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Sample records for women control group

  1. Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

  2. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  3. Severe sepsis in women with group B Streptococcus in pregnancy: an exploratory UK national case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Kalin, Asli; Acosta, Colleen; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of severe maternal sepsis due to group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the UK, and to investigate the associated outcomes for mother and infant. Design National case–control study. Setting All UK consultant-led maternity units. Participants 30 women with confirmed or suspected severe GBS sepsis, and 757 control women. Main outcome measures Disease incidence, additional maternal morbidity, critical care admission, length of stay, infant infection, mortality. Results The incidences of confirmed and presumed severe maternal GBS sepsis were 1.00 and 2.75 per 100?000 maternities, respectively, giving an overall incidence of 3.75 per 100?000. Compared with controls, severe GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of additional maternal morbidity (OR 12.35, 95% CI 3.96 to 35.0), requiring level 2 (OR 39.3, 95% CI 16.0 to 99.3) or level 3 (OR 182, 95% CI 21.0 to 8701) care and longer hospital stay (median stay in cases and controls was 7?days (range 3–29?days) and 2?days (range 0–16?days), respectively, p<0.001). None of the women died. Severe maternal GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of infant sepsis (OR 32.7, 95% CI 8.99 to 119.0); 79% of infants, however, did not develop sepsis. There were no associated stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Conclusions Severe maternal GBS sepsis is a rare occurrence in the UK. It is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:26450426

  4. Women’s Experiences of Group Prenatal Care

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Cohen, Sally S.; Groce, Nora E.; Knafl, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Group prenatal care (GPNC) is an innovative alternative to individual prenatal care. In this longitudinal study we used ethnographic methods to explore African American and Hispanic women’s experiences of receiving GPNC in two urban clinics. Methods included individual, in-depth, semistructured interviews of women and group leaders in GPNC, participant observation of GPNC sessions, and medical record review. GPNC offered positive experiences and met many of the women’s expressed preferences regarding prenatal care. Six themes were identified, which represented separate aspects of women’s experiences: investment, collaborative venture, a social gathering, relationships with boundaries, learning in the group, and changing self. Taken together, the themes conveyed the overall experience of GPNC. Women were especially enthusiastic about learning in groups, about their relationships with group leaders, and about having their pregnancy-related changes and fears normalized. There were also important boundaries on relationships between participants, and some women wished for greater privacy during physical examinations. PMID:20693516

  5. Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…

  6. The effect of participatory women's groups on infant feeding and child health knowledge, behaviour and outcomes in rural Bangladesh: a controlled before-and-after study

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Leila; Houweling, Tanja A J; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Haq, Bedowra; Nahar, Tasmin; Hossen, Munir; Beard, James; Copas, Andrew; Prost, Audrey; Costello, Anthony; Fottrell, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite efforts to reduce under-5 mortality rates worldwide, an estimated 6.6 million under-5 children die every year. Community mobilisation through participatory women's groups has been shown to improve maternal and newborn health in rural settings, but little is known about the potential of this approach to improve care and health in children after the newborn period. Methods Following on from a cluster-randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of participatory women's groups on maternal and neonatal health outcomes in rural Bangladesh, 162 women's groups continued to meet between April 2010 and December 2011 to identify, prioritise and address issues that affect the health of children under 5?years. A controlled before-and-after study design and difference-in-difference analysis was used to assess morbidity outcomes and changes in knowledge and practices related to child feeding, hygiene and care-seeking behaviour. Findings Significant improvements were measured in mothers’ knowledge of disease prevention and management, danger signs and hand washing at critical times. Significant increases were seen in exclusive breast feeding for at least 6?months (15.3% (4.2% to 26.5%)), and mean duration of breast feeding (37.9?days (17.4 to 58.3)). Maternal reports of under-5 morbidities fell in intervention compared with control areas, including reports of fever (?10.5% (?15.1% to ?6.0%)) and acute respiratory infections (?12.2% (?15.6% to ?8.8%)). No differences were observed in dietary diversity scores or immunisation uptake. Conclusions Community mobilisation through participatory women's groups can be successfully adapted to address health knowledge and practice in relation to child's health, leading to improvements in a number of child health indicators and behaviours. PMID:25472635

  7. Evaluating Culturally Responsive Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.; Warner, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a culturally congruent group treatment model, entitled "Claiming Your Connections" (CYC) aimed at reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress, and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black women. Method: A total of 58 Black women recruited from health…

  8. Interpersonal Group Therapy for Women Experiencing Bulimia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…

  9. Themes in Reminiscence Groups with Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnside, Irene

    1993-01-01

    Examined use of themes in reminiscence therapy groups for older women. Themes used in protocols for three research studies were analyzed. Results revealed that, for one of the three studies, the female participants' (n=67) most-discussed themes were favorite holiday, first pet, and first job. (Author/NB)

  10. Smoking cessation for weight-concerned women: group vs. individually tailored, dietary, and weight-control follow-up sessions.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Amy L; Martin, Pamela D; Geiselman, Paula J; Rash, Carla J; Kendzor, Darla E

    2006-01-01

    Postcessation weight gain is of concern to many female cigarette smokers. A multidisciplinary treatment combining psychological, dietary, and exercise components followed a 2-week smoking cessation program. Participants were randomly assigned to receive six follow-up relapse prevention sessions (in a group format or in an individually tailored format) directed by trained representatives from clinical psychology, dietary counseling, and exercise physiology. As predicted, abstinence rates were significantly higher among the individually tailored follow-up participants than among those assigned to the group follow-up condition at 3 and 6 months posttreatment. Differences between conditions in postcessation weight gain were not significant. However, the postcessation weight gain that did occur was significantly associated with subsequent smoking relapse in the group follow-up condition only. PMID:15925449

