, as a platform for regular dialogue

65

Evaluation of a Grief Group for Women in Residential Substance Abuse Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most women in substance abuse treatment have experienced significant losses. This preliminary study examined the effectiveness of a therapy group addressing grief and loss among women enrolled in a gender-specific residential substance abuse treatment program. The intervention group consisted of 24 grief group participants and the comparison group consisted of 31 nonparticipants. Qualitative analysis revealed a pattern: participants identified traumatic

Judith Fry McComish; Rivka Greenberg; Jennifer Kent-Bryant; Heather L. Chruscial; Joel Ager; Florice Hines; Scott B. Ransom

1999-01-01

66

Women’s Experiences of Appearance Concern and Body Control across the Lifespan: Challenging accepted wisdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study adopted a lifespan approach to women’s experiences of appearance concern and body control. Thirty-two women (aged 16 to 77) were interviewed about their exercise and food regulation. Results of the grounded theory analysis challenge social constructions of appearance concern as associated principally with the reproductive years, and of the body as malleable, and highlight the complexity of the

Olwyn Johnston; Jacqueline Reilly; John Kremer

2004-01-01

67

Women’s Perceptions of the Personal and Family Impact of Genetic Cancer Risk Assessment: Focus Group Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with a personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer are increasingly presenting for genetic cancer risk assessment\\u000a (GCRA). To explore the personal and family impact of GCRA, four focus groups were conducted of women seen for risk assessment.\\u000a Participants were 22 primarily non-Latina White women with a personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Analysis

Deborah J. MacDonald; Linda Sarna; Jeffrey N. Weitzel; Betty Ferrell

2010-01-01

68

Pilot early intervention antenatal group program for pregnant women with anxiety and depression.  

PubMed

This study aims to examine the acceptability and effectiveness of an antenatal group intervention designed to reduce the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms and improve maternal attachment in pregnant women with current or emerging depression and anxiety. Women who participated in the program completed pre- and posttreatment measures of depression (Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and maternal attachment (Condon Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale). Participants also completed a satisfaction questionnaire and provided general feedback about the group intervention and experience. A total of 48 women (M?=?26 weeks of gestation) commenced and 37 (77 %) completed at least 80 % of the six session group intervention. Significant improvements with moderate to large effect sizes were observed for depression as measured on the Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) (p?group program is an effective and acceptable intervention for a clinical sample of women and partners. It is a feasible addition or alternative treatment option to perinatal mental health care. Future directions could involve more comprehensive randomised controlled trials (RCT) to examine the effectiveness of the group intervention. PMID:25074561

Thomas, Naomi; Komiti, Angela; Judd, Fiona

2014-12-01

69

Randomized pilot of a self-guided internet coping group for women with early-stage breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Internet-based methods for provision of psychological support and intervention to cancer survivors hold promise for increasing\\u000a the public impact of such treatments.Purpose: The goal of this controlled pilot study was to examine the effect and potential mechanisms of action of a self-guided, Internet-based\\u000a coping-skills training group on quality of life outcomes in women with early-stage breast cancer.Methods: Sixty-two women

Jason E. Owen; Joshua C. Klapow; David L. Roth; John L. Shuster; Jeff Bellis; Ron Meredith; Diane C. Tucker

2005-01-01

70

Selective sexual harassment: differential treatment of similar groups of women workers.  

PubMed

If male workers categorize different groups of women coworkers and, subsequently, treat them differently, the experiences of women from one of these groups would not be indicative of the experiences of women from another group. When this different treatment involves hostile environment sexual harassment of one group, but not the other, then the law must recognize the possibility of "selective sexual harassment." Without this understanding of the nuances of the workplace dynamics, a court could mistake the women of the unharassed group as representing "reasonable women" and the women of the harassed group as simply oversensitive. This paper draws on empirical data to demonstrate such a situation and advocates for a version of the "reasonable victim" standard to facilitate a closer analysis of hostile environment sexual harassment suits. PMID:15055340

Hoffmann, Elizabeth A

2004-02-01

71

A qualitative study of an internet-based support group for women with sexual distress due to gynecologic cancer.  

PubMed

Internet-based support groups for cancer patients have been studied extensively; very few have focused on gynecologic cancer. We pilot-tested a web-based support group for gynecologic cancer patients and assessed women's perceptions of the intervention. Twenty-seven gynecologic cancer patients were randomized to an immediate intervention or a waitlist control group. Women participated in a 12-week, web-based support group focusing on sexuality-related topics. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of the intervention. Women reported benefits to participating in the intervention, including receiving support from group members and moderators, increased emotional well-being, improved feelings of body image and sexuality, and comfort in discussing sexuality online. Web-based support groups are both feasible and accepted by gynecologic cancer patients with psychosexual distress. The online format provided women with easy access to the support group and anonymity in discussing psychosexual concerns. Women with gynecologic cancer may benefit from participating in online support groups which provide an environment of relative anonymity to discuss psychosexual concerns. PMID:21594587

Wiljer, David; Urowitz, Sara; Barbera, Lisa; Chivers, Meredith L; Quartey, Naa Kwarley; Ferguson, Sarah E; To, Matthew; Classen, Catherine C

2011-09-01

72

Patterns and Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Weight Control Behaviors in Women Ages 25-45  

PubMed Central

Objective The current study describes detailed eating behaviors, dieting behaviors, and attitudes about shape and weight in 4,023 women ages 25 to 45. Method The survey was delivered on-line and participants were identified using a national quota-sampling procedure. Results Disordered eating behaviors, extreme weight loss measures, and negative cognitions about shape and weight were widely endorsed by women in this age group and were not limited to White participants. Thirty-one percent of women without a history of anorexia or binge eating reported having purged to control weight, and 74.5% of women reported that their concerns about shape and weight interfered with their happiness. Discussion Unhealthy approaches to weight control and negative attitudes about shape and weight are pervasive even among women without eating disorders. The development of effective approaches to address the impact of these unhealthy behaviors and attitudes on the general well-being and functioning of women is required. PMID:20179405

Reba-Harreleson, Lauren; Holle, Ann Von; Hamer, Robert M.; Swann, Rebecca; Reyes, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2013-01-01

73

Predictors of plasma concentrations of DDE and PCBs in a group of U.S. women.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated predictors of plasma concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a group of 240 women, controls from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study. We considered personal attributes such as age, serum cholesterol, region of residence, adiposity, lactation, and dietary intake. DDE levels increased 0.17 ppb/year of age (p = 0.0003), and PCBs increased 0.08 ppb (p = 0.0001). DDE and PCBs increased 0.20 (p = 0.02) and 0.13 ppb (p = 0.001), respectively, per 10 mg/dl serum cholesterol. Women living in the western United States had higher levels of DDE (mean = 11.0 ppb; p = 0.003), and women in the Northeast and Midwest had higher levels of PCBs (mean = 5.6 ppb; p = 0.0002) as compared to women from other parts of the country (mean DDE = 6.3; mean PCBs = 4. 5 ppb). Levels of DDE could not be predicted from consumption of meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and grains. There was a positive association between fish consumption and PCB concentrations among women in the Northeast and Midwest. Using data from the cases in the nested case-control study to assess the predictive ability of the models, we confirmed that the most reliable predictors of DDE were age and serum cholesterol, and the most important predictors of PCBs were age, serum cholesterol, and residence in the Midwest or Northeast. The null results for the majority of the food variables suggest that specific dietary factors, other than fish, are not currently a substantial contributor to human exposure to DDE and PCBs. PMID:9872720

Laden, F; Neas, L M; Spiegelman, D; Hankinson, S E; Willett, W C; Ireland, K; Wolff, M S; Hunter, D J

1999-01-01

74

Role of Kenyan Women's Groups in Community Based Soil and Water Conservation: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's groups projects have played a key role in community development in Kenya. The Mwethya women's groups of Machakos District, Kenya are best known for the role they have played in soil and water conservation activities. The major soil and water conservation activities undertaken by the groups were found to be on farm terracing, tree planting, both in farms and

Margaret J. Kamar

75

The Use of the Courts by Women's Groups to Obtain Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how women's groups have made use of litigation strategy to gain favorable policy decisions from the U.S. Supreme Court. The litigation strategies associated with four groups are discussed in the major portion of the report. These groups are: (1) the National Women's Suffrage Association (NWSA), active from 1869 to 1875; (2) the…

O'Connor, Karen

76

Working Women and Perceived Barriers to Weight Control\\/Maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To examine barriers to weight control experienced by working women, ages 25-34 years.The purpose of this study was to discern barriers to weight control\\/maintenance that working women experience. A 28-item, self -administered survey was distributed to 93 urban working women, ages 25-34 years. Survey questions were based upon a review of literature as well as results of a

K. N. Long; D. Wright; R. Bush; K. Stone

1996-01-01

77

Low-income women's perceived barriers to physical activity: focus group results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for heart disease. With heart disease as the leading cause of death in women, barriers to physical activity require exploration. Low-income women are the least likely to be physically active. The purpose of this study was to explore perceived barriers to physical activity in low-income women. Focus group methodology and content analysis were

Roberta Hoebeke

2008-01-01

78

Using Focus Group Methodology to Develop Breast Cancer Screening Programs that Recruit African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public communication campaigns are designed to increase the number of women who receive mammograms, breast examinations, and cervical exams. However, these campaigns have failed to recruit sufficient numbers of African American women. Focus group techniques were used to provide data to develop a communication campaign that would increase the knowledge, assess the attitudes, and change behaviors of African American women,

G. Anthony Williams; R. Roderic Abbott; D. Kay Taylor

1997-01-01

79

Stressors Influencing Middle Eastern Women's Perceptions of the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Focus Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand Australia-dwelling Middle Eastern women's lack of service utilization in cardiovascular health, we undertook a study to investigate their understandings and meanings of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors. Eight focus groups were conducted in community settings with Turkish, Persian, and Arab women. We found that the women understated their risk of CVD, faced many barriers in

Leila Gholizadeh; Michelle DiGiacomo; Yenna Salamonson; Patricia M. Davidson

2011-01-01

80

Talking “Among Us”: How Women From Different Racial–Ethnic Groups Define and Discuss Menopause  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against a backdrop of scant literature on commonalities and differences among diverse groups of menopausal women within the United States, and little attempt by scholars in any country to study the ways in which both privilege and oppression can shape women's ideas and experiences of menopause, in this study, 61 menopausal women of varied racial–ethnic and class locations in a

Heather Dillaway; Mary Byrnes; Sara Miller; Sonica Rehan

2008-01-01

81

Gender Differences in Automatic In-Group Bias: Why Do Women Like Women More Than Men Like Men?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments confirmed that women's automatic in-group bias is remarkably stronger than men's and investigated explanations for this sex difference, derived from potential sources of implicit attitudes (L. A. Rudman, 2004). In Experiment 1, only women (not men) showed cognitive balance among in-group bias, identity, and self-esteem (A. G. Greenwald et al., 2002), revealing that men lack a mechanism that

Laurie A. Rudman; Stephanie A. Goodwin

2004-01-01

82

Poor glycemic control in younger women attending Malaysian public primary care clinics: findings from adults diabetes control and management registry  

PubMed Central

Background Women of reproductive age are a group of particular concern as diabetes may affect their pregnancy outcome as well as long-term morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the clinical profiles and glycemic control of reproductive and non-reproductive age women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in primary care settings, and to determine the associated factors of poor glycemic control in the reproductive age group women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using cases reported by public primary care clinics to the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry from 1st January to 31st December 2009. All Malaysian women aged 18 years old and above and diagnosed with T2D for at least 1 year were included in the analysis. The target for glycemic control (HbA1c < 6.5%) is in accordance to the recommended national guidelines. Both univariate and multivariate approaches of logistic regression were applied to determine whether reproductive age women have an association with poor glycemic control. Results Data from a total of 30,427 women were analyzed and 21.8% (6,622) were of reproductive age. There were 12.5% of reproductive age women and 18.0% of non-reproductive age women that achieved glycemic control. Reproductive age group women were associated with poorer glycemic control (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.8). The risk factors associated with poor glycemic control in the reproductive age women were being of Malay and Indian race, longer duration of diabetes, patients on anti-diabetic agents, and those who had not achieved the target total cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion Women with T2D have poor glycemic control, but being of reproductive age was associated with even poorer control. Health care providers need to pay more attention to this group of patients especially for those with risk factors. More aggressive therapeutic strategies to improve their cardiometabolic control and pregnancy outcome are warranted. PMID:24325794

2013-01-01

83

Integrated Group Treatment of Women's Substance Abuse and Trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse and trauma co-occur at very high rates among women in clinical settings. However, clinical programs that address both problems are rare, due in part to knowledge deficits and attitudinal barriers in both substance abuse and mental health treatment settings. We describe core competencies for clinicians who treat women with co-occurring substance abuse and trauma, and some of the

Jonathan Krejci; Judith Margolin; Marcy Rowland; Catherine Wetzell

2008-01-01

84

Preventing Depression: Culturally Relevant Group Work with Black Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent estimates indicate that 10% to 25% of women in the United States report clinically significant depressive symptoms and that Black women are less likely to obtain care for depression and to receive appropriate treatment when they do seek care. Current mental and social health services necessitate a search for strength-based treatment models…

Jones, Lani V.

2008-01-01

85

Influence of a support group for young women with disabilities on sense of belonging.  

PubMed

Women and girls with disabilities face obstacles to community participation and social acceptance. Consequently, as adolescent women with disabilities mature into adulthood, they may have difficulty feeling that they belong both in the general community and in the community of all women. The positive impact of peer support groups for young women with disabilities on their sense of belonging has been underinvestigated. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 9 members of a well-established empowerment support group for young women with disabilities to explore how the group might foster a sense of belonging to the general community as well as a sense of shared womanhood. Results revealed that self-confidence and disability pride stemming from participation in the group were essential in helping the women counteract exclusionary messages from the outside world. The group provided an opportunity to develop a positive disability identity and to gain new information regarding the ability and right to identify as women. Reciprocal bonds with other group members helped cultivate feelings of belonging. In turn, the women communicated their empowered identities and the disability rights information they learned in the group to their friends, family, and community members. The group offered the women various platforms to assert their right to belong and, therefore, to participate in the world as women and as independent members of their broader communities. These results show how peer support groups for young women with disabilities can positively influence their sense of belonging both within the group and in the world outside the group. PMID:24660692

Mejias, Norma J; Gill, Carol J; Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa

2014-04-01

86

Feminism versus Minority Group Identity: Not for Black Women Only.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies four hypotheses that researchers investigating Black women and their relationships have adopted: "weakening,""double whammy,""Black matriarchy," and "Black racism." Discusses the implications of these hypotheses and suggests new approaches for future research. (CJM)

Reid, Pamela Trotman

1984-01-01

87

Longitudinal Treatment Effectiveness Outcomes of a Group Intervention for Women and Children Exposed to Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social support can moderate negative effects of domestic violence for exposed women and children. Also, interventions targeting exposed women and children simultaneously have been shown to be more effective than those focused on children only. Since group interventions can provide such support, our study examined the effectiveness of a 10-week community-based psycho-educational group intervention for women and children. Mothers' (n?=?36)

Archana Basu; Johanna C. Malone; Alytia A. Levendosky; Stacie Dubay

2009-01-01

88

The relationship between stress and weight-control behavior in African-American women.  

PubMed

Obesity is a problem for African-American women across all socioeconomic strata. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight is 48.5% among African-American women compared with 21% among white women. An exploratory field was designed to examine selected psychosocial factors that influence the weight-control behavior of middle-income African-American women. A triangulation methodology was used in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. First, semistructured interviews were held with 36 African-American women between the ages of 25 and 75. Second, a Global Stress Scale was administered to measure perceived stress. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a positive correlation between body weight and stress in that women who were more overweight were experiencing more stress. Ethnographic analysis of the data showed that more than 50% of the women thought that stress negatively affected their weight-control behavior. Additionally, occupational stressors related to racism, sexism, and workload were major stressors for this group of women. Recognition of factors that influence weight-control health practices will enable health professionals to assist African-American women to manage their weight. PMID:7595965

Walcott-McQuigg, J A

1995-06-01

89

Beyond Reviving Ophelia: Groups for Girls 12–14 and Women Who Care About Them  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses an innovative multigenerational psychoeducational group designed for pre adolescent and adolescent girls and the adult women who care about them. The program is based on a strengths and empowerment approach. The purposes of the group are to foster an alliance between girls and adult women, to increase awareness of the pressures girls experience in contemporary culture and

Katherine Walsh-Burke; Pauline Scanlon

2000-01-01

90

The Natural Evolution of Postpartum Fatigue among a Group of Primiparous Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted to examine the natural evolution of levels of fatigue, as measured by the Visual Analogue Scale-F, among a group of 36 primiparous women during the first 6 weeks postpartum The results revealed that this group of women experienced higher levels of morning fatigue across the 6 weeks than had previously been reported Their morning

Nancy Wieland Troy; Peggy Dalgas-Pelish

1997-01-01

91

Early intervention in pregnant women with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms: efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program.  

PubMed

To examine whether a cognitive-behavioral group program among pregnant women with elevated levels of anxiety or depression may reduce anxious and depressive symptoms and has a positive impact on risk factors for anxiety disorders and depression. A total of 753 participants were recruited. After completion of the clinical standardized interview, 160 participants were randomized to an intervention group or a control condition. Psychometric assessments took place at T1 (preintervention), T2 (antenatal follow-up), and T3 (3 months postpartum). Analyses included women who took part in all 3 assessments (intervention group, N = 21; control group, N = 53). The subjective program evaluation by the participants was highly positive, but with the exception of a short-term effect on the quality of an intimate partnership (F1/67 = 4.056; P < .05], intervention effects on anxiety or depressive symptoms were not found. However, there was an intervention effect 3 months postpartum for participants with high depressive symptoms at T1 (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ?10) (F1/69 = 5.410; P < .05). The results argue against a general efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program for pregnant women with rather low levels of anxiety and depression. For women with higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy, a cognitive-behavioral group program may have a positive impact on the course of depressive symptoms during the postpartum period. PMID:25062520

Bittner, Antje; Peukert, Judith; Zimmermann, Cornelia; Junge-Hoffmeister, Juliane; Parker, Lisa S; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Weidner, Kerstin

2014-01-01

92

[Quality of life of groups of women who suffer from breast cancer].  

PubMed

This study sought to investigate the quality of life of women who suffer from breast cancer and are part of a support group, comparing the data gathered from mastectomized women who had breast reconstruction and women who had not had surgery. It also compared data of women who had quadrantectomy surgery but did not need reconstruction and those who had not had reconstruction surgery. It is a quantitative transversal study, and data was collected by application of a questionnaire to the respondents and by the SF-36 of the WHO. Fifty women with average age of 57.2 years participated in the survey. The groups were compared against each other - two by two - considering types of surgery, using the Mann-Whitney Test at a 5% level of significance. The results showed that women who had quadrantectomy surgery and did not need reconstruction are those who had the highest average scores in all fields and therefore have the best quality of life. They are followed by the group of women who had a mastectomy and reconstruction. The mastectomized group of women who had not had reconstruction surgery were seen to have a very low level of quality of life. They are followed by the group of women who had quadrantectomy surgery and also had not had reconstruction. PMID:23546205

Simeão, Sandra Fiorelli de Almeida Penteado; Landro, Izabel Cristina Rossi; De Conti, Marta Helena Souza; Gatti, Márcia Aparecida Nuevo; Delgallo, Willian Dávila; De Vitta, Alberto

2013-03-01

93

Visual Acuity, Balance Control, and Walking Automaticity in Older Women  

E-print Network

Visual Acuity, Balance Control, and Walking Automaticity in Older Women Rachel J. Kralian, Erica D and walking automaticity in older adult women A decrease in visual acuity increases the variability of gait. Millett, Dain P. LaRoche Department of Kinesiology University of New Hampshire #12;· Gait changes in older

New Hampshire, University of

94

The Effects of Menorrhagia on Women's Quality of Life: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. The purpose of this study is to identify menstruation characteristics of the women and the effects of menorrhagia on women's quality of life. Methods. The study was designed as a descriptive, case-control one. Results. Of the women in the case group, 10.9% stated that their menstrual bleeding was severe and very severe before complaints while 73.2% described bleeding as severe or very severe after complaints. Among those who complained about menorrhagia, 46.7% pointed that they used hygienic products that are more protective than regular sanitary pads. Women also stated that their clothes, bed linens, and furniture got dirty parallel to the severity of the bleeding. In all subscales of SF-36 scale, quality of life of the women in the menorrhagia group was significantly lower than the ones in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Menorrhagia has negative effects on women's quality of life. Therefore, quality of life of the women consulting the clinics with menorrhagia complaint should be investigated and effective approaches should be designed. PMID:23970973

Gokyildiz, Sule; Aslan, Ergul; Beji, Nezihe Kizilkaya; Mecdi, Meltem

2013-01-01

95

Cancer-Related Concerns among Women Newly Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancer: An Exploration of Age Group Differences  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aimed to characterize cancer-related concerns among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. The study compared degree of cancer-related concern between young women (? 45 years), middle age women (46–64 years), and older women (? 65 years). Methods/Materials Data from women (N =243) diagnosed with primary gynecological cancer who were participating in a randomized control trial were analyzed. Women completed a measure that assessed degree of concern in twelve cancer-related domains (physical functioning, cancer treatment, emotional functioning, sexual functioning, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, relationship with others, employment, and finances). Multivariate comparisons were made between the three age groups on the cancer-related concerns. Results There were age group differences in overall cancer-related concern and specific cancer-related domains. Young women reported the greatest cancer-related concern (p < .001). They reported greater concern over emotional functioning (p < .001) and sexual functioning (p < .001) compared to the middle and older age groups. Older women reported less concern over the impact of cancer on finances (p = 007). There were no differences between age groups in concern over physical impairment, cancer treatment, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, and relationship with others. Conclusions Age may play an important role in the impact of a gynecological cancer diagnosis in domains of functioning, specifically emotional functioning, sexual functioning, and finances. Other cancer-related areas may represent more universal degree of impact. Professionals may benefit form considering the impact of cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. PMID:24346489

Myers Virtue, Shannon; Manne, Sharon L.; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Rubin, Stephen; Heckman, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Norm; Graff, John J.

2014-01-01

96

Support Groups, Marriage, and the Management of Ambiguity among HIV-Positive Women in Northern Nigeria  

E-print Network

; Nigeria Introduction On a hot, rainy day in 2004, I met with a group of non-married 1 HIV-positive women who were members of an HIV support group for men and women living in the northern Nigerian city of Kano. 2 In the non-governmental organization (NGO.../AIDS. Marriage aspirations are windows onto the symbolic importance of families to Nigerian women, the local political economic dynamics that shape social and illness trajectories in resource-poor settings, and the overarching constraints that prevent women from...

Rhine, Kathryn Angela

2009-03-01

97

Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…

Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

2010-01-01

98

Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult victimization using two measures of child physical abuse and four measures of

Chantal Poister Tusher; Sarah L. Cook

2010-01-01

99

How did formative research inform the development of a women's group intervention in rural Nepal?  

PubMed Central

Inability to reduce neonatal and maternal mortality in poor countries is sometimes blamed on a lack of contextual knowledge about care practices and care-seeking behavior. There is a lack of knowledge about how to translate formative research into effective interventions to improve maternal and newborn health. We describe the findings of formative research and how they were used to inform the development of such an intervention in rural Nepal. Formative research was carried out in four parts. Part 1 involved familiarization with the study area and literature review, and parts 2, 3 and 4 involved community mapping, audit of health services, and qualitative and quantitative studies of perinatal care behaviors. Participatory approaches have been successful at reducing neonatal mortality and may be suitable in our context. Community mapping and profiling helped to describe the community context, and we found that community-based organizations often sought to involve the Female Community Health Volunteer in community mobilization. She was not routinely conducting monthly meetings and found them difficult to sustain without support and supervision. In health facilities, most primary care staff were in post, but doctors and staff nurses were absent from referral centers. Mortality estimates reflected under-reporting of deaths and hygiene and infection control strategies had low coverage. The majority of women give birth at home with their mother-in-law, friends and neighbors. Care during perinatal illness was usually sought from traditional healers. Cultural issues of shyness, fear and normalcy restricted women’s behavior during pregnancy, birth and the postpartum period, and decisions about her health were usually made after communications with the family and community. The formative research indicated the type of intervention that could be successful. It should be community-based and should not be exclusively for pregnant women. It should address negotiations within families, and should tailor information to the needs of local groups and particular stakeholders such as mothers-in-law and traditional healers. The intervention should not only accept cultural constructs but also be a forum in which to discuss ideas of pollution, shame and seclusion. We used these guidelines to develop a participatory, community-based women’s group intervention, facilitated through a community action cycle. The success of our intervention may be because of its acceptability at the community level and its sensitivity to the needs and beliefs of families and communities. PMID:19057563

Morrison, J; Osrin, D; Shrestha, B; Tumbahangphe, KM; Tamang, S; Shrestha, D; Thapa, S; Mesko, N; Manandhar, DS; Costello, A

2012-01-01

100

Factors associated with breastfeeding at six months postpartum in a group of Australian women  

PubMed Central

Background Despite high levels of breastfeeding initiation in Australia, only 47 percent of women are breastfeeding (exclusively or partially) six months later, with marked differences between social groups. It is important to identify women who are at increased risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. Methods Data from the three arms of a randomised controlled trial were pooled and analysed as a cohort using logistic regression to identify which factors predicted women continuing to feed any breast milk at six months postpartum. The original trial included 981 primiparous women attending a public, tertiary, women's hospital in Melbourne, Australia in 1999–2001. The trial evaluated the effect of two mid-pregnancy educational interventions on breastfeeding initiation and duration. In the 889 women with six month outcomes available, neither intervention increased breastfeeding initiation nor duration compared to standard care. Independent variables were included in the predictive model based on the literature and discussion with peers and were each tested individually against the dependent variable (any breastfeeding at six months). Results Thirty-three independent variables of interest were identified, of which 25 qualified for inclusion in the preliminary regression model; 764 observations had complete data available. Factors remaining in the final model that were positively associated with breastfeeding any breast milk at six months were: a very strong desire to breastfeed; having been breastfed oneself as a baby; being born in an Asian country; and older maternal age. There was an increasing association with increasing age. Factors negatively associated with feeding any breast milk at six months were: a woman having no intention to breastfeed six months or more; smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day pre-pregnancy; not attending childbirth education; maternal obesity; having self-reported depression in the six months after birth; and the baby receiving infant formula while in hospital. Conclusion In addition to the factors commonly reported as being associated with breastfeeding in previous work, this study found a negative association between breastfeeding outcomes and giving babies infant formula in hospital, a high maternal body mass index, and self-reported maternal depression or anxiety in the six months after the baby was born. Interventions that seek to increase breastfeeding should consider focusing on women who wish to breastfeed but are at high risk of early discontinuation. PMID:17034645

Forster, Della A; McLachlan, Helen L; Lumley, Judith

2006-01-01

101

The Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women: Report to the President and the Commission for Women--Recommendation Package #4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents partial recommendations of a Pennsylvania State University Study Group on the Status of Women at the University. Recommendations concern: special populations, sexual harassment in the workplace, sexual violence against women, women's athletics, and health services for women students. Among specific recommendations are the…

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

102

Adapted Motivational Interviewing for Women With Binge Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this randomized controlled trial, 108 women with binge-eating disorder (BED) recruited from the community were assigned to either an adapted motivational interviewing (AMI) group (1 individual AMI session + self-help handbook) or control group (handbook only). They were phoned 4, 8, and 16 weeks following the initial session to assess binge eating and associated symptoms (depression, self-esteem, quality of

Stephanie E. Cassin; Kristin M. von Ranson; Kenneth Heng; Joti Brar; Amy E. Wojtowicz

2008-01-01

103

Perceived benefits of online support groups for women with metastatic breast cancer.  

PubMed

Women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), a life-threatening illness, stand to benefit a great deal from online support groups, but none have been studied specifically within this population. The present mixed-method study was carried out to determine which therapeutic factors occurred in online MBC support groups, and to see how such factors might have acted to benefit participants. Participants were 20 women with MBC who participated in online peer support groups. Most reported benefiting in some way from their groups. Six therapeutic factors theorized to be helpful in online support groups and cancer support groups were present in the groups studied: group cohesiveness, information exchange, universality, instillation of hope, catharsis, and altruism. However, although participants reported being able to discuss many other concerns freely, they had difficulty discussing death and dying, which are critical issues for this category of women with BC. PMID:19851944

Vilhauer, Ruvanee P

2009-01-01

104

Eating behaviour and attitudes to weight and shape in British women from three ethnic groups.  

PubMed

Attitudes towards eating, weight and shape were examined in 479 Caucasian, Afro-Caribbean and Asian British women. The Asian women were found to have significantly more disordered eating attitudes than the Caucasian women, but no difference was found between the three groups in their concern with their body weight and shape. However, while in the Caucasian group disordered eating attitudes were significantly positively correlated with feelings of anxiety and depression, this was not true in the other two groups. Although the concerns of British Afro-Caribbean and Asian women are similar to those of the Caucasian women, there may be ethnic differences in the relationship between feelings about eating, weight and shape and mood. PMID:2131133

Dolan, B; Lacey, J H; Evans, C

1990-10-01

105

A randomized, controlled trial of mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) for women with cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to gather data on the efficacy of a newly developed psychosocial group intervention for cancer patients, called mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT). One hundred and eleven women with a variety of cancer diagnoses were paired by age and randomized to either an eight-week MBAT intervention group or a wait-list control group. Ninety-three participants (84%)

Daniel A. Monti; Caroline Peterson; Elisabeth J. Shakin Kunkel; Walter W. Hauck; Edward Pequignot; Lora Rhodes; George C. Brainard

2006-01-01

106

“Determined women at work”: Group construction of narrative meaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although interest in narrative research is increasing, little attention has been paid to how individual stories become a group narrative. An online environment provides a rich opportunity to capture asynchronous group storytelling as it occurs in a formal class environment. This study focused on how a group story is created. Data included individual stories of four graduate student participants and

Trena M. Paulus; Woodside Marianne; Ziegler Mary

2007-01-01

107

Microcredit Self-Help Groups for Widowed and Abandoned Women in South India: Do They Help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented from a study on a microcredit program with self-help groups implemented for widowed and abandoned women in Tamil Nadu shortly after the Indian Ocean Tsunami. Data were collected from 109 participants measuring the women's investment patterns, loan amounts, demographics, and overall well-being (psychological, economic, communal, and familial). Results indicate that loan amounts and investment patterns were not

Karen Kayser; Margaret Lombe; Chrisann Newransky; Gloria Tower; Paul Mike Raj

2009-01-01

108

The Impact of Agricultural Technology Transfer to Women Vegetable Production and Marketing Groups in the Gambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gambia government, NGOs and donor agencies have given high priority to fruits and vegetable production. The production of fruits and vegetables by women groups plays significant role in the socio-economic development of the country as provider of food, foreign exchange earner, employer and income earner. However, there are problems women growers encounter including inappropriate technology, training and access to

Saikou E. Sanyang; Te-Chen Kao; Wen-Chi Huang

109

Social Identity, Modern Sexism, and Perceptions of Personal and Group Discrimination by Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of gender-related discrimination against the self and group were examined in women and men, with a focus on the predictive utility of modern sexism and 3 dimensions of social identification (ingroup ties, centrality, and ingroup affect). Questionnaires were completed by 321 undergraduates (206 women and 115 men), of whom 78% self-identified as White and 10% as Asian. Higher levels

James E. Cameron

2001-01-01

110

Women's Douching Practices and Related Attitudes: Findings from Four Focus Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Vaginal douching is a common hygiene practice for many U.S. women, but is associated with several health risks. Little is known about the beliefs and attitudes that promote and maintain douching practices. This qualitative study, consisting of four focus groups of 31 southern women, was conducted to gather in-depth information about attitudes and beliefs associated with douching. The focus

Bronwen Lichtenstein; Tonja R. Nansel

2001-01-01

111

The Prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B) Colonization in Pregnant Women at Thammasat Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Group B Streptococci (GBS) is responsible for serious infections in newborns such as septice- mia and meningitis. Objective: The present study was carried out to find the prevalence of GBS colonization in pregnant women and to determine the pattern of antibiotic resistance of the isolates. Material and Method: From November 2004 to February 2005, 406 pregnant women were examined

Siripen Tor-Udom

112

An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

2010-01-01

113

The Intersection of Everyday Life and Group Prenatal Care for Women in Two Urban Clinics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women from vulnerable populations encounter challenging circumstances that generate stress and may adversely affect their health. Group prenatal care (GPNC) incorporates features that address social stressors, and has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes and prenatal care experiences. In this qualitative study, we describe the complex circumstances in the lives of women receiving care in two urban clinics and how

Gina Novick; Lois S. Sadler; Kathleen A. Knafl; Nora Ellen Groce; Holly Powell Kennedy

2012-01-01

114

Honoring the Ways of American Indian Women: A Group Therapy Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A culturally grounded group intervention for a typically underserved population of urban American Indian women is described. The intervention is designed to increase interpersonal connection, improve inter-tribal acceptance and trust, and enhance psychological well being of marginalized urban American Indian women. Topics used to structure the…

McWhirter, Paula T.; Robbins, Rockey; Vaughn, Karen; Youngbull, Natalie; Burks, Derek; Willmon-Haque, Sadie; Schuetz, Suzan; Brandes, Joyce A.; Nael, Andrea Zainab Omidy

2010-01-01

115

The Meaning of “Control” for Childbearing Women in the US  

PubMed Central

Childbearing women, healthcare providers, and commentators on birth broadly identify control as an important issue during childbirth; however, control is rarely defined in literature on the topic. Here we seek to deconstruct the term control as used by childbearing women to better understand the issues and concepts underpinning it. Based on qualitative interviews with 101 parous women in the United States, we analyze meanings of control within the context of birth narratives. We find these meanings correspond to five distinct domains: self-determination, respect, personal security, attachment, and knowledge. We also find ambivalence about this term and concept, in that half our sample recognizes “you cannot control birth”. Together, these findings call into question the usefulness of the term for measuring quality or improving maternity care and highlight other concepts which may be more fruitfully explored. PMID:20579792

Namey, Emily E; Lyerly, Anne D

2010-01-01

116

Two hypotheses of dense breasts and viral infection for explaining incidence of breast cancer by age group in Korean women  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer, the second leading type of cancer in Korean women, has shown increasing incidence over the past 10 years. However, the curves of incidence by age group cast doubt on the birth cohort effect hypothesis. To explain the curves, here I suggest two alternative hypotheses of breast density and viral infection based on pre-existing evidences. Evaluating these hypotheses would require important clues to find unknown risk factors of breast cancer and to plan more effective strategies for breast cancer control in Korean women. PMID:25266421

Bae, Jong-Myon

2014-01-01

117

Enhancing women's lives: The role of support groups among breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two decades of research indicate that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. Group therapy has been effective at reducing mood disturbance, improving quality of life, enhancing physiological functioning, and increasing survival time. In particular, Supportive-Expressive group psychotherapy has been effective in assisting breast cancer patients in reducing anxiety related to death

Cheryl Gore-felton; David Spiegel

1999-01-01

118

The Effectiveness of a Psychoeducational Group for HIV-Infected\\/Affected Incarcerated Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The effectiveness of a psychoeducational group intervention for HIV\\/AIDS-infected and affected women was examined at a large southeastern county jail facility. Method: A quasi- experimental pretest-posttest design was used to examine depression, anxiety, and trauma symp- toms of women inmates. Results: A multivariate analysis of covariance yielded significant differ- ences between the experimental and comparison groups. Subsequent analysis of

Elizabeth C. Pomeroy; Risa Kiam; Eileen M. Abel

1999-01-01

119

Improved key health outcomes in women with fibromyalgia undergoing different supervised exercise programmes: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the relative effects of supervised aerobic exercise (AE) with a combined programme of supervised aerobic, muscle strengthening and flexibility exercises on important health outcomes in women diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM). Sixty-four women diagnosed with FM were randomly allocated to one of three groups: AE, combined exercise (CE) or usual care control. They

B Sañudo; L Carrasco; J Saxton; D Galiano; M de Hoyo

2010-01-01

120

Myths of Women and Their Reflection in a Therapy Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

One essential dilemma for modern clinical social work involves the relationship between the processes taking place inside\\u000a the self and the social, cultural, and political developments affecting a person from the outside. The group-analysis approach\\u000a focuses on four levels of relationships and communication within the group, among others a primordial level of shared myths,\\u000a archetypical images, and the collective unconscious

Orit Nuttman-Shwartz

2007-01-01

121

Immigrant women’s perceptions and experiences of health care services: Insights from a focus group study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  This study aimed to describe perceptions and experiences related to access and utilization of health care services of African\\u000a and Brazilian immigrant women in Portugal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  Six focus groups were conducted with 35 African and Brazilian women with low income and living in Lisbon, chosen through purposive\\u000a sampling. Content analysis was undertaken through identification of themes and categories.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  African

Sónia Dias; Ana Gama; Cristianne Rocha

2010-01-01

122

Women's status and family planning: results from a focus group survey.  

PubMed

Focus group discussions were conducted in China's Pingluo County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Sihui County, Guangdong Province among reproductive age women with only daughters, mothers-in-law, unmarried women aged 23 years and older, and women business persons and cadres. The topic of discussion was the status of women, gender differences in employment, education, marriage, family life, childbearing, and elderly care in counties that have above average fertility rates. There were also several groups of men, mixed gender groups with husbands working away from home, local family planning workers, and rural intellectuals. The findings showed that there is more access to education for girls and a higher employment rate for young women. Daughters receive education to the highest level affordable. Enrollments are equal for boys and girls. Women's employment is not challenged by husbands, and work is available in a variety of locations. Business ownership and operation is encouraged. By middle age, women generally do not work in enterprises, but at home or on contracted farmland. Equal rights within the family are generally accepted. Husbands turn over their salary to wives for family expenses. Girls receive the same care after birth as boys. Women's status is improving. Improvements in social status have also involved sacrifices. Women complained that the workload on the farm has increased with adult males away working in cities. Women bear the burden of family planning, including in some cases side effects from oral pills and recovery from sterilizations. One women remarked that there were burdens in bearing children, taking oral pills, having IUD insertions, and having induced abortions; men should bear 50% of the responsibility. The burden of women without sons is harder, and women may also feel inferior as the last in their family line. One family with 6 daughters accepted the fine of RMB 7000 yuan for having another child, which turned out to be a son. One commented that even a stupid son is better than a daughter. Many with only daughters have not tried for a son because the fine was too expensive. Support in old age was a reason for desiring sons. There were positive opinions expressed about family planning. Economic gains for women were considered important in raising women's status. PMID:12318705

Gu, B; Xie, Z

1994-02-01

123

A Women's Support Group for Asian International Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International students underuse counseling services, which are grounded in Western cultural values. The authors describe a support group for Asian international students that they launched at a large midwestern university to help students feel at ease with American university life, address homesickness, language problems, and academic and social…

Carr, Joetta L.; Koyama, Miki; Thiagarajan, Monica

2003-01-01

124

Unleashing the Power of Young Women through Peer Helping Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the application of the Positive Peer Culture (PPC) treatment methodology to a population of troubled girls in a residential setting. The peer group utilizes naturally occurring problems as vehicles to teach girls about errors in behavior and thinking. Community activities are used to practice newly obtained prosocial behaviors. (LSR)

Quigley, Richard; Steiner, Mary E.

1996-01-01

125

The Women in Science (WiSci) Project Stage 1 interim report: academic staff survey and focus groups  

E-print Network

of women in the sciences and also to benchmark the experience and attitudes of academic women against thoseThe Women in Science (WiSci) Project Stage 1 interim report: academic staff survey and focus groups The WiSci project The Women in Science (WiSci) project was initiated by Professor David Day, Dean

Du, Jie

126

Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

2010-01-01

127

Vascular events in healthy older women receiving calcium supplementation: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effect of calcium supplementation on myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden death in healthy postmenopausal women. Design Randomised, placebo controlled trial. Setting Academic medical centre in an urban setting in New Zealand. Participants 1471 postmenopausal women (mean age 74): 732 were randomised to calcium supplementation and 739 to placebo. Main outcome measures Adverse cardiovascular events over five years: death, sudden death, myocardial infarction, angina, other chest pain, stroke, transient ischaemic attack, and a composite end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death. Results Myocardial infarction was more commonly reported in the calcium group than in the placebo group (45 events in 31 women v 19 events in 14 women, P=0.01). The composite end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death was also more common in the calcium group (101 events in 69 women v 54 events in 42 women, P=0.008). After adjudication myocardial infarction remained more common in the calcium group (24 events in 21 women v 10 events in 10 women, relative risk 2.12, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 4.47). For the composite end point 61 events were verified in 51 women in the calcium group and 36 events in 35 women in the placebo group (relative risk 1.47, 0.97 to 2.23). When unreported events were added from the national database of hospital admissions in New Zealand the relative risk of myocardial infarction was 1.49 (0.86 to 2.57) and that of the composite end point was 1.21 (0.84 to 1.74). The respective rate ratios were 1.67 (95% confidence intervals 0.98 to 2.87) and 1.43 (1.01 to 2.04); event rates: placebo 16.3/1000 person years, calcium 23.3/1000 person years. For stroke (including unreported events) the relative risk was 1.37 (0.83 to 2.28) and the rate ratio was 1.45 (0.88 to 2.49). Conclusion Calcium supplementation in healthy postmenopausal women is associated with upward trends in cardiovascular event rates. This potentially detrimental effect should be balanced against the likely benefits of calcium on bone. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 012605000242628. PMID:18198394

2008-01-01

128

Income, health and nutrition activities: examples from women's groups in Kenya.  

PubMed

The accomplishments of 4 Kenyan women's groups, sponsored by seed grants of $2000-5000 from Center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) since 1982, are summarized. CEDPA provides professional management training and coordinates alumni groups, as well as grants for community projects in family planning, health and community development. Forty women from Ngamani started a project to sell floormats, raised vegetables, received a grant to raise poultry, and opened a nutrition clinic. In Kibuyuni women use profits from chickens, goats and vegetables, and milling grain to build a primary school, a health dispensary and a general store. With CEDPA funds, they stocked the store and furnished the clinic. Proceeds pay a health worker's salary. They have sponsored another women's group, which is building a bakery and managing dairy cows. The Makiwo women's group, with money from their craft business, built a multi-purpose community center for health, family planning services and reading classes. A CEDPA grant funded a charcoal business and a profitable water system built by the women, providing a salaried health educator. A women's group in Chonyi began raising cattle. A CEDPA graduate helped them to set a goal to reduce infant mortality. They started a training class for young mothers in techniques of nutrition, home economics, family planning and hygiene, such as growing vegetables an building latrines. Evaluation has shown that successful projects are based on previous work, strong links with other organizations, and entail a long-term process. Women's organizations can deliver results with some training, supervision and technical assistance, but minimal cost. PMID:12281244

Gibbons, G

1987-01-01

129

Changes in Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Indices in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Undergoing Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation  

PubMed Central

Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment always attain a low cumulative pregnancy rate disaccording with the satisfactory number of oocytes. Objective. We aim to evaluate the status of coagulation and fibrinolytic system in PCOS patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) process. Method. Of the 97 women, 30 patients with PCOS composed the study group; 67 women of child-bearing age with normal endocrine function composed the control group. All participants underwent GnRH agonist standard long protocol, and plasma HCY, FVIII, FX, and D-dimer levels as well as hormone parameters were measured at day of full downregulation, hCG priming, and embryos transfer. Results. On day of full downregulation, FX levels were significantly higher in PCOS group (P < 0.01). On hCG priming day, FX and estrogen levels in PCOS group were higher than in the control group and FVIII levels were significantly lower on day of embryos transfer whereas FX and E2 levels were significantly higher in PCOS group. Conclusion. Hypercoagulable state during peri-implantation phase would probably lead to poor microcirculation of endometrium and be one of the most important disadvantages of successful implantation and subsequent clinical pregnancy. PMID:25374601

Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yong; Yan, Ling; Chuai, Yun-Hai; Liu, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yi; Li, Min; Wang, Ai-Ming

2014-01-01

130

Measurement of social support across women from four ethnic groups: evidence of factorial invariance.  

PubMed

To examine whether a multidimensional social support instrument can be used for comparative research in four diverse ethnic groups of women (African American, Latina, Chinese, non-Latina White). The social support instrument was administered as part of a larger survey to 1,137 women. We tested the reliability and validity of this instrument. A confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) framework was used to test for the invariance of the instrument's psychometric properties across ethnic groups. We used multitrait scaling to eliminate items that did not meet the item-convergence criterion (r > 0.30) and where items were non-convergent items in at least three groups. A series of nested CFA models assessed the level of factorial invariance. One thousand seventy-four women completed the survey; Their mean age was 61 years with Chinese and Latinas reporting lower education compared to non-Latino Whites (p <. 001). A four-factor model (Tangible, Informational, Financial, Emotional/Companionship) fit within each ethnic group separately, suggested good fit. Multi-group CFA supported configural and metric invariance across all ethnic groups. Only partial scalar invariance was supported. This 8-item instrument is a reliable and valid tool that can be used as a multidimensional measure of social support. It can used to examine social support within one ethnic group and for comparative research across diverse ethnic groups of women. PMID:20182911

Wong, Sabrina T; Nordstokke, David; Gregorich, Steven; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

2010-03-01

131

Preparing for microbicide trials in Rwanda: Focus group discussions with Rwandan women and men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acceptability and feasibility of microbicide studies and future microbicide use are influenced by existing norms and values regarding sexual and contraceptive behaviour. In preparation for microbicide research in Rwanda, focus group discussions were conducted to assess sexual and contraceptive behaviour, preferences for vaginal lubrication, and hypothetical acceptability of microbicides among Rwandan women and men. Seven focus group discussions were

N. Veldhuijzen; J. Nyinawabega; M. Umulisa; B. Kankindi; E. Geubbels; P. Basinga; J. Vyankandondera; J. Van De Wijgert

2006-01-01

132

Feminist Group Counseling with South Asian Women Who Have Survived Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is presented.…

Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.

2008-01-01

133

Relationship between air pollution and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal death and disability worldwide. Its incidence in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 5%-12%. Air pollution has been reported to be one of the causative factors, and this case-control study determined its effect on pre-eclampsia in 195 pregnant women (65 with pre-eclampsia and 130 without) admitted to hospitals in Tehran. Women were divided into high and low exposure groups according to the mean density of exposure to pollutants during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant relationship between exposure to air pollutants including CO, particulate matter, SO2, NO2 and O3 and pre-eclampsia. The combined effect was also not significant. Air pollution is one of the problems of modern society and its avoidance is almost impossible for pregnant women. This study should reduce concern about pregnant women living in polluted cities. PMID:24995762

Nahidi, F; Gholami, R; Rashidi, Y; Majd, H Alavi

2014-01-01

134

Exploring the Self/Group Initiated and On-the-Job Learning Activities of Low Income Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The self- and group-initiated and on-the-job learning activities of low-income women were explored in a study of a small group of low-income mothers living in the greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Canada. During the study, the low-income women attended meetings during which a participating researcher documented the women's experiences.…

Butterwick, Shauna

135

Decentralized Cooperative Control of Heterogeneous Vehicle Groups  

E-print Network

terrain. A group of unmanned ground vehicles (ugvs) is sent to clear a Corresponding author. Email for the ground vehicles, and to surveil the surrounding area for threats, a group of unmanned aerial vehicles: a group of ground vehicles (ugvs) and a group of aerial vehicles (uavs). The ground agents interact

Tanner, Herbert G.

136

Command control group behaviors. Objective 1: A methodology for and identification of command control group behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report provides the results of the first year's research of a three-year effort to identify the individual and multi-individual non-procedural skills exhibited by battalion command control group members and the commander/staff as a whole. In this project a model of command control group behavior was applied to identify and quantify four general categories of behavior. A methodology was developed for use at the Combined Arms Tactical Training Simulator (CATTS) at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas. Extensive recordings were made of battalion commanders and their staffs as they underwent training at the facility fighting a highly realistic computer-assisted war game. The methodology was effective in distinguishing between groups in three of the four areas. Preliminary results show that both procedural and nonprocedural, individual, and team behaviors contribute to overall team performance.

Reaser, J. M.; Stewart, S.; Tiede, R. V.

1984-08-01

137

Depression among Low-Income Women of Color: Qualitative Findings from Cross-Cultural Focus Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the experiences with depression of women with young children living in ethnically and culturally diverse,\\u000a low-income communities. A qualitative ethnographic design using a focus group process was implemented in 15 communities. Despite\\u000a great diversity in ethnic and cultural backgrounds, these women of color reported similar experiences with depression and\\u000a described: a range of social risk factors, including

Katherine J. Lazear; Sheila A. Pires; Mareasa R. Isaacs; Patrick Chaulk; Larke Huang

2008-01-01

138

Measurement of Social Support Across Women from Four Ethnic Groups: Evidence of Factorial Invariance  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether a multidimensional social support instrument can be used for comparative research in four diverse ethnic\\u000a groups of women (African American, Latina, Chinese, non-Latina White). The social support instrument was administered as part\\u000a of a larger survey to 1,137 women. We tested the reliability and validity of this instrument. A confirmatory factor analytic\\u000a (CFA) framework was used to

Sabrina T. Wong; David Nordstokke; Steven Gregorich

2010-01-01

139

Role of women in prevention and control of AIDS.  

PubMed

Women in India and AIDS prevention and control are discussed in terms of vulnerability, victimization, required knowledge, reproductive impact, care and prevention after birth, and the demands of the prevailing situation. A WHO world estimate is that 3 million women of childbearing age are infected with HIV out of 8-10 million. Indian women are vulnerable because of their reduced status and lack of power in private and marital life. Also, pregnant women receive blood transfusions, which may be inadequately screened, for anemia. The use of oral contraceptives with estrogen reduces immunity. The use of IUDs may cause inflammation or injury which provides a point of entry for HIV into the bloodstream. Prostitution is an outlet for lack of money, education, and skills, and places women at risk. The transmission from men to women is higher than the reverse. Every women should know their risks and modes of transmission. Women need to know that the risk of fetal infection from an HIV-positive mother is 20-40%, and that the risk is highest if HIV infection occurs or AIDS symptoms occur during pregnancy. Infant mortality from HIV may occur within the 1st several years. The following needs to be understood about reproduction and HIV: the risk of infection is very high when impregnated by an HIV male partner, and if children are desired, artificial insemination should be the preferred method. The reverse holds true, because penetrative sex without a condom allows transmission of the virus. The best option is for avoidance of childbearing if a partner has HIV. Abortion should be provided. Women need to develop the skills in language and confidence to negotiate safer sex, should be particular about choosing a loyal partner, and protect themselves by urging male condom use. The mode of transmission to babies is not from cuddling or handling. Breast feeding carries a meager risk of transmission, and should be continued if HIV infection occurs; the baby should be immunized. All health workers should receive training in order to provide support and care to mother and child in a private and confidential manner. Traditional healers have a role in providing advice on AIDS and condoms, spiritual support, and in changing behavior. Peer counseling is an important strategy for teenagers. There is a great need from society,husbands, and family to change the views of women and sex and to support women. Testing and screening of pregnant women in whom HIV infection is suspected is recommended. PMID:1852651

Ram, E P; Singh, A C

1991-04-01

140

Influence of Self-Care Education on Illness Behaviors and Health Locus of Control of Mexican American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of self-care education on illness behaviors and health locus of control of Mexican American women. Participants were randomly assigned to a control (n = 60) or experimental group (n = 60). Subjects completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control questionnaire and an Illness Behavior Assessment at pretest and 6-months. The

Catherine A. Kennedy; Dale DeVoe; Kimberly Ramer-Henry; Janna West-Kowalski

1999-01-01

141

Psychometric Properties of the KPAS in Diverse Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women  

PubMed Central

Although the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) was a potential instrument for cross cultural research of midlife women, little information is available on its reliability and validity among multi-ethnic groups of midlife women. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the KPAS in estimating physical activity among 341 diverse ethnic women. Internal consistency was adequate for all ethnic groups except N-H African Americans. The construct validity was identified through group comparisons and factor analysis. In group comparisons, physical activity differences among diverse ethnic groups were similar to results of previous studies using the KPAS. Eight factors were extracted among all ethnic groups except N-H Asian Americans. In the convergent validity test, N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans showed particular patterns. Overall, the KPAS was a reliable instrument and was reasonably accurate in assessing physical activities for any multi-ethnic groups of midlife women. However, cultural sensitivity among N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans need to be further examined. PMID:19745161

Lee, Bokim; Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

2011-01-01

142

Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok

2008-01-01

143

Evaluation of vasomotor reactivity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients and its comparison with the control group  

PubMed Central

Background: Neuropsychiatric abnormalities are among the most common manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). They have been proposed to be associated with impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF). Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR) is a hemodynamic parameter effective in the autoregulation of CBF. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare the VMR of women with stable SLE and normal women. Materials and Methods: According to the study criteria 60 women in each group entered the study. VMR was evaluated with Transcranial Doppler (TCD) at rest and after one minute of breath holding. Results: There was no significant difference in the mean of age between two groups (31.76 ± 7.50 years in the SLE group versus 32.43 ± 4.55 years in the control group, P value: 0.64). The mean duration of SLE in the case group was 5.40 ± 3.60 years. The means of the Breath-Holding Index (BHI) in the SLE and control groups were 0.842 ± 0.72% and 0.815 ± 0.26%, respectively, which was not significantly different (P value: 0.82). Conclusion: This study indicates that the VMR of women with stable SLE is not significantly different from the age- and sex-matched normal population. However, further investigations on patients with longer SLE duration and more neuropsychological abnormality rates are suggested. PMID:23961285

Khorvash, Fariborz; Shirani, Elham; Askari, Gholam Reza; Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Sayedbonakdar, Zahra; Fatemi, Alimohammad

2013-01-01

144

Efficacy of a Group-Based Multimedia HIV Prevention Intervention for Drug-Involved Women under Community Supervision: Project WORTH  

PubMed Central

Importance This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. Objective We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. Design, Setting, Participants, and Intervention We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n?=?237) and 63% (n?=?194) had multiple sex partners. Results Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (??=?0.10; 95% CI?=?0.02–0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR?=?0.72; 95% CI?=?0.57–0.90). Conclusion and Relevance The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01784809 PMID:25372149

El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A.; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

2014-01-01

145

Women's evaluation of abuse and violence care in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial (weave)  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner abuse (IPA) is a major public health problem with serious implications for the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of women, particularly women of child-bearing age. It is a common, hidden problem in general practice and has been under-researched in this setting. Opportunities for early intervention and support in primary care need to be investigated given the frequency of contact women have with general practice. Despite the high prevalence and health consequences of abuse, there is insufficient evidence for screening in primary care settings. Furthermore, there is little rigorous evidence to guide general practitioners (GPs) in responding to women identified as experiencing partner abuse. This paper describes the design of a trial of a general practice-based intervention consisting of screening for fear of partner with feedback to GPs, training for GPs, brief counselling for women and minimal practice organisational change. It examines the effect on women's quality of life, mental health and safety behaviours. Methods/Design weave is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Approximately 500 women (16-50 years) seen by the GP in the previous year are mailed a short lifestyle survey containing an item to screen for IPA. Women who indicate that they were afraid of a partner/ex-partner in the last year and provide contact details are invited to participate. Once baseline data are collected, GPs are randomly assigned to either a group involving healthy relationship and responding to IPA training plus inviting women for up to 6 sessions of counselling or to a group involving basic education and usual care for women. Outcomes will be evaluated by postal survey at 6 and 12 months following delivery of the intervention. There will be an economic evaluation, and process evaluation involving interviews with women and GPs, to inform understanding about implementation and outcomes. Discussion The weave trial responds to an urgent need for more evidence on what can be achieved in primary care with regard to responding to women who experience IPA. It will provide important knowledge about the effectiveness of a brief method of screening, professional IPA training program and brief counselling for women. Trail Registration [ACTRN12608000032358] PMID:20044929

2010-01-01

146

The intersection of everyday life and group prenatal care for women in two urban clinics.  

PubMed

Women from vulnerable populations encounter challenging circumstances that generate stress and may adversely affect their health. Group prenatal care (GPNC) incorporates features that address social stressors, and has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes and prenatal care experiences. In this qualitative study, we describe the complex circumstances in the lives of women receiving care in two urban clinics and how GPNC attenuated them. Stressors included problems with transportation and child care, demanding jobs, poverty, homelessness, difficult relationships with partners, limited family support, and frustrating health care experiences. Receiving prenatal care in groups allowed women to strengthen relationships with significant others, gain social support, and develop meaningful relationships with group leaders. By eliminating waits and providing the opportunity to participate in care, GPNC also offered sanctuary from frustrations encountered in receiving individual care. Reducing such stressors may help improve pregnancy outcomes; however, more evidence is needed on mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:22643609

Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S; Knafl, Kathleen A; Groce, Nora Ellen; Kennedy, Holly Powell

2012-05-01

147

Obstetric outcomes for nulliparous women who received routine individualized treatment for severe fear of childbirth - a retrospective case control study  

PubMed Central

Background To study pregnancy and delivery outcomes in nulliparous women with severe FOC (fear of childbirth), all of whom had received routine treatment for their FOC and to make comparisons with a healthy reference group of nulliparous women. To study the possible relationship between the number of FOC-treatment sessions and the delivery method. Methods All nulliparous women with a diagnose FOC who received routine treatment for FOC (n?=?181) and a reference group of nulliparous women without FOC (n?=?431) at a university and a county hospital in the south east region of Sweden were analysed. Data from antenatal and delivery medical records were used to study outcome. Results The majority of women with severe FOC had a vaginal delivery. The incidence of elective CS was greater in the index group than in the reference group (p?women with a planned CS in the index group was 35 (19.4%) and in the control group 14 (3.2%). Thus, on average five women per year received an elective CS during the study years due to severe FOC. The women in the index group who wished to have a CS were similar to the other women in the index group with reference to age, BMI, chronic disease but had been in in-patient care more often during their pregnancy than those who did not ask for CS (p?=?0.009). Conclusion In this study of women treated for severe FOC, the majority gave birth vaginally and no relationship was found between number of treatment sessions and mode of childbirth. PMID:24694283

2014-01-01

148

Auricular acupuncture for chemically dependent pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial of the NADA protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of maternal drug use during pregnancy in North America has been estimated to be as high as 6-10%. The consequences for the newborn include increased risk for perinatal mortality and ongoing physical, neurobehavioral, and psychosocial problems. Methadone is frequently used to wean women off street drugs but is implicated as a cause of adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes itself. The purpose of our study was to test the ability of maternal acupuncture treatment among mothers who use illicit drugs to reduce the frequency and severity of withdrawal symptoms among their newborns. Methods We randomly assigned chemically dependent pregnant women at BC Women’s Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia to daily acupuncture treatments versus usual care. By necessity, neither our participants nor acupuncturists were blinded as to treatment allocation. Our primary outcome was days of neonatal morphine treatment for symptoms of neonatal withdrawal. Secondary neonatal outcomes included admission to a neonatal ICU and transfer to foster care. Results We randomized 50 women to acupuncture and 39 to standard care. When analyzed by randomized groups, we did not find benefit of acupuncture; the average length of treatment with morphine for newborns in the acupuncture group was 2.7 (6.3) compared to 2.8 (7.0) in the control group. Among newborns of women who were compliant with the acupuncture regime, we observed a reduction of 2.1 and 1.5 days in length of treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome compared to the non-compliant and control groups, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Acupuncture may be a safe and feasible treatment to assist mothers to reduce their dosage of methadone. Our results should encourage ongoing studies to test the ability of acupuncture to mitigate the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome among their newborns. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov registry: W05-0041 PMID:23259913

2012-01-01

149

Glycemic Control and Urinary Incontinence in Women with Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Although many studies have shown that diabetes increases the risk for urinary incontinence, it is unclear whether poor glycemic control in women with diabetes is associated with incontinence. This study aims to determine the relationship between the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level and urinary incontinence in a large, diverse cohort of older women. Methods We examined 6026 older women who responded to a survey (62% response rate) and were enrolled in the Diabetes and Aging Study, an ethnically stratified random sample of patients with diabetes enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Our primary independent variable was the mean of all HbA1c measurements in the year preceding the survey. Outcomes included the presence/absence of incontinence and limitations in daily activities due to incontinence. We used modified Poisson regression and ordinal logistic regression models to account for age, race, body mass index, parity, diabetes treatment, duration of diabetes, and comorbidity. Results Sixty-five percent of women reported incontinence (mean age 59±10 years). After adjustment, HbA1c levels were not associated with the presence or absence of incontinence. However, among women reporting incontinence, HbA1c ?9% was associated with more limitations due to incontinence than HbA1c <6% (adjusted odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.09–2.57). Conclusion In this cross-sectional analysis, HbA1c level is not associated with the presence or absence of incontinence. However, for women with incontinence, poor glycemic control (HbA1c ?9%) is associated with more limitations in daily activities due to incontinence. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether improving glycemic control to HbA1c <9% leads to fewer limitations in daily activities due to incontinence. PMID:24032999

Karter, Andrew J.; Thai, Julie N.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Huang, Elbert S.

2013-01-01

150

The effect of health and nutrition education intervention on women's postpartum beliefs and practices: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background 'Sitting month' is the Chinese tradition for postpartum customs. Available studies indicate that some of the traditional postpartum practices are potentially harmful for women's health. However, no intervention study aiming at postpartum practices has been performed. In this paper we evaluated the effect of a health and nutrition education intervention, which focused on improving postpartum dietary quality and optimal health behaviors. Methods The study design was a randomized controlled trial conducted in both urban and rural area of Hubei between August 2003 and June 2004. A total of 302 women who attended the antenatal clinic during the third trimester with an uncomplicated pregnancy were recruited. Women randomized to the education intervention group in both urban and rural area received two two-hour prenatal education sessions and four postpartum counseling visits. Control group women received usual health care during pregnancy and postpartum period. Women were followed up until 42 days postpartum. Outcome measures were nutrition and health knowledge, dietary behavior, health behavior and health problems during the postpartum period. Results Women in the intervention groups exhibited significantly greater improvement in overall dietary behaviors such as consumption of fruits, vegetables, soybean and soybean products as well as nutrition and health knowledge than those in the control groups. Significantly more women in the intervention groups give up the traditional behavior taboos. The incidence of constipation, leg cramp or joint pain and prolonged lochia rubra was significantly lower in the intervention groups as compared with the control groups. Conclusion The study shows that health and nutrition education intervention enable the women take away some of the unhealthy traditional postpartum practices and decrease the prevalence of postpartum health problems. The intervention has potential for adaptation and development to large-scale implementation. Trial registration number klACTRN12607000549426 PMID:19183504

Liu, Nian; Mao, Limei; Sun, Xiufa; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping; Chen, Banghua

2009-01-01

151

Eccentric muscle performance of elbow and knee muscle groups in untrained men and women.  

PubMed

Maximal voluntary eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) capacity of knee and elbow muscle groups was investigated in healthy untrained men (N = 40) and women (N = 50), 21-67 yr of age. Purposes of the study were to describe torque-velocity and ECC-CON relationships, and to compare these relationships among muscle groups and between genders. Average torque was measured at angular velocities of 30 degrees and 120 degrees.s-1 from knee flexor (KF), knee extensor (KE), and elbow flexor (EF) muscle groups unilaterally, using an isokinetic protocol including gravity compensation. Data were analyzed using ANOVA procedures, and a significance level of 0.01 was used for all hypothesis testing. Torque-velocity relationships were similar for each muscle group and gender; i.e., ECC average torque did not change as a function of velocity and CONC torque decreased as angular velocity increased. Women generated greater ECC relative to CONC torque than men in upper and lower extremity muscle groups. Muscle groups differed in ECC relative to CONC capacity in both men and women, with ECC/CONC ratios being greater for KE and EF than KF. In all muscle groups, the magnitude of ECC-CONC differences increased as angular velocity increased. Genders differed in relative strength balance between muscle groups, with men exhibiting greater KF/KE and EF/KF torque ratios than women for both ECC and CONC actions. Results of this study contribute to the body of women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8371655

Griffin, J W; Tooms, R E; vander Zwaag, R; Bertorini, T E; O'Toole, M L

1993-08-01

152

The Influence of Personal and Group Racism on Entry into Prenatal Care among African American Women  

PubMed Central

Background Racism has been hypothesized as a barrier to accessing healthcare. No quantitative study has directly assessed its influence on women's initiation of prenatal care (PNC). We examined the relationship between PNC entry and experiences of personal and group racism among low-income African American women. We also examined whether the use of denial of racism as coping mechanism was associated with a delay in accessing PNC. Methods Using a prospective/retrospective cohort design we collected data from 872 African American women (prenatally: n=484; postpartum: n=388). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the overall denial of racism index and PNC initiation. Findings PNC entry was not significantly associated with personal experiences of racism (p=0.33); it was significantly associated with group experiences (p<0.01). Conclusion Denial of racism experienced by other AAs was a barrier to early PNC among low-income African American women. Delayed access to PNC may be rooted in the avoidance of racialized experiences among less empowered women when faced with discrimination. Our findings have important implication for the engagement of African American women into the PNC delivery system and the health care system postpartum. PMID:24041828

Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Misra, Dawn P.

2013-01-01

153

Autonomic regulation across phases of the menstrual cycle and sleep stages in women with premenstrual syndrome and healthy controls  

PubMed Central

Summary To investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the presence of severe premenstrual symptoms on cardiac autonomic control during sleep, we performed heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep in 12 women with severe premenstrual syndrome and 14 controls in the mid-follicular, mid-luteal, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Heart rate was higher, along with lower high frequency (HF) power, reflecting reduced vagal activity, and a higher ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency power, reflecting a shift to sympathetic dominance, in REM sleep compared with NREM sleep in both groups of women. Both groups of women had higher heart rate during NREM and REM sleep in the luteal phase recordings compared with the mid-follicular phase. HF power in REM sleep was lowest in the mid-luteal phase, when progesterone was highest, in both groups of women. The mid-luteal phase reduction in HF power was also evident in NREM sleep in control women but not in women with PMS, suggesting some impact of premenstrual syndrome on autonomic responses to the hormone environment of the mid-luteal phase. In addition, mid-luteal phase progesterone levels correlated with HF power and LF/HF ratio in control women in NREM sleep and with the LF/HF ratio during REM sleep in both groups of women. Our findings suggest the involvement of female reproductive steroids in cardiac autonomic control during sleep in women with and without premenstrual syndrome. PMID:23850226

de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Nicholas, Christian L.; Colrain, Ian M.; Trinder, John A.; Baker, Fiona C.

2013-01-01

154

MOTION CONTROL FOR UNDERACTUATED MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ON LIE GROUPS  

E-print Network

MOTION CONTROL FOR UNDERACTUATED MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ON LIE GROUPS Francesco Bullo Control is an active area of research. In this paper we focus on mechanical control systems defined on Lie groups on mechan­ ical systems on Lie groups, with the Lagrangian equal to the kinetic energy and with fewer input

Leonard, Naomi

155

MOTION CONTROL FOR UNDERACTUATED MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ON LIE GROUPS  

E-print Network

MOTION CONTROL FOR UNDERACTUATED MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ON LIE GROUPS Francesco Bullo Control is an active area of research. In this paper we focus on mechanical control systems defined on Lie groups on mechan- ical systems on Lie groups, with the Lagrangian equal to the kinetic energy and with fewer input

Bullo, Francesco

156

[Factors influencing sexual satisfaction in women who have had a hysterectomy: a comparative group study].  