  11. Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV Positive Men and Women Coping with AIDS-Related Loss and Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Tate, David C.; DiFranceisco, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention…

  12. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22 %), 30CST (+23.41 %), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95 %), AST (+30.81 %), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03 % and -10.37 %). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions. PMID:26578458

  13. Women's health groups to improve perinatal care in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Joanna; Tamang, Suresh; Mesko, Natasha; Osrin, David; Shrestha, Bhim; Manandhar, Madan; Manandhar, Dharma; Standing, Hilary; Costello, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Background Neonatal mortality rates are high in rural Nepal where more than 90% of deliveries are in the home. Evidence suggests that death rates can be reduced by interventions at community level. We describe an intervention which aimed to harness the power of community planning and decision making to improve maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Methods The development of 111 women's groups in a population of 86 704 in Makwanpur district, Nepal is described. The groups, facilitated by local women, were the intervention component of a randomized controlled trial to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. Through participant observation and analysis of reports, we describe the implementation of this intervention: the community entry process, the facilitation of monthly meetings through a participatory action cycle of problem identification, community planning, and implementation and evaluation of strategies to tackle the identified problems. Results In response to the needs of the group, participatory health education was added to the intervention and the women's groups developed varied strategies to tackle problems of maternal and newborn care: establishing mother and child health funds, producing clean home delivery kits and operating stretcher schemes. Close linkages with community leaders and community health workers improved strategy implementation. There were also indications of positive effects on group members and health services, and most groups remained active after 30 months. Conclusion A large scale and potentially sustainable participatory intervention with women's groups, which focused on pregnancy, childbirth and the newborn period, resulted in innovative strategies identified by local communities to tackle perinatal care problems. PMID:15771772

  14. Too Many Pregnant Women Gain Too Much Weight: Doctors' Group

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155862.html Too Many Pregnant Women Gain Too Much Weight: Doctors' Group Obesity can ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). In pregnant women, obesity increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth, ...

  15. Can the Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Be Delayed by a Group-Based Lifestyle Intervention in Women with Prediabetes following Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)? Findings from a Randomized Control Mixed Methods Trial

    PubMed Central

    O'Dea, Angela; Tierney, Marie; McGuire, Brian E.; Newell, John; Glynn, Liam G.; Gibson, Irene; Noctor, Eoin; Danyliv, Andrii; Connolly, Susan B.; Dunne, Fidelma P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention programme for women with prediabetes following gestational diabetes (GDM). Design. A two-group, mixed methods randomized controlled trial in which 50 women with a history of GDM and abnormal glucose tolerance postpartum were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 24) or wait control (n = 26) and postintervention qualitative interviews with participants. Main Outcome Measures. Modifiable biochemical, anthropometric, behavioural, and psychosocial risk factors associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The primary outcome variable was the change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) from study entry to one-year follow-up. Results. At one-year follow-up, the intervention group showed significant improvements over the wait control group on stress, diet self-efficacy, and quality of life. There was no evidence of an effect of the intervention on measures of biochemistry or anthropometry; the effect on one health behaviour, diet adherence, was close to significance. Conclusions. Prevention programmes must tackle the barriers to participation faced by this population; home-based interventions should be investigated. Strategies for promoting long-term health self-management need to be developed and tested. PMID:26347894

  16. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  17. Characteristics of Midlife Women Recruited Through Internet Communities/Groups

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-ok

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics of a specific online population, midlife women recruited through Internet communities (ICs) or groups, and to provide future direction for Internet research among midlife women. Using a feminist perspective, the study focused on ethnic variations in the characteristics of the midlife women. A total of 192 midlife women were recruited through ICs. The Internet survey included questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health/illness status. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that midlife women recruited through ICs tended to be Caucasian, young, married, and affluent. The findings also indicated significant ethnic differences in sociodemographic characteristics. The findings suggest that researchers need to consider that midlife women recruited from ICs tend to be a specific group of midlife women. PMID:18091620

  18. The Mothering of Women Abused by Their Partner: An Outcome Evaluation of a Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Perel, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Findings of an outcome evaluation of a mothering group intervention with women abused by their partners are presented, based on measurements of intervention and control groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. At Time 1, both groups reported moderate well-being, high parental self-efficacy, and low mothering-related…

  19. Sexual Enhancement Groups for Dysfunctional Women: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiblum, Sandra R.; Ersner-Hershfield, Robin

    1977-01-01

    Three groups of women with sexual dysfunction were evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment. Two groups did not involve partner participation, while the third group included partners on two occasions. Results for all groups were similar. The question of whether orgasm through coitus alone is a reasonable goal is raised and challenged. (Author)

  20. Women with Childhood ADHD: Comparisons by Diagnostic Group and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Yu, Jihnhee; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita

    2011-01-01

    This study compared adult women with childhood ADHD to adult women without childhood ADHD and to adult men with childhood ADHD. The participants, all from a larger longitudinal study, included 30 women and 30 men (approximately age 23 to 24) with childhood ADHD, and 27 women without ADHD. Women with childhood ADHD were matched to comparison women on age, ethnicity, and parental education, and to men with childhood ADHD on age, ethnicity, and IQ. Self- and parent-reports of internalizing, interpersonal, academic, and job impairment, as well as substance use and delinquency indicated group differences on measures of self-esteem, interpersonal and vocational functioning, as well as substance use. Follow-up planned comparison tests revealed that almost all of these differences emerged by diagnostic status, and not by gender. This study adds to research on the negative adult outcomes of ADHD and demonstrates that the outcomes of men and women with childhood ADHD are relatively similar. PMID:22228922

  1. Assessment of female sexual function in a group of uncircumcised obese Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, A R M; Ibrahim, N H; Ahmed, H-Eh; Hassanin, A M; Elgawady, M A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess female sexual function in an obese group (250 women) and to compare it with a control group (100 women), among 25-35-year-old uncircumcised Egyptian women, using female sexual function index (FSFI) score. FSFI total score of ?26.55 was considered diagnostic of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). The percentage of FSD in the obese group was 73.6% while it was 71% in the control group, which was statistically insignificant (P>0.05). The difference between both groups regarding the total (FSFI) score was insignificant (P>0.05), but arousal and satisfaction domains scores were significantly lower in the obese group. In the obese group, a strong negative correlation between body mass index and arousal, orgasm and the total FSFI score was found. Women with excessive obesity had the lowest total FSFI score. In the obese group, college graduates had the highest total scores and all domain scores of FSFI followed by high school graduates while the least educated women had the lowest scores and when these subgroups were compared, significant differences were found among them. We conclude that in uncircumcised 25-35-year-old Egyptian women, obesity is not a major detrimental factor for FSD, but it may affect some sexual domains such as arousal and satisfaction, although excessive obesity is associated with FSD. Also, educational and cultural factors may have an impact on perception of sex and pleasure. PMID:26155831

  2. A Process Model of Empowerment for Women in Group Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwill, Janet V.; Hulbert, Kathleen

    The significance/importance of relationships and connection of women in working through emotional distress and building personal empowerment is illustrated in the process model. The group process model of empowerment draws from both the current theories of women's psychological development and social interaction theory in illustrating the process…

  3. One dozen considerations when working with women in substance abuse groups.

    PubMed

    Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Osborne, Victoria A; Greif, Geoffrey L

    2011-01-01

    Women and men have different histories, presentations, and behaviors in substance abuse groups. Twelve considerations are offered for the beginning group leader when encountering women with substance abuse issues. These include understanding sexism, what brings women to treatment, and how women behave in group treatment. Implications for clinical practice with women in single-gender and mixed-gender groups are included. PMID:21615009

  4. Differences in Self-Concept and Locus of Control among Women Who Seek Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Linda V.; Robinson, Sharon E.

    1986-01-01

    Three groups of women who varied in abortion status were formed to investigate the self-concept and locus of control of a total of 90 women. No significant differences in self-concept were found among the three groups, nor was there a relationship between locus of control and repeated abortion. (Author/ABB)

  5. Women's Liberation Scale (WLS): A Measure of Attitudes Toward Positions Advocated by Women's Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Carlos

    The Women's Liberation Scale (WLS) is a 14-item, Likert-type scale designed to measure attitudes toward positions advocated by women's groups. The WLS and its four-alternative response schema is presented, along with descriptive statistics of scores based on male and female college samples. Reliability and validity measures are reported, and the…

  6. The Effects of 16 Hour Long Marathon Groups on the Ways that Female Drug Users Perceive Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of three 16-hour-long unstructured marathon groups composed of female illicit drug users in a woman's prison (N=78), using evaluative adjective pairs of the semantic differential concept Women. Marathon groups rated women as more successful and more pleasurable than did controls. (JAC)

  7. Promoting urinary continence in women after delivery: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiarelli, Pauline; Cockburn, Jill

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the effectiveness of a physiotherapist delivered intervention designed to prevent urinary incontinence among women three months after giving birth. Design Prospective randomised controlled trial with women randomised to receive the intervention (which entailed training in pelvic floor exercises and incorporated strategies to improve adherence) or usual postpartum care. Setting Postpartum wards of three tertiary teaching hospitals in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Participants Women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or whose babies had a high birth weight (?4000 g), or both—676 (348 in the intervention group and 328 in the usual care group) provided endpoint data at three months. Main outcome measures Urinary incontinence at three months measured as a dichotomous variable. The severity of incontinence was also measured. Self report of the frequency of performance of pelvic floor exercises was recorded. Results At three months after delivery, the prevalence of incontinence in the intervention group was 31.0% (108 women) and in the usual care group 38.4% (125 women); difference 7.4% (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 14.6%, P=0.044). At follow up significantly fewer women with incontinence were classified as severe in the intervention group (10.1%) v (17.0%), difference 7.0%, 1.6% to 11.8%). The proportions of women reporting doing pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels was 84% (80% to 88%) for the intervention group and 58% (52% to 63%) for the usual care group (P=0.001). Conclusions The intervention promoting urinary continence reduced the prevalence of urinary incontinence after giving birth, particularly its severity, and promoted the performance of pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels; both continence and adherence to the programme were measured at three months after delivery in women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or babies weighing 4000 g or more. What is already known on this topicIntensive pelvic floor exercise programmes can reduce urinary incontinence in selected groups of female patientsThe effectiveness of interventions promoting continence in reducing urinary incontinence in the female population overall has not been investigatedPelvic floor exercises are widely held to be an important component of continence promotion programmesWhat this study addsContinence promotion programmes delivered to a selected population are able to prevent urinary incontinence in that populationFew studies have examined the efficacy of compliance aiding strategies in helping women adhere to prescribed pelvic floor exercise programmes PMID:12028976

  8. Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N?=?12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed. PMID:23423547

  9. A community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among middle-aged African American women in rural Alabama: Findings from a group randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Scarinci, Isabel C.; Moore, Artisha; Wynn, Theresa; Cherrington, Andrea; Fouad, Mona; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the efficacy of a community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among African American (AA) women between the ages of 45–65 years, residing in rural Alabama. Methods We conducted a group randomized controlled trial with counties as the unit of randomization that evaluated two interventions based on health priorities identified by the community: (1) promotion of healthy eating and physical activity; and (2) promotion of breast and cervical cancer screening. A total of 6 counties with 565 participants were enrolled in the study between November 2009 and October 2011. Results The overall retention rate at 24-month follow-up was 54.7%. Higher retention rate was observed in the “healthy lifestyle” arm (63.1%) as compared to the “screening” arm (45.3%). Participants in the “healthy lifestyle” arm showed significant positive changes compared to the “screening” arm at 12-month follow-up with regard to decrease in fried food consumption and an increase in both fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity. At 24-month follow-up, these positive changes were maintained with healthy eating behaviors, but not engagement in physical activity. Conclusions A culturally relevant intervention, developed in collaboration with the target audience, can improve (and maintain) healthy eating among AA women living in rural areas. PMID:25152504

  10. Women and Wasta: The Use of Focus Groups for Understanding Social Capital and Middle Eastern Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Deborah C.