PubMed

This descriptive study was done to identify factors influencing sexual satisfaction in women who had had a hysterectomy and to compare these women who had not had a hysterectomy. The purpose was to contribute theoretical understanding on which to base nursing care planning. One group of subjects were 156 women who had had a hysterectomy, between one and 18 months post surgery, living with their spouse, having no complications, and menstruating before surgery. The other group of subjects were 282 healthy women who were living with their husbands and menstruating. The study tool consisted of 108 items including item concerning personal characteristics, characteristics related to the hysterectomy, husband's support, body image, emotions, attitude toward the sexual relationship, knowledge of sexuality, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. Sexual satisfaction was measured by a tool based on Derogatis Sexual Function Inventory. The range of the internal level of the study tool was from .5208 to .9462. Data collection was done during the period from June 20 to Aug. 20, 1989. The same questionnaire was used of data collection for both groups, but a mail survey method was used for the women who had had a hysterectomy, and an interview method was used for the women who had not had a hysterectomy. Data analysis was done using frequency, ratio, mean and S.D. for the characteristics of the subjects and level of sexual satisfaction. t-test or ANOVA was used for the differences between the groups with regard to the general and hysterectomy related characteristics. The relationship between the score for sex life related factors and the level of sexual satisfaction was analyzed using the Pearson Correlation, and the influencing factors on sexual satisfaction were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression. The results of this study were as follows; 1. Mean age and income level were the only general characteristics for the two groups that were significantly different. The mean age, and income level of the group who had had a hysterectomy were 45 years, and 1,150,000 won respectively, and for those who had not had a hysterectomy, 41 years and 999,000 won. 2. There was no statistical difference of the sexual satisfaction score between the two groups. 3. There was differences in the factors influencing sexual satisfaction between the two groups. Factors influencing sexual satisfaction for the group who had had a hysterectomy were husband's support (R = .5793, P = .000) and the women's Knowledge of sexuality (R = .6670, P = .000) (total variance: 33.56).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2290248

Chang, S B

1990-12-01

157

Effect of a primary health-care-based controlled trial for cardiorespiratory fitness in refugee women  

PubMed Central

Background Refugee women have a high risk of coronary heart disease with low physical activity as one possible mediator. Furthermore, cultural and environmental barriers to increasing physical activity have been demonstrated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of an approximate 6-month primary health care- and community-based exercise intervention versus an individual written prescription for exercise on objectively assessed cardiorespiratory fitness in low-active refugee women. Methods A controlled clinical trial, named "Support for Increased Physical Activity", was executed among 243 refugee women recruited between November 2006 and April 2008 from two deprived geographic areas in southern Stockholm, Sweden. One geographic area provided the intervention group and the other area the control group. The control group was on a higher activity level at both baseline and follow-up, which was taken into consideration in the analysis by applying statistical models that accounted for this. Relative aerobic capacity and fitness level were assessed as the two main outcome measures. Results The intervention group increased their relative aerobic capacity and the percentage with an acceptable fitness level (relative aerobic capacity > 23 O2ml·kg·min-1) to a greater extent than the control group between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.020). Conclusions A combined primary health-care and community-based exercise programme (involving non-profit organizations) can be an effective strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among low-active refugee women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00747942 PMID:20678219

2010-01-01

158

Informal and Formal Support Groups Retain Women and Minorities in Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of "acceptable" appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of "accruing capital." Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.

Ong, Maria

2005-10-01

159

Accuracy of Fetal Weight Estimation in Women with Diet Controlled Gestational Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To evaluate whether ultrasound accuracy of estimated fetal weight (EFW) differs in women with diet controlled gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to nondiabetic pregnant women. Material and Methods: We included 363 patients, 121 patients with diet controlled GDM and 242 patients with a normal oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT). Each case of diet controlled GDM was matched with 2 unaffected controls. All patients were screened/diagnosed for GDM by means of an oGTT. Both groups received ultrasound examination including fetal biometry, using Hadlock?s Formula, within 7 days to delivery. After birth, gestational age, birthweight and Apgar scores were collected from each newborn. Results: There was a good correlation between EFW and birth weight (coefficient?=?0.747, p?women with diet controlled GDM compared to women with normal glucose tolerance.

Husslein, H.; Worda, C.; Leipold, H.; Szalay, Stefan

2012-01-01

160

Associations among body size dissatisfaction, perceived dietary control, and diet history in African American and European American women  

PubMed Central

European American (EA) women report greater body dissatisfaction and less dietary control than do African American (AA) women. This study investigated whether ethnic differences in dieting history contributed to differences in body dissatisfaction and dietary control, or to differential changes that may occur during weight loss and regain. Eighty-nine EA and AA women underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition and completed questionnaires to assess body dissatisfaction and dietary control before, after, and one year following, a controlled weight loss intervention. While EA women reported a more extensive dieting history than AA women, this difference did not contribute to ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction and perceived dietary control. During weight loss, body satisfaction improved more for AA women, and during weight regain, dietary self-efficacy worsened to a greater degree for EA women. Ethnic differences in dieting history did not contribute significantly to these differential changes. Although ethnic differences in body image and dietary control are evident prior to weight loss, and some change differentially by ethnic group during weight loss and regain, differences in dieting history do not contribute significantly to ethnic differences in body image and dietary control. PMID:19778748

Chandler-Laney, Paula; Hunter, Gary; Bush, Nikki; Alvarez, Jessica; Roy, Jane; Byrne, Nuala; Gower, Barbara

2009-01-01

161

Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiota among Sexual Risk Behavior Groups of Women with Bacterial Vaginosis  

PubMed Central

Background The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) remains elusive. BV may be more common among women who have sex with women (WSW). The objective of this study was to use 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the vaginal microbiome of WSW, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM), and women who have sex with men (WSM) with BV to determine if there are differences in organism composition between groups that may inform new hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of BV. Methods Vaginal swab specimens from eligible women with BV at the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic were used. After DNA extraction, 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences was performed. Sequence data was classified using the Ribosomal Database Program classifer. Complete linkage clustering analysis was performed to compare bacterial community composition among samples. Differences in operational taxonomic units with an abundance of ?2% between risk behavior groups were determined. Alpha and beta diversity were measured using Shannon’s Index implemented in QIIME and Unifrac analysis, respectively. Results 33 WSW, 35 WSWM, and 44 WSM were included. The vaginal bacterial communities of all women clustered into four taxonomic groups with the dominant taxonomic group in each being Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, and Sneathia. Regarding differences in organism composition between risk behavior groups, the abundance of Atopobium (relative ratio (RR)=0.24; 95%CI 0.11-0.54) and Parvimonas (RR=0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.93) were significantly lower in WSW than WSM, the abundance of Prevotella was significantly higher in WSW than WSWM (RR=1.77; 95%CI 1.10-2.86), and the abundance of Atopobium (RR=0.41; 95%CI 0.18-0.88) was significantly lower in WSWM than WSM. Overall, WSM had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Conclusion The microbiology of BV among women in different risk behavior groups is heterogeneous. WSM in this study had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Additional studies are needed to better understand these differences. PMID:24236175

Muzny, Christina A.; Sunesara, Imran R.; Kumar, Ranjit; Mena, Leandro A.; Griswold, Michael E.; Martin, David H.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Schwebke, Jane R.

2013-01-01

162

Correlation between steroid hormonal levels and cardiac function in women during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.  

PubMed

During in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment, most women require controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). COH with gonadotropins results in an increase in steroid hormonal levels; however, it is unclear what impact these high concentrations of steroid hormones have on cardiac heart function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of high levels of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) during COH treatment on cardiac function in women undergoing IVF-ET. A total of 34 women with infertility due to tubal or male factors treated with COH and 28 women with normal menstrual cycles who underwent ovulation monitoring only were enrolled in this study. The serum levels of steroid hormones and the parameters of echocardiography at different time points during the natural menstrual cycles of the control group and the corresponding time points during COH treatment of the study group were compared. The independent sample with the t test, the paired sample with t test, ?(2) test, and Pearson correlation analysis were applied. The steroid hormonal levels were significantly different between natural menstrual cycles and COH treatment cycles. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) reached the highest level on day 7 after oocyte pickup; in contrast, ejection fraction (LVEF) was the lowest level on the same day. On day 16 after ET, E2 and P levels were maintained in the pregnant women in the study group; however, the levels of those hormones returned to those of a natural menstrual cycle in non-pregnant women. The parameters of LVEF and LVEDV significantly correlated with E2 concentrations. High levels of E2 during COH treatment may temporarily affect cardiac function, suggesting that COH intervention is relatively safe; however, a certain level of risk might exist. PMID:23576024

Li, Yiran; Sun, Xiuhua; Zang, Lili; Zhang, Quan; Li, Jichun; Zou, Shuhua

2013-12-01

163

Brief education to increase uptake of influenza vaccine among pregnant women: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnant women are the highest priority group for annual influenza vaccination. Studies have shown unacceptably low uptake of both seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccination among pregnant women. This paper will describe the study protocol and methodology of a randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in improving the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine among pregnant women in Hong Kong. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted with pregnant women in at least the second trimester of pregnancy from four publicly funded hospital antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. Participants will be randomly assigned to either one of the two treatment groups: standard care (control) or standard care plus brief education (intervention). Pregnant women in the standard care group will receive the usual antenatal care with an educational pamphlet developed by the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection and those in the intervention group will be provided with usual care plus a brief ten-minute education intervention. Content of the education session will cover four core components recommended in the research literature. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants who have received influenza vaccine during their pregnancy. A total of 184 pregnant women (92 per group) will be required to give an 80% power to detect a treatment effect of 15%. Discussion Most intervention studies aimed at improving influenza vaccination rates in pregnant women have targeted obstetric-care providers and the results of the two patient-oriented RCT interventions are conflicting. The high priority for vaccination given to pregnant women and the low influenza vaccination rate among pregnant women worldwide strongly indicates a need for interventions to improve uptake. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry at www.clinicaltrials.gov(NCT01772901). PMID:24423245

2014-01-01

164

Empowering rural women's groups for strengthening economic linkages: some Indian experiments.  

PubMed

Through organizing informal self-help groups (SHGs), rural women in India are provided credit and extension support for various production-oriented income-generating activities. These activities usually include garment-making, embroidery, food processing, bee-keeping, basketry, gem cutting, weaving, and knitting. SHGs are self-governed, with decisions about production and marketing taken collectively, although the group leader is responsible for identifying potential marketing centers and consumers. These groups represent a new culture in rural development, breaking with traditional bureaucracy and top-down management. Informal groups empower rural women to manage rural industries and make decisions collectively for their common economic interests. Experience with SHGs in Orissa, lessons from nongovernmental organization intervention, and a model for empowering poor people in a small town in Kerala are discussed. PMID:12295206

Rajagopal

1999-05-01

165

Women's groups practising participatory learning and action to improve maternal and newborn health in low-resource settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Maternal and neonatal mortality rates remain high in many low-income and middle-income countries. Different approaches for the improvement of birth outcomes have been used in community-based interventions, with heterogeneous effects on survival. We assessed the effects of women’s groups practising participatory learning and action, compared with usual care, on birth outcomes in low-resource settings. Methods We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials undertaken in Bangladesh, India, Malawi, and Nepal in which the effects of women’s groups practising participatory learning and action were assessed to identify population-level predictors of effect on maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, and stillbirths. We also reviewed the cost-effectiveness of the women’s group intervention and estimated its potential effect at scale in Countdown countries. Findings Seven trials (119 428 births) met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses of all trials showed that exposure to women’s groups was associated with a 37% reduction in maternal mortality (odds ratio 0·63, 95% CI 0·32–0·94), a 23% reduction in neonatal mortality (0·77, 0·65–0·90), and a 9% non-significant reduction in stillbirths (0·91, 0·79–1·03), with high heterogeneity for maternal (I2=58·8%, p=0·024) and neonatal results (I2=64·7%, p=0·009). In the meta-regression analyses, the proportion of pregnant women in groups was linearly associated with reduction in both maternal and neonatal mortality (p=0·026 and p=0·011, respectively). A subgroup analysis of the four studies in which at least 30% of pregnant women participated in groups showed a 55% reduction in maternal mortality (0·45, 0·17–0·73) and a 33% reduction in neonatal mortality (0·67, 0·59–0·74). The intervention was cost effective by WHO standards and could save an estimated 283 000 newborn infants and 41 100 mothers per year if implemented in rural areas of 74 Countdown countries. Interpretation With the participation of at least a third of pregnant women and adequate population coverage, women’s groups practising participatory learning and action are a cost-effective strategy to improve maternal and neonatal survival in low-resource settings. Funding Wellcome Trust, Ammalife, and National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for Birmingham and the Black Country programme. PMID:23683640

Prost, Audrey; Colbourn, Tim; Seward, Nadine; Azad, Kishwar; Coomarasamy, Arri; Copas, Andrew; Houweling, Tanja A J; Fottrell, Edward; Kuddus, Abdul; Lewycka, Sonia; MacArthur, Christine; Manandhar, Dharma; Morrison, Joanna; Mwansambo, Charles; Nair, Nirmala; Nambiar, Bejoy; Osrin, David; Pagel, Christina; Phiri, Tambosi; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Rosato, Mikey; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Saville, Naomi; More, Neena Shah; Shrestha, Bhim; Tripathy, Prasanta; Wilson, Amie; Costello, Anthony

2013-01-01

166

Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

2006-01-01

167

Cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women as compared with other ethnic groups on an urban campus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Pap screening has decreased morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer, reported statistics indicate that among ethnic groups, Hispanic women are one of the least likely to follow screening guidelines. Human papillomavirus (HPV), a major risk factor for cervical cancer, as well as pre-cancerous lesions, may be detected by early Pap screening. With a reported 43% prevalence of HPV infection

Marilyn E Tompkins

2003-01-01

168

Deconstructing the Mirror's Reflection: Narrative Therapy Groups for Women Dissatisfied with Their Body  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women facing middle age and beyond are pressured by a cultural ideal of slimness. The authors review literature pertaining to the factors affecting the societal perceptions of body image and address relevant counseling interventions, specifically, group therapy based on narrative theory, that are aimed at this population.

Duba, Jill D.; Kindsvatter, Aaron; Priddy, Constance J.

2010-01-01

169

Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

2002-01-01

170

Coping, quality of life and psychological symptoms in three groups of sub-fertile women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of assisted reproductive technology (ART), surrogacy and adoption pose different physical and psychological burdens on sub-fertile populations. Sub-fertile women (n = 176) were assessed retrospectively by questionnaire to determine if process (undergoing ART, surrogacy or adoption) or outcome (having a successful versus unsuccessful outcome) affected quality of life, coping style and psychological symptoms. The ART group was significantly

Olga B. A. van den Akker

2005-01-01

171

Distance art groups for women with breast cancer: guidelines and recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To overcome barriers that prevent women with breast cancer from attending support groups, innovative formats and modes of delivery both need to be considered. The present study was part of an interdisciplinary program of research in which researchers from counseling psychology, psycho-oncology, nursing, computer science, and fine arts have explored art making as an innovative format and telehealth as a

Kate Collie; Joan L. Bottorff; Bonita C. Long; Cristina Conati

2006-01-01

172

Alexithymia and its impact on quality of life in a group of Brazilian women with migraine without aura  

PubMed Central

Background Migraine is a type of primary headache widely known for its impact on quality of life of patients. Although the psychological aspects of the disease are receiving increasing attention in current research, some of them, as alexithymia, are still seldom explored. This study aimed to provide evidence on the relationships between markers of depression, anxiety, alexithymia, self-reflection, insight and quality of life in migraine. Methods Forty female outpatients from a Brazilian specialized headache hospital service and a paired control group were compared. Results The results revealed that women with migraine had higher levels of depression, anxiety and alexithymia, and lower levels of quality of life, self-reflection and insight, compared to controls. Quality of life in women with migraine was predicted by levels of depression and one alexithymia factor (ability to express emotions and fantasies). A binary regression analysis between clinical and control groups revealed the migraine group to comprise individuals with high anxiety, low quality of life in the physical domain and the presence of a concrete thinking style. Conclusions The results highlight the relevance of considering psychological variables in the routine healthcare practices for migraine patients in general, while keeping steady attention to individual case features. PMID:23565860

2013-01-01

173

An analysis of Time 4U, a therapeutic group for women with postnatal depression.  

PubMed

This article examines the effectiveness of the Time4U therapeutic group for women with postnatal depression, introduced seven years ago in Bury. The group is facilitated by a health visitor and primary care mental health nurse, and offers a combination of group therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy, peer support and social support. This paper analyses the scores and evaluations of the mothers who attended in 2012 and shows that the mothers' depression, anxiety and social functioning improved. The reasons for the group's success are discussed and include partnership working between community services, primary mental health services and children's centres. PMID:25286739

Hall, Kathy; Grundy, Sheila

2014-09-01

174

Group Therapy for Incarcerated Women Who Experienced Interpersonal Violence: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated effectiveness of group therapy for incarcerated women with histories of childhood sexual and\\/or physical abuse. The intervention was based on a two-stage model of trauma treatment and included Dialectical Behavior Therapy skills and writing assignments. We randomly assigned 24 participants to group treatment (13 completed) and 25 to a no-contact comparison condition (18 completed). We evaluated treatment

Rebekah G. Bradley; Diane R. Follingstad

2003-01-01

175

The impact of structured support groups for pregnant South African women recently diagnosed HIV positive.  

PubMed

The authors of this study evaluated a structured 10-session psychosocial support group intervention for newly HIV-diagnosed pregnant South African women. Participants were expected to display increases in HIV disclosure, self-esteem, active coping and positive social support, and decreases in depression, avoidant coping, and negative social support. Three hundred sixty-one pregnant HIV-infected women were recruited from four antenatal clinics in Tshwane townships from April 2005 to September 2006. Using a quasi-experimental design, assessments were conducted at baseline and two and eight months post-intervention. A series of random effects regression analyses were conducted, with the three assessment points treated as a random effect of time. At both follow-ups, the rate of disclosure in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the comparison group (p<0.001). Compared to the comparison group at the first follow-up, the intervention group displayed higher levels of active coping (t=2.68, p<0.05) and lower levels of avoidant coping (t=-2.02, p<0.05), and those who attended at least half of the intervention sessions exhibited improved self-esteem (t=2.11, p<0.05). Group interventions tailored for newly HIV positive pregnant women, implemented in resource-limited settings, may accelerate the process of adjusting to one's HIV status, but may not have sustainable benefits over time. PMID:21973110

Mundell, Jonathan P; Visser, Maretha J; Makin, Jennifer D; Kershaw, Trace S; Forsyth, Brian W C; Jeffery, Bridget; Sikkema, Kathleen J

2011-08-31

176

Group versus individual phone-based obesity treatment for rural women.  

PubMed

Rural women have among the highest rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyle, yet few studies have examined strategies for delivering state-of-the-art obesity treatment to hard-to-reach rural areas. The purpose of this pilot trial was to examine the impact and cost-effectiveness of a 6-month behavioral weight loss program delivered to rural women by phone either one-on-one with a counselor or to a group via conference call. Thirty-four rural women (mean BMI=34.4, SD=4.6) were randomized to group phone-based treatment or individual phone-based treatment. Completers analysis showed that weight loss was greater in the group condition (mean=14.9 kg=, SD=4.4) compared to the individual condition (mean=9.5 kg, SD=5.2; p=.03). Among the total sample, 62% of participants in the group condition achieved the 10% weight loss goal compared to 50% in the individual condition, and group treatment was found to be more cost-effective. Future research is warranted to examine the benefits of group phone-based treatment for long-term management of obesity among rural populations. PMID:19962115

Befort, Christie A; Donnelly, Joseph E; Sullivan, Debra K; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Perri, Michael G

2010-01-01

177

Adrenergic control of lipolysis in women compared with men.  

PubMed

Data suggest women are more sensitive to the lipolytic action of epinephrine compared with men while maintaining similar glucoregulatory effects (Horton et al. J Appl Physiol 107: 200-210, 2009). This study aimed to determine the specific adrenergic receptor(s) that may mediate these sex differences. Lean women (n = 14) and men (n = 16) were studied on 4 nonconsecutive days during the following treatment infusions: saline (S: control), epinephrine [E: mixed ?-adrenergic (lipolytic) and ?2-adrenergic (antilipolytic) stimulation], epinephrine + phentolamine (E + P: mixed ?-adrenergic stimulation only), and terbutaline (T: selective ?2-adrenergic stimulation). Tracer infusions of glycerol, palmitate, and glucose were administered to determine systemic lipolysis, free fatty acid (FFA) release, and glucose turnover, respectively. Following basal measurements, substrate and hormone concentrations were measured in all subjects over 90 min of treatment and tracer infusion. Women had greater increases in glycerol and FFA concentrations with all three hormone infusions compared with men (P < 0.01). Glycerol and palmitate rate of appearance (Ra) and rate of disappearance (Rd) per kilogram body weight were greater with E infusion in women compared with men (P < 0.05), whereas no sex differences were observed with other treatments. Glucose concentration and kinetics were not different between sexes with any infusion. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the greater rate of lipolysis in women with infusion of E was likely due to lesser ?2 antilipolytic activation. These findings may help explain why women have greater lipolysis and fat oxidation during exercise, a time when epinephrine concentration is elevated. PMID:25190743

Schmidt, Stacy L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Stotz, Sarah; Peelor, Frederick F; Miller, Benjamin F; Horton, Tracy J

2014-11-01

178

Complement protein C3 and coronary artery calcium in middle-aged women with polycystic ovary syndrome and controls.  

PubMed

Circulating complement protein C3 (C3) levels have been associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in women with systemic lupus erythematosus, but have yet to be evaluated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to determine whether C3 levels were elevated in women with PCOS compared to controls and to quantify the association of C3 with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and CAC and if PCOS modified this association. This cross-sectional analysis included 132 women with PCOS and 155 controls, 35-62 years old, from the third visit of a case-control study. CAC was measured during the study visit, and circulating C3 was measured in stored sera. The presence of CAC and CAC categories (Agatston score 0, 1-9.9 and ? 10) were used for logistic and ordinal regression analysis, respectively. C3 levels were not significantly different between women with PCOS and controls. Among all women, C3 was associated with the presence of CAC and increasing CAC groups after adjusting for age, PCOS status and insulin or body mass index (BMI), all p<0.05. In addition, C3 was associated with the presence of CAC after adjusting for age, PCOS status, BMI, insulin and African American race, p=0.049. PCOS status did not modify these associations. In conclusion, circulating C3 levels may prove beneficial in identifying women at risk of CVD in women with PCOS and the general population. PMID:24592986

Snyder, Michelle L; Shields, Kelly J; Korytkowski, Mary T; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Talbott, Evelyn O

2014-07-01

179

Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: results from a focus groups assessment.  

PubMed

This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n = 28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3 ± 8.9 years; body mass index [BMI] 40.4 ± 8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g., from children or people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

2014-01-01

180

Young Women with Breast Cancer: A Focus Group Study of Unmet Needs  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Young women with breast cancer suffer distress both at the time of diagnosis and afterwards. This study aimed to elucidate which issues are most disturbing to this population and which might be amenable to intervention. Methods: English-speaking women treated or involved in research at the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute for stage I–III breast cancer while aged 18–42 years were invited to participate in one of four focus groups. A trained moderator led each 90-minute audio-recorded group using a semi-structured interview guide. All transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis with NVivo software. Results: Thirty-six women participated. Three major themes emerged from the analyses of these focus groups' data: (1) participants felt different from older breast cancer patients with regard to relationships, fertility, menopausal symptoms, treatment side effects, and work/finances; (2) participants faced unique challenges transitioning into the survivorship phase of care; and (3) participants desired assistance, including connections with other young patients, help navigating the healthcare system, educational materials, and lists of appropriate counselors. Conclusion: Young women with breast cancer have unmet needs for psychosocial support, education, and symptom management, and can identify potential support that may help meet these needs. PMID:24380034

Greaney, Mary L.; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Meyer, Meghan E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Partridge, Ann H.

2013-01-01

181

Coordination and Control of a Group of Small Mobile Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task of coordinating and controlling a group of small mobile robots may be decomposed into five subtasks: formation of geometric pattern, alignment of each robot's orientation, coordination of the robots in the group, motion realization and stability of the formation in motion. The technique of imposing constraint conditions is utilized to coordinate and control the formation. Group stability is

Qin Chen; J. Y. S. Luh

1994-01-01

182

Telemetry, Tracking, and Control Working Group report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After assessing the design implications and the criteria to be used in technology selection, the technical problems that face the telemetry, tracking, and control (TTC) area were defined. For each of the problems identified, recommendations were made for needed technology developments. These recommendations are listed and ranked according to priority.

Campbell, Richard; Rogers, L. Joseph

1986-01-01

183

The Prevalence of Group B Streptococcus Colonization in Iranian Pregnant Women and Its Subsequent Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: Group B streptococcus colonization in pregnant women usually has no symptoms, but it is one of the major factors of newborn infection in developed countries. In Iran, there is a little information about the prevalence of maternal colonization and newborns infected by group B streptococcus. In order to find the necessary information to create a protocol for prevention and treatment of group B streptococcus infection in newborns, we conducted a study of its prevalence among Iranian pregnant women and its vertical transmission to their newborns. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study performed at Prenatal Care Clinic of the Sarem Hospital from 2009 to 2011. The pregnant women with the gestational age of 35-37 weeks were enrolled in the study. The vaginal culture for group B streptococcus was done for 980 mothers based on our protocol. Among 980 mothers, 48 were shown positive vaginal culture; however, 8 cases among these 48 mothers were positive for both vaginal and urine culture. Babies with mothers showing positive vaginal culture were screened for infection using complete blood count /blood culture (B/C) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Then, a complete sepsis workup was performed for babies with any signs of infection in the first 48 hours after birth, and they received antibiotic therapy if necessary. All collected data were analyzed (SPSS version 15). Results: Among 980 pregnant women with vaginal culture, 48 cases had positive group B streptococcus cultures among which 8 mothers also had positive group B streptococcus urine culture. Our findings revealed that 22 (50%) symptomatic neonates were born from the mothers with positive vaginal culture for group B streptococcus. About 28 of them (63%) had absolute neutrophil count more than normal, and 4 (9.1 %) newborns were omitted from the study. Therefore, 50% of neonates showed clinical feature, whereas para-clinical test was required to detect the infection for the rest of neonates who showed no signs or symptoms. Conclusion: The colonization of group B streptococcus in Iranian women is significant, while 50% of newborns from mother with positive vaginal culture were symptomatic after birth; therefore, screening of newborns for group B streptococcus infection is recommended to become a routine practice in all healthcare centers in Iran. PMID:24520495

Shirazi, Mahboobeh; Abbariki, Ezat; Hafizi, Ali; Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Bandari, Mozhgan; Dastgerdy, Ebrahim

2014-01-01

184

Using a Large Control Group for Statistical Comparison: Evaluation of a Between-Groups Median Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an alternative statistical test, BOOT(subscript)med for the two-group situation when a small experimental group is being compared with a large control group. BOOTmed is a between-groups median test derived through bootstrapping techniques. Empirical validation indicates that BOOTmed maintains relatively robust error rates under a variety…

Riniolo, Todd C.

1999-01-01

185

Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7) and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3). Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus. PMID:24142184

Ortega-Garcia, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P.; Sanchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Canovas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomariz-Penalver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E.; Carceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Martinez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

2013-01-01

186

The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African…

Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

2010-01-01

187

Organizational Repertoires and Institutional Change: Women's Groups and the Transformation of U.S. Politics, 1890-1920.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses social changes brought about in the United States as a result of the women's suffrage movement. Explains that groups marginalized by existing institutions must create alternative organizations if they are to be successful. Describes political innovations used by women's groups in the struggle for voting rights. (CFR)

Clemens, Elisabeth S.

1993-01-01

188

Women's Perceptions Using the CenteringPregnancy Model of Group Prenatal Care  

PubMed Central

A qualitative nonexperimental thematic analysis was conducted at a hospital-based midwifery practice to explore the views of participants in group prenatal care and its impact on pregnancy, birth, and postnatal care. Ten women and three support people, recruited through purposive sampling, shared their feedback on the program. The findings conveyed three broad themes: program experience, midwife relationship, and support. Women enjoyed the opportunity for in-depth learning, and peer-group support led to normalizing of pregnancy concerns. Having support people as participants also helped during pregnancy, birth, and child care. The findings showed the enhanced opportunity for education, learning, and interpersonal support provided by CenteringPregnancy to expectant mothers had a positive impact on their pregnancy experiences. PMID:24868125

Risisky, Deb; Asghar, Syed Masood; Chaffee, Madeline; DeGennaro, Nancy

2013-01-01

189

Experiences of Women with Bulimia Nervosa in a Mindfulness-Based Eating Disorder Treatment Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience of 6 college-age women with bulimia nervosa was examined after they participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based eating disorder treatment group. This phenomenological study used individual interview and pre- and post-treatment self-portraits. Participants described their experience of transformation from emotional and behavioral extremes, disembodiment, and self-loathing to the cultivation of an inner connection with themselves resulting in greater self-awareness,

Kathryn Proulx

2007-01-01

190

Late Life Attachment in Context: Patterns of Relating Among Men and Women from Seven Ethnic Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to develop the later life attachment literature by providing data contrasting patterns\\u000a of attachment among 616 older men and women (aged 50 to 70) from seven ethnic groups in the United States: African Americans,\\u000a English-speaking Caribbeans, Haitians, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, Eastern Europeans, and European Americans. A multivariate\\u000a analysis of the variance with ethnicity,

Katherine L. Fiori; Nathan S. Consedine; Carol Magai

2009-01-01

191

The Effect of Stationary Walking on the Quality of Life of the Elderly Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Aging has a profound effect on all the body organs and quality of life. One of the appropriate interventions is exercises such as walking. Nevertheless, the risk of falling and its complications are lower in stationary walking than walking on ground. Due to the higher life expectancy in women than men, the increasing number of elderly, and the low quality of life of women compared to men, this study aimed to assess the impact of stationary walking on the quality of life of the elderly women. Methods: In this clinical trial, 66 household elderly women covered by health centers of Maragheh were randomly selected and divided into experimental and control groups. Six weeks exercise intervention was conducted. The participants completed the quality of life questionnaire of the elderly, before and after the intervention. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Results: Mean scores of quality of life, in various aspects of the experimental group, before and after intervention, showed significant difference; there was no statistically significant difference in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in the mean and standard deviation of different aspects of quality of life in pre- and post-test of experiment and control groups. Conclusion: Using regular and constant exercise program such as stationary walking can increase the quality of life of the elderly women. It can improve healthy aging and having a healthy life at this age, too. Therefore, it is recommended to have stationary walking program in daily lives of the elderly.

Dehi, Manijeh; Aghajari, Parvaneh; Shahshahani, Maryam; Takfallah, Leila; Jahangiri, Leila

2014-01-01

192

Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios. PMID:23637315

Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

2013-04-01

193

Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

194

Serum proteins and paraproteins in women with silicone implants and connective tissue disease: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have suggested abnormalities of serum proteins, including paraproteins, in women with silicone implants but did not control for the presence of connective-tissue disease (CTD). This retrospective case–control study, performed in tertiary-care academic centers, assessed possible alterations of serum proteins, including paraproteins, in such a population. Seventy-four women with silicone implants who subsequently developed CTD, and 74 age-matched and CTD-matched women without silicone implants, were assessed in the primary study; other groups were used for additional comparisons. Routine serum protein determinations and high-sensitivity protein electrophoresis and immunofixation electrophoresis were performed for detection of paraproteins. Women with silicone implants, either with or without CTD, had significantly lower serum total protein and ?1-globulin, ?2-globulin, ?-globulin, ?-globulin, and IgG levels compared with those without silicone implants. There was no significant difference, however, in the frequency of paraproteinemia between women with silicone implants and CTD (9.5%) and age-matched and CTD-matched women without silicone implants (5.4%) (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.51–6.45). Paraprotein isotypes were similar in the two groups, and the clinical characteristics of the 13 women with paraproteinemia were comparable with an independent population of 10 women with silicone breast implants, CTD, and previously diagnosed monoclonal gammopathies. In summary, this first comprehensive study of serum proteins in women with silicone implants and CTD found no substantially increased risk of monoclonal gammopathy. Women with silicone implants, however, had unexpectedly low serum globulin and immunoglobulin levels, with or without the subsequent development of CTD. The causes and clinical implications of these findings require further investigation. PMID:17875216

Csako, Gyorgy; Costello, Rene; Shamim, Ejaz A; O'Hanlon, Terrance P; Tran, Anthony; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, H James; Miller, Frederick W

2007-01-01

195

Women's perceptions of the relationship between recent life events, transitions, and diet in midlife: findings from a focus group study  

PubMed Central

Research indicates that history and early life events and trajectories influence women’s dietary behaviors. Yet, the social context in which recent life changes occur requires greater understanding, particularly regarding changes that embody the interconnectedness of women and their families, and how those changes affect women’s dietary decisions and behaviors. The data presented here were the product of eight focus groups that we conducted in one Maryland county in the fall of 2009. Our participants were 43 women with limited financial resources aged 40–64 years. In this analysis, we focused on women’s perceptions of the relation of recent life transitions and events to the dietary decisions they made for themselves and their families. Our findings suggested that transitions and events related to household structure, health status, phases of motherhood, and shifts in financial and employment status all had the potential to have profound and immediate effects on women’s dietary decisions and resulting dietary behaviors. We used the focus group data to consider implications for developing intervention strategies designed to improve self-efficacy and negotiation skills around dietary issues as a means of promoting healthy decision-making among women in midlife, particularly in times of familial upheaval and in circumstances where financial resources are limited. PMID:22533898

Brown, Natasha A.; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall

2012-01-01

196

Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:…

Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

2007-01-01

197

Taking Control: Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Non-surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women What is UI? “Taking Control” (5-minute video) “ ... video in a new window) Are there other women like me? (8-minute video) Urinary incontinence happens ...