    2012-01-01

    Social capital is the use of informal networking to secure access to resources and opportunities. Often identified as an asset for offsetting deficiencies in societies, research on the phenomena is limited. This paper describes a qualitative study using focus groups with young adult Emeriti women representing three social-economic groups who were…

  11. A Qualitative Analysis of Women’s Experiences in Single-Gender versus Mixed-Gender Substance Abuse Group Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Shelly F.; Cummings, Amanda M.; Kuper, Laura E.; Wigderson, Sara B.; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2013-01-01

    The present study of women with substance use disorders used grounded theory to examine women’s experiences in both the Women’s Recovery Group (WRG) and a mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC). Semi-structured interviews were completed in 2005 by twenty-eight women in a U.S. metropolitan area. Compared to GDC, women in WRG more frequently endorsed feeling safe, embracing all aspects of one’s self, having their needs met, feeling intimacy, empathy, and honesty. Additionally, group cohesion and support allowed women to focus on gender-relevant topics supporting their recovery. These advantages of single gender group therapy can increase treatment satisfaction and improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23607675

  12. Cardiovascular Control in Men and Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qi

    Women, primarily young women, have a greater incidence of orthostatic intolerance than agematched men. This difference is especially dramatic in the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS, also called Chronic Orthostatic Intolerance, in which patients are unable to stand or remain upright for prolonged periods of time due to intolerable light headedness, weakness, and near-syncope). However, the mechanisms underlying this gender difference are still not completely understood. It is likely that certain gender-specific factors such as the normal menstrual cycle, differences in some hormonal levels which may affect the neurohumoral regulation of blood pressure, or physical characteristics such as a smaller and less "distensible" heart may influence orthostatic blood pressure control. The authors review what has been done on the effects of gender and the menstrual cycle on sympathetic neural control of hemodynamics during shortand long-term orthostasis in healthy young individuals and in female patients with POTS. In addition, the role of cardiac size and function, a non-neural mechanism, in gender differences in orthostatic tolerance is also reviewed. It is suggested that sympathetic neural control and vasoconstrictor responses during orthostasis are comparable between healthy men and women, and are enhanced but not impaired in POTS patients. There is a gender-specific difference in cardiac size even in the healthy population, while this difference is exaggerated in female patients with POTS.

  13. Attitudes and approaches to vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a focus group qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The impact of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy and women's coping strategies were evaluated through international focus groups. Methods Three-hour focus groups of three to five postmenopausal women who had symptoms of vaginal atrophy but had not sought treatment were conducted in Canada, Sweden, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Participants were asked about their experience with menopause and vaginal atrophy, including use of non-prescription treatments and their interactions with health-care providers. Women were classified as one of five personality types, based on their interaction with the world (individualism or belonging) and strategies for coping with stress (control or liberation). Results Vaginal atrophy was not recognized as a medical condition by focus group participants, and women had not used treatments for vaginal atrophy apart from non-prescription lubricants. Women who had discussed vaginal atrophy symptoms with their doctor felt their concerns were dismissed as a normal part of aging, and they did not receive counseling about treatment options such as low-dose estrogen therapy. Those whose coping strategy involved dominance, combatting, or individualism were more likely to seek treatment than those whose strategy involved submission, acceptance, or belonging. Women who used control to cope with menopausal changes were more likely to respond to information validated by perceived experts than were those who used a strategy of release. Conclusions Women's reactions to their vaginal atrophy varied according to personality. Use of a personality-based approach to patient counseling may encourage patients to discuss vaginal atrophy with their health-care provider and seek treatment. PMID:24083795

  14. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication. PMID:26101911

  15. Effect of Education through Support ­Group on Early Symptoms of Menopause: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sehhatie Shafaie, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan; Jafari, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Menopause is one of the most important crises in the life of women. The control of menopause symptoms is a main challenge in providing care to this population. So, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of education through support ­group on early symptoms of menopause. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial 124 postmenopausal women who had a health records in Valiasr participatory health center of Eslamshahr city were participated. These women were allocated by block randomization method into support group (62 women) and control group (62 women).Women in support group was assigned into 6 groups. Three 60-minutes educational sessions were conducted in 3 sequential weekly sessions. Early menopausal symptoms were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention by using Greene scale (score ranged from 0 to 63). Data analysis was performed by ANCOVA statistical test. Results: There were no statistical differences between two groups in demographic characteristics and the total score of the Greene scale before intervention. The mean score of the Greene scale in support group was statistically less than control group 4 weeks after intervention. The number of hot flashes in the support group was significantly lower than control group, 4 weeks after intervention.Conclusion: Education through support group was effective in reducing the early symptoms of menopause. Thus, this educational method can be used as an appropriate strategy for enhancing women’ health and their dealing with annoying symptoms of menopause. PMID:25709980

  16. Thermal Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslett, Robert; Mahefkey, E. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The Thermal Control Working Group limited its evaluation to issues associated with Earth orbiting and planetary spacecraft with power levels up to 50 kW. It was concluded that the space station technology is a necessary precursor but does not meet S/C 2000 needs (life, high heat flux, long term cryogenics, and survivability). Additional basic and applied research are required (fluid/materials compatibility and two phase system modeling). Scaling, the key issue, must define accelerated life test criteria. The two phase systems require 0g to 1 g correlation. Additional ground test beds are required and combined space environment tests of materials.

  17. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the “leaky pipeline” problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created “microenvironments” (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students’ academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women’s academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women’s verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  18. Matching with Multiple Control Groups with Adjustment for Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Rubin, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    When estimating causal effects from observational data, it is desirable to approximate a randomized experiment as closely as possible. This goal can often be achieved by choosing a subsample from the original control group that matches the treatment group on the distribution of the observed covariates. However, sometimes the original control group

  19. Patterns and Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Weight Control Behaviors in Women Ages 25–45

    PubMed Central

    Reba-Harreleson, Lauren; Holle, Ann Von; Hamer, Robert M.; Swann, Rebecca; Reyes, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current study describes detailed eating behaviors, dieting behaviors, and attitudes about shape and weight in 4,023 women ages 25 to 45. Method The survey was delivered on-line and participants were identified using a national quota-sampling procedure. Results Disordered eating behaviors, extreme weight loss measures, and negative cognitions about shape and weight were widely endorsed by women in this age group and were not limited to White participants. Thirty-one percent of women without a history of anorexia or binge eating reported having purged to control weight, and 74.5% of women reported that their concerns about shape and weight interfered with their happiness. Discussion Unhealthy approaches to weight control and negative attitudes about shape and weight are pervasive even among women without eating disorders. The development of effective approaches to address the impact of these unhealthy behaviors and attitudes on the general well-being and functioning of women is required. PMID:20179405

  20. Cardiopulmonary effects of traditional Thai dance on menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Phusririt, Chonticha; Angkapattamakul, Sariya; Hurst, Cameron P.; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of Thai dance on cardiopulmonary factors in menopausal women. [Subjects] Sixty-six menopausal women aged 40?years or more. [Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to either the Thai dance or control group. The Thai dance group performed a traditional Thai dancing exercise program for 60 minutes, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. The control group received general health guidance. The 6-minutewalk test, peak expiratory flow, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and chest expansion were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. [Results] Sixty-six menopausal women were eligible. At the end of the study, all variables were significantly better in the Thai dance group than the control group. Moreover, all variables improved significantly compared to baseline in the Thai dance group but not in the control group. For example, the mean 6-minutewalk test result in Thai dance group at the end of the study was 285.4 m, which was significantly higher than that at baseline (254.8 m) and the control group at baseline (247.0 m). [Conclusion] A 6-week Thai dance program improves cardiorespiratory endurance in menopausal women. PMID:26357441

  1. Focus groups: examining a community-based group intervention for depressed Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R

    2008-07-01

    Puerto Ricans manifest high rates of depression but avoid seeking treatment. The purpose of this pilot was to learn directly from Puerto Rican women how culturally appropriate they would consider a proposed community-based intervention for treating depression. Interactive activities were reviewed by two focus groups of women (N = 16), all working in community-based health programs. All activities (e.g., writing, role playing, and music) except individual drawing were deemed appropriate. Categories that emerged were family/community values, mainland/non-mainland cultural variances, communication style, religion, education/occupational variances, health beliefs, Puerto Rican traditions/customs, emotions, and coping skills. Categories provided guidance for refining a community-based intervention for treating depression in Puerto Rican women. PMID:18592421

  2. Poor glycemic control in younger women attending Malaysian public primary care clinics: findings from adults diabetes control and management registry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women of reproductive age are a group of particular concern as diabetes may affect their pregnancy outcome as well as long-term morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the clinical profiles and glycemic control of reproductive and non-reproductive age women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in primary care settings, and to determine the associated factors of poor glycemic control in the reproductive age group women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using cases reported by public primary care clinics to the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry from 1st January to 31st December 2009. All Malaysian women aged 18 years old and above and diagnosed with T2D for at least 1 year were included in the analysis. The target for glycemic control (HbA1c < 6.5%) is in accordance to the recommended national guidelines. Both univariate and multivariate approaches of logistic regression were applied to determine whether reproductive age women have an association with poor glycemic control. Results Data from a total of 30,427 women were analyzed and 21.8% (6,622) were of reproductive age. There were 12.5% of reproductive age women and 18.0% of non-reproductive age women that achieved glycemic control. Reproductive age group women were associated with poorer glycemic control (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.8). The risk factors associated with poor glycemic control in the reproductive age women were being of Malay and Indian race, longer duration of diabetes, patients on anti-diabetic agents, and those who had not achieved the target total cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion Women with T2D have poor glycemic control, but being of reproductive age was associated with even poorer control. Health care providers need to pay more attention to this group of patients especially for those with risk factors. More aggressive therapeutic strategies to improve their cardiometabolic control and pregnancy outcome are warranted. PMID:24325794

  3. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  4. Historical note: How bringing women's health advocacy groups to WHO helped change the research agenda.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, Jane

    2015-05-01

    The politics of population control and its sometimes coercive methods in developing countries documented during the 1960s, 70s and 80s, gave rise to strong opposition by women's groups, and put into question the safety of contraceptive methods that were being developed and introduced into countries. In 1991, the Special Programme on Human Reproduction at the World Health Organization, a research programme focused on development of new methods and safety assessments of existing fertility regulation methods, started a process of "dialogue" meetings between scientists and women's health advocacy groups which lasted for nearly a decade. This paper describes the process of these meetings and what they achieved in terms of bringing new or different research topics into the agenda, and some of the actions taken as a result. PMID:26278829