198

The use of group contingencies for behavioral control: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of group contingencies have been developed to control academic and disruptive behavior in the classroom, in which reinforcement is dependent on (a) a selected individual's or (b) the entire group's performance. Comparisons of group and individual contingencies have generally reported them to be equally effective, with some suggestion that individual Ss characteristics may be of importance. The sociometric

Louise A. Hayes

1976-01-01

199

Controllability of Linear Systems with inner derivation on Lie Groups  

E-print Network

Controllability of Linear Systems with inner derivation on Lie Groups Philippe JOUAN November 2, 2010 Abstract A vector eld on a connected Lie group is said to be linear if its ow is a one parameter where the derivation of the group Lie algebra that can be associated to the linear vector eld is inner

Boyer, Edmond

200

Efficacy of Emotion-Focused and Problem-Focused Group Therapies for Women with Fertility Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competing positions exist in the literature regarding whether problem-focused or emotion-focused coping is more useful when one confronts a chronic health-related problem. In this study, 29 infertile women, who on average had been attempting conception for almost 4 years, were assigned to six sessions of training in problem- or emotion-focused coping or to a no-treatment control condition. Problem-focused training produced

Debra A. McQueeney; Annette L. Stanton; Sandra Sigmon

1997-01-01

201

Promoting Regular Mammography Screening II. Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial in US Women Veterans  

PubMed Central

Background Few health promotion trials have evaluated strategies to increase regular mammography screening. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of two theory-based interventions in a population-based, nationally representative sample of women veterans. Methods Study candidates 52 years and older were randomly sampled from the National Registry of Women Veterans and randomly assigned to three groups. Groups 1 and 2 received interventions that varied in the extent of personalization (tailored and targeted vs targeted-only, respectively); group 3 was a survey-only control group. Postintervention follow-up surveys were mailed to all women after 1 and 2 years. Outcome measures were self-reported mammography coverage (completion of one postintervention mammogram) and compliance (completion of two postintervention mammograms). In decreasingly conservative analyses (intention-to-treat [ITT], modified intention-to-treat [MITT], and per-protocol [PP]), we examined crude coverage and compliance estimates and adjusted for covariates and variable follow-up time across study groups using Cox proportional hazards regression. For the PP analyses, we also used logistic regression. Results None of the among-group differences in the crude incidence estimates for mammography coverage was statistically significant in ITT, MITT, or PP analyses. Crude estimates of compliance differed at statistically significant levels in the PP analyses and at levels approaching statistical significance in the ITT and MITT analyses. Absolute differences favoring the intervention over the control groups were 1%–3% for ITT analysis, 1%–5% for MITT analysis, and 2%–6% for the PP analysis. Results from Cox modeling showed no statistically significant effect of the interventions on coverage or compliance in the ITT, MITT, or PP analyses, although hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for coverage were consistently slightly higher in the intervention groups than the control group (range for HRRs = 1.05–1.09). A PP analysis using logistic regression produced odds ratios (ORs) that were consistently higher than the corresponding hazard rate ratios for both coverage and compliance (range for ORs = 1.15–1.29). Conclusions In none of our primary analyses did the tailored and targeted intervention result in higher mammography rates than the targeted-only intervention, and there was limited support for either intervention being more effective than the baseline survey alone. We found that adjustment for variable follow-up time produced more conservative (less favorable) intervention effect estimates. PMID:18314474

Vernon, Sally W.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Tiro, Jasmin A.; Coan, Sharon P.; Perz, Catherine A.; Bastian, Lori A.; Rakowski, William; Chan, Wen; Lairson, David R.; McQueen, Amy; Fernandez, Maria E.; Warrick, Cynthia; Halder, Arada; DiClemente, Carlo

2010-01-01

202

Menopause-specific quality of life of a group of urban women, West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective To find out the association of menopause-specific quality of life of women with menopausal status. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we involved 250 Bengali-speaking women of Hindu ethnic group (118 perimenopausal and 132 postmenopausal), aged 40-65 years from urban areas of North 24 Paraganas, a district of West Bengal, India. The Menopause-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire (MENQOL) consisting of 29 menopausal symptoms, grouped under four menopausal domains (vasomotor, psychosocial, physical and sexual), was used to assess menopause-specific quality of life. Scores of four menopausal domains generated a composite score of 'Quality of Life'. Additionally, participants were also interviewed for their sociodemographic characteristics. Results Bivariate analyses showed significant difference in all the domains of menopause-specific quality of life (barring vasomotor domain) when compared for menopausal status. Results of ANCOVA showed that menopausal status was significantly associated only with the physical domain after removing the effects of sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion Menopausal status had a significant association with the physical domain of menopause-specific quality of life of women. PMID:24742367

Som, N; Roy, P; Ray, S

2014-12-01

203

The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.  

PubMed

Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

Dai, K

1991-03-01

204

Energy Cost and Cardiorespiratory Adaptation in the ''Get-Up-and-Go'' Test in Frail Elderly Women With Postural Abnormalities and in Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study investigated the hypothesis that postural abnormalities might increase energy expenditure during a clinical functional test in frail elderly persons. Methods. Two groups of hospitalized women (aged 73 to 100 years) were recruited. Women who showed postural and gait abnormalities as described in the psychomotor disadaptation syndrome (PDS) were compared with control participants. The authors measured energy expenditure

Laurent Brondel; France Mourey; Chrystel Mischis-Troussard; Philippe d'Athis; Pierre Pfitzenmeyer

205

Flow Instability and Control Group: Introduction Sanjiva Lele (Stanford)  

E-print Network

, noise, ...) > Preserve laminar flow (control of transition) > Model reduction for prediction and controlFlow Instability and Control Group: Introduction Sanjiva Lele (Stanford) Taraneh Sayadi (Imperial, washes away pollution) � Promotes turbulence (robust macroscopic outcomes) � But, some times laminar flow

Wang, Wei

206

Bacterial vaginosis among a group of married Jordanian women: occurrence and laboratory diagnosis.  

PubMed

A total of 310 vaginal swabs collected from a group of married Jordanian women complaining of vaginal discharge were examined for bacterial vaginosis. The scoring system of Nugent for the interpretation of Gram staining was employed. This system revealed the presence of the condition in 29.7% of patients. Results obtained using the scoring system correlated significantly with the detection of clue cells and the scarcity of white blood cells in the vaginal discharge. An inverse relationship was found between bacterial vaginosis and Lactobacillus morphotypes determined by Gram staining. No definite relationship was detected between bacterial vaginosis and the recovery of Gardnerella vaginalis by culture as this organism was isolated from swabs which according to the Nugent criterion were negative for bacterial vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis among the women investigated was more prevalent than vaginitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis or yeasts. PMID:11368266

Abu Shaqra, Q M

2001-01-01

207

Women's groups and professional organizations in advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights.  

PubMed

After the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994 and the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) have improved in many countries, and been supported by awareness raised by women's health advocates, increasingly by youth groups, and also by organizations of health professionals. In the HIV/AIDS area, involvement of organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS is crucial to improve prevention and care. However, after victories during the 1990s, combating opposition by social and political conservatives has taken up much energy in recent years. Continuous advocacy to broaden acceptance of the fundamental importance of SRHR, their role in meeting the Millennium Development Goals, and the imperative to increase funding, is essential. PMID:19539933

Germain, Adrienne; Liljestrand, Jerker

2009-08-01

208

29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. 4001...4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For purposes...whether or not incorporated) are under common control if they are “two or more...

2010-07-01

209

Predictors of Plasma DDT and DDE Concentrations among Women Exposed to Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB)  

PubMed Central

Background: Few studies have examined predictors of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels among residents in homes sprayed with DDT for malaria control with the aim of identifying exposure-reduction strategies. Methods: The present analysis included 381 women enrolled in the Study of Women and Babies (SOWB) during 2010–2011, from eight South African villages in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) occurred in half of the villages. Questionnaires regarding various demographic and medical factors were administered and blood samples were obtained. We classified the women into three exposure groups by type of residence: unsprayed village (n = 175), IRS village in household with a low likelihood of DDT use (non-DDT IRS household, n = 106), IRS village in household with a high likelihood of DDT use (DDT IRS household, n = 100). We used multivariable models of natural log-transformed DDT plasma levels (in micrograms per liter) and DDE (in micrograms per liter) to identify predictors for each group. Results: Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in unsprayed villages were 0.3 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.1–0.9] and 1.7 (IQR: 0.7–5.5), respectively. Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in DDT IRS households were 2.6 (IQR: 1.1–6.6) and 8.5 (IQR: 4.7–18.0), respectively. In unsprayed villages, women with water piped to the yard, rather than a public tap, had 73% lower DDT (95% CI: –83, –57%) and 61% lower DDE (95% CI: –74, –40%) levels. In DDT IRS households, women who reported taking more than six actions to prepare their home before IRS (e.g., covering water and food) had 40% lower DDT levels (95% CI: –63, –0.3%) than women who took fewer than four actions. Conclusion: The predictors of DDT and DDE plasma levels identified in the present study may inform interventions aimed at decreasing exposure. Among households where DDT is likely to be used for IRS, education regarding home preparations may provide an interventional target. Citation: Whitworth KW, Bornman RM, Archer JI, Kudumu MO, Travlos GS, Wilson RE, Longnecker MP. 2014. Predictors of plasma DDT and DDE concentrations among women exposed to indoor residual spraying for malaria control in the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB). Environ Health Perspect 122:545–552;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307025 PMID:24577839

Bornman, Riana M.S.; Archer, Janet I.; Kudumu, Mwenda O.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Wilson, Ralph E.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2014-01-01

210

Moving beyond safe sex to women-controlled safe sex: A concept analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of a conceptual analysis of women-controlled safe sex. Background Women bear disproportionate burdens from sexually-related health compromising outcomes. Imbalanced societal gender and power positions contribute to high morbidities. The expression, women-controlled safe sex, aims to empower women to gain control of their sexual lives. Few researchers focus on contextualized socio-cultural definitions of sexual safety among women. Data Sources The sample included scientific literature from Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Sociological Abstracts. Papers were published 2000–2010. Review Methods Critical analyses of literature about women-controlled safe sex were performed using Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis methods. The search focused on social and cultural influences on sexual practices aimed at increasing women’s control over their sexual safety. Results The analysis uncovered five attributes of women-controlled safe sex: technology; access to choices; women at-risk; “condom migration” panic; and communication. Three antecedents included: male partner influence; body awareness; and self-efficacy. Consequences were categorized as positive or negative. Nine surrogate terms included: empowerment; gender power; female-controlled sexual barrier method; microbicides; diaphragm; sexual negotiation and communication; female condom; women-initiated disease transmission prevention; and spermicides. Finally, a consensus definition was identified: a socio- culturally influenced multilevel process for initiating sexual safety by women deemed at-risk for sexually-related dangers, usually sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV/AIDS. Conclusion This concept analysis described current significance, uses, and applications of women-controlled safe sex in the scientific literature. The authors clarified its limited nature and conclude that additional conceptual refinement in nursing is necessary to influence women’s health. PMID:22111843

Alexander, Kamila A.; Coleman, Christopher L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Jemott, Loretta S.

2011-01-01

211

"Best Practices": Tactics To Increase Access to International Scholarship Programs by Women and Other Under-Represented Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ideas in this booklet were collected by the Institute of International Education to promote greater participation by women from developing countries in international scholarship programs. Many of the points would be applicable to other underrepresented groups as well. A number of suggestions are made to increase recruitment of women to…

Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

212

War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

Zaman, Riffat Moazam

213

Women's Ways of Leading: A Qualitative Content Analysis to Determine Leadership Messages Contained in Literature of National Panhellenic Conference Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study documented the leadership messages sent to women in 16 of the National Panhellenic Conference groups' official literature. The purpose of the study was to provide detailed descriptive analysis using excerpts from the official literature to show both traditional and non-traditional (women's ways of leading) theoretical themes as well as…

Fechner, Andrea M.

2000-01-01

214

Breast self-examination practices among women from six ethnic groups and the influence of cancer worry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Diverse samples of women (N = 1364) from Brooklyn, New York, were interviewed regarding their breast cancer screening practices. Of interest here is the relation between cancer worry and adherence to breast self-examination (BSE) guidelines among the six ethnic groups identified – European American, African American, Haitian, Dominican and English-speaking Caribbean women. There was a significant difference in cancer

Elizabeth Kudadjie-Gyamfi; Nathan Consedine; Carol Magai; Michael Gillespie; Jessy Pierre-Louis

2005-01-01

215

Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD) rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. Methods The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group) were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age) were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999–2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR) of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15–44 years) were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami) and 23% (controls), respectively. Results Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded) ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94) or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82). Conclusions Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate. PMID:23687638

Norum, Jan; Svee, Tove E.; Heyd, Anca; Nieder, Carsten

2013-01-01

216

Simple Food Group Diversity Indicators Predict Micronutrient Adequacy of Women’s Diets in 5 Diverse, Resource-Poor Settings1234567  

PubMed Central

Women of reproductive age living in resource-poor settings are at high risk of inadequate micronutrient intakes when diets lack diversity and are dominated by staple foods. Yet comparative information on diet quality is scarce and quantitative data on nutrient intakes is expensive and difficult to gather. We assessed the potential of simple indicators of dietary diversity, such as could be generated from large household surveys, to serve as proxy indicators of micronutrient adequacy for population-level assessment. We used 5 existing data sets (from Burkina Faso, Mali, Mozambique, Bangladesh, and the Philippines) with repeat 24-h recalls to construct 8 candidate food group diversity indicators (FGI) and to calculate the mean probability of adequacy (MPA) for 11 micronutrients. FGI varied in food group disaggregation and in minimum consumption required for a food group to count. There were large gaps between intakes and requirements across a range of micronutrients in each site. All 8 FGI were correlated with MPA in all sites; regression analysis confirmed that associations remained when controlling for energy intake. Assessment of dichotomous indicators through receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed moderate predictive strength for the best choice indicators, which varied by site. Simple FGI hold promise as proxy indicators of micronutrient adequacy. PMID:20881077

Arimond, Mary; Wiesmann, Doris; Becquey, Elodie; Carriquiry, Alicia; Daniels, Melissa C.; Deitchler, Megan; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Joseph, Maria L.; Kennedy, Gina; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Torheim, Liv Elin

2010-01-01

217

Pesticide exposure of two age groups of women and its relationship with their diet.  

PubMed

The widespread presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in human samples may be explained by the environmental exposure of the population. Foods are considered a constant source of exposure, despite compliance with maximum permitted residue levels. This study aimed to examine the relationship between nutritional habits of women in Southeast Spain and their serum concentrations of OCs. A semi-quantitative questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency of consumption of foods by two age groups of women, pre-menopausal (Pre-M) and post-menopausal (Post-M), and their serum pesticide levels were measured by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector and confirmed by GC and mass spectrometry. The Pre-M group showed significantly higher serum concentrations of all OCs studied with the exception of DDE. The groups significantly differed in consumption of all food groups with the exception of fruit. In the Pre-M group, the mean serum p,p-DDT concentration was significantly associated with milk/yoghurt (p<0.045) and red meat (p<0.023), serum o,p-DDT with red meat (p<0.049), serum aldrin with eggs (p<0.038) and poultry (p<0.024), and serum DDE with eggs (p<0.025). In the Post-M group, serum lindane was associated with fresh and cured cheese (p<0.001), red meat (p<0.001) and white and oily fish (p<0.001), and both serum DDE and dieldrin were associated with fresh cheese, cured cheese, red meat, and white and oily fish (p<0.001). These results confirm foods as a source of human exposure to persistent organic molecules. Consideration should be given to the reduction of permitted residue levels to minimize this threat to human and animal health. PMID:17477954

Rivas, Ana; Cerrillo, Isabel; Granada, Alicia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

2007-08-15

218

A controlled study of Hostile-Helpless states of mind among borderline and dysthymic women  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine whether women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are more likely than those with dysthymia to manifest contradictory Hostile-Helpless (HH) states of mind. A reliable rater blind to diagnosis evaluated features of such mental representations in transcripts of Adult Attachment Interviews from 12 women with BPD and 11 women with dysthymia of similar socioeconomic status (SES), all awaiting psychotherapy. In keeping with three hierarchical (non-independent) a priori predictions regarding the mental representations of women with BPD, the results were that (a) all those with BPD, compared with half the group with dysthymia, displayed HH states of mind; (b) those with BPD manifested a significantly higher frequency of globally devaluing representations; and (c) they exhibited a strong trend toward identifying with the devalued hostile caregiver (58% BPD vs. 18% dysthymic). In addition, significantly more BPD than dysthymic patients made reference to controlling behavior towards attachment figures in childhood. These findings offer fresh insights into the nature of BPD and extend previous evidence concerning affected individuals’ patterns of thinking and feeling about childhood attachment figures. PMID:17364479

LYONS-RUTH, KARLEN; MELNICK, SHARON; PATRICK, MATTHEW; HOBSON, R. PETER

2008-01-01

219

Motivational Groups Support Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and use of Risk Reduction Behaviors in HIV Positive Nigerian Women: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Nigerian women comprise the fastest growing group of persons with AIDS in Africa. Antiretroviral therapy has transformed the course of HIV/AIDS to a treatable, chronic illness worldwide. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a group intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) to promote adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and use of risk reduction behaviors (RRB) among HIV-infected women in Nigeria. Recruited participants (n=60) were randomly assigned to the motivational group or the health promotion program (HPP) control group. The 6 month follow-up results indicate that, compared to the control group, MI participants reported significantly higher levels of adherence to ART, higher knowledge of HIV, higher use of condoms/protection during sexual encounters and decision-making not to have sex when no protection was available. The MI participants also had fewer mean number of sexual partners. MI in group format shows promise in promoting adherence to ART and use of RRB in HIV-infected Nigerian women. PMID:23437496

Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Essien, James E.; Ekong, Ernest; Higgins, Melinda; Teplinskiy, Ilya; Adewuyi, Modupe Falilatu

2013-01-01

220

Group Motivational Interviewing to Promote Adherence to Antiretroviral Medications and Risk Reduction Behaviors in HIV Infected Women  

PubMed Central

We present the results of a clinical trial that tested the efficacy of using motivational interviewing (MI) in a group format to promote adherence to antiretroviral medications and risk reduction behaviors (RRB) in 203 predominately African American HIV infected women. It was compared to a group health promotion program. Participants were followed for 9 months. Adherence was measured by MEMS®; and RRB by self-report. Controlling for recruitment site and years on ART, no significant group by time effects were observed. Attendance (?7/8 sessions) modified the effects. Higher MI attendees had better adherence at all follow-ups, a borderline significant group by time effect (p = 0.1) for % Doses Taken on Schedule, a significantly larger proportion who reported abstinence at 2 weeks, 6, and 9 months, and always used protection during sex at 6 and 9 months. Though not conclusive, the findings offer some support for using MI in a group format to promote adherence and some risk reduction behaviors when adequate attendance is maintained. PMID:21165692

Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; DiIorio, Colleen; Kelley, Mary E.; Resnicow, Kenneth; Sharma, Sanjay

2011-01-01

221

The Effect of Education on Sexual Health of Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Sexuality constitutes an important part of women’s life. Healthy and proper sexual functioning is one of the signs of physical and mental health. The present study aimed to identify the effect of education on sexual health of women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 80 married women at reproductive age were randomly divided into a control and an education group. These women participated in this study based on self-reporting of having hypoactive sexual desire disorder. After six weekly educational sessions regarding sexual health, percentage of changes in sexual desire was assayed using Hurlbert index of sexual desire. Independent and paired t-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: After the intervention, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the sexual desire score (P<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference within groups in this regard (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that educational intervention regarding sexual health was effective for the women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Thus, establishing sexual health education units in different health centers is highly necessary. These centers can help couples to promote their sexual knowledge and treat their sexual dysfunctions. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012101911032N2 PMID:25349850

Kaviani, Maasumeh; Rahnavard, Tahereh; Azima, Sara; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Asadi, Nasrin; Sayadi, Mehrab

2014-01-01

222

Group Interventions were not Effective for Female Turkish Migrants with Recurrent Depression - Recommendations from a Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

We tested group interventions for women with a Turkish migration background living in Austria and suffering from recurrent depression. N = 66 participants were randomized to: (1) Self-Help Groups (SHG), (2) Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) Groups, and (3) a Wait-List (WL) Control condition. Neither SHG nor CBT were superior to WL. On an individual basis, about one third of the participants showed significant improvements with respect to symptoms of depression. Younger women, women with a longer duration of stay in Austria and those who had encountered a higher number of traumatic experiences, showed increased improvement of depressive symptoms. The results suggest that individual treatment by ethnic, female psychotherapists should be preferred to group interventions. PMID:21976784

Renner, Walter; Berry, John W.

2010-01-01

223

Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

2012-01-01

224

Association of Zinc, Copper and Magnesium with bone mineral density in Iranian postmenopausal women - a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of inadequate nutrition such as trace elements and vitamin deficiencies is considerable in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to compare trace elements (Zinc, Copper and Magnesium) concentration in nail, urine and serum among osteoporotic postmenopausal women with control group in Iran. Methods Forty eight postmenopausal women aged 36–60 years, were recruited, consisting 30 osteoporotic patients and 18 healthy controls. Blood, nail and urine concentration of Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma -Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) method. Their Bone Mineral Density was measured by Dual X-ray Absorption (DEXA) method. Results The urine level of trace elements had significant difference between osteoporotic groups and controls (p?groups (p?groups. Conclusion Our findings indicate that Urine Zn level could be considerable an appropriate marker for bone absorption, usage of Zn supplements in postmenopausal women may result a beneficial reduction in osteoporotic risk. PMID:24602492

2014-01-01

225

Safety and efficacy of antenatal milk expressing for women with diabetes in pregnancy: protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many maternity providers recommend that women with diabetes in pregnancy express and store breast milk in late pregnancy so breast milk is available after birth, given (1) infants of these women are at increased risk of hypoglycaemia in the first 24?h of life; and (2) the delay in lactogenesis II compared with women without diabetes that increases their infant's risk of receiving infant formula. The Diabetes and Antenatal Milk Expressing (DAME) trial will establish whether advising women with diabetes in pregnancy (pre-existing or gestational) to express breast milk from 36?weeks gestation increases the proportion of infants who require admission to special or neonatal intensive care units (SCN/NICU) compared with infants of women receiving standard care. Secondary outcomes include birth gestation, breastfeeding outcomes and economic impact. Methods and analysis Women will be recruited from 34?weeks gestation to a multicentre, two arm, unblinded randomised controlled trial. The intervention starts at 36?weeks. Randomisation will be stratified by site, parity and diabetes type. Women allocated to the intervention will be taught expressing and encouraged to hand express twice daily for 10?min and keep an expressing diary. The sample size of 658 (329 per group) will detect a 10% difference in proportion of babies admitted to SCN/NICU (85% power, ? 0.05). Data are collected at recruitment (structured questionnaire), after birth (abstracted from medical record blinded to group), and 2 and 12?weeks postpartum (telephone interview). Data analysis: the intervention group will be compared with the standard care group by intention to treat analysis, and the primary outcome compared using ?2 and ORs. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval will be obtained from participating sites. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented to clinicians, policymakers and study participants. Trial registration number Australian Controlled Trials Register ACTRN12611000217909. PMID:25358679

Forster, Della A; Jacobs, Susan; Amir, Lisa H; Davis, Peter; Walker, Susan P; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Donath, Susan M; Moorhead, Anita M; Ford, Rachael; McNamara, Catharine; Aylward, Amanda; Gold, Lisa

2014-01-01

226

Interdependent, Dependent, and Independent Group Contingencies for Controlling Disruptive Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three group-oriented contingency systems (interdependent, dependent, and independent) were compared to evaluate each system's effectiveness in controlling the disruptive behavior of a self-contained classroom of 12 educable mentally retarded elementary-aged children. Interdependent and dependent group contingency systems were more effective than…

Gresham, Frank M.; Gresham, Gwenyth N.

1982-01-01

227

Evaluating Group-Based Interventions when Control Participants Are Ungrouped  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individually randomized treatments are often administered within a group setting. As a consequence, outcomes for treated individuals may be correlated due to provider effects, common experiences within the group, and/or informal processes of socialization. In contrast, it is often reasonable to regard outcomes for control participants as…

Bauer, Daniel J.; Sterba, Sonya K.; Hallfors, Denise Dion

2008-01-01

228

Isokinetic peak torque in women with unilateral cumulative trauma disorders and healthy control subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare isokinetic peak torque in the symptomatic and asymptomatic limbs of women with lateral epicondyle or forearm pain due to cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs), and to compare peak torque in women with CTDs to peak torque in healthy women.Design: Case control comparison.Setting: Private occupational rehabilitation clinic and a sports science tertiary education center.Subjects: Women with CTDs involving one

Paul J. Friedman

1998-01-01

229

Women in Design, Graduate School of Design Women in Design (WiD) is a student group working to increase the visibility of practicing women designers and to further  

E-print Network

Women in Design, Graduate School of Design Women in Design (WiD) is a student group working and knowledge into our education at the Graduate School of Design. It offers a supportive network and a critical community. n Our events include: lectures, lunches, film screenings, panel discussions, exhibitions, sym

230

Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant women with Social risk (ELSIPS): a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes are worse in families from black and ethnic minority groups and disadvantaged backgrounds. There is little evidence on whether lay support improves maternal and infant outcomes among women with complex social needs within a disadvantaged multi-ethnic population in the United Kingdom (UK). Method/Design The aim of this study is to evaluate a lay Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW) service for nulliparous women identified as having social risk within a maternity service that is systematically assessing social risks alongside the usual obstetric and medical risks. The study design is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in nulliparous women assessed as having social risk comparing standard maternity care with the addition of referral to the POW support service. The POWs work alongside community midwifery teams and offer individualised support to women to encourage engagement with services (health and social care) from randomisation (before 28 weeks gestation) until 6 weeks after birth. The primary outcomes have been chosen on the basis that they are linked to maternal and infant health. The two primary outcomes are engagement with antenatal care, assessed by the number of antenatal visits; and maternal depression, assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 8-12 weeks after birth. Secondary outcomes include maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, routine child health assessments, including immunisation uptake and breastfeeding at 6 weeks. Other psychological outcomes (self efficacy) and mother-to-infant bonding will also be collected using validated tools. A sample size of 1316 will provide 90% power (at the 5% significance level) to detect increased engagement with antenatal services of 1.5 visits and a reduction of 1.5 in the average EPDS score for women with two or more social risk factors, with power in excess of this for women with any social risk factor. Analysis will be by intention to treat. Qualitative research will explore the POWs' daily work in context. This will complement the findings of the RCT through a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data on the process of the intervention, and identify other contextual factors that affect the implementation of the intervention. Discussion The trial will provide high quality evidence as to whether or not lay support (POW) offered to women identified with social risk factors improves engagement with maternity services and reduces numbers of women with depression. MREC number 10/H1207/23 Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN35027323 PMID:22375895

2012-01-01

231

Augmentation mammaplasty--psychiatric and psychosocial characteristics and outcome in a group of Swedish women.  

PubMed

Thirty-eight women undergoing augmentation mammaplasty, consecutively operated on at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Malmö, Sweden, were studied preoperatively regarding medical history, personality, psychosocial and psychiatric characteristics. Thirty-six of these patients were interviewed one year postoperatively. Thirty-three age-matched women operated on with minor surgical out-patient procedures were used as a contrast group. The mammaplasty patients generally came from insecure homes with conflicts between parents and unsatisfactory emotional relations to both parents. Their educational as well as income level was significantly lower than the contrast group and they were socially isolated. Their sexual adaptation seemed to have been hampered by their sensitivity reactions towards their breasts but nonetheless most of them lived in stable heterosexual relations. Generally the augmentation mammaplasty patients were not psychiatrically abnormal apart from the negative evaluation of their physical attractiveness. The great majority of the women, 86%, were satisfied with the results of surgery. Postoperatively the patients changed their style of dressing, extended their leisure time activities and social contacts, improved their sexual life and relations to their spouse. Postoperative increase of nervous symptoms was reported by 39% of the patients, but about as many patients, 36%, reported decreased nervous symptoms. Difficulties in accepting the surgical result, sexual dysfunctions and negative mental reactions proved to be associated with specific personality characteristics. Various factors have previously been proposed as being usable in the prediction of adverse reactions after augmentation mammaplasty. None of these factors, however, proved in this study to correlate with postoperative maladaptation. A need for increased methodological stringency in predictor studies is indicated. PMID:3685905

Meyer, L; Ringberg, A

1987-01-01

232

2006 Nature Publishing Group Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic  

E-print Network

© 2006 Nature Publishing Group Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human neural control to open and close a prosthetic hand, and perform rudimentary actions with a multi- jointed robotic arm. These early results suggest that NMPs based upon intracortical neuronal ensemble spiking

Vilis, Tutis

233

Gestural Control of Sonic Swarms: Composing with Grouped Sound Objects  

E-print Network

an alternative controller designed to diffuse and manipulate a swarm of sounds in 3- dimensional spaceGestural Control of Sonic Swarms: Composing with Grouped Sound Objects Tom Davis*, Orestis- dimensional space and a series of sound transformation functions for the sonic agents are implemented

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

234

60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at left, power distribution box at right, all at right of entrance to lcc. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

235

"I am not alone": a survey of women with peripartum cardiomyopathy and their participation in an online support group.  

PubMed

Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a devastating condition in which women without a previously identified heart condition experience heart failure in the ninth month of pregnancy or in the first 5 months after delivery of a baby. Online support groups are virtual communities for people affected by the same social or health issue. No literature exists on the benefits of women involved in an online support group for peripartum cardiomyopathy. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the benefits of participation in the online support group for peripartum cardiomyopathy based on a survey of active members of the group. All contacts between researchers and respondents were through e-mail. A survey of open-ended and Likert-type questions was used. Twelve women, aged 19 to 34 years, participated; all had a diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy. This online support group is a vital resource for women with peripartum cardiomyopathy. Benefits to participation in the online support group included getting and sharing information, exchanging stories, being understood by other women, and gaining hope. Nurse practice implications include referring patients to reputable Web sites and support groups and serving as a professional facilitator in an online group. PMID:20571373

Hess, Rosanna F; Weinland, Jo Ann; Beebe, Kelly

2010-01-01

236

Effects of a three-month therapeutic lifestyle modification program to improve bone health in postmenopausal Korean women in a rural community: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

In this randomized controlled trial, we examined the effects of a 3-month therapeutic lifestyle modification (TLM) intervention on knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behaviors related to bone health in postmenopausal women in rural Korea. Forty-one women ages 45 or older were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n?=?21) or control (n?=?20) group. The intervention group completed a 12-week, 24-session TLM program of individualized health monitoring, group health education, exercise, and calcium-vitamin D supplementation. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant increases in knowledge and self-efficacy and improvement in diet and exercise after 12 weeks, providing evidence that a comprehensive TLM program can be effective in improving health behaviors to maintain bone health in women at high risk of osteoporosis. PMID:24976566

Oh, Eui Geum; Yoo, Jae Yong; Lee, Jung Eun; Hyun, Sa Saeng; Ko, Il Sun; Chu, Sang Hui

2014-08-01

237

Breast cancer screening uptake among women from different ethnic groups in London: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To use newly available self-assigned ethnicity information to investigate variation in breast cancer screening uptake for women from the 16 specific ethnic groups within the broad Asian, Black and White groups that previous studies report. Setting National cancer screening programme services within London. Participants 655?516 female residents aged 50–69, invited for screening between March 2006 and December 2009. Ethnicity information was available for 475?478 (72.5%). White British women were the largest group (306?689, 46.8%), followed by Indian (34?687, 5.3%), White Other (30?053, 4.6%), Black Caribbean (25?607, 3.9%), White Irish (17?271, 2.6%), Black African (17?071, 2.6%) and Asian Other (10?579, 1.6%). Outcome measures Uptake for women in different ethnic groups aged 50–52 for a first call invitation to the programme, and for women aged 50–69 for a routine recall invitation after a previous mammography. Uptake is reported (1) for London overall, adjusted using logistic regression, for age at invitation, socioeconomic deprivation and geographical screening area, and (2) for individual areas, adjusted for age and deprivation. Results White British women attended their first call (67%) and routine recall (78%) invitations most often. Indian women were more likely to attend their first (61%) or routine recall (74%) than Bangladeshi women (43% and 61%, respectively), and Black Caribbean women were more likely than Black African women to attend first call (63% vs 49%, respectively) and routine recall (74% vs 64%, respectively). There was less variation between ethnic groups in some screening areas. Conclusions Breast cancer screening uptake in London varies by specific ethnic group for first and subsequent invitations, with White British women being more likely to attend. The variation in the uptake for women from the same ethnic groups in different geographical areas suggests that collaboration about the successful engagement of services with different communities could improve uptake for all women. PMID:25324320

Jack, Ruth H; M?ller, Henrik; Robson, Tony; Davies, Elizabeth A

2014-01-01

238

Postpregnancy Glycemic Control and Weight Changes in Type 1 Diabetic Women  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Pregnancy in type 1 diabetes requires excellent glycemic control. Most pregnant type 1 diabetic women achieve normoglycemia; however, there is scarce data on their postdelivery characteristics. We aimed to examine postpregnancy glycemic control and weight changes in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We identified and followed (median 20 months) 254 women with singleton pregnancies receiving postdelivery medical care at a single institution. RESULTS Study subjects were 28.3 ± 4.7 years of age (mean ± SD), with a diabetes duration of 12.0 ± 7.7 years. Mean A1C before conception was 6.9 ± 1.4%, and preconception weight and BMI were 64.4 ± 10.0 kg and 23.9 ± 3.3 kg/m2, respectively. Mean A1C decreased during pregnancy, reaching 5.7 ± 0.8% in the third trimester. We observed a mean weight gain of 14.4 ± 6.5 kg during pregnancy. Within 6 months after delivery, A1C increased by 0.8% (P < 0.0001) compared with the last trimester, and body weight and BMI were 4.4 kg and 2.5 kg/m2 higher (P < 0.0001) compared with the preconception baseline. A1C further deteriorated by 0.8% until the end of follow-up. For women in the “pregnancy planning” program (n = 117), A1C >12 months after delivery was worse compared with before conception (7.1 vs. 6.5%, P = 0.0018), whereas in women with unplanned pregnancies, it was similar to the pregestational levels (7.3 vs.7.4%, P = 0.59). Weight and BMI in the entire study group did not return to prepregnancy levels and were 2.5 kg (P = 0.0079) and 0.9 kg/m2 higher (P = 0.0058). CONCLUSIONS In this clinical observation, type 1 diabetic women showed postpregnancy deterioration in glycemic control and were unable to return to prepregnancy weight. Type 1 diabetic women seem to require special attention after delivery to meet therapeutic targets. PMID:23250804

Cyganek, Katarzyna; Hebda-Szydlo, Alicja; Skupien, Jan; Janas, Izabela; Walczyk, Joanna; Lipowska, Anna; Borys, Sebastian; Malecki, Maciej T.

2013-01-01

239

The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial: an inconvenient finding and the diet-heart hypothesis.  