  5. Quality Control in Small Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, L. F.

    2008-11-01

    The smallness of some groups in a set up to control the quality of a service using questionnaires limits the size of the samples, this limitation has several consequences. Indeed the common approach used for relatively large groups, based on the central limit theorem and the law of large numbers, cannot be used anymore to construct estimators for the parameters of the model. Using an inverse probability will lift these restrictions. A questionnaire is a collection of items. In an item the respondent indicates on a Likert scale his or her agreement with a statement. Dimensions are a set of items dealing with one aspect of the service. In a questionnaire several dimensions are addressed but usually the items are presented in a random sequence. The model for an item is hierarchical with following components: a multivariate hypergeometric model takes the sampling in a finite population into account, the multinomial serves as a prior for the sampling and the Dirichlet-distribution serves as a prior for the multinomials. The composition of dimensions allows to use the posterior for one of the items as a prior for another item of that dimension and so on. After analysis of several questionnaires using this model, the reliability of the responses from some respondents turned out to be a key-problem, in the sense the responses can be classified into at least two classes and a decision rule had to be developed to neglect some of them. The influence of rejecting some answers, on the confidence for the most plausible statement can be estimated. This leads often to the result that there is only minimal evidence for the most probable statement.

  6. Low-dose dexamethasone as a treatment for women with heavy menstrual bleeding: protocol for response-adaptive randomised placebo-controlled dose-finding parallel group trial (DexFEM)

    PubMed Central

    Warner, P; Weir, C J; Hansen, C H; Douglas, A; Madhra, M; Hillier, S G; Saunders, P T K; Iredale, J P; Semple, S; Walker, B R; Critchley, H O D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) diminishes individual quality-of-life and poses substantial societal burden. In HMB endometrium, inactivation of cortisol (by enzyme 11? hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?HSD2)), may cause local endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency and hence increased angiogenesis and impaired vasoconstriction. We propose that ‘rescue’ of luteal phase endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency could reduce menstrual bleeding. Methods and analysis DexFEM is a double-blind response-adaptive parallel-group placebo-controlled trial in women with HMB (108 to be randomised), with active treatment the potent oral synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, which is relatively resistant to 11?HSD2 inactivation. Participants will be aged over 18?years, with mean measured menstrual blood loss (MBL) for two screening cycles ?50?mL. The primary outcome is reduction in MBL from screening. Secondary end points are questionnaire assessments of treatment effect and acceptability. Treatment will be for 5?days in the mid-luteal phases of three treatment menstrual cycles. Six doses of low-dose dexamethasone (ranging from 0.2 to 0.9?mg twice daily) will be compared with placebo, to ascertain optimal dose, and whether this has advantage over placebo. Statistical efficiency is maximised by allowing randomisation probabilities to ‘adapt’ at five points during enrolment phase, based on the response data available so far, to favour doses expected to provide greatest additional information on the dose–response. Bayesian Normal Dynamic Linear Modelling, with baseline MBL included as covariate, will determine optimal dose (re reduction in MBL). Secondary end points will be analysed using generalised dynamic linear models. For each dose for all end points, a 95% credible interval will be calculated for effect versus placebo. Ethics and dissemination Dexamethasone is widely used and hence well-characterised safety-wise. Ethical approval has been obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee (12/SS/0147). Trial findings will be disseminated via open-access peer-reviewed publications, conferences, clinical networks, public lectures, and our websites. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01769820; EudractCT 2012-003405-98. PMID:25588784

  7. Obstetric outcome of ethnic Turkish women in London: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kanthasamy, M; Bognanno, A; Subramanian, V; Macneilly, L; Miguel, L; Dong, S; Taiwo, E; Nauta, M; Yoong, W

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that the maternal mortality in ethnic minority women is significantly greater than that of Caucasian British women. The objective of this study was to compare the demographic and obstetric outcomes between these two groups. Data were collected retrospectively over a 2-year period from 148 index and 148 control cases. The study group had statistically similar maternal age, labour duration, blood loss and mode of delivery compared with Caucasian British women (p > 0.05). A total of 68% of Turkish women spoke little or no English; were more likely to be non-smokers and also more likely to be married to unemployed spouses (p = 0.0001). This is the first study comparing obstetric outcomes of immigrant Turkish women with their Caucasian British counterparts. There was no significant difference in maternal or fetal outcomes, which could be attributed to the 'healthy migrant' theory, coupled with increased vigilance in ethnic minority pregnancies. PMID:23654317

  8. Pilot early intervention antenatal group program for pregnant women with anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Naomi; Komiti, Angela; Judd, Fiona

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to examine the acceptability and effectiveness of an antenatal group intervention designed to reduce the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms and improve maternal attachment in pregnant women with current or emerging depression and anxiety. Women who participated in the program completed pre- and posttreatment measures of depression (Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and maternal attachment (Condon Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale). Participants also completed a satisfaction questionnaire and provided general feedback about the group intervention and experience. A total of 48 women (M?=?26 weeks of gestation) commenced and 37 (77 %) completed at least 80 % of the six session group intervention. Significant improvements with moderate to large effect sizes were observed for depression as measured on the Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) (p?group program is an effective and acceptable intervention for a clinical sample of women and partners. It is a feasible addition or alternative treatment option to perinatal mental health care. Future directions could involve more comprehensive randomised controlled trials (RCT) to examine the effectiveness of the group intervention. PMID:25074561

  9. The Use of the Courts by Women's Groups to Obtain Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Karen

    This study examines how women's groups have made use of litigation strategy to gain favorable policy decisions from the U.S. Supreme Court. The litigation strategies associated with four groups are discussed in the major portion of the report. These groups are: (1) the National Women's Suffrage Association (NWSA), active from 1869 to 1875; (2) the…

  10. Reclaiming the Maiden: Use of Archetypes in a 6-Week Women's Empowerment Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese; Hofsess, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a 6-week, semi-structured group counseling experience for university women students (undergraduate and graduate) from diverse backgrounds exploring archetypes and using group empowerment skills. Theoretical perspectives on women's empowerment groups and the use of archetypes in counseling are discussed as…

  11. The Effect of Acupressure on Sleep Quality in Menopausal Women: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Abedian, Zahra; Eskandari, Leila; Abdi, Hamid; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the common problems in menopausal women is sleep disorder. Traditional Chinese acupressure is a noninvasive and safe technique. Menopausal women can easily learn the technique and a self-care method to manage their sleep disorder. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure on sleep quality of postmenopausal women in Mashhad during 2009. Methods This double blind, randomized clinical trial was performed on 120 qualified menopausal women at the age of 41-65 years. Their sleep quality was measured according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Participants were randomly assigned to an acupressure group (n=37), a sham acupressure group (n=36) and a control group (n=32) by two time randomized method (systematic and simple randomized). These interventions were carried out for four consecutive weeks. The participants in the acupressure and sham acupressure groups learned to carry out the acupressure technique as a self-care at home with simultaneous massage techniques that were to be performed 2 hours before sleep, whereas only conversation was used in the control group. The data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 17. Results The results indicated significant differences in total PSQI scores among the three groups (P<0.001). Tukey’s test revealed that there were significant differences between the acupressure group and the control group (P<0.001), the acupressure group and sham acupressure group (P<0.001), and the sham acupressure and the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion Acupressure can be used as a complementary treatment to relieve sleep disorders in menopausal women; and is offered as an efficient method to manage sleep quality. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013100614910N1. PMID:26170519

  12. Influence of a support group for young women with disabilities on sense of belonging.

    PubMed

    Mejias, Norma J; Gill, Carol J; Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa

    2014-04-01

    Women and girls with disabilities face obstacles to community participation and social acceptance. Consequently, as adolescent women with disabilities mature into adulthood, they may have difficulty feeling that they belong both in the general community and in the community of all women. The positive impact of peer support groups for young women with disabilities on their sense of belonging has been underinvestigated. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 9 members of a well-established empowerment support group for young women with disabilities to explore how the group might foster a sense of belonging to the general community as well as a sense of shared womanhood. Results revealed that self-confidence and disability pride stemming from participation in the group were essential in helping the women counteract exclusionary messages from the outside world. The group provided an opportunity to develop a positive disability identity and to gain new information regarding the ability and right to identify as women. Reciprocal bonds with other group members helped cultivate feelings of belonging. In turn, the women communicated their empowered identities and the disability rights information they learned in the group to their friends, family, and community members. The group offered the women various platforms to assert their right to belong and, therefore, to participate in the world as women and as independent members of their broader communities. These results show how peer support groups for young women with disabilities can positively influence their sense of belonging both within the group and in the world outside the group. PMID:24660692

  13. Early intervention in pregnant women with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms: efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Antje; Peukert, Judith; Zimmermann, Cornelia; Junge-Hoffmeister, Juliane; Parker, Lisa S; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Weidner, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether a cognitive-behavioral group program among pregnant women with elevated levels of anxiety or depression may reduce anxious and depressive symptoms and has a positive impact on risk factors for anxiety disorders and depression. A total of 753 participants were recruited. After completion of the clinical standardized interview, 160 participants were randomized to an intervention group or a control condition. Psychometric assessments took place at T1 (preintervention), T2 (antenatal follow-up), and T3 (3 months postpartum). Analyses included women who took part in all 3 assessments (intervention group, N = 21; control group, N = 53). The subjective program evaluation by the participants was highly positive, but with the exception of a short-term effect on the quality of an intimate partnership (F1/67 = 4.056; P < .05], intervention effects on anxiety or depressive symptoms were not found. However, there was an intervention effect 3 months postpartum for participants with high depressive symptoms at T1 (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ?10) (F1/69 = 5.410; P < .05). The results argue against a general efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program for pregnant women with rather low levels of anxiety and depression. For women with higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy, a cognitive-behavioral group program may have a positive impact on the course of depressive symptoms during the postpartum period. PMID:25062520

  14. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Results Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p?groups. Conclusions Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted. PMID:24773615

  15. Measurement of Attitudes of Rural Women towards Self-Help Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meena, M. S.; Jain, Dilip; Meena, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's…

  16. Gender differences in automatic in-group bias: why do women like women more than men like men?

    PubMed

    Rudman, Laurie A; Goodwin, Stephanie A

    2004-10-01

    Four experiments confirmed that women's automatic in-group bias is remarkably stronger than men's and investigated explanations for this sex difference, derived from potential sources of implicit attitudes (L. A. Rudman, 2004). In Experiment 1, only women (not men) showed cognitive balance among in-group bias, identity, and self-esteem (A. G. Greenwald et al., 2002), revealing that men lack a mechanism that bolsters automatic own group preference. Experiments 2 and 3 found pro-female bias to the extent that participants automatically favored their mothers over their fathers or associated male gender with violence, suggesting that maternal bonding and male intimidation influence gender attitudes. Experiment 4 showed that for sexually experienced men, the more positive their attitude was toward sex, the more they implicitly favored women. In concert, the findings help to explain sex differences in automatic in-group bias and underscore the uniqueness of gender for intergroup relations theorists. PMID:15491274