PubMed

One goal of the US$700 million Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial was to determine whether post-menopausal women who adopted what was regarded as a 'heart healthy' low-fat diet, high in vegetables, fruits and grains, reduced their risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The trial substantially favoured the outcome in the intervention group, who also received an intensive nutritional and behaviour education programme not offered to the control group. These studies neatly disprove the diet-heart hypothesis since adoption of 'heart healthy' eating not only failed to influence future cardiac events in the healthy but it increased such events in the unhealthy and worsened diabetic control in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  PMID:24148164

Noakes, Timothy David

2013-11-01

240

Socioeconomic characteristics and health outcomes in Sami speaking municipalities and a control group in northern Norway  

PubMed Central

Objectives The Sami people constitute an ethnic minority in northern Norway. The objectives of this study were to compare municipalities with a majority of Sami in the population and a control group with regard to socioeconomic factors and health outcome. Methods Original data from Statistics Norway and Directorate of health on socioeconomic factors (education, unemployment, disability, poverty) and health outcomes [total mortality, cancer specific mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) specific mortality] were imported from the “Health Atlas” at the Northern Norway Regional Health Authority (NNRHA) trust. The 8 municipalities in the administration area of the Sami language law (Sami-majority group – 18,868 inhabitants) was compared with a control group consisting of 11 municipalities where the Sami constitute a small minority in the population (18,931 inhabitants). Most data were from 2005 and 2008. Results There was no significant difference in socioeconomic factors. Overall, cancer- and CVD-specific mortality rates were similar in both groups. The life expectancy was significantly longer among women in the Sami-majority area (81.3 vs. 79.5 years, p=0.035) and males (74.5 vs. 72.0 years, p=0.037). Conclusion Socioeconomic factors and cause-specific mortality rate were similar in the Sami-majority group and the control group. Residents of both sexes in Sami-majority areas enjoyed longer life expectancy. PMID:22901291

Norum, Jan; Nieder, Carsten

2012-01-01

241

Controlling Images, Media, and Women's Development: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Myths, stereotypes, and controlling images are embedded in the cultural textbook of cinema. Women are disempowered and marginalized by these images, and it is important to explore the existence and prevalence of these images in order to examine their effects on women's development. A review of the literature concerning controlling images and the…

Hammer, Tonya R.

2009-01-01

242

2007 Presidential Address: Fear of Losing Control--Power, Perfectionism, and the Psychology of Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anecdotal evidence and popular culture suggest that fear of losing control of oneself is common among North American women, yet there is little in the way of data or theory to show why so many women fear loss of control or how to help them to leave that fear behind. In this article a commonly accepted definition of self-regulation is examined…

Chrisler, Joan C.

2008-01-01

243

Dietary Disinhibition, Perceived Stress, and Glucose Control in Young, Type 1 Diabetic Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examining the relationship of stress, dietary disinhibition, and blood glucose control in diabetic young women was the goal of this study. Sixty-five diabetic girls and women, ranging in age from 12 to 26 years, completed eating behaviors and perceived stress scales during regular clinic visits. Blood glucose control was assessed by concurrent glycosylated hemoglobin measurements. Multiple regression analyses indicated that

Louise Balfour; Donna Romano White; Alicia Schiffrin; Geoffrey Dougherty; Jackie Dufresne

1993-01-01

244

Effects of diet and exercise training on neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since neurovascular control is altered in obese subjects, we hypoth- esized that weight loss by diet (D) or diet plus exercise training (D + ET) would improve neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women. In a study with a dietary reduction of 600 kcal\\/day with or without exercise training for 4 months, 53 obese women were subdivided in D

A. C. Tonacio; I. C. Trombetta; M. U. P. B. Rondon; L. T. Batalha; F. H. S. Kuniyoshi; M. C. Laterza; P. H. Suzuki; M. M. G. Gowdak; A. C. P. Barretto; A. Halpern; S. M. F. Villares; C. E. Negrão

2006-01-01

245

Controlling Images, Media, and Women's Development: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myths, stereotypes, and controlling images are embedded in the cultural textbook of cinema. Women are disempowered and marginalized by these images, and it is important to explore the existence and prevalence of these images in order to examine their effects on women's development. A review of the literature concerning controlling images and the media reveals the presence of stereotypes concerning

Tonya R. Hammer

2009-01-01

246

[Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 3 groups of Ecuadorian women with different sexual behaviors].  

PubMed

In order to examine the relationship between sexual conduct and infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus), the prevalence of these two microorganisms was studied in three groups of Ecuadorean women with different patterns of sexual behavior: 116 prostitutes, 136 women from Borbón Parish who had numerous sexual partners, and 61 pregnant women who had sexual relations with only one partner. The prevalence of infection from one or both of the agents was 53.4% in the prostitutes (n = 62), 34.5% in the women from Borbón (n = 47), and 1.6% in the pregnant women (n = 1). These results bear out the relationship between sexual behavior and risk of sexually transmitted disease. PMID:2532897

Narváez, M; López Jaramillo, P; Guevara, A; Izurieta, A; Guderian, R

1989-09-01

247

The Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women: Report to the President and the Commission for Women--Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report of the Pennsylvania State University Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women describes activities and presents recommendations concerned with the broad areas of leadership share, structure and quality of University worklife, and structure and quality of the academic environment. Recommendations address the following specific…

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

248

Simple food group diversity indicators predict micronutrient adequacy of women's diets in 5 diverse, resource-poor settings.  

PubMed

Women of reproductive age living in resource-poor settings are at high risk of inadequate micronutrient intakes when diets lack diversity and are dominated by staple foods. Yet comparative information on diet quality is scarce and quantitative data on nutrient intakes is expensive and difficult to gather. We assessed the potential of simple indicators of dietary diversity, such as could be generated from large household surveys, to serve as proxy indicators of micronutrient adequacy for population-level assessment. We used 5 existing data sets (from Burkina Faso, Mali, Mozambique, Bangladesh, and the Philippines) with repeat 24-h recalls to construct 8 candidate food group diversity indicators (FGI) and to calculate the mean probability of adequacy (MPA) for 11 micronutrients. FGI varied in food group disaggregation and in minimum consumption required for a food group to count. There were large gaps between intakes and requirements across a range of micronutrients in each site. All 8 FGI were correlated with MPA in all sites; regression analysis confirmed that associations remained when controlling for energy intake. Assessment of dichotomous indicators through receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed moderate predictive strength for the best choice indicators, which varied by site. Simple FGI hold promise as proxy indicators of micronutrient adequacy. PMID:20881077

Arimond, Mary; Wiesmann, Doris; Becquey, Elodie; Carriquiry, Alicia; Daniels, Melissa C; Deitchler, Megan; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Joseph, Maria L; Kennedy, Gina; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Torheim, Liv Elin

2010-11-01

249

Women of Courage: A Personal Account of a Wilderness-Based Experiential Group for Survivors of Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adventure-based therapy has grown in both scope and popularity. These groups are frequently utilized in the treatment of adolescents with behavioral or substance abuse issues. Less evident is the use of this modality with other populations. Described here is a personal account of the author's participation in a wilderness-based group for women.…

Kelly, Virginia A.

2006-01-01

250

Mobilizing women's groups for improved maternal and newborn health: evidence for impact, and challenges for sustainability and scale up.  

PubMed

Research conducted over the past decade has shown that community-based interventions can improve the survival and health of mothers and newborns in low- and middle-income countries. Interventions engaging women's groups in participatory learning and action meetings and other group activities, for example, have led to substantial increases in neonatal survival in high-mortality settings. Participatory interventions with women's groups work by providing a forum for communities to develop a common understanding of maternal and neonatal problems, as well as locally acceptable and sustainable strategies to address these. Potential partners for scaling up interventions with women's groups include government community health workers and volunteers, as well as organizations working with self-help groups. It is important to tailor scale-up efforts to local contexts, while retaining fidelity to the intervention, by ensuring that the mobilization of women's groups complements other local programs (e.g. home visits), and by providing capacity building for participatory learning and action methods across a range of nongovernmental organizations and government stakeholders. Research into scale-up mechanisms and effectiveness is needed to inform further implementation, and prospective surveillance of maternal and neonatal mortality in key scale-up sites can provide valuable data for measuring impact and for advocacy. There is a need for further research into the role of participatory interventions with women's groups to improve the quality of health services, health, and nutrition beyond the perinatal period, as well as the role of groups in influencing non-health issues, such as women's decision-making power. PMID:22883914

Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Costello, Anthony; Prost, Audrey

2012-10-01

251

Turning On and Turning Off: A Focus Group Study of the Factors That Affect Women's Sexual Arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to inform the development of a questionnaire to assess a woman's tendency to respond with sexual excitation\\/inhibition in different situations. Nine focus groups, involving 80 women (M age = 34.3 years; range, 18-84), were conducted. Women described a wide range of physical (genital and nongenital), cognitive\\/emotional, and behavioral cues to arousal. The relationship between

Cynthia A. Graham; Stephanie A. Sanders; Robin R. Milhausen; Kimberly R. McBride

2004-01-01

252

SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Methods A five group design included a comparison group and a 2?×?2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. Results At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Conclusions Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial intervention period, but only dietary changes persisted Enhanced social support and the ability to interact with others during the show were not effective complementary intervention components as conducted in this trial. Future research to strengthen the ability of this approach to achieve long term effects may offer even more promising outcomes. PMID:24373253

2013-01-01

253

Nutritional status of women in Bangladesh: comparison of energy intake and nutritional status of a low income rural group with a high income urban group.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the influence of socio-economic status on energy intake (EI), anthropometric characteristics and body composition (BC) of premenopausal Bangladeshi women in two socio-economic groups. This cross-sectional study measured height, weight, biceps and triceps skinfolds by standard procedures. A three-day dietary record was used to estimate EI. The biceps and triceps skinfolds were used to calculate total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and body fat percentage (BF%) according to Durnin and Womersley. FAO/WHO/UNU equations were used to calculate basal metabolic rates (BMR). Two locations in Bangladesh were studied; the Dhaka city area and the west region of the subdistrict Nandail (Betagair Union) in the district of Mymensingh. Study subjects were premenopausal women (N =191) aged 16(40 years. The high socio-economic group (group H, N =90) consisted of women with high income and educational level. The low socio-economic group (group L, N =101) consisted of rural, low income, illiterate women. Both groups contained three subgroups (non-pregnant, non-lactating =1, pregnant =2, lactating =3). Socio-economic status had a significant effect on body weight, height, biceps and triceps skinfolds, BMI, TBF, FFM and BF% (P<0.001). These variables were significantly higher (P<0.001) in all subgroups of group H than in the corresponding subgroups of group L. The influence of physiological status on most of these variables was not significant. EI was, however, influenced by both socio-economic (P<0.001) and physiological(P<0.05) status. The mean EI was significantly lower (P<0.001) in all subgroups of group L than in the corresponding subgroups of group H. The contributory sources were different in high and low income groups. In both groups, EI was lower than the recommended level. Based on the dietary and anthropometric results, we conclude that malnutrition is a common feature among low income rural women. This contradicts findings in western countries, where obesity is prevalent in low income groups. PMID:15003916

Islam, Md Zahirul; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammed; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

2004-01-01

254

Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity  

PubMed Central

Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043

Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

2012-01-01

255

Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

1974-01-01

256

Formation Control of a Group of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs)  

E-print Network

and dampers to generate reference trajectories for a group of quadrotors. Virtual forces exerted on each vehicle are produced by using projected distances between the quadrotors. Several coordinated task--UAV, Quadrotor, Formation Control I. INTRODUCTION Quadrotor helicopters have become very popular in the last

Yanikoglu, Berrin

257

Action Coordination in Groups and Individuals: Learning Anticipatory Control  

E-print Network

Action Coordination in Groups and Individuals: Learning Anticipatory Control Gu¨nther Knoblich Max individuals act alone, they can internally coordinate the actions at hand. Such coordination is not feasible of diverse tasks to investigate the cognitive functions that enable one to coordinate action alternatives

Richardson, Daniel C.

258

A Multiplist Strategy for Strengthening Nonequivalent Control Group Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a sales campaign for the Arizona State lottery, a multiplist strategy of program evaluation is analyzed. Several complementary designs are used within the strategy to help remove threats to internal validity associated with the nonequivalent control group design. (SLD)

Reynolds, Kim D.; West, Stephen G.

1987-01-01

259

FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

Children Today, 1987

1987-01-01

260

Effect of life-style modification on postmenopausal overweight and obese Indian women: A randomized controlled 24 weeks preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the effect of life-style modification on postmenopausal (PM) overweight and obese Indian women in a randomized controlled 24 week study. Materials and Methods: Two groups were formed Group I (n = 30) was designated as intervention (dietary and exercise group) and Group II (n = 24) served as control. Comparison of weight, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were made and compared among two groups at 4, 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Results: Mean age at menopause was 48.35 years versus 49.65 years; mean number of menopausal symptoms were 5.70 ± 1.76 versus 5.10 ± 1.56 and mean duration since menopause was 2.70 versus 2.90 years in Groups I and II respectively. When the effect of Group I and control on weight was compared at 4, 8, 16 and 24 weeks, there was no significant difference between them up to 8 week. At 8 weeks Group I caused a significant decrease in weight (P ? 0.05) when compared with control arm and which continued throughout the study period (P < 0.05) at both 16 and 24 weeks. Group I produced a significant reduction in WC from 8 weeks onwards up to 24 weeks (P ? 0.05). BMI was statistically significant in Group I and the effect started at 4th week (P ? 0.05) and the differences in BMI reduction were highly significant at 16th and 24th weeks (P ? 0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present study strongly recommend the life-style management to be incorporated in daily style of postmenopausal women under controlled supervision. PMID:24672202

Tandon, Vishal R.; Sharma, Sudhaa; Mahajan, Annil; Mahajan, Shagun

2014-01-01

261

Women's health  

MedlinePLUS

Women’s health refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment and diagnosis of diseases and ... Women’s health includes a wide range of specialties and focus areas, such as: Birth control, sexually transmitted infections, ...

262

women  

Microsoft Academic Search

background: More than 15 million women, many of reproductive age, were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at the end of 2007. As the HIV epidemic evolves, heterosexual intercourse is increasingly risky: the risk of infection in exposed young women is 4- to 7-fold higher than in young men and nearly half a million newborns annually have HIV. This review

Oskari Heikinheimo; Pekka Lahteenmaki

2002-01-01

263

Randomised controlled trial of the effect of evidence based information on women's willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Study objectives: To assess whether providing women with additional information on the pros and cons of screening, compared with information currently offered by the NHS, affects their intention to attend for screening. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the control, (based on an NHS Cervical Screening Programme leaflet currently used), or the intervention leaflet (containing additional information on risks and uncertainties). Setting: Three general practices in Birmingham. Participants: 300 women aged 20 to 64 attending the practices during a one month period. Main outcome measures: Intention to attend for screening. Main results: 283 women (94.3%) completed the study. Fewer women in the intervention (79%) than the control group (88%) expressed intention to have screening after reading the information leaflet (difference between groups 9.2%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.2% to 21.7%). The crude odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI was 0.50 (0.26 to 0.97). After adjusting for other factors, the trend persisted (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.29). Having a previous Pap smear was the only significant predictor of intention to have screening (adjusted OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.03 to 6.21). Subgroup analysis showed no intervention effect in intended uptake between women at higher and lower risk of cervical cancer (p=0.59). Conclusions: Providing women with evidence based information on the risks, uncertainties, and the benefits of screening, is likely to deter some, but not differentially those at higher risk. PMID:12883063

Adab, P; Marshall, T; Rouse, A; Randhawa, B; Sangha, H; Bhangoo, N

2003-01-01

264

Detection of Thyroid Autoimmunity Markers in Euthyroid Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Case-Control Study From Syria  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies in women in reproductive age. In many cases, PCOS is associated with infertility and increased risk of miscarriage. Recent studies have detected the presence of several organ specific and nonspecific autoantibodies in women with PCOS. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and levels of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid women with PCOS in Syria. Patients and Methods: This study included 56 euthyroid women with PCOS and 30 healthy women as a control group. PCOS was defined according to the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria. Thyroid function was evaluated by measurement of serum TSH and FT4 levels. Antithyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies (anti-TPO and anti-TG, respectively) were detected as markers for thyroid autoimmunity. All parameters were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: Women with PCOS had higher serum levels of anti-TPO in comparison to controls (39.9 ± 59.5 and 18.9 ± 11.2 IU/mL, respectively; P < 0.05) and no significant difference was found in serum levels of anti-TG, TSH, or FT4 between the two groups. Patients with PCOS had a higher prevalence of positive results for anti-TG and/or anti-TPO in comparison to controls (28.6% and 3.3%, respectively; P<0.05), anti-TPO alone (19.6% and 3.3%, respectively; P < 0.05) and anti-TG alone (21.4% and 3.3%, respectively; P < 0.05). No significant associations were found between antibodies and studied hormones. Conclusions: High prevalence of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid patients with PCOS refers to the importance of investigation for thyroid autoimmune state in those patients. PMID:25237328

Al-Saab, Raghad; Haddad, Shaden

2014-01-01

265

Improving the Livelihoods of Women in the Developing World: Selected Perceptions of Women's Self-Help Groups in Western Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development specialists agree that poverty in developing countries is a multidimensional phenomenon. The United Nations (2001) reported that the poorest of the world's poor are women. The Kenyan Government recognizes that poverty is area specific and interventions aimed at creating employment and reducing poverty must be localized. In Kenya, \\

Billy A. Jivetti; M. Craig Edwards

2008-01-01

266

A Group-Based Program of Emotional Recovery for Younger Women Following Myocardial Infarction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heart disease is the leading cause of illness, disability, and death among women in Canada. Myocardial infarction (MI) accounts for almost half of these deaths yearly. The purpose of this study was to understand younger women's experience of recovery from MI. A purposive sample consisting of six younger women diagnosed with MI participated in …

Bowers, Michele J.; Buchanan, Marla J.

2007-01-01

267

Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape Concerns among a Group of College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that exposure to thin ideal images in women's magazines is associated with heightened concerns for body shape and size in a number of young women, although the media's role in the psychopathology of body image disturbance is generally believed to be mediated by personality and sociocultural factors. Here, data from a survey of 340 college-age women (ages 18–25)

Steven R. Thomsen

2002-01-01

268

Taking pictures to take control: Photovoice as a tool to facilitate empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic minority women with HIV  

PubMed Central

Poor and racial/ethnic minority women comprise the majority of women living with HIV (WLH) in the United States. Race, gender, class, and HIV-based stigmas and inequities limit women’s powers over their health and compromise their quality of life. To help WLH counter this powerlessness, we implemented a photovoice project called Picturing New Possibilities (PNP), and explored how women experienced empowerment through photovoice. PNP participants (N = 30) photographed their life experiences, attended 3 group discussions and a community exhibit of their photos, and completed a follow-up interview. We used strategies of Grounded Theory to identify key empowerment themes. Participants described empowerment through enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, critical thinking skills, and control. Our findings suggest that photovoice is an important tool for WLH. It offers women a way to access internal strengths and use these resources to improve their quality of life and health. PMID:24064314

Teti, Michelle; Pichon, Latrice; Kabel, Allison; Farnan, Rose; Binson, Diane

2013-01-01

269

Exploring Iranian Women's Perceptions regarding Control and Prevention of Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian women's perceptions, behaviors, and beliefs related to breast cancer screening, breast cancer, and follow up care. A qualitative descriptive inquiry with both individual and focus group interviews was conducted in Tehran with 31 Farsi-speaking women, age 35 to 65 years of age. A constant comparison…

Thomas, Eileen; Escandon, Socorro; Lamyian, Minoor; Ahmadi, Fazlolah; Setoode, Sam Mohammad; Golkho, Shokoofe

2011-01-01

270

Month Long Final ScoresMonth Long Final Scores FraternitiesFraternities Women's GroupsWomen's Groups Resident HallsResident Halls Student OrganizationsStudent Organizations  

E-print Network

&Econ 4th BSA Troop 208 5th VPA Night Club 5th Geology Club 5th Saint Al's 6th Knight House 6th Mu Betath Black Stud. Assoc 9th The Bastille DQ Women's Soccer Club 10th Treehouse DQ MTU Sailing 11th Daddy

Endres. William J.

271

Assessing the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.

Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.

2012-04-01

272

Group therapy in a general practice setting for frequent attenders: a controlled study of mothers with pre-school children  

PubMed Central

The frequent attendance of women suffering from anxiety and depression is a common problem in general practice and the problems are often externalized through the women's children. A small controlled study was carried out in a general practice surgery to see whether demand for medical attention by mothers of pre-school children would decrease after they attended a discussion group. Twenty women who fulfilled the study criteria of more than double the national average consultation rate for their age group and of having at least one pre-school child, were sequentially allocated to a treatment or control group. The group therapy was held over two terms of 10 sessions, each of 90 minutes, and was led by a psychologist and a general practitioner. Consultation rates (including surgery visits, house calls and prescription requests) were recorded for five consecutive six-month periods before and after the intervention. At follow-up six months after the end of the treatment a significant reduction in consultation rate had been achieved and maintained by the treated group compared with the controls (P<0.01). This study shows the value of attending to the cause of frequent consultation as well as to the complaints presented. PMID:3267741

Benson, Pauline; Turk, Theresa

1988-01-01

273

Mindfulness Training Reduces the Severity of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Women: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:This prospective, randomized controlled trial explored the feasibility and efficacy of a group program of mindfulness training, a cognitive-behavioral technique, for women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The technique involves training in intentionally attending to present-moment experience and non-judgmental awareness of body sensations and emotions.METHODS:Seventy-five female IBS patients were randomly assigned to eight weekly and one half-day intensive sessions of

Susan A Gaylord; Olafur S Palsson; Eric L Garland; Keturah R Faurot; Rebecca S Coble; J Douglas Mann; William Frey; Karyn Leniek; William E Whitehead

2011-01-01

274

What I Need to Know about Bladder Control for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... conditions to improve the quality of life for women with these conditions. The U.S. Government does not endorse or favor any specific commercial product or company. Trade, proprietary, or company names ...

275

Reducing the risk of HIV infection during pregnancy among South African women: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Mpumalanga Province, South Africa has one of the highest HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates among pregnant women (~29.4%). This study sought to enhance male involvement in pregnancy to increase HIV disclosure, sexual communication, HIV knowledge and reduce unprotected sex. Participants attending Antenatal Clinics (ANC) completed HIV counseling and testing and were enrolled with male partners (n=239 couples, 478 individuals). Twelve ANCs were randomly assigned to provide a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) intervention or the standard of care, health education sessions plus PMTCT. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (approximately 6-8 weeks post-baseline) on demographics, sexual behavior, HIV-related knowledge, and conflict resolution strategies. Experimental participants increased HIV knowledge, use of negotiation, and decreased intimate partner violence. Additionally, they were more likely to have increased condom use from baseline to post-intervention (OR=5.1, 95% CI=[2.0, 13.3]). Seroconversions in the control condition exceeded experimental (6 vs. 0). HIV serostatus disclosure to partner did not increase over time for men or women within the experimental or control condition. Male involvement in pregnancy may be an important strategy to reduce sexual risk behavior and HIV transmission. Results support the utility of group interventions to enhance communication and HIV knowledge among pregnant couples. PMID:23438041

Jones, D L; Peltzer, K; Villar-Loubet, O; Shikwane, E; Cook, R; Vamos, S; Weiss, S M

2013-01-01

276

Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for weight loss in midlife women: a controlled study with follow-up  

PubMed Central

Objective Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be effective in weight reduction. This study explores whether individual, 8-session CBT can promote weight loss in midlife women. Methods Anthropometric (weight, abdominal perimeter, and body mass index calculation), psychological (health-related and sexual quality of life, stress, anxiety, and depression), and behavioral measures (binge eating disorder and restrained, external, and emotional eating) were assessed at baseline (T1), posttreatment (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3), for a total of 21 women at baseline; the CBT group (n = 11) and the control group (n = 10; waiting list) were compared. Results Statistically significant effects that were dependent on the intervention were observed on weight (F = 4.402; P = 0.035; ?p2 = 0.404; ? = 0.652) and body mass index (F = 3.804; P = 0.050; ?p2 = 0.369; ? = 0.585); furthermore, marginally significant effects were observed on external eating (F = 2.844; P = 0.095; ?p2 = 0.304; ? = 0.461). At follow-up, women in the CBT group presented with lower weight, abdominal perimeter, body mass index, and external eating; higher health-related quality-of-life and restrained eating were also observed in this group. Most differences identified were at a marginally significant level. Moreover, at follow-up, none of the participants of the CBT group met the criteria for binge eating disorder, whereas the number of women with binge eating disorder in the control group remained the same through all three assessments. Conclusion An effective, though small, weight loss was achieved. Changes in quality of life were also observed. Moreover, changes in external eating behavior were successful. PMID:23091402

Pimenta, Filipa; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, Joao; Ramos, Catarina

2012-01-01

277

Usual and Unusual Care: Existing Practice Control Groups In Randomized Controlled Trials of Behavioral Interventions  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the use of existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions, and the role of extrinsic healthcare services in the design and conduct of behavioral trials. Method Selective qualitative review. Results Extrinsic healthcare services, also known as nonstudy care, have important but under-recognized effects on the design and conduct of behavioral trials. Usual care, treatment as usual, standard of care, and other existing practice control groups pose a variety of methodological and ethical challenges, but they play a vital role in behavioral intervention research. Conclusion This review highlights the need for a scientific consensus statement on control groups in behavioral trials. PMID:21536837

Freedland, Kenneth E.; Mohr, David C.; Davidson, Karina W.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

2011-01-01

278

Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.

Khan, S.; Maibodi, M. [Bechtel Power corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Srivastava, R. [and others

1997-12-31

279

Explaining the impact of a women's group led community mobilisation intervention on maternal and newborn health outcomes: the Ekjut trial process evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Few large and rigorous evaluations of participatory interventions systematically describe their context and implementation, or attempt to explain the mechanisms behind their impact. This study reports process evaluation data from the Ekjut cluster-randomised controlled trial of a participatory learning and action cycle with women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in Jharkhand and Orissa, eastern India (2005-2008). The study demonstrated a 45% reduction in neonatal mortality in the last two years of the intervention, largely driven by improvements in safe practices for home deliveries. Methods A participatory learning and action cycle with 244 women's groups was implemented in 18 intervention clusters covering an estimated population of 114 141. We describe the context, content, and implementation of this intervention, identify potential mechanisms behind its impact, and report challenges experienced in the field. Methods included a review of intervention documents, qualitative structured discussions with group members and non-group members, meeting observations, as well as descriptive statistical analysis of data on meeting attendance, activities, and characteristics of group attendees. Results Six broad, interrelated factors influenced the intervention's impact: (1) acceptability; (2) a participatory approach to the development of knowledge, skills and 'critical consciousness'; (3) community involvement beyond the groups; (4) a focus on marginalized communities; (5) the active recruitment of newly pregnant women into groups; (6) high population coverage. We hypothesize that these factors were responsible for the increase in safe delivery and care practices that led to the reduction in neonatal mortality demonstrated in the Ekjut trial. Conclusions Participatory interventions with community groups can influence maternal and child health outcomes if key intervention characteristics are preserved and tailored to local contexts. Scaling-up such interventions requires (1) a detailed understanding of the way in which context affects the acceptability and delivery of the intervention; (2) planned but flexible replication of key content and implementation features; (3) strong support for participatory methods from implementing agencies. PMID:20969787

2010-01-01

280

Different Cardiovascular Responses to a Resistance Training Session in Hypertensive Women Receiving Propanolol Compared with Normotensive Controls  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to compare the responses of blood pressure, heart rate, and rate-pressure product of hypertensive women using beta-blockers with healthy controls during resistance exercise (by the end of the concentric phase of the contractions) and in the postexercise period (5 and 30 minutes after). Ten untrained normotensive women (N) and 10 mildly hypertensive females receiving 40?mg/day of propanolol (H) were selected. Three sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 10 repetitions maximum with 30?s rest interval were performed on the leg press exercise. The H group exhibited lower systolic blood pressure after the second set compared with N. Heart rate and rate-pressure product were lower in H in all analyzed periods compared with N. Propanolol attenuates the cardiovascular response to a leg press resistance exercise in mildly hypertensive women. PMID:22645465

Moraes Miguel, Fabiano; Alexandre Grings, Luis; Borges Pereira, Guilherme; Diego Leite, Richard; Vieira, Amilton; Frade de Sousa, Nuno Manuel; Simao, Roberto; Prestes, Jonato

2012-01-01

281

Inulin controls inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized-controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

There is limited evidence on the effects of prebiotics on inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inulin supplementation on inflammatory indices and metabolic endotoxemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The participants included diabetic females (n?=?49). They were divided into an intervention group (n?=?24) as well as a control group (n?=?25) and received 10?g/d inulin or maltodextrin for 8 weeks, respectively. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1c, insulin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were measured pre and post intervention. Inulin-supplemented patients exhibited a significant decrease in FBS (8.5%), HbA1c (10.4%), fasting insulin (34.3%), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (39.5%), hs-CRP (35.6%), TNF-? (23.1%), and LPS (27.9%) compared with the maltodextrin group (p?group. It can be concluded that inulin supplementation seems to be able to modulate inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia in women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24059649

Dehghan, Parvin; Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem; Jafar-Abadi, Mohammad Asghari; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar

2014-02-01

282

The effect of bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training, or combination training on urodynamic parameters in women with urinary incontinence. Continence Program for Women Research Group.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three conservative interventions: pelvic floor muscle training, bladder training, or both, on urodynamic parameters in women with urinary incontinence. Two hundred four women with genuine stress incontinence (GSI) or detrusor instability with or without GSI (DI +/- GSI) participated in a two-site trial comparing pelvic floor muscle training, bladder training, or both. Patients were stratified based on severity of urinary incontinence, urodynamic diagnosis, and treatment site, then randomized to a treatment group. All women underwent a comprehensive standardized evaluation including multi-channel urodynamics at the initial assessment and at the end of 12 weeks of therapy. Analysis of covariance was used to detect differences among treatment groups on urodynamic parameters. Post-treatment evaluations were available for 181 women. No differences were found among treatments on the following measurements: maximum urethral closure pressure, mean urethral closure pressure, maximum Kegel urethral closure pressure, mean Kegel urethral closure pressure, functional urethral length, pressure transmission ratios, straining urethral axis, first sensation to void, maximum cystometric capacity, and the MCC minus FSV. The effect of treatment did not differ by urodynamic diagnosis. Behavioral therapy had no effect on commonly measured urodynamic parameters. The mechanism by which clinical improvement occurs remains unknown. Neurourol. Urodynam. 18:427-436, 1999. PMID:10494113

Elser, D M; Wyman, J F; McClish, D K; Robinson, D; Fantl, J A; Bump, R C

1999-01-01

283

Nonproliferation and arms control technology working group. RD database focus group. 1996 annual report. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

In response to guidance from the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Group (NPAC TWG), the Proliferation Modeling Focus Group (PMFG) formulated objectives and terms of reference from which to conduct its activities. A major recommendation of this group in its report last year was that NPAC TWG needed to establish a separate focus group to develop and implement communications and data sharing within the larger NPAC TWG and among its various focus groups. The need was recognized for communicating and data sharing at both classified and unclassified levels. In response to this recommendation, the NPAC TWG established the Research and Development Database Focus Group. To facilitate our communication needs, it was decided to use a three-tier approach on three parallel communications networks: the Internet`s World Wide Web, Secret Internet Protocol Router Network`s (SIPRNET) INTELINK-S, and Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System`s (JWICS) INTELINK. Since all three networks at all classification levels use WEB browsers (Mosaic, Netscape, Microsoft`s Navigator, and others) and Internet tools to search and display data, and all networks are or could be made available to all members, it was propitious to use them as the infrastructure for NPAC TWG`s information sharing requirements.

NONE

1996-12-31

284

The Effect of Fathers' Training Regarding Attachment Skills on Maternal-Fetal Attachments among Primigravida Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Fathers’ cooperation has been less taken into account in the process of pregnancy. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of training the fathers regarding attachment skills on maternal-fetal attachment in primigravida women in 2013. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 150 qualified pregnant women’s husbands. The intervention group took part in four 90-minute sessions of maternal-fetal attachment training held once a week. On the other hand, the control group received the routine pregnancy care. Both groups completed Spielberger’s anxiety scale and Cranley’s questionnaire before and after the intervention. Then, the data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test. Besides, P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The intervention group’s mean score of attachment was 55.98±6.99 and 61.90±5.41 before and after the intervention, respectively. The results of paired t-test revealed a significant difference between the intervention and the control group regarding their mean scores of attachment before and one month after the intervention (P<0.001). Additionally, the results of independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the five dimensions of the questionnaire, namely interaction with the baby (P<0.001), acceptance of maternal role (P<0.001), differentiation between oneself and the baby (P<0.001), attribution of some features to the baby (P=0.01), and self-devotion (P=0.01). Conclusion: Training the fathers regarding the attachment behaviors and skills led to an increase in the maternal-fetal attachment scores. Thus, paternal training should be considered in pregnancy care programs. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012091910886N1

Akbarzade, Marzieh; Setodeh, Sara; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Zare, Najaf

2014-01-01

285

Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineth-nine Mexican-American women who were identified as either high or low acculturated responded to questionnaires assessing the relationship between birth control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and the values ascribed to motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Using a multiple regression analysis, a significant positive relationship was found for both high and low acculturated women with respect to their attitudes toward

Silvia Ortiz; Jesus Manuel Casas

1990-01-01

286

PTS performance by flight- and control-group macaques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.

Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.

2000-01-01

287

Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba extract on sexual desire in postmenopausal women in Tehran  

PubMed Central

Background: During the menopausal period, sexual desire may decrease. Therefore, restoring the sexual desire may help to improve sexual functioning in this group of women. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: In this triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 80 healthy female volunteers attending three healthcare centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) were enrolled. The instrument of this study had two main parts. The first part covered the personal characteristics of the volunteers and the second part used the Sabbatsberg Sexual Rating Scale (SSRS) to subjectively evaluate sexual desire before and after intervention. The participants received GBE at a dose of 120-240 mg (n = 40) or received placebo (n = 40) daily for 30 days. The results were analyzed using Mann–Whitney test. All analyses were performed using SPSS software. Results: The sexual desire was significantly improved in the GBE group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.02). Conclusions: In this study, we found that GBE had a positive effect on sexual desire of menopausal women; thus, these findings support the positive effect of GBE on the sexual function of menopausal women. PMID:24949064

Pebdani, Mina Amiri; Taavoni, Simin; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Haghani, Hamid

2014-01-01

288

Safety and efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for pregnant women to prevent excessive maternal weight gain: a cluster-randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with short- and long-term health problems among mothers and their offspring. There is a strong need for effective intervention strategies targeting excessive GWG to prevent adverse outcomes. Methods We performed a cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial in eight gynecological practices evaluating the feasibility and effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention presented to all pregnant women; 250 healthy, pregnant women were recruited for the study. The intervention program consisted of two individually delivered counseling sessions focusing on diet, physical activity, and weight monitoring. The primary outcome was the proportion of pregnant women exceeding weight gain recommendations of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Secondary outcome variables were maternal weight retention and short-term obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Results The intervention resulted in a lower proportion of women exceeding IOM guidelines among women in the intervention group (38%) compared with the control group (60%) (odds ratio (OR): 0.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3 to 0.9) without prompting an increase in the proportion of pregnancies with suboptimal weight gain (19% vs. 21%). Participants in the intervention group gained significantly less weight than those in the control group. Only 17% of the women in the intervention group showed substantial weight retention of more than 5 kg compared with 31% of those in the control group at month four postpartum (pp) (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9). There were no significant differences in obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Conclusions Lifestyle counseling given to pregnant women reduced the proportion of pregnancies with excessive GWG without increasing suboptimal weight gain, and may exert favorable effects on pp weight retention. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003801. PMID:23865624

2013-01-01

289

Effect of aging on carotid baroreflex control of blood pressure and leg vascular conductance in women.  

PubMed

Recent work suggests that ?-adrenergic vasodilation offsets ?-adrenergic vasoconstriction in young women, but this effect is lost after menopause. Given these age-related vascular changes, we tested the hypothesis that older women would exhibit a greater change in vascular conductance following baroreflex perturbation compared with young women. In 10 young (21 ± 1 yr) and 10 older (62 ± 2 yr) women, mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO; Modelflow), total vascular conductance (TVC), and leg vascular conductance (LVC, duplex-Doppler ultrasound) were continuously measured in response to 5-s pulses of neck suction (NS; -60 Torr) and neck pressure (NP; +40 Torr) to simulate carotid hypertension and hypotension, respectively. Following NS, decreases in MAP were similar between groups; however, MAP peak response latency was slower in older women (P < 0.05). Moreover, at the time of peak MAP, increases in LVC (young, -11.5 ± 3.9%LVC vs. older, +19.1 ± 7.0%LVC; P < 0.05) and TVC were greater in older women, whereas young women exhibited larger decreases in HR and CO (young, -10 ± 3% CO vs. older, +0.8 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05). Following NP, increases in MAP were blunted (young, +14 ± 1 mmHg vs. older, +8 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.05) in older women, whereas MAP response latencies were similar. Interestingly, decreases in LVC and TVC were similar between groups, but HR and CO (young, +7.0 ± 2% CO vs. older, -4.0 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05) responses were attenuated in older women. These findings suggest that older women have greater reliance on vascular conductance to modulate MAP via carotid baroreflex, whereas young women rely more on cardiac responsiveness. Furthermore, older women demonstrate a blunted ability to increase MAP to hypotensive stimuli. PMID:24682393

Credeur, Daniel P; Holwerda, Seth W; Boyle, Leryn J; Vianna, Lauro C; Jensen, Areum K; Fadel, Paul J

2014-05-15

290

Effectiveness of music interventions for women with high anxiety during coronary angiographic procedures: a randomized controlled.  

PubMed

The purpose was to investigate if women with high pre-procedural anxiety reported higher degree of relaxation and comfort if listening to music during coronary angiographic procedures. A prospective randomized controlled trial was used included 68 patients undergoing coronary angiography and/or PCI. The women were allocated to receive calming music and standard care or standard care only. Relaxation, environmental sound and discomfort associated with lying still were assessed. There was significantly more positive impression of the sound environment and less discomfort associated with lying still in women listening to music in comparison to women who received only standard care. No effect in relaxation was found. PMID:21095634

Nilsson, Ulrica

2012-06-01

291

Internet-based video-group delivery of Healthy Relationships--a "prevention with positives" intervention: report on a single group pilot test among women living with HIV.  

PubMed

Women living with HIV (WLH) face challenges related to stigma, disclosure of HIV status, and negotiating safer sex. Several effective behavioral interventions, such as Healthy Relationships (HR), help WLH address these challenges and are disseminated by the USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions project. However, many WLH living in poor urban or rural locations cannot access interventions such as HR because implementation is not feasible. Video-conferencing technology holds promise for expanding access to effective behavioral interventions for WLH. Following a systematic adaptation to the video-conferencing format, this pilot study tested the delivery of HR via video-group (VG) among WLH. The video-conferencing-based intervention, HR-VG, consisted of six, two-hour sessions led by two facilitators, and used structured activities and video-clips to build disclosure and safer sex skills. Four minority WLH received HR-VG at four different community-based intervention sites in a private room equipped with a video-phone for participating in HR-VG and a desktop computer for completing assessments via Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview. Participants completed a baseline assessment prior to HR-VG and post-session assessment after each HR-VG session. The post-intervention assessment and video-focus group were completed following the last HR-VG session. Facilitators completed an assessment after each HR-VG session and an open-ended questionnaire following HR-VG. HR-VG was implemented in its entirety with minimal challenges. Both participants and facilitators reported feeling either "very comfortable" or "completely comfortable" with the technology and the overall intervention. Participants also reported high levels of unity and togetherness among the group. These preliminary findings suggest VG delivery of HR for WLH is both feasible and highly valued by participants. A follow-up randomized controlled trial is under way to test the feasibility and efficacy of HR-VG with a larger sample of WLH. PMID:23713756

Marhefka, Stephanie L; Iziduh, Sharon; Fuhrmann, Hollie J; Lopez, Bernice; Glueckauf, Robert; Lynn, Vickie; Baldwin, Julie

2013-01-01

292

Effect of potassium citrate supplementation or increased fruit and vegetable intake on bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alkali provision may explain why fruit and vegeta- bles benefit bone health. Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of alkali-providing potassium citrate (double-blind) and fruit and vegetable intake (single-blind) on bone turnover over 2 y. Design: We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 276 postmenopausal women (aged 55- 65 y). Women were randomly assigned to 4 groups: high-dose

Helen M Macdonald; Alison J Black; Lorna Aucott; Garry Duthie; Susan Duthie; Rena Sandison; Antonia C Hardcastle; Susan A Lanham; William D Fraser; David M Reid

293

Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of gentle Hatha yoga for women with major depression: Findings from a randomized controlled mixed-methods study  

PubMed Central

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating chronic condition in the United States and worldwide. Particularly in women, depressive symptoms are often accompanied by high levels of stress and ruminations, or repetitive self-critical negative thinking. There is a research and clinical imperative to evaluate complementary therapies that are acceptable and feasible for women with depression and that target specific aspects of depression in women, such as ruminations. To begin to address this need, we conducted a randomized, controlled, mixed-methods community-based study comparing an 8-week yoga intervention with an attention-control activity in 27 women with MDD. After controlling for baseline stress, there was a decrease in depression over time in both the yoga group and the attention-control group, with the yoga group having a unique trend in decreased ruminations. Participants in the yoga group reported experiencing increased connectedness and gaining a coping strategy through yoga. The findings provide support for future large scale research to explore the effects of yoga for depressed women and the unique role of yoga in decreasing rumination. PMID:23706890

Kinser, Patricia Anne; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Whaley, Diane; Hauenstein, Emily; Taylor, Ann Gill

2013-01-01

294

Effect of culturally appropriate health education on glycaemic control and knowledge of diabetes in British Pakistani women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes is a growing problem in people of South Asian origin. It is associated with severe complications if it is not adequately controlled. This paper is a secondary assessment of 105 British Pakistani women within a larger randomized controlled trial of 200 Pakistani patients with diabetes. The trial used one-to-one structured diabetes health education, delivered by a linkworker with pictorial flashcards as a visual aid. Earlier published results from this study have shown that the women in the study knew less about diabetes and had poorer glycaemic control than men, which is why this assessment was performed to see what happened to them when they received appropriate health education. All patients were assessed before and 6 months after intervention by questionnaire and haemoglobin A1c blood tests to measure their overall blood sugar control. Nearly everyone improved their knowledge scores after 6 months in the intervention group, with women showing a catch-up improvement such that they equalled men. Multiple regression analysis found that glycaemic control improved in women receiving health education. Although this method of health education improved knowledge and glycaemic control in women in this sample, illiterate women did not do as well as their literate peers, continuing to score less on knowledge parameters. They also did not show an improvement in glycaemic control. Further work is needed to discover methods that will reach this sizeable subsection of the community. PMID:11497119

Hawthorne, K

2001-06-01

295

Greater anterior insula activation during anticipation of food images in women recovered from anorexia nervosa versus controls.  

PubMed

Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict food consumption and become severely emaciated. Eating food, even thinking of eating food, is often associated with heightened anxiety. However, food cue anticipation in AN is poorly understood. Fourteen women recovered from AN and 12 matched healthy control women performed an anticipation task viewing images of food and object images during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing anticipation of food versus object images between control women and recovered AN groups showed significant interaction only in the right ventral anterior insula, with greater activation in recovered AN anticipating food images. These data support the hypothesis of a disconnect between anticipating and experiencing food stimuli in recovered AN. Insula activation positively correlated with pleasantness ratings of palatable foods in control women, while no such relationship existed in recovered AN, which is further evidence of altered interoceptive function. Finally, these findings raise the possibility that enhanced anterior insula anticipatory response to food cues in recovered AN could contribute to exaggerated sensitivity and anxiety related to food and eating. PMID:23993362

Oberndorfer, Tyson; Simmons, Alan; McCurdy, Danyale; Strigo, Irina; Matthews, Scott; Yang, Tony; Irvine, Zoe; Kaye, Walter

2013-11-30

296

Do You See What I See? Effects of Group Consciousness on African American Women's Attributions to Prejudice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of three types of group consciousness among African American women ("ethnic," "feminist," and "womanist") on prejudice attributions and appraised personal significance ("centrality") of a negative intergroup event. African American female college students (N = 123) imagined themselves in an audiotaped scenario in…

King, Kimberly R.

2003-01-01

297

Women and children in a neighborhood advocacy group: engaging community and refashioning citizenship at the United States–Mexico border  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the community participation of recent Latina immigrant mothers and their children in a neighborhood advocacy group near the US–Mexico border. It documents the work that women and children do as they struggle to become involved in their new community and improve their quality of life – despite legal, social, economic and cultural obstacles. Local context, family

Fernando J. Bosco; Stuart C. Aitken; Thomas Herman

2011-01-01

298

Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

2009-01-01

299

Comparison of different sampling techniques and of different culture methods for detection of group B streptococcus carriage in pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), followed by subculture on sheep blood

Nabil A El Aila; Inge Tency; Geert Claeys; Bart Saerens; Piet Cools; Hans Verstraelen; Marleen Temmerman; Rita Verhelst; Mario Vaneechoutte

2010-01-01

300

77 FR 20277 - Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...Agencies Throughout our country, the spread of HIV/AIDS has had a devastating impact on many...approximately 1.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS, including more than 290,000...

2012-04-03

301

Group Motivational Interviewing to Promote Adherence to Antiretroviral Medications and Risk Reduction Behaviors in HIV Infected Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a clinical trial that tested the efficacy of using motivational interviewing (MI) in a group format\\u000a to promote adherence to antiretroviral medications and risk reduction behaviors (RRB) in 203 predominately African American\\u000a HIV infected women. It was compared to a group health promotion program. Participants were followed for 9 months. Adherence\\u000a was measured by MEMS®; and

Marcia McDonnell Holstad; Colleen DiIorio; Mary E. Kelley; Kenneth Resnicow; Sanjay Sharma

2011-01-01

302

Lipid profile in nonobese pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective controlled clinical study.  

PubMed

Alterations in lipid pattern and increased risk for obstetric/neonatal complications have been observed in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Pregnancy leads to physiologic changes in lipoprotein metabolism, and alterations in lipid profile have been related with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Based on these considerations, the aim of the present prospective controlled clinical study was to test the hypothesis that the changes in the lipid profile in patients with PCOS during pregnancy are characteristic and potentially related to the increased risk of obstetric/neonatal complications. One hundred and fifty nonobese PCOS women and 150 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Serum lipids, glucose, insulin, and androgens levels were serially assayed in all subjects before and throughout pregnancy. Serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher in PCOS group than in healthy controls at each assessment. Throughout pregnancy, serum LDL and TG levels increased significantly (P<0.05) in both groups, although the change from pre-pregnancy values was significantly (P<0.05) greater in PCOS patients than in healthy controls. A significant (P<0.05) relationship was observed between serum LDL and TG changes and changes in both insulin sensitivity indexes and androgen levels in PCOS patients alone. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI and lipid levels, body weight gain, and insulin-resistance markers, serum TG concentrations during pregnancy were directly and independently associated with obstetric complications in both groups, whereas serum LDL levels only in PCOS patients. We can conclude that nonobese PCOS patients had specific changes in lipid profile during pregnancy, and that the lipid pattern typical of PCOS may account for the more frequent adverse pregnancy outcomes. PCOS-related hormonal and metabolic features, such as insulin resistance and high androgen levels, may mediate this phenomenon. PMID:24945113

Palomba, Stefano; Falbo, Angela; Chiossi, Giuseppe; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Fornaciari, Eleonora; Orio, Francesco; Tolino, Achille; Colao, Annamaria; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Zullo, Fulvio

2014-10-01

303

Macrolide- and tetracycline-resistance determinants of colonizing group B streptococcus in women in Egypt.  

PubMed

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a commensal bacterium of the human gastrointestinal and genital tracts. It is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, and has also been recognized as an important pathogen in pregnant women and the elderly. We investigated mechanisms of macrolide and tetracycline resistance in GBS colonizing women in Egypt. A total of 100 isolates were screened using standard antibiotic susceptibility tests. A multiplex PCR assay was used to detect macrolide- and tetracycline-resistance determinants. All isolates were uniformly susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, cefotaxime, vancomycin and levofloxacin. The resistance rates to erythromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol were 17, 14, 16, 98 and 1?%, respectively. Among the erythromycin-resistant isolates, 82.4?% had constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (cMLSB) resistance, 5.9?% had inducible MLSB (iMLSB) resistance and 11.8?% had M phenotype resistance. Among the cMLSB phenotypes, 64.3?% of isolates harboured the ermB gene and 35.7?% of isolates harboured none of the investigated macrolide-resistance genes. The single strain expressing the iMLSB phenotype possessed the ermA gene. Of the two strains with the M phenotype, only one possessed the mefA/E gene. Conversely, seven macrolide-sensitive strains (MIC <0.03 µg ml(-1)) were ermB positive and one macrolide-sensitive strain (MIC <0.03 µg ml(-1)) harboured mefA/E. Tetracycline resistance was predominantly due to tetM, which was detected alone (83.7?%) or in association with tetL (12.2?%), tetK (1?%) or tetO (1?%). One strain carried tetM associated with both tetL and tetK, and another strain carried tetO alone. The tetO strains were positive for the mefA/E gene, and the tetL and tetK carrier strains harboured the ermB gene. Susceptible strains harbouring but not expressing an antibiotic-resistance gene should be regarded as potentially resistant. These results emphasize the need to monitor the epidemiology of GBS antibiotic resistance in Egypt. PMID:25053798

Shabayek, Sarah; Abdalla, Salah

2014-10-01

304

Effects of Soy on Body Composition: A 12-Week Randomized Controlled Trial among Iranian Elderly Women with Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: To examine the effects of soy [in the form of textured soy protein (TSP) and soy-nut] on body composition in elderly women with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: A 12-week randomized clinical trial was conducted on 75 women between 60–70 years of age with MetS in rural health clinics around Babol, Iran in 2009. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups of soy-nut (35g/d), TSP (35g/d) and control. Body fat, lean mass and anthropometric indicators were measured before and after intervention, too. Results: Participants were classified as overweight and showing android fat distribution. After 12 weeks of intervention, both soy-nut and TSP groups showed an increase of non-significant in lean mass (0.9 and 0.7 kg), hip circumference (0.45 and 0.28 cm), triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness (0.87 and 0.67mm) and reduction in BMI (?0.15 and ?0.33), waist circumference (?0.83 and ?1.2) and body fat (?1.5% and ?1.7%). Significant increase in the mean change of TSF and lean mass was observed in the users of soy-nut compared to the control group (P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusion: 12-week intervention of soy had a mild favorable effect on body composition in elderly women with MetS. PMID:23113160

Bakhtiari, A; Yassin, Z; Hanachi, P; Rahmat, A; Ahmad, Z; Sajadi, P; Shojaei, S

2012-01-01

305

The efficacy of sertraline for controlling hot flashes in women with or at high risk of developing breast cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of sertraline for controlling hot flashes in women with or at high risk of breast cancer. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. All participants were asked to complete hot flash diaries. Participants reporting weekly hot flash scores >15 during baseline week underwent a 1-week single-blind placebo run-in. Those reporting hot flash score reductions >50% following placebo run-in were excluded. The remaining women received an assigned treatment for 4 weeks. Both groups' demographic and clinical characteristics were similar with a greater decline, but not statistically significant, in hot flash frequencies and scores in the sertraline-treated group compared with the placebo (P = 0.13 and P = 0.15, respectively). Emotional well-being improved significantly in the sertraline group (P = 0.041). The study failed to demonstrate effectiveness of sertraline in attenuating hot flashes in women with or at high risk of developing breast cancer who were not recommended to take hormone replacement therapy. PMID:19495957

Wu, Meng-Fen; Hilsenbeck, S G; Tham, Yee L; Kramer, Rita; Elledge, R M; Chang, J C; Friedman, L C

2009-11-01

306

Women's Stereotypic Roles: A Replication and Standardization of the AWS and PAQ for Selected Ethnic Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A replication of two previous studies, this study examined the effect of both sex and ethnicity on attitudes toward women, self-reported masculinity-femininity, and masculine-feminine stereotypic attitudes. The Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) were administered to 367 college students (112 Anglos,…

Wheeler, Edwin E.; And Others

307

Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape Concerns among a Group of College Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three potential factors that might mediate the relationship between reading women's magazines and body shape and size concern. Finds that health and fitness magazine reading by college-aged women was linked directly to body shape concerns, indirectly through beliefs about men's thinness expectations. Explains that beauty and fashion…

Thomsen, Steven R.

2002-01-01

308

Unconscious Communication of Internalized Oppression among African American Women: A Small Group Theoretical Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to fill the gap in the field of communication concerning African American women. It postulates that the African American woman's unique experience with both racism and sexism influences specific types of communication when she is called upon to communicate solely with other African American women. It builds upon the…

Dorsey, Laura Kathleen

309

CONTROLLING IMAGES AND THE GENDER CONSTRUCTION OF ENSLAVED AFRICAN WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the antebellum popular culture that was created by pro-slavery intellectuals and that contributed to the subordination of female African slaves. It argues that southern ideologues produced a dominant ideology that facilitated the exploitation of enslaved Black women and contributed to the social construction of their gender. This article contributes to Black feminist theory that, since the early

RUPE SIMMS

2001-01-01

310

Health Locus of Control and Assimilation of Cervical Cancer Information in Deaf Women  

E-print Network

# The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract This study assessed the relationship between Deaf women's internal health locus of control (IHLC) and their cervical cancer knowledge acquisition and retention. A blind, randomized trial evaluated Deaf women's (N=130) baseline cancer knowledge and knowledge gained and retained from an educational intervention, in relation to their IHLC. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales measured baseline IHLC, and a cervical cancer knowledge survey evaluated baseline to post-intervention knowledge change. Women's IHLC did not significantly predict greater cervical cancer knowledge at baseline or

Regina Wang; Arianna A. Aldridge; Vanessa L. Malcarne; Sun Choe; Patricia Branz; Georgia Robins Sadler; G. R. Sadler; G. R. Sadler; R. Wang; S. Choe; V. L. Malcarne; G. R. Sadler

311

Serum hormone levels in pre-menopausal Chinese women in Shanghai and white women in Los Angeles: results from two breast cancer case-control studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess whether risk of breast cancer in young women is associated with differences in luteal-phase hormone production and to attempt to explain differences in risk of breast cancer of young Shanghai Chinese and Los Angeles white women, two concurrent case-control studies of serum hormone concentrations were conducted. Both studies were carefully controlled for the possible confounding effects of age,

Leslie Bernstein; Jian-Min Yuan; Ronald K. Ross; Malcolm C. Pike; Rosemarie Hanisch; Rogerio Lobo; Frank Stanczyk; Yu-Tang Gao; Brian E. Henderson

1990-01-01

312

Taking pictures to take control: Photovoice as a tool to facilitate empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic minority women with HIV.  

PubMed

Poor and racial/ethnic minority women comprise the majority of women living with HIV (WLH) in the United States. Race, gender, class, and HIV-based stigmas and inequities limit women's powers over their health and compromise their quality of life. To help WLH counter this powerlessness, we implemented a Photovoice project, called Picturing New Possibilities (PNP), and explored how women experienced empowerment through Photovoice. PNP participants (n = 30) photographed their life experiences, attended 3 group discussions and a community exhibit of their photos, and completed a follow-up interview. We used strategies of Grounded Theory to identify key empowerment themes. Participants described empowerment through enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, critical thinking skills, and control. Our findings suggest that Photovoice is an important tool for WLH. It offers women a way to access internal strengths and use these resources to improve their quality of life and health. PMID:24064314

Teti, Michelle; Pichon, Latrice; Kabel, Allison; Farnan, Rose; Binson, Diane

2013-01-01

313

Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.  

PubMed

In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ?6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely given that >150 million women, many of childbearing age, are involved in microfinance globally. PMID:24812071

Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

2014-07-01

314

Effects of parameter estimation on the group runs control chart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of the Group Runs (GR) chart is based on the assumption of known process parameters. Nevertheless, the in-control process parameters, mean and standard deviation are rarely known in reality, thus, both of them need to be estimated from a set of in-control data which is acquired from the Phase I process. In this paper, we will study the effects of parameter estimation on the performance of the GR chart, in terms of the average run length (ARL). The results show that the performance of the estimated GR chart are severely affected when process shift and the Phase I sample size are small. However, the performance of the chart with estimated parameters approaches that of the chart with known parameters when large Phase I samples are used.

You, Huay Woon; Khoo, Michael Boon Chong

2014-07-01

315

Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week) increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p < 0.0001) at the ending of the program in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The participants in the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity per week (mean = 139.81, SE = 23.35) than women in the control group (mean = 40.14, SE = 12.65) at week 8 (p < 0.0001). The intervention group subjects exhibited a significantly greater decrease in systolic blood pressure (-10.0 mmHg) than the control group women (+2.0. mmHg). The mean ranks for posttest healthy heart knowledge in the intervention and control groups were 198.91 and 135.77, respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527 PMID:17716376

Pazoki, Raha; Nabipour, Iraj; Seyednezami, Nasrin; Imami, Seyed Reza

2007-01-01

316

The comparative experiences of women in control: diabetes self-management education in a virtual world.  

PubMed

The purpose was to characterize participants' experiences of a diabetes self-management (DSM) education program delivered via a virtual world (VW) versus a face-to-face (F2F) format. Participants included a randomly selected sample of participants who completed the Women in Control study. Four focus groups were conducted with 32 participants. Four researchers coded the data and conducted a qualitative thematic analysis. Four overarching themes were identified. Three domains apply to both VW and F2F formats, including (1) the value of DSM knowledge gained, (2) cultivating DSM attitudes and skills, and (3) the value of peer-derived social support. The fourth domain is labeled positive technological development for DSM (VW condition only). VW and F2F groups both reported mastery of DSM knowledge, attitudes, and skills, and there were no differences in peer-derived social support between groups. The technological aspects of VW participation afforded VW participants a unique sense of personal agency and diabetes self-efficacy not reported by F2F participants. DSM education in a VW is feasible and educational outcomes are similar to a F2F classroom experience. Furthermore, learning DSM skills in a VW offers unique advantages in supporting personal agency for health behavior change. Further research is warranted. PMID:25212580

Mitchell, Suzanne E; Mako, Morgan; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Barnes, Linda; Stone, Abriella; Rosal, Milagros C; Wiecha, John

2014-11-01

317

Weight Gain Prevention among Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Women 25 to 45 years old are at risk for weight gain and future obesity. This trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of two interventions relative to a control group in preventing weight gain among normal or overweight women and to identify demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors related to weight gain prevention.Research Methods and Procedures: Healthy women (N

Michele D. Levine; Mary Lou Klem; Melissa A. Kalarchian; Rena R. Wing; Lisa Weissfeld; Li Qin; Marsha D. Marcus

2007-01-01

318

Control group response variability in short-term toxicity tests  

SciTech Connect

The US EPA`s National Reference Toxicant Database (NRTDB) has afforded an excellent opportunity to examine and document variability in responses within control groups (i.e. zero concentration of the toxicant.) The NRTDB has compiled acute and chronic reference toxicant test results for eight species and currently contains results for 32 laboratories and generally eight to ten tests for a species within each laboratory. The Ceriodaphnia dubia Survival and Reproduction test and the Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Survival and Growth test are the most frequently represented chronic tests with 331 and 144 sets of test data, respectively. For this presentation, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction data, expressed as total numbers of young in the test period, and fathead minnow survival and growth data were analyzed using a variance components model. The information regarding the control population is useful in examining the sources of inter and intralaboratory variability of chronic testing. In addition, this control population response variability information will be valuable for characterizing what can be termed as ``practically equivalent responses`` between a control and an effluent. The preliminary analysis indicates considerable between-test variability; however, this variability is not consistent across laboratories. Results of further exploration on this issue will be presented.

Gast, L.C.; Shimp, C. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Wang, Q.; Shukla, R. [UC Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health; Fulk, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

319

Yoga for managing knee osteoarthritis in older women: a pilot randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common problem in older women that is associated with pain and disabilities. Although yoga is recommended as an exercise intervention to manage arthritis, there is limited evidence documenting its effectiveness, with little known about its long term benefits. This study’s aims were to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of a Hatha yoga exercise program in managing OA-related symptoms in older women with knee OA. Methods Eligible participants (N?=?36; mean age 72 years) were randomly assigned to 8-week yoga program involving group and home-based sessions or wait-list control. The yoga intervention program was developed by a group of yoga experts (N?=?5). The primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total score that measures knee OA pain, stiffness, and function at 8 weeks. The secondary outcomes, physical function of the lower extremities, body mass index (BMI), quality of sleep (QOS), and quality of life (QOL), were measured using weight, height, the short physical performance battery (SPPB), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Cantril Self-Anchoring Ladder, and the SF12v2 Health Survey. Data were collected at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. Results The recruitment target was met, with study retention at 95%. Based on ANCOVAs, participants in the treatment group exhibited significantly greater improvement in WOMAC pain (adjusted means [SE]) (8.3 [.67], 5.8 [.67]; p?=?.01), stiffness (4.7 [.28], 3.4 [.28]; p?=?.002) and SPPB (repeated chair stands) (2.0 [.23], 2.8 [.23]; p?=?.03) at 8 weeks. Significant treatment and time effects were seen in WOMAC pain (7.0 [.46], 5.4 [.54]; p?=?.03), function (24.5 [1.8], 19.9 [1.6]; p?=?.01) and total scores (35.4 [2.3], 28.6 [2.1]; p?=?.01) from 4 to 20 weeks. Sleep disturbance was improved but the PSQI total score declined significantly at 20 weeks. Changes in BMI and QOL were not significant. No yoga related adverse events were observed. Conclusions A weekly yoga program with home practice is feasible, acceptable, and safe for older women with knee OA, and shows therapeutic benefits. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01832155 PMID:24886638

2014-01-01

320

[Discussion of the relation of women's position to population control in China].  

PubMed

In recent years, population control programs in the rural areas has encountered resistance. Women have been getting married and having children at younger ages. More high parity birth occurred and family planning has been out of control among the migrant population. In analyzing the causes of these phenomena, besides the external impact, factors associated with women themselves are contributing factors. 1st, the low level of education of women, especially of rural women have restricted their opportunities for employment and their ability to choose their lives. Women's only choice was to be dependent on their husband sand families. Having children was the symbol of their value. Improving women's level of education, and improving their ability to live independently would be an important means to reduce their motivation for having children. Women with higher educations were in a better position to put their energy into their work and careers. Urban women, with higher educations, mostly do not want to have too many children. The fact that fertility is negatively associated with education has indicated this point. The 1981 census data showed that women were mostly employed in the primary sector. The proportion of women employed in the tertiary sector was small. Even though the employment rate among women was high, they were mostly placed in simple, labor-intensive jobs that did not require much education. Working was only a means to make a living rather than because of their interest. Family and children were still the center of their attention, and the traditional culture of having a large family was still strong in their beliefs. Even among the highly educated females, prejudice against women's ability and prevalent perceptions of the sex role have prevented them from bringing their potential into full play. The greater share of their attention had to be given to the family. It is concluded that, womens education and employment have affected their fertility behavior. Increasing women's education and their scope of life will have a positive effect of fertility. Improvement in women's status and economic standing will turn them to actively limiting their own fertility. PMID:12317520

Wang, H

1991-02-01

321

Reducing HIV and partner violence risk among women with criminal justice system involvement: A randomized controlled trial of two Motivational Interviewing-based interventions  

PubMed Central

Women with histories of incarceration show high levels of risk for HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial with women at risk for HIV who had recent criminal justice system involvement (n=530) evaluated two interventions based on Motivational Interviewing to reduce either HIV risk or HIV and IPV risk. Baseline and 3, 6, and 9-month follow-up assessments measured unprotected intercourse, needle sharing, and IPV. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the intervention groups had significant decreases in unprotected intercourse and needle sharing, and significantly greater reductions in the odds and incidence rates of unprotected intercourse compared to the control group. No significant differences were found in changes in IPV over time between the HIV and IPV group and the control group. Motivational Interviewing-based HIV prevention interventions delivered by county health department staff appear helpful in reducing HIV risk behavior for this population. PMID:18636325

Weir, Brian W.; O'Brien, Kerth; Bard, Ronda S.; Casciato, Carol J.; Maher, Julie E.; Dent, Clyde W.; Dougherty, John A.; Stark, Michael J.

2010-01-01

322

Patient and Physician Decision Styles and Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Use in Older Women: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Protocol 369901  

PubMed Central

Purpose Physician and patient decision styles may influence breast cancer care for patients ? 65 years (“older”) because there is uncertainty about chemotherapy benefits in this group. We evaluate associations between decision-making styles and actual treatment. Methods Data were collected from women treated outside of clinical trials for newly diagnosed stage I to III breast cancer (83% response) from January 2004 through April 2011 in 75 cooperative group sites. Physicians completed a one-time mailed survey (91% response), and clinical data were abstracted from charts. Patient decision style was measured on a five-point scale. Oncologists' preference for prescribing chemotherapy was based on standardized vignettes. Regression and multiple imputation were used to assess associations between chemotherapy and other variables. Results There were 1,174 women seen by 212 oncologists; 43% of women received chemotherapy. One-third of women preferred to make their own treatment decision. Patient and physician decision styles were independently associated with chemotherapy. Women who preferred less physician input had lower odds of chemotherapy than women who preferred more input (odds ratio [OR] = 0.79 per 1-point change; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.97; P = .02) after considering covariates. Patients whose oncologists had a high chemotherapy preference had higher odds of receiving chemotherapy (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.80 to 3.89; P < .001) than those who saw oncologists with a low preference. Conclusion Physicians' and older patients' decision styles are each associated with breast cancer chemotherapy use. It will be important to re-evaluate the impact of decision styles when there is greater empirical evidence about the benefits and risks of chemotherapy in older patients. PMID:22614985

Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; Faul, Leigh Anne; Luta, George; Makgoeng, Solomon B.; Isaacs, Claudine; Taylor, Kathryn; Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Tallarico, Michelle; Barry, William T.; Cohen, Harvey J.

2012-01-01

323

The effect of alternative work arrangements on women's well-being: a demand-control model.  

PubMed

The growth of women's participation in the labor force and evidence of the conflict they experience between job and family demands have spurred many employers to introduce alternative work arrangements such as flextime, job sharing, and telecommuting. Drawing on data gained from a sample of women (N = 998) in two large Canadian organizations, this study evaluates two mediational models of the impact of alternative work arrangements on women's stress and family role competence. Specifically, it tests and finds support for the hypotheses that (a) work arrangements involving scheduling flexibility (telecommuting and flextime) promote these aspects of women's well-being by increasing their perceived control over their time, and (b) arrangements involving reduced hours of employment (part-time employment and job sharing) promote well-being by reducing perceived job overload. Discussion of these findings centers on their implications for employed women, their employers, and future research. PMID:9520604

Kelloway, E K; Gottlieb, B H

1998-01-01

324

Effect of omega-3 dietary supplements with different oxidation levels in the lipidic profile of women: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study. As a result, the ingestion of less oxidized ?-3 supplements reduced circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as opposed to the highly oxidized omega-3 capsules, which had a negative effect on cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the level of oxidation of the supplements is a key factor in controlling circulating lipid profile. Therefore, manufacturers must pay attention to the quality of the prime product prior to encapsulation. PMID:23863036

García-Hernández, V M; Gallar, M; Sánchez-Soriano, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; García-García, E

2013-12-01

325

The Development of Guidelines for Community College Peer Group Counseling Evolving From a Study of Programs for Adult Re-Entry Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of peer group counseling on self-concept among adult re-entry women in Women's Education Development Incentive (WENDI) programs and other related programs was studied to develop a set of guidelines for community college peer group counseling. The study involved using the Adult Nowicke-Strickland Internal-External Scale for pre-…

Elledge, Muriel K.

326

Creatine supplementation and resistance training in vulnerable older women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation, associated or not with resistance training, in vulnerable older women. A 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed. Sixty subjects were assigned to compose the following groups: placebo (PL), creatine supplementation (CR), placebo with resistance training (PL+RT), and creatine supplementation with resistance training (CR+RT). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after 24weeks. The primary outcome was muscle strength, as assessed by one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests. Secondary outcomes included appendicular lean mass, bone mass, biochemical bone markers, and physical function tests. The changes in 1-RM leg press were significantly greater in the CR+RT group (+19.9%) than in the PL (+2.4%) and the CR groups (+3.7%), but not than in the PL+RT group (+15%) (p=0.002, p=0.002, and p=0.357, respectively). The CR+RT group showed superior gains in 1-RM bench press (+10%) when compared with all the other groups (p?0.05). The CR+RT group (+1.31%) showed greater appendicular lean mass accrual than the PL (-1.2%), the CR (+0.3%), and the PL+RT groups (-0.2%) (p?0.05). The CR and the PL+RT groups experienced comparable gains in appendicular lean mass (p=0.62), but superior to those seen in the PL group. Changes in fat mass, bone mass and serum bone markers did not significantly differ between the groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, creatine supplementation combined with resistance training improved appendicular lean mass and muscle function, but not bone mass, in older vulnerable women. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01472393. PMID:24530883

Gualano, Bruno; Macedo, André Regis; Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Takayama, Liliam; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lucia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues

2014-05-01

327

An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

Jeffries, Sherryl A. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Calgary Health Region Chronic Pain Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Robinson, John W. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Program in Clinical Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S. [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Keats, Melanie R. [Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

2006-06-01

328

Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Soy foods contain several components, notably, isoflavones and amino acids, that may improve cardiovascular health. We evaluated the long-term effect of soy protein and/or soy isoflavones supplementation on serum lipids and inflammatory markers using a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-control, clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women older than 60 years. We hypothesized that soy protein, in combination with isoflavones, would have the largest positive effect on coronary heart disease risk factors (serum lipids and inflammatory markers) compared with either intervention alone and that, within groups receiving isoflavones, equol producers would have more positive effects on coronary heart disease risk factors than nonequol producers. After a 1-month baseline period, participants were randomized into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g/d) and isoflavone tablets (105 mg/d isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein and placebo tablets, control protein and isoflavone tablets, or control protein and placebo tablets. T Tests were used to assess differences between equol and nonequol producers. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone tablets did not differ among groups, and compliance with study powder and tablets was 79% and 90%, respectively. After 1 year, in the entire population, there were either no or little effects on serum lipids and inflammatory markers, regardless of treatment group. Equol producers, when analyzed separately, had significant improvements in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratios (-5.9%, P = .02; -7.2%, P = .04 respectively). Soy protein and isoflavone (either alone or together) did not impact serum lipids or inflammatory markers. Therefore, they should not be considered an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease because of lipid modification in healthy late postmenopausal women lacking the ability to produce equol. PMID:24267042

Mangano, Kelsey M; Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L; Kenny, Anne M; Walsh, Stephen J; Abourizk, Robin H; Bruno, Richard S; Lipcius, Rosanne; Fall, Pamela; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa; Prestwood, Karen M; Kerstetter, Jane E

2013-12-01

329

Efficacy and safety of Baweidihuang-wan in women with overactive bladder: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify the efficacy and safety of Baweidihuang-wan (BWDH) in women with overactive bladder (OAB) and to investigate whether BWDH is more effective in OAB diagnosed as kidney yang deficiency pattern by the Korean medical pattern identification. The design of this study was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. One hundred eighty-six women with OAB were randomized to treatment (n=93) or control group (n=93). Participants received BWDH or placebo three times a day for eight weeks. Efficacy was assessed by overactive bladder symptom score and 3-day bladder diary. Subgroup analysis was conducted between kidney yang deficiency pattern and other patterns according to the Korean medical pattern identification. One hundred sixty-four participants completed this trial. The treatment group has improved in OABSS score, Total micturitions per 24 hr, Daytime micturitions per 24 hr, Total count of urgency, and Total urgency score over the control group, but differences were not statistically significant. By a subgroup analysis, OABSS score, total micturitions per 24 hr, total count of urgency and total urgency score improved most in the treatment group with the kidney yang deficiency pattern but this was also not statistically significant. No obvious adverse events were found in the use of BWDH. In conclusion, this trial did not show significant difference between BWDH and placebo in women with OAB. However BWDH tended to improve urinary frequency and urgency in OAB, especially diagnosed as kidney yang deficiency pattern. Further additional research will be needed. PMID:25356135

Kim, Dongil; Choi, Changmin; Ahn, Insuk; Ryu, Ikhan; Choi, Minsun; Lee, Younsuk; Lee, Myeong Soo

2014-01-01

330

Space, agency, and withdrawal: birth control choices of women in Turkey.  

PubMed

Withdrawal (WD) is not a reliable method for preventing unwanted pregnancies, yet it is still a very popular form of birth control in many societies, including Turkey. We look at the relationship between women's agency and physical space in relation to birth control choices of women in Turkey. Agency in our context refers to a woman's ability to resist domination and subordination to the patriarchal beliefs valuing her reproductivity over her pleasure. Our analysis of the Turkish Demographic Health Survey (TDHS) suggests that (a) the available space in the household for possible private encounters between husband and wife, and (b) the women's capacity to insert her agency into her life choices are closely correlated with WD choices. Women with better social and physical resources prefer WD less. PMID:22681746

Sirkeci, Ibrahim; Cindoglu, Dilek

2012-01-01

331

Treatment of condylomata acuminata with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of treatment of condylomata acuminata of the anogenital region in pregnant women are presented. All patients were treated between the 28th and 35th weeks of gestation. The laser surgery was done in 23 patients. One laser procedure was done in 14 women. In 5 patients we performed two and in 4 women 3 laser therapies. Complete destruction of pathological changes was obtained and no recurrences were diagnosed. There were no clinical signs of HPV infection in all neonates. In the authors' opinion the use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control is an efficient and safe method in the treatment of condylomata acuminata in pregnant women. Colposcopic control allows us to discover and coagulate the bleeding spots using the defocused laser beam with low power density.

Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

1996-03-01

332

Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01490281 PMID:22336292

2012-01-01

333

Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Exercise in Pregnant Women with Chronic Hypertension and/or Previous Preeclampsia: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To evaluate the association between physical exercise supervised in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Method. Randomized controlled trial, which included 116 pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, considered risk of preeclampsia development. They were divided into two groups: study group that performed physical exercise with a stationary bicycle once a week, for 30 minutes; the intensity was controlled (heart rate 20% above resting values), under professional supervision and a control group that was not engaged in any physical exercise. The data was retrieved from medical charts. Significance level assumed was 5%. Results. Women from study group performed 9.24 ± 7.03 of physical exercise sessions. There were no differences between groups comparing type of delivery and maternal outcomes, including maternal morbidity and hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal outcomes, including birth weight, adequacy of weight to gestational age, prematurity, Apgar scale at first and fifth minutes, hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal morbidity. Conclusions. Physical exercise using a stationary bicycle in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, once a week, under professional supervision, did not interfere in the delivery method and did not produce maternal and neonatal risks of the occurrence of morbidity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01395342. PMID:23997960

Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Burgos, Camila Schneider Gannuny; do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Ferreira, Neville Oliveira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto e Silva, Joao Luiz

2013-01-01

334

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: a review of randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies are widely used in the general population. This paper reviews randomized controlled trials of CAM therapies for obstetrical and gynecologic conditions and presents therapies that are likely to be used by women of reproductive age and by pregnant women. Data Sources: Sources included English-language papers in MEDLINE 1966-2002 and AMED (1985-2000) and the

Adriane Fugh-Bermana; Fredi Kronenberg

2003-01-01

335

Exercise effect on dynamic stability in older women: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether a 12-month program of regular exercise can improve dynamic postural stability in older women.Design: Randomized controlled trial of 12 months' duration.Setting: Conducted as part of the Randwick Falls and Fractures Study, in Sydney, Australia.Participants: One hundred and twelve community-dwelling women aged 60 to 85 years (mean age 71.2, SD = 5.4).Outcome Measures: Quantitative measures of dynamic

Stephen R. Lord; John A. Ward; Philippa Williams

1996-01-01

336

Quantification of bacterial species of the vaginal microbiome in different groups of women, using nucleic acid amplification tests  

PubMed Central

Background The vaginal microbiome plays an important role in urogenital health. Quantitative real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assays for the most prevalent vaginal Lactobacillus species and bacterial vaginosis species G. vaginalis and A. vaginae exist, but qPCR information regarding variation over time is still very limited. We set up qPCR assays for a selection of seven species and defined the temporal variation over three menstrual cycles in a healthy Caucasian population with a normal Nugent score. We also explored differences in qPCR data between these healthy women and an ‘at risk’ clinic population of Caucasian, African and Asian women with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV), as defined by the Nugent score. Results Temporal stability of the Lactobacillus species counts was high with L. crispatus counts of 108 copies/mL and L. vaginalis counts of 106 copies/mL. We identified 2 types of ‘normal flora’ and one ‘BV type flora’ with latent class analysis on the combined data of all women. The first group was particularly common in women with a normal Nugent score and was characterized by a high frequency of L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii, and L. vaginalis and a correspondingly low frequency of L. gasseri and A. vaginae. The second group was characterized by the predominance of L. gasseri and L. vaginalis and was found most commonly in healthy Caucasian women. The third group was commonest in women with a high Nugent score but was also seen in a subset of African and Asian women with a low Nugent score and was characterized by the absence of Lactobacillus species (except for L. iners) but the presence of G. vaginalis and A. vaginae. Conclusions We have shown that the quantification of specific bacteria by qPCR contributes to a better description of the non-BV vaginal microbiome, but we also demonstrated that differences in populations such as risk and ethnicity also have to be taken into account. We believe that our selection of indicator organisms represents a feasible strategy for the assessment of the vaginal microbiome and could be useful for monitoring the microbiome in safety trials of vaginal products. PMID:22647069

2012-01-01

337

Gender and tuberculosis control: perspectives on health seeking behaviour among men and women in Vietnam.  

PubMed

This study explores the perspectives of tuberculosis patients on which factors influenced their health seeking behaviour, with special reference to gender differentials in terms of delays in health seeking. In 1996, a multi-disciplinary research team carried out 16 focus group discussions. The study was done in four districts in Vietnam, both in the south and north of the country and in urban and rural areas. Qualitative analysis of data was performed following general principles of modified grounded theory technique. Participants in the focus groups described three main factors as contributing to delay in health seeking. These were fear of social isolation, economic constraints and inadequate staff attitudes and poor quality of health services. A model illustrating different factors influencing health seeking was elaborated and served as a basis for discussion of the findings. The main factor contributing to delay among women was described as fear of social isolation from the family or the community. Stigma was described as closely related to contextual factors such as gender-roles, socio-economic status and level of education and seemed to be mediated via denial and concealment of tuberculosis diagnosis and disease, thus causing delay. The main factor contributing to delay among men was described as fear of individual costs of diagnosis and treatment. Staff attitudes and quality of health service facilities were described as not always corresponding to people's expectations of appropriate health services. Women saw themselves and were seen by others as being more sensitive than men to poor service conditions and staff attitudes. A typical feature of the described health seeking behaviour of men was that they neglected symptoms until the disease reached a serious stage, by which time they tended to go directly to public health services without first visiting private health practitioners. Women, on the other hand, were described as having a tendency to seek out private services and practice self-medication before seeking care at public services. In conclusion, there is a need for better understanding of behavioural factors and for developing strategies, that take these into account. Health workers need to better understand gender and social aspects of tuberculosis control, particularly aspects that influence the likelihood for achieving equity in diagnosis and cure. PMID:10899643

Johansson, E; Long, N H; Diwan, V K; Winkvist, A

2000-05-01

338

Women and postfertilization effects of birth control: consistency of beliefs, intentions and reported use  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study assesses the consistency of responses among women regarding their beliefs about the mechanisms of actions of birth control methods, beliefs about when human life begins, the intention to use or not use birth control methods that they believe may act after fertilization or implantation, and their reported use of specific methods. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered in

Huong M Dye; Joseph B Stanford; Stephen C Alder; Han S Kim; Patricia A Murphy

2005-01-01

339

Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…

Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel

1990-01-01

340

Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

2007-01-01

341

Attitudes of women from five European Countries regarding tobacco control policies  

PubMed Central

Aims Tobacco related cancers and, in particular, lung cancer still represents a substantial public health epidemic across Europe as a result of high rates of smoking prevalence. Countries in Europe have proposed and implemented tobacco control policies to reduce smoking prevalence, with some countries being more progressive than others. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influenced women's attitudes across five European countries relative to comprehensive smokefree laws in their countries. Methods A cross-sectional landline telephone survey on attitudes towards tobacco control laws was conducted in five European countries: France, Ireland, Italy, the Czech Republic, and Sweden. Attitudinal scores were determined for each respondent relative to questions about smokefree laws. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results A total of 5,000 women were interviewed (1,000 women from each country). The majority of women, regardless of smoking history, objected to smoking in public buses, enclosed shopping centers, hospitals and other indoor work places. More women who had quit smoking believed that new tobacco control laws would prompt cessation – as compared to women who still smoked. Conclusions In general, there is very high support for national smokefree laws that cover bars, restaurants and public transport systems. As such laws are implemented, attitudes do change as demonstrated by the differences between countries such as Ireland and the Czech Republic. Implementing comprehensive smokefree laws will gain high approval and will be associated with prompting people to quit. PMID:23160317

Dresler, Carolyn; Wei, Mei; Heck, Julia E.; Allwright, Shane; Haglund, Margaretha; Sanchez Bengtsson, Sara; Kralikova, Eva; Stucker, Isabelle; Tamang, Elizabeth; Gritz, Ellen R.; Hashibe, Mia

2014-01-01

342

Religion, gender, and autonomy: a comparison of two religious women's groups in nursing and hospitals in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.  

PubMed

Modern historical research of women and nursing has largely neglected the role of religious groups, particularly in the American frontier. The image of women at the end of the 19th century was one of submission to male authority and confinement to the domestic sphere. However, in the pluralistic West, a variety of organized religious women built and administered hospitals, initiated professional nursing, and provided effective health care services. This article compares cases of Catholic nuns and Mormon women as exemplars in a conceptual context of religious devotion, gender roles, and autonomy among women's religious organizations at the dawn of the 20th century. PMID:10961263

Marshall, E S; Wall, B M

1999-09-01

343

Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET). Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P?=?0.05, 80% power). Discussion There remains a need for further research to add significant new knowledge to defining the exact role of certain acupuncture protocols in the management of infertility requiring IVF from a clinical and cost-effectiveness perspective. Clinical Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12611000226909 PMID:22607192

2012-01-01

344

Daily Text Messaging for Weight Control Among Racial and Ethnic Minority Women: Randomized Controlled Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Daily self-monitoring of diet and physical activity behaviors is a strong predictor of weight loss success. Text messaging holds promise as a viable self-monitoring modality, particularly among racial/ethnic minority populations. Objective This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of a text messaging intervention for weight loss among predominantly black women. Methods Fifty obese women were randomized to either a 6-month intervention using a fully automated system that included daily text messages for self-monitoring tailored behavioral goals (eg, 10,000 steps per day, no sugary drinks) along with brief feedback and tips (n=26) or to an education control arm (n=24). Weight was objectively measured at baseline and at 6 months. Adherence was defined as the proportion of text messages received in response to self-monitoring prompts. Results The average daily text messaging adherence rate was 49% (SD 27.9) with 85% (22/26) texting self-monitored behavioral goals 2 or more days per week. Approximately 70% (16/23) strongly agreed that daily texting was easy and helpful and 76% (16/21) felt the frequency of texting was appropriate. At 6 months, the intervention arm lost a mean of 1.27 kg (SD 6.51), and the control arm gained a mean of 1.14 kg (SD 2.53; mean difference –2.41 kg, 95% CI –5.22 to 0.39; P=.09). There was a trend toward greater text messaging adherence being associated with greater percent weight loss (r=–.36; P=.08), but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant association between goal attainment and text messaging adherence and no significant predictors of adherence. Conclusions Given the increasing penetration of mobile devices, text messaging may be a useful self-monitoring tool for weight control, particularly among populations most in need of intervention. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00939081; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00939081 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6KiIIcnk1). PMID:24246427

Levine, Erica L; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry; Bennett, Gary G

2013-01-01

345

Shifting Motivations: Young Women’s Reflections on Physical Activity Over Time and Across Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were interviewed. For the majority of women (n = 24),

Maureen ODougherty; Mindy S. Kurzer; Kathryn H. Schmitz

2010-01-01

346

Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

2014-01-01

347

Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

2014-01-01

348

Effect of hyoscine-N-butyl bromide rectal suppository on labor progress in primigravid women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine the effects of hyoscine-N-butyl bromide (HBB) rectal suppository on labor progress in primigravid women. Methods A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out on 130 primigravid women admitted for spontaneous labor. The women were recruited based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomized into the experimental (n?=?65) and control group (n?=?65). In the beginning of the active phase of labor, 20 mg of HBB rectal suppository was administered to the experimental group, while a placebo suppository was administered to the control group. Cervical dilatation and duration of active phase and second stage of labor were recorded. Results The rate of cervical dilatation was 2.6 cm/h in the experimental and 1.5 cm/h in the control group (P?group (P?=?0.001 and P?groups in the fetal heart rate, maternal pulse rate, blood pressure, and the APGAR score 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Conclusion Use of HBB rectal suppository in the active management of labor can shorten both the active phase and second stage of labor without significant side-effects. Registration No IRCT138804282204N1. PMID:21495198

Makvandi, Somayeh; Tadayon, Mitra; Abbaspour, Mohammadreza

2011-01-01

349

Increases in alcohol consumption in women and elderly groups: evidence from an epidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background In most Western countries, alcohol consumption continues to increase, specifically among women and older adults. Insight into these trends may aid intervention strategies. Here we present data on alcohol consumption by age and sex as well as associations between alcohol use and demographic lifestyle/traits. The data are from a large (N>16,000) population-based Dutch sample, ascertained based on the presence of twins in the family. Methods A set of 16 indicators of normative and problematic alcohol use was assessed in participants of the Netherlands Twin Register between 2009–2012 (ages 18–97; 6,052 men; 10,535 women). Alcohol consumption and demographic/lifestyle traits, including educational attainment, work-related/financial stress, urbanization, religiousness, smoking/cannabis initiation, and BMI were described by age and sex. Associations were examined by regressing aspects of alcohol use on age, sex, their interaction, and demographic/lifestyle variables. Results Age, sex, and initiation of cigarette and cannabis use were the most important predictors of alcohol use. Frequency of alcohol use was lowest between 18–25 years, with 3.2% of men and .6% of women drinking 6–7 times/week, and highest above age 65 years, with 30.6-32.7% of men and 20.2-22.0% of women drinking 6–7 times/week. Women consumed the lowest quantities of alcohol between 25–45 years, with a 5.7-5.9% prevalence of excessive drinking (>14 glasses/week), and the largest quantities between 55–65 years (15.5% excessive drinkers). Age at alcohol initiation, onset of regular drinking, and first alcohol intoxication were lowest between ages 18–25 years and highest above age 65 years. Among older participants, men initiated alcohol use and regular drinking earlier, and had lower age at first intoxication than women, but among young adults, no sex differences were observed. Conclusions Alcohol consumption was high in the elderly Dutch population, especially among women. Alcohol initiation, onset of regular drinking, and first alcohol intoxication occur at increasingly younger ages, and the previous gap between men and women in age at alcohol initiation, onset of regular drinking, and first alcohol intoxication has closed almost entirely. Heavy alcohol use was most strongly predicted by older age, sex (male), and initiation of smoking and cannabis use. PMID:23497391

2013-01-01

350

Low uptake of prenatal screening for Down syndrome in minority ethnic groups and socially deprived groups: a reflection of women's attitudes or a failure to facilitate informed choices?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results Uptake was higher in white and socioeconomically advantaged women than in other women. There were no differences in attitudes towards undergoing the test; all women expressed relatively positive attitudes. Uptake-attitude consistency was higher in white and socioeconomically advantaged women than others, particularly in those with positive attitudes towards undergoing the test (76% white women with positive attitudes had the

Elizabeth Dormandy; Susan Michie; Richard Hooper; Theresa M Marteau

351

Impact of an Educational Intervention on Women's Knowledge and Acceptability of Human Papillomavirus Self-Sampling: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Objective Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) may be used as a primary cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setting. Our aim was to evaluate whether an educational intervention would improve women's knowledge and confidence in the Self-HPV method. Method Women aged between 25 and 65 years old, eligible for cervical cancer screening, were randomly chosen to receive standard information (control group) or standard information followed by educational intervention (interventional group). Standard information included explanations about what the test detects (HPV), the link between HPV and cervical cancer and how to perform HPV self-sampling. The educational intervention consisted of a culturally tailored video about HPV, cervical cancer, Self-HPV and its relevancy as a screening test. All participants completed a questionnaire that assessed sociodemographic data, women's knowledge about cervical cancer and acceptability of Self-HPV. Results A total of 302 women were enrolled in 4 health care centers in Yaoundé and the surrounding countryside. 301 women (149 in the “control group” and 152 in the “intervention group”) completed the full process and were included into the analysis. Participants who received the educational intervention had a significantly higher knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer than the control group (p<0.05), but no significant difference on Self-HPV acceptability and confidence in the method was noticed between the two groups. Conclusion Educational intervention promotes an increase in knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. Further investigation should be conducted to determine if this intervention can be sustained beyond the short term and influences screening behavior. Trials Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Register ISRCTN78123709 PMID:25333793

Sossauer, Gaetan; Zbinden, Michel; Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Fosso, Gisele K.; Untiet, Sarah; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick

2014-01-01

352

The equity impact of participatory women's groups to reduce neonatal mortality in India: secondary analysis of a cluster-randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has been uneven. Inequalities in child health are large and effective interventions rarely reach the most in need. Little is known about how to reduce these inequalities. We describe and explain the equity impact of a women’s group intervention in India that strongly reduced the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) in a cluster-randomised trial. We conducted secondary analyses of the trial data, obtained through prospective surveillance of a population of 228 186. The intervention effects were estimated separately, through random effects logistic regression, for the most and less socio-economically marginalised groups. Among the most marginalised, the NMR was 59% lower in intervention than in control clusters in years 2 and 3 (70%, year 3); among the less marginalised, the NMR was 36% lower (35%, year 3). The intervention effect was stronger among the most than among the less marginalised (P-value for difference = 0.028, years 2-3; P-value for difference = 0.009, year 3). The stronger effect was concentrated in winter, particularly for early NMR. There was no effect on the use of health-care services in either group, and improvements in home care were comparable. Participatory community interventions can substantially reduce socio-economic inequalities in neonatal mortality and contribute to an equitable achievement of the unfinished MDG agenda. PMID:23509239

Houweling, Tanja AJ; Tripathy, Prasanta; Nair, Nirmala; Rath, Shibanand; Rath, Suchitra; Gope, Rajkumar; Sinha, Rajesh; Looman, Caspar W; Costello, Anthony; Prost, Audrey

2013-01-01

353

Effects of Acute 60 and 80% V[o.sub.2]max Bouts of Aerobic Exercise on State Anxiety of Women of Different Age Groups across Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on state anxiety of women while controlling for iron status (hemoglobin and serum ferritin). Participants were 24 active women, ages 18-20 years (n=12) and 35-45 years (n=12). In addition to a nonexercise control condition, participants completed one…

Cox, Richard H.; Thomas, Tom R.; Hinton, Pam S.; Donahue, Owen M.

2004-01-01

354

Two Groups of University Student Women: Sexual Activity and the Use of Contraception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent reversal in the new patient constituency of the Vancouver Family Planning Clinic from a predominantly married to a single population would appear to reflect a change in social mores without a concommitant adjustment in community and professional attitudes. Almost all the women studied showed gradations of depression and insecurity, in…

Belanger, Kathleen; Bradley, Eleanor J.

1971-01-01

355

Attitudes Toward Women's Rights: Relationships with Social Dominance Orientation and Political Group Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed the extent to whichattitudes toward women's rights are predicted by socialdominance orientation (SDO) and the political groupidentities socialist and capitalist. Respondents were 181 Australian undergraduates (54 males, 127females), most of whom were of European descent. Theresults of multiple regression analyses suggested thatSDO was the most consistent predictor of negative attitudes, although the extent to which itunderpins attitudes

Patrick C. L. Heaven

1999-01-01

356

A Mindfulness-Based Group Psychoeducational Intervention Targeting Sexual Arousal Disorder in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Despite their widespread prevalence, there are no existing evidence-based psychological treatments for women with sexual desire and arousal disorder. Mindfulness, the practice of relaxed wakefulness, is an ancient eastern practice with roots in Buddhist meditation which has been found to be an effective component of psycho- logical treatments for numerous psychiatric and medical illnesses. In recent years, mindfulness has

Lori A. Brotto; Rosemary Basson; Mijal Luria

2008-01-01

357

Gender, Discrimination Beliefs, Group-Based Guilt, and Responses to Affirmative Action for Australian Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Views of a selection committee's decision to promote a woman over a man on the basis of affirmative action were studied in a random sample of Australians (118 men and 111 women). The relations between perceptions of workplace gender discrimination, feelings of collective responsibility and guilt for discrimination, and judgments of entitlement to…

Boeckmann, Robert J.; Feather, N. T.

2007-01-01

358

An integrated intervention program to control diabetes in overweight Chinese women and men with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

This study evaluated a structured and integrated intervention program on diabetes management in individuals with type 2 diabetes in Shanghai, China. Men and women with type 2 diabetes and body mass index > 23 kg/m2 were randomized into a 24-week, prospective, randomized clinical trial. The Reference Group (n=50) received diabetes education including diet and physical activity instruction only; the Intervention Group (n=100) received more intensive intervention, including diabetes education with frequent blood glucose monitoring, nutritional counseling, meal plans with diabetes-specific nutritional meal replacement, and weekly progress updates with study staff. Major study assessments were obtained at baseline, and after 12 and/or 24 weeks of intervention. The Intervention Group improved fasting blood glucose, insulin, systolic and diastolic blood pressures compared to Reference Group ( p <0.05). Importantly, HbA1c was lower ( p <0.001) in the Intervention Group at 12 weeks (-0.6 +/- 0.1%) and 24 weeks (-0.8 +/- 0.1%). Weight loss was modest, but significant differences were observed between groups ( p <0.05). Weight change from baseline after 12 and 24 weeks was -2.8 +/- 0.2% and -3.7 +/- 0.3%, respectively, in the Intervention Group vs -1.8 +/- 0.4% and -2.5 +/- 0.4% in the Reference Group. Additionally, waist and hip circumferences and waist:hip ratio decreased in the Intervention compared to the Reference Group ( p <0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Chinese men and women with type 2 diabetes following an integrated intervention program including diabetes education, frequent blood glucose monitoring and daily use of a diabetes-specific meal replacement, can achieve significant improvements in glycemic control and markers of cardiovascular health. PMID:18818173

Sun, Jianqin; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Xiafei; Chen, Yanqiu; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Xinyi; Pan, Yiru; Hu, Ting; Xu, Jianhua; Du, Luyuan; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Huiping; Riley, Rosemary E; Mustad, Vikkie A

2008-01-01

359

Case management vocational rehabilitation for women with breast cancer after surgery: a feasibility study incorporating a pilot randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background There is a paucity of methodologically robust vocational rehabilitation (VR) intervention trials. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a VR trial of women with breast cancer to inform the development of a larger interventional study. Methods Women were recruited in Scotland and randomised to either a case management VR service or to usual care. Data were collected on eligibility, recruitment and attrition rates to assess trial feasibility, and interviews conducted to determine trial acceptability. Sick leave days (primary outcome) were self-reported via postal questionnaire every 4 weeks during the first 6 months post-surgery and at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures were change in employment pattern, quality of life and fatigue. Results Of the 1,114 women assessed for eligibility, 163 (15%) were eligible. The main reason for ineligibility was age (>65 years, n = 637, 67%). Of those eligible, 111 (68%) received study information, of which 23 (21%) consented to participate in the study. Data for 18 (78%) women were analysed (intervention: n = 7; control: n = 11). Participants in the intervention group reported, on average, 53 fewer days of sick leave over the first 6 months post-surgery than those in the control group; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.122; 95% confidence interval ?15.8, 122.0). No statistically significant differences were found for secondary outcomes. Interviews with trial participants indicated that trial procedures, including recruitment, randomisation and research instruments, were acceptable. Conclusions Conducting a pragmatic trial of effectiveness of a VR intervention among cancer survivors is both feasible and acceptable, but more research about the exact components of a VR intervention and choice of outcomes to measure effectiveness is required. VR to assist breast cancer patients in the return to work process is an important component of cancer survivorship plans. Trial registration ISRCTN29666484 PMID:23768153

2013-01-01

360

Dim light melatonin onset in alcohol-dependent men and women compared with healthy controls.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbances in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals may persist despite abstinence from alcohol and can influence the course of the disorder. Although the mechanisms of sleep disturbances of AD are not well understood and some evidence suggests dysregulation of circadian rhythms, dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) has not previously been assessed in AD versus healthy control (HC) individuals in a sample that varied by sex and race. The authors assessed 52 AD participants (mean?±?SD age: 36.0?±?11.0 yrs of age, 10 women) who were 3-12 wks since their last drink (abstinence: 57.9?±?19.3 d) and 19 age- and sex-matched HCs (34.4?±?10.6 yrs, 5 women). Following a 23:00-06:00?h at-home sleep schedule for at least 5 d and screening/baseline nights in the sleep laboratory, participants underwent a 3-h extension of wakefulness (02:00?h bedtime) during which salivary melatonin samples were collected every 30?min beginning at 19:30?h. The time of DLMO was the primary measure of circadian physiology and was assessed with two commonly used methodologies. There was a slower rate of rise and lower maximal amplitude of the melatonin rhythm in the AD group. DLMO varied by the method used to derive it. Using 3 pg/mL as threshold, no significant differences were found between the AD and HC groups. Using 2 standard deviations above the mean of the first three samples, the DLMO in AD occurred significantly later, 21:02?±?00:41?h, than in HC, 20:44?±?00:21?h (t?=?-2.4, p?=?.02). Although melatonin in the AD group appears to have a slower rate of rise, using well-established criteria to assess the salivary DLMO did not reveal differences between AD and HC participants. Only when capturing melatonin when it is already rising was DLMO found to be significantly delayed by a mean 18?min in AD participants. Future circadian analyses on alcoholics should account for these methodological caveats. PMID:22217099

Conroy, Deirdre A; Hairston, Ilana S; Arnedt, J Todd; Hoffmann, Robert F; Armitage, Roseanne; Brower, Kirk J

2012-02-01

361

Rheumatoid arthritis and incident fracture in women: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background To examine fracture incidence in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for an entire geographical region of south-eastern Australia. Methods Women aged 35 years and older, resident in the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD) and clinically diagnosed with RA 1994–2001 were eligible for inclusion as cases (n?=?1,008). The control population (n?=?172,422) comprised the entire female BSD population aged 35 years and older, excluding those individuals identified as cases. Incident fractures were extracted from the prospective Geelong Osteoporosis Study Fracture Grid. We calculated rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare the age-adjusted rate of fracture between the RA and non-RA populations, and used a chi-square test to compare proportions of fractures between women with and without RA, and a two-sided Mann–Whitney U-test to examine age-differences. Results Among 1,008 women with RA, 19 (1.9%) sustained a fracture, compared to 1,981 fractures sustained by the 172,422 women without RA (1.2%). Fracture rates showed a trend for being greater among women diagnosed with RA (age-adjusted RR 1.43, 95%CI 0.98-2.09, p?=?0.08). Women with RA sustained vertebral fractures at twice the expected frequency, whereas hip fractures were underrepresented in the RA population (p?women with RA have a greater risk of fracture compared to women without RA, these patients may be a suitable target population for anti-resorptive agents; however, larger studies are warranted. PMID:24405804

2014-01-01

362

Establishing support groups for HIV-infected women: using experiences to develop guiding principles for project implementation.  

PubMed

HIV-infected women need support to deal with their diagnosis as well as with the stigma attached to HIV. As part of their practical training, Master's-level psychology students negotiated with the staff of four clinics in townships in Tshwane, South Africa, to establish support groups for HIV+ women and offered to assist them in facilitating the groups. This study aimed to understand why the implementation of groups was successful in one clinic and not other clinics. The student reports on their experiences and interaction with clinic staff and clients were used as sources of data. Using qualitative data analysis, different dynamics and factors that could affect project implementation were identified in each clinic. The socio-ecological and systems theories were used to understand implementation processes and obstacles in implementation. The metaphor of building a bridge over a gorge was used to describe the different phases in and obstacles to the implementation of the intervention. Valuable lessons were learnt, resulting in the development of guiding principles for the implementation of support groups in community settings. PMID:18709209

Visser, Maretha J; Mundell, Jonathan P

2008-07-01

363

The Impact of Trauma-Focused Group Therapy upon HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network “Women and Trauma” Multi-Site Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women in drug treatment struggle with co-occurring problems, including trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which\\u000a can heighten HIV risk. This study examines the impact of two group therapy interventions on reduction of unprotected sexual\\u000a occasions (USO) among women with substance use disorders (SUD) and PTSD. Participants were 346 women recruited from and receiving\\u000a treatment at six community-based drug treatment

Denise A. Hien; Aimee N. C. Campbell; Therese Killeen; Mei-Chen Hu; Cheri Hansen; Huiping Jiang; Mary Hatch-Maillette; Gloria M. Miele; Lisa R. Cohen; Weijin Gan; Stella M. Resko; Michele DiBono; Elizabeth A. Wells; Edward V. Nunes

2010-01-01

364

Evaluation of the Granada Agar Plate for Detection of Vaginal and Rectal Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Granada medium was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in vaginal and rectal swabs compared with selective Columbia blood agar and selective Lim broth. From May 1996 to March 1998, 702 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation) participated in this three-phase study; 103 (14.7%) of these women carried GBS. In the first phase of the experiment (n = 273 women), vaginorectal specimens were collected on the same swab; the sensitivities of Granada tube, selective Columbia blood agar, and Lim broth were 31.4, 94.3, and 74.3%, respectively. In the second and third phases (n = 429 women), vaginal and rectal specimens were collected separately; the sensitivities of Granada plate, selective Columbia blood agar, and Lim broth (subcultured at 4 h on selective Columbia agar in the second phase and at 18 to 24 h in Granada plate in the third phase) were 91.1, 83.9, and 75%, respectively, in the second phase and 88.5, 90.4, and 63.5%, respectively, in the third phase. There were no statistically significant differences in GBS recovery between the Granada agar plate and selective Columbia blood agar, but the Granada plate provided a clear advantage; the characteristic red-orange colonies produced overnight by GBS can be identified by the naked eye and is so specific that further identification is unnecessary. The use of the Granada tube and Lim broth did not result in increased isolation of GBS. In conclusion, the Granada agar plate is highly sensitive for detecting GBS in vaginal and rectal swabs from pregnant women and can provide results in 18 to 24 h. PMID:10405415

Gil, E. García; Rodríguez, M. C.; Bartolomé, R.; Berjano, B.; Cabero, L.; Andreu, A.

1999-01-01

365

Vaginal microbiota in healthy pregnant women and prenatal screening of group B streptococci (GBS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The microbiota of the lower female genital tract was evaluated from vaginal swabs obtained from 623 healthy pregnant women\\u000a at gestation periods of 35–40 weeks. Isolated and identified microorganisms were expressed as percentages of total samples.\\u000a As expected, lactobacilli made up the dominant vaginal microbiota (70%). Enterobacteriaceae, mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus, were present in 38% of the

M. Bayó; M. Berlanga; M. Agut

2002-01-01

366

Premenopausal Women with a Distal Radial Fracture Have Deteriorated Trabecular Bone Density and Morphology Compared with Controls without a Fracture  

PubMed Central

Background: Measurement of bone mineral density by dual x-ray absorptiometry combined with clinical risk factors is currently the gold standard in diagnosing osteoporosis. Advanced imaging has shown that older patients with fragility fractures have poor bone microarchitecture, often independent of low bone mineral density. We hypothesized that premenopausal women with a fracture of the distal end of the radius have similar bone mineral density but altered bone microarchitecture compared with control subjects without a fracture. Methods: Forty premenopausal women with a recent distal radial fracture were prospectively recruited and matched with eighty control subjects without a fracture. Primary outcome variables included trabecular and cortical microarchitecture at the distal end of the radius and tibia by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone mineral density at the wrist, hip, and lumbar spine was also measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Results: The fracture and control groups did not differ with regard to age, race, or body mass index. Bone mineral density was similar at the femoral neck, lumbar spine, and distal one-third of the radius, but tended to be lower in the fracture group at the hip and ultradistal part of the radius (p = 0.06). Trabecular microarchitecture was deteriorated in the fracture group compared with the control group at both the distal end of the radius and distal end of the tibia. At the distal end of the radius, the fracture group had lower total density and lower trabecular density, number, and thickness compared with the control group (–6% to –14%; p < 0.05 for all). At the distal end of the tibia, total density, trabecular density, trabecular thickness, and cortical thickness were lower in the fracture group than in the control group (–7% to –14%; p < 0.01). Conditional logistic regression showed that trabecular density, thickness, separation, and distribution of trabecular separation remained significantly associated with fracture after adjustment for age and ultradistal radial bone mineral density (adjusted odds ratios [OR]: 2.01 to 2.98; p < 0.05). At the tibia, total density, trabecular density, thickness, cortical area, and cortical thickness remained significantly associated with fracture after adjustment for age and femoral neck bone mineral density (adjusted OR:1.62 to 2.40; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Despite similar bone mineral density values by dual x-ray absorptiometry, premenopausal women with a distal radial fracture have significantly poorer bone microarchitecture at the distal end of the radius and tibia compared with control subjects without a fracture. Early identification of women with poor bone health offers opportunities for interventions aimed at preventing further deterioration and reducing fracture risk. Level of Evidence: Diagnostic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:23553299

Rozental, Tamara D.; Deschamps, Laura N.; Taylor, Alexander; Earp, Brandon; Zurakowski, David; Day, Charles S.; Bouxsein, Mary L.

2013-01-01

367

Domestic Violence against Women in Cambodia: Husband’s Control, Frequency of Spousal Discussion, and Domestic Violence Reported by Cambodian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to examine the effects of husband’s control and frequency of spousal discussion on domestic violence against\\u000a Cambodian married women, using the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data. The sample included 1,707 married women,\\u000a aged 16–49 (M?=?35.14). Structural Equation Modeling showed that husband’s control positively predicted both emotional and physical violence.\\u000a Frequency of spousal discussion positively predicted

Sothy Eng; Yingli Li; Miriam Mulsow; Judith Fischer

2010-01-01

368

The power of women on April 27.  

PubMed

Women make up 54% of voters in South Africa. A delegation of 80 groups representing 2 million women under the Women' National Coalition delivered many research reports on women's issues (e.g., rape, violence, women's status, women workers' rights) to the Transitional Executive Council. If political parties want women to support them, they need to address the inequalities and discrimination women encounter at work, in their homes, and in society. The research findings were a result of 23 focus groups and will be used to draft a Women's Charter. The Coalition will use the Charter to bring about maximum equality within the constitutional framework. The research revealed that sexual harassment at work was more common than was recognized. Black women reported that men of all races in responsible positions seek sex for jobs or for promotion. 50% of women are raped. 1 of 6 women are beaten by their partner. In the past, women's groups were not well supported because White women tended to be satisfied with the status quo. Specifically, they had a servant, leisure time, and a high standard of living. Women are starting to understand that they can be forces of change. A common thread among the diversity of women in the research was a desire for control of their lives. Other issues emerging from the research were women and law, women at work, women and violence, and political awareness among women. The women call for changes in marital law to make sure that women are considered as majors. For example, they should be able to buy property and sign contracts. Women want equal pay for work of equal value, equal treatment when applying for a job. Women want society, including family members, not to ignore domestic violence. They also call on authorities and police to respond more vigorously to domestic violence. Women are becoming more involved in politics, locally, regionally, and nationally. PMID:12287660

Khumalo, B

1994-04-01

369

Preventing College Women’s Sexual Victimization Through Parent Based Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized controlled trial, using parent-based intervention (PBI) was designed to reduce the incidence of alcohol-involved\\u000a sexual victimization among first-year college students. The PBI, adapted from Turrisi et al. (2001), was designed to increase\\u000a alcohol-specific and general communication between mother and daughter. Female graduating high school seniors and their mothers\\u000a were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to one

Maria Testa; Joseph H. Hoffman; Jennifer A. Livingston; Rob Turrisi

2010-01-01

370

Discrimination and Women’s Mental Health: The Mediating Role of Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceived discrimination is a stressor, related to both negative physical and mental health outcomes. Utilizing a sample of\\u000a 259 undergraduate females from the northeast region of the U.S., the present study examined a model that tested the direct,\\u000a indirect, and mediated relations among perceived sexist discrimination, psychological distress, self-esteem, and sense of\\u000a personal control. Path analysis of the model indicated

Laura J. Landry; Andrea E. Mercurio

2009-01-01

371

Explaining cohesion, fragmentation, and control in insurgent groups  

E-print Network

The internal unity and discipline of insurgent groups helps us understand the military effectiveness of armed groups, patterns of violence against civilians, and the ability of insurgent organizations to negotiate and ...

Staniland, Paul Stephen

2010-01-01

372

Body image and sexuality in oophorectomized women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five groups of women ages 35 to 55 years were studied, including a nonsurgical control group (CTL), a hysterectomy-only (HYS), and three oophorectomy groups: an untreated group (UNT), women on estrogen replacement therapy (EST), and women on androgen-estrogen replacement therapy (COM). The interview\\/questionnaire session assessed mood, body image, and sexual functioning. In a second session completed by 58 of 129

Satya B. Bellerose; Yitzchak M. Binik

1993-01-01

373

Early Treatment for Women with Alcohol Addiction (EWA) Reduces Mortality: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Long-Term Register Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Aims: To compare the mortality of female alcoholics randomly assigned to the woman-only programme ‘Early treatment for Women with Alcohol Addiction’ (EWA) versus those who received mixed gender ‘Treatment As Usual’ (TAU). Methods: Randomized controlled trial involving 2-year follow-up by personal interview and mortality register data through 27 years of 200 women first time treated for alcohol use disorder (AUD; EWA, n = 100 and TAU, n = 100), who were consecutively recruited during 1983–1984. Data from the Causes of Death Register were used to test for mortality differences related to group interaction predictors such as age, inpatient versus outpatient status at intake and 2-year drinking outcome. Results: Significantly lower mortality was found among younger women who participated in EWA compared with those who received TAU. This difference lasted nearly 20 years after intake to treatment. For women who only needed outpatient treatment, reduced mortality was found in the EWA group, even for older women. Increased mortality was found for TAU women who did not attend the 2-year follow-up compared with those who attended; no such difference was found for EWA women. This indicates different attrition mechanisms in the two groups. Thus, previously reported treatment effects may have been underestimated. EWA was a more comprehensive programme than TAU while also being single gender. Conclusions: EWA, specifically developed to meet a broad spectrum of problems among women with AUDs, was more effective than TAU, a mixed gender programme. It was not possible to separate whether this was in part because it was a more comprehensive programme, as well as being single gender. PMID:21273301

Gjestad, Rolf; Franck, Johan; Lindberg, Staffan; Haver, Brit

2011-01-01

374

Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

Jones, Jayatta D.

2012-01-01

375

Strategies Applied by Women in Coping With ad-hoc Demands for Unauthorized User Fees During Pregnancy and Childbirth. A Focus Group Study From Angola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim in this study was to explore women's responses to reported ad-hoc demands for unauthorized user fees during pregnancy and childbirth in Luanda, Angola. Ten focus group discussions were conducted and data were analysed using grounded theory. Women were found to apply six strategies as they “endeavored to cope with demands for unauthorized user fees” (core category): (i) blowing

Karen Odberg Pettersson; Kyllike Christensson; Engracia Da Gloria Gomes De Freitas; Eva Johansson

2007-01-01

376

Adherence in vitro of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli and Group B Streptococci to Vaginal Epithelial Cells of PostMenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adherence of Neisseriagonorrhoeae, Escherichiacoli and group B streptococci to vaginal epithelial cells from post-menopausal women was studied by an invitro test system. It was found that the adherence rate of gonococci to vaginal cells from women on oestrogen treatment was statistically significantly higher (p < 0.001) as compared to those without such a treatment. No increased adherence was found

Lars Forslin; Dan Danielsson; Viking Falk

1980-01-01

377

Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4–8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. Method/design A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. Discussion This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752 PMID:23714411

2013-01-01

378

Adipose Tissue Fatty Acids in Breast Cancer Patients versus Healthy Control Women from Crete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have implemented biomarkers of fatty acid intake in relation to breast cancer. Aims: To examine possible differences in adipose tissue fatty acid composition between breast cancer patients and healthy control women. The relationship between tumor promotion and adipose tissue fatty acid synthesis was also investigated. Methods: The study was conducted at the University of Crete. Subjects included

G. Mamalakis; C. Hatzis; E. de Bree; E. Sanidas; D. D. Tsiftsis; J. Askoxylakis; M. Daskalakis; G. Tsibinos; A. Kafatos

2009-01-01

379

The impact of infant crying on young women: A randomized controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant crying is a common source of distress in parents. This study used an experimental paradigm to explore the impact of infant crying on mood, perceptions of temperament and caregiving behaviours in young women. The use of a life?like programmable baby doll with a real infant's cry sound recorded within it enabled rigorous control of the amount and intensity of

Sharon Bruning; Catherine McMahon

2009-01-01

380

Food-based approaches for controlling vitamin A deficiency: studies in breastfeeding women in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micronutrient deficiencies seriously hinder mental and physical development and are still an important cause of death in developing countries. Therefore, goals have been set worldwide for the year 2000: to eliminate deficiencies of vitamin A and iodine and to reduce prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in women by onethird of 1990 levels. Food-based approaches for the control of micronutrient deficiencies,

Pee de S

1996-01-01

381

Eating Problems and Related Weight Control Behaviour in Adult Japanese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fewer studies concerning eating problems have been conducted in adult than in adolescent female populations. The aims of this study are to ascertain the proportion of eating problems and clarify weight control behaviour in adult Japanese women. Methods: This study employed a questionnaire survey with a cross-sectional design. Subjects were adult females aged 20–39 years, working in a computer

Kazutoshi Nakamura; Yoshihiko Hoshino; Atsushi Watanabe; Kyoichi Honda; Shinichi Niwa; Masaharu Yamamoto

1999-01-01

382

A Case-Control Study of Endometrial Cancer after Antipsychotics Exposure in Premenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Most endometrial cancers are related to hormonal imbalance, and antipsychotics are a common cause of hyperprolactinemia. We investigated the possible relation between the use of antipsychotics and the risk of endometrial cancer. Methods: A case-control study was conducted on premenopausal women at the Chiba University Hospital between 1989 and 2000. The cases were 41 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial

Koji Yamazawa; Hideo Matsui; Katsuyoshi Seki; Souei Sekiya

2003-01-01

383

Factor structure of the Bulimia Test--Revised in college women from four ethnic groups.  

PubMed

The factor structure of the Bulimia Test--Revised (BULIT-R) was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The sample consisted of 2,671 female college students (African American, Asian American, Caucasian American, and Latino American). Reliability coefficients were excellent across groups. African Americans scored significantly lower on the BULIT-R than Caucasian Americans. Across groups, CFA and EFA results suggest a six-factor solution is most appropriate. Consistent across groups were factors representing bingeing, body image, purging, and extreme weight loss behaviors, while few differences were observed across groups. These findings suggest that the measure is reliable and valid for use with diverse ethnic groups. Future research should focus on culturally salient psychological correlates of disordered eating in diverse ethnic groups. PMID:16881746

Fernandez, Senaida; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Malacrne, Vanessa L; Wilfley, Denise E; McQuaid, John

2006-07-01

384

Effect of Nurse Home Visits vs. Usual Care on Reducing Intimate Partner Violence in Young High-Risk Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV). The nurse-family partnership (NFP) is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes. Evidence regarding the effect of nurse home visiting on IPV is inconsistent. This study aims to study the effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch NFP, on IPV. Methods A random sample of 460 eligible disadvantaged women <26 years, with no previous live births, was randomized. Women in the control group (C; n=223) received usual care; women in the intervention group (I; n=237) received usual care plus nurse home visits periodically during pregnancy and until the child’s second birthday. Results At 32 weeks of pregnancy, women in the intervention group self-reported significantly less IPV victimization than women in the control group in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 56% vs. I: 39%), physical assault level 1 (C: 58% vs. I: 40%) and level 2 (C: 31% vs. I: 20%), and level 1 sexual coercion (C: 16% vs. I: 8%). Furthermore, women in the intervention group reported significantly less IPV perpetration in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 60% vs. I: 46%), level 1 physical assault (C: 65% vs. I: 52%), and level 1 injury (C: 27% vs. I: 17%). At 24 months after birth, IPV victimization was significantly lower in the intervention group for level 1 physical assault (C: 44% vs. I: 26%), and IPV perpetration was significantly lower for level 1 sexual assault (C: 18% vs. I: 3%). Multilevel analyses showed a significant improvement in IPV victimization and perpetration among women in the intervention group at 24 months after birth. Conclusion VoorZorg, compared with the usual care, is effective in reducing IPV during pregnancy and in the two years after birth among young high-risk women. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR854 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=854 PMID:24205150

Mejdoubi, Jamila; van den Heijkant, Silvia C. C. M.; van Leerdam, Frank J. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Crijnen, Alfons A. M.

2013-01-01

385

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Iranian Women: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Tabriz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Purpose Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death among women. In Asian countries such as Iran, the incidence of breast cancer is increasing. The present study aimed to assess the risk factors for breast cancer of women in Tabriz, Iran. Methods A hospital-based case-control study was undertaken to identify breast cancer risk factors. The study consisted of 140 cases confirmed via histopathological analysis and 280 group-matched controls without any malignancy. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods via the SPSS software version 18. Results In a multivariate analysis, educational level (odds ratio [OR], 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11-10.83), menopausal status (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.41-4.59), a high-fat diet (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.51-5.04), abortion (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.20-3.79), passive smoking (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.51-5.04), oral contraceptive use (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.80-5.59), stress (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.74-5.36), and migration (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.39-6.90) were factors associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer. Breastfeeding (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.97) and a diet containing sufficient fruit and vegetables (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.12-0.39) had protective roles against breast cancer. Conclusion The study revealed that the risk factors for breast cancer among women in the Tabriz area of Iran are related to the lifestyle. Therefore, the provision of education to change unhealthy lifestyle choices and periodic check-ups for early breast cancer detection are recommended. PMID:25320621

Hosseinzadeh, Mina; Eivazi Ziaei, Jamal; Aghajari, Parvaneh; Vahidi, Maryam; Fateh, Alaviehe; Asghari, Elnaz

2014-01-01

386

A Study of the Effects of Latent Iron Deficiency on Measures of Cognition: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of Iron Supplementation in Young Women  

PubMed Central

Rates of iron deficiency are high amongst healthy young women. Cognitive impairment occurs secondary to iron deficiency in infants and children, but evaluation of the impact on cognition among young women is inconsistent. The aim was to determine the suitability of the IntegNeuro test battery for assessing cognitive function in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient young women. A pilot double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted in iron-deficient (serum ferritin ? 20 ?g/L and haemoglobin > 120 g/L) and iron-sufficient young women (18–35 years). Cognitive function and haematological markers of iron status were measured at baseline and follow-up. Iron-deficient participants (n = 24) were randomised to receive placebo, 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron daily supplements for 16 weeks. A control group of iron-sufficient participants (n = 8) was allocated to placebo. Change scores for Impulsivity and Attention were significantly greater in plasma ferritin improvers than in non-improvers (p = 0.004, p = 0.026). IntegNeuro was easy to administer and acceptable to young women. Based on the differences in Memory and Attention scores between iron-deficient participants on iron treatment and those on placebo, it was decided that between 26 and 84 participants would be required in each iron treatment group for an adequately powered extension of this pilot RCT. PMID:24959952

Leonard, Alecia J.; Chalmers, Kerry A.; Collins, Clare E.; Patterson, Amanda J.

2014-01-01

387

ShopSmart 4 Health - Protocol of a skills-based randomised controlled trial promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need for evidence on the most effective and cost-effective approaches for promoting healthy eating among groups that do not meet dietary recommendations for good health, such as those with low incomes or experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. This paper describes the ShopSmart 4 Health study, a randomised controlled trial conducted by Deakin University, Coles Supermarkets and the Heart Foundation, to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a skill-building intervention for promoting increased purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables amongst women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods/design ShopSmart 4 Health employed a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18–60 years, holding a Coles store loyalty card, who shopped at Coles stores within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and met low-income eligibility criteria were invited to participate. Consenting women completed a baseline survey assessing food shopping and eating habits and food-related behaviours and attitudes. On receipt of their completed survey, women were randomised to either a skill-building intervention or a wait-list control condition. Intervention effects will be evaluated via self-completion surveys and using supermarket transaction sales data, collected at pre- and post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Process evaluation will be undertaken to identify perceived value and effects of intervention components. Discussion This study will provide data to address the currently limited evidence base regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skill-building intervention strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, a target group at high risk of poor diets. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN48771770 PMID:23668896

2013-01-01

388

'I think my future will be better than my past': examining support group influence on the mental health of HIV-infected Rwandan women.  

PubMed

Urgent need exists for improved psychological services among HIV-infected women in post-genocide Rwanda. Psychological problems associated with trauma and sexual violence (i.e., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) place women at increased risk for sexual risk behaviour, low health-seeking behaviour, delay of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and reduced ART adherence. We explored experiences of HIV-infected Rwandan women attending psychosocial support groups and their narratives about how participation affected their mental health and HIV treatment. Focus group discussions examined participants' reasons for support group attendance, perceived psychological benefit of support groups, influence on ART adherence, and other influences on health behaviors and attitudes. Rwandan women (aged 18-65) were randomly selected from 10 health clinic-facilitated support groups for HIV-infected trauma survivors in Kigali. Results identified positive psychological and physical changes as well as behaviour changes in relationships with men, which participants attributed to support group attendance. Data showed significant improvement in mental health, ART adherence and HIV serostatus disclosure resulting from group attendance. Participants acknowledged limitations of support groups with respect to addressing poverty and hunger. Implementing psychosocial support groups may leverage clinical outcomes and rejuvenate the well-being of HIV-infected women with interpersonal trauma and/or PTSD and depressive symptoms, particularly those from post-conflict countries. PMID:22812728

Walstrom, Paige; Operario, Don; Zlotnick, Caron; Mutimura, Eugene; Benekigeri, Chantal; Cohen, Mardge H

2013-01-01

389

Antiobesity Effect of Caraway Extract on Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30?mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377. PMID:24319489

Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A.

2013-01-01

390

Cost-utility analysis of a randomized controlled weight loss trial among lactating overweight/obese women  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity among young, adult women are increasing problems in Sweden as in many other countries. The postpartum period may be a good opportunity to improve eating habits and lose weight in a sustainable manner. The aim was to make a cost-utility analysis of a dietary behavior modification treatment alongside usual care, compared to usual care alone, among lactating overweight and obese women. Methods This study was a cost-utility analysis based on a randomized controlled and longitudinal clinical diet intervention. Between 2007-2010, 68 women living in Sweden were, after baseline measurement at 8-12 weeks postpartum, randomly assigned to a 12-week dietary behavior modification treatment or control group. Inclusion criteria were: self-reported pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) 25-35 kg/m2, non-smoker, singleton term delivery, birth weight?>?2500 g, intention to breastfeed for 6 mo and no diseases (mother and child). The women in the intervention group received 1.5 hour of individual counseling at study start and 1 hour at follow-up home visits after 6 weeks of intervention, with support through cell phone text messages every two wk. Dietary intervention aimed to reduce dietary intake by 500 kcal/day. The control group received usual care. Weight results have previously been reported. Here we report on analyses carried out during 2012-2013 of cost per quality adjusted life years (QALY), based on the changes in quality of life measured by EQ-5D-3 L and SF-6D. Likelihood of cost-effectiveness was calculated using Net Monetary Benefit method. Results Based on conservative assumptions of no remaining effect after 1 year follow-up, the diet intervention was cost-effective. Costs per gained QALY were 8 643 – 9 758 USD. The likelihood for cost-effectiveness, considering a willingness to pay 50 000 USD for a QALY, was 87–93%. Conclusions The diet intervention is cost-effective. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01343238 Registered April 27, 2011. The regional ethics committee in Gothenburg, Sweden, approved the study on November 15, 2006. PMID:24428802

2014-01-01

391

Effects of an Attachment-Focused Group Preventive Intervention on Insecure Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that insecure individuals are at risk for relationship distress. A recently developed 17-hr manualized attachment-focused (AF) group intervention targets the attachment concerns of insecure individuals. AF group intervention involves four sequential segments: (a) dysfunctional relationship beliefs, (b) childhood factors influencing partner choices and relationship styles, (c) relationship skills training, and (d) relationship strategies. This study tested the effectiveness

Peter R. Kilmann; James E. Laughlin; Laura V. Carranza; Jason T. Downer; Saudia Major; Michele M. Parnell

1999-01-01

392

The Dimensions of Talk in Peer Groups: Negotiating Control in Writing Group Conversation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study comparing peer group conversation with conversation in other settings, five college freshmen were observed and taped in the 12th week of the semester during a group discussion about their own writing. Four types of conversational moves were tallied: structural comments, solicitations, responses, and reactions. Comparison of these…

Davis, Kevin

393

Numbers or words? A randomized controlled trial of presenting screen negative results to pregnant women.  

PubMed

The Objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that presenting risk information using numbers rather than words is a more effective way of communicating the residual risk inherent in a screen negative test result. We used a randomised controlled trial in a large UK teaching hospital. Two hundred and twenty pregnant women who received negative results on serum screening for Down syndrome participated. Presentation of screen negative test results were given either as a numerical probability (e.g. you have a 1:650 chance of having a baby with Down syndrome) or as a verbal probability (your chance of having a baby with Down syndrome is low). In both interventions the verbal anchor 'it is unlikely that your baby has Down syndrome' was used. Our aims were to measure the understanding of the residual risk in a screen negative result, and anxiety. Immediately after receipt of the results, 97% of those receiving their results in the form of a numerical probability and 91% of those receiving their results in the form of a verbal probability correctly understood that their baby probably did not have Down syndrome (95% CI for difference: 0% to 12%; p=0.04). All those who were incorrect believed that their baby definitely did not have Down syndrome. Subgroup analysis showed that this effect was confined to those with lower levels of education (i.e. those without a university degree), amongst whom understanding was poorer. There was no difference between intervention groups in understanding the results at four months. There were no differences between intervention groups in the levels of anxiety at one week or four months after receiving their results. In conclusion, communicating residual risks using numbers rather than words has a small beneficial effect of increasing awareness of residual risks without raising anxiety. Further work is needed to estimate the size of this effect in less well-informed and less highly educated populations. PMID:11015699

Marteau, T M; Saidi, G; Goodburn, S; Lawton, J; Michie, S; Bobrow, M

2000-09-01

394

Physicians' beliefs and behaviour during a randomized controlled trial of episiotomy: consequences for women in their care.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether physicians' beliefs concerning episiotomy are related to their use of procedures and to differential outcomes in childbirth. DESIGN: Post-hoc cohort analysis of physicians and patients involved in a randomized controlled trial of episiotomy. SETTING: Two tertiary care hospitals and one community hospital in Montreal. PARTICIPANTS: Of the 703 women at low risk of medical or obstetric problems enrolled in the trial we studied 447 women (226 primiparous and 221 multiparous) attended by 43 physicians. Subjects attended by residents or nurses were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients: intact perineum v. perineal trauma, length of labour, procedures used (instrumental delivery, oxytocin augmentation of labour, cesarean section and episiotomy), position for birth, rate of and reasons for not assigning women to a study arm, postpartum perineal pain and satisfaction with the birth experience, physicians: beliefs concerning episiotomy. RESULTS: Women attended by physicians who viewed episiotomy very unfavorably were more likely than women attended by the other physicians to have an intact perineum (23% v. 11% to 13%, p < 0.05) and to experience less perineal trauma. The first stage of labour was 2.3 to 3.5 hours shorter for women attended by physicians who viewed episiotomy favourably than for women attended by physicians who viewed episiotomy very unfavorably (p < 0.05 to < 0.01), and the former physicians were more likely to use oxytocin augmentation of labour. Physicians who viewed episiotomy more favourably failed more often than those who viewed the procedure very unfavourably to assign patients to a study arm late in labour (odds ratio [OR] 1.88, p < 0.05), both overall and because they felt that "fetal distress" or cesarean section necessitated exclusion of the subject. They used the lithotomy position for birth more often (OR 3.94 to 4.55, p < 0.001), had difficulty limiting episiotomy in the restricted-use arm of the trial and diagnosed fetal distress and perineal inadequacy more often than the comparison groups. The patients of physicians who viewed episiotomy very favourably experienced more perineal pain (p < 0.01), and of those who viewed episiotomy favourably and very favourably experienced less satisfaction with the birth experience (p < 0.01) than the patients of physicians who viewed the procedure very unfavourably. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians with favourably views of episiotomy were more likely to use techniques to expedite labour, and their patients were more likely to have perineal trauma and to be less satisfied with the birth experience. This evidence that physician beliefs can influence patient outcomes has both clinical and research implications. PMID:7664230

Klein, M C; Kaczorowski, J; Robbins, J M; Gauthier, R J; Jorgensen, S H; Joshi, A K

1995-01-01

395

Effect of whole-body vibration on calcaneal quantitative ultrasound measurements in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) on calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements; which has rarely been examined. We conducted a single-centre, 12-month, randomized controlled trial. 202 postmenopausal women with BMD T score between -1.0 and -2.5, not receiving bone medications, were asked to stand on a 0.3 g WBV platform oscillating at either 90- or 30-Hz for 20 consecutive minutes daily, or to serve as controls. Calcium and vitamin D was provided to all participants. Calcaneal broadband attenuation (BUA), speed of sound, and QUS index were obtained as pre-specified secondary endpoints at baseline and 12 months by using a Hologic Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer. 12-months of WBV did not improve QUS parameters in any of our analyses. While most of our analyses showed no statistical differences between the WBV groups and the control group, mean calcaneal BUA decreased in the 90-Hz (-0.4 [95 % CI -1.9 to 1.2] dB MHz(-1)) and 30-Hz (-0.7 [95 % CI -2.3 to 0.8] dB MHz(-1)) WBV groups and increased in the control group (1.3 [95 % CI 0.0-2.6] dB MHz(-1)). Decreases in BUA in the 90-, 30-Hz or combined WBV groups were statistically different from the control group in a few of the analyses including all randomized participants, as well as in analyses excluding participants who had missing QUS measurement and those who initiated hormone therapy or were <80 % adherent. Although there are consistent trends, not all analyses reached statistical significance. 0.3 g WBV at 90 or 30 Hz prescribed for 20 min daily for 12 months did not improve any QUS parameters, but instead resulted in a statistically significant, yet small, decrease in calcaneal BUA in postmenopausal women in several analyses. These unexpected findings require further investigation. PMID:25388526

Slatkovska, Lubomira; Beyene, Joseph; Alibhai, Shabbir M H; Wong, Queenie; Sohail, Qazi Z; Cheung, Angela M

2014-12-01

396

Effect of berberine on insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: study protocol for a randomized multicenter controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and presence of polycystic ovaries on pelvic scanning. Insulin resistance is significantly associated with the long-term risks of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Berberine has effects on insulin resistance but its use in women with PCOS has not been fully investigated. In this paper, we present a research design evaluating the effects of berberine on insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Methods/design This is a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind trial. A total of 120 patients will be enrolled in this study and will be randomized into two groups. Berberine or placebo will be taken orally for 12 weeks. The primary outcome is the whole body insulin action assessed with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Discussion We postulate that women with PCOS will have improved insulin resistance following berberine administration. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01138930. PMID:23866924

2013-01-01

397

Experiences of Young Bisexual Women in Lesbian\\/Bisexual Groups on MySpace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study examined Topic threads in Lesbian\\/Bisexual Groups on MySpace to examine how young biwomen self-identify in online exchanges with other bisexuals and lesbians, as well as what attitudes and beliefs about bisexuality emerge from those exchanges. Four Topic threads from three Groups suggested that young biwomen use social networking sites to connect with others and create inclusive communities

M. Sue Crowley

2010-01-01

398

2230 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. 58, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2013 Optimal Control on Lie Groups: The Projection  

E-print Network

2230 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. 58, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2013 Optimal Control on Lie--Many nonlinear systems of practical interest evolve on Lie groups or on manifolds acted upon by Lie groups. Ex on (noncompact) Lie groups. This algorithm generalizes the projection operator approach for trajectory

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

399

Motivational Interviewing with computer assistance as an intervention to empower women to make contraceptive choices while incarcerated: study protocol for randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important and costly public health problems in the United States resulting from unprotected sexual intercourse. Risk factors for unplanned pregnancies and STIs (poverty, low educational attainment, homelessness, substance abuse, lack of health insurance, history of an abusive environment, and practice of commercial sex work) are especially high among women with a history of incarceration. Project CARE (Contraceptive Awareness and Reproductive Education) is designed to evaluate an innovative intervention, Motivational Interviewing with Computer Assistance (MICA), aimed at enhancing contraceptive initiation and maintenance among incarcerated women who do not want a pregnancy within the next year and who are anticipated to be released back to the community. This study aims to: (1) increase the initiation of highly effective contraceptives while incarcerated; (2) increase the continuation of highly effective contraceptive use at 3, 6, 9, and 12?months after release; and (3) decrease unsafe sexual activity. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial will recruit 400 women from the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI DOC) women’s jail at risk for an unplanned pregnancy (that is, sexually active with men and not planning/wanting to become pregnant in the next year). They will be randomized to two interventions: a control group who receive two educational videos (on contraception, STIs, and pre-conception counseling) or a treatment group who receive two sessions of personalized MICA. MICA is based on the principles of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and on Motivational Interviewing (MI), an empirically supported counseling technique designed to enhance readiness to change targeted behaviors. Women will be followed at 3, 6, 9, and 12?months post release and assessed for STIs, pregnancy, and reported condom use. Discussion Results from this study are expected to enhance our understanding of the efficacy of MICA to enhance contraceptive initiation and maintenance and reduce sexual risk-taking behaviors among incarcerated women who have re-entered the community. Trial registration NCT01132950 PMID:22747705

2012-01-01

400

The effectiveness of critical time intervention for abused women and homeless people leaving Dutch shelters: study protocol of two randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background One of the main priorities of Dutch organisations providing shelter services is to develop evidence-based interventions in the care for abused women and homeless people. To date, most of these organisations have not used specific intervention models and the interventions which have been implemented rarely have an empirical and theoretical foundation. The present studies aim to examine the effectiveness of critical time intervention (CTI) for abused women and homeless people. Methods In two multi-centre randomised controlled trials we investigate whether CTI, a time-limited (nine month) outreach intervention, is more effective than care-as-usual for abused women and homeless people making the transition from shelter facilities to supported or independent housing. Participants were recruited in 19 women’s shelter facilities and 22 homeless shelter facilities across The Netherlands and randomly allocated to the intervention group (CTI) or the control group (care-as-usual). They were interviewed four times in nine months: once before leaving the shelter, and then at three, six and nine months after leaving the shelter. Quality of life (primary outcome for abused women) and recurrent loss of housing (primary outcome for homeless people) as well as secondary outcomes (e.g. care needs, self-esteem, loneliness, social support, substance use, psychological distress and service use) were assessed during the interviews. In addition, the model integrity of CTI was investigated during the data collection period. Discussion Based on international research CTI is expected to be an appropriate intervention for clients making the transition from institutional to community living. If CTI proves to be effective for abused women and homeless people, shelter services could include this case management model in their professional standards and improve the (quality of) services for clients. Trial registration NTR3463 and NTR3425

2013-01-01

401

75 FR 19983 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group In accordance with...92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

2010-04-16

402

Peptide Dimethylation: Fragmentation Control via Distancing the Dimethylamino Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct reductive methylation of peptides is a common method for quantitative proteomics. It is an active derivatization technique; with participation of the dimethylamino group, the derivatized peptides preferentially release intense a1 ions. The advantageous generation of a1 ions for quantitative proteomic profiling, however, is not desirable for targeted proteomic quantitation using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; this mass spectrometric method prefers the derivatizing group to stay with the intact peptide ions and multiple fragments as passive mass tags. This work investigated collisional fragmentation of peptides whose amine groups were derivatized with five linear ?-dimethylamino acids, from 2-(dimethylamino)-acetic acid to 6-(dimethylamino)-hexanoic acid. Tandem mass spectra of the derivatized tryptic peptides revealed different preferential breakdown p