  17. Preventing Depression: Culturally Relevant Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.

    2008-01-01

    Recent estimates indicate that 10% to 25% of women in the United States report clinically significant depressive symptoms and that Black women are less likely to obtain care for depression and to receive appropriate treatment when they do seek care. Current mental and social health services necessitate a search for strength-based treatment models…

  18. Reducing Postpartum Weight Retention and Improving Breastfeeding Outcomes in Overweight Women: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julia; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Hure, Alexis; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity is prevalent among women of reproductive age (42% BMI > 25 kg/m2) and parity is associated with risk of weight gain. Weight gain greater than that recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM )is also associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in women. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial is to examine the feasibility of recruiting and maintaining a cohort of pregnant women with the view of reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes. Women (BMI of 25–35 kg/m2 (n = 36)) were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were stratified by BMI and randomised to one of three groups with follow-up to six months postpartum. Women received a dietary intervention with or without breastfeeding support from a lactation consultant, or were assigned to a wait-list control group where the dietary intervention was issued at three months postpartum. Feasibility and acceptability was assessed by participation rates and questionnaire. Analysis of variance and covariance was conducted to determine any differences between groups. Sixty-nine per cent of the participants were still enrolled at six months postpartum. This pilot demonstrated some difficulties in recruiting women from antenatal clinics and retaining them in the trial. Although underpowered; the results on weight; biomarkers and breastfeeding outcomes indicated improved metabolic health. PMID:25723973

  19. Group methods for advanced column control compared

    SciTech Connect

    Haskins, D.E.; Chauvin, L.; Tolfo, F.

    1985-05-01

    Group method calculations are suited for distillation column advanced controls in real time. Five calculation methods are discussed and compared for accuracy by computing the internal reflux for several columns and operating conditions. Practical design criteria are defined and illustrated by comparing two distillation column reflex control schemes. The resulting conclusions include the best location and preferred order of group method calculations. Because group methods are simpler than stage-to-stage or successive approximation methods, they are more suitable to online computer calculations. Group methods are considered accurate enough for control purposes.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pregnant Women: A Seroprevalence and Case-Control Study in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wei; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Zhou, Na; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Very limited information is available concerning the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in eastern China. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in this population group and to identify risk factors and possible routes of contamination. Serum samples were collected from 965 pregnant women and 965 age-matched nonpregnant control subjects in Qingdao and Weihai between October 2011 and July 2013. These were screened with enzyme linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. 147 (15.2%) pregnant women and 167 (17.3%) control subjects were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, while 28 (2.9%) pregnant women and 37 (3.8%) controls were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (P = 0.256). There was no significant difference between pregnant women and nonpregnant controls with regard to the seroprevalence of either anti-T. gondii IgG or IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with location, cats in home, contact with cats and dogs, and exposure to soil. The results indicated that the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women is high compared to most other regions of China and other East Asian countries with similar climatic conditions. PMID:26539465

  1. Attitude Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Daniel F.; Studer, Phillip A.

    1986-01-01

    The goals were to establish the Attitude Control System (ACS) requirements, constraints, technology assessment, technology shortfalls, expected in the year 2000. These were based upon all missions, military and civil, for LEO and GEO. The critical ACS technology issues were identified and ACS programs developed to address these critical issues.

  2. CONTROLLED SURGERY WITH TRIVIAL LOCAL FUNDAMENTAL GROUPS

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Erik Kjær

    CONTROLLED SURGERY WITH TRIVIAL LOCAL FUNDAMENTAL GROUPS ERIK KJÃ?R PEDERSEN, FRANK QUINN, AND ANDREW RANICKI Abstract. We provide a proof of the controlled surgery sequence, including stability of the controlled surgery exact sequence used in the construction of exotic homology manifolds by Bryant, Ferry, Mio

  3. [Is blood pressure control different in women than in men?].

    PubMed

    Oliveras, A; Sans-Atxer, L; Vázquez, S

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) evolves with age; until the 50's it is higher in men than in women, equaling and even then increasing in women. The prevalence of controlled BP appears to be similar between the sexes, but the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is higher in women than in men. The possibility that BP influences the cardiovascular risk differently according to sex must therefore be considered. While some studies suggest no difference exists, others have shown evidence of an increased risk in women with respect to men despite equal BP. In this way, it seems that the measurement of ambulatory BP, but not office BP, would mark the differences in the association between BP-gender and cardiovascular risk. It should therefore be investigated the possibility of a different BP goal for women and men, especially by evaluating ambulatory BP. PMID:26486463

  4. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Breast Cancer Screening Among African American Women: The Black Cosmetologists Promoting Health Program

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine M.; Wu, Phillis; Alisangco, Jennifer; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Kelly, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Background African American women have disproportionately higher rates of breast cancer (BC) mortality than all other ethnic groups, thus highlighting the importance of promoting early detection. Methods African American women (N = 984) from San Diego, California participated in a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of BC education sessions offered in beauty salons. Cosmetologists received ongoing support, training, and additional culturally aligned educational materials to help them engage their clients in dialogues about the importance of BC early detection. Posters and literature about BC early detection were displayed throughout the salons and cosmetologists used synthetic breast models to show their clients how BC lumps might feel. Participants in the control group received a comparable diabetes education program. Baseline and six month follow-up surveys were administered to evaluate changes in women’s BC knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors. Results This intervention was well received by the participants and their cosmetologists and did not interfere with, or prolong, the client’s salon visit. Women in the intervention group reported significantly higher rates of mammography compared to women in the control group. Training a single educator proved sufficient to permeate the entire salon with the health message and salon clients agreed that cosmetologists could become effective health educators. Conclusions Cosmetologists are in an ideal position to increase African American women’s BC knowledge and adherence to BC screening guidelines. PMID:22046851

  5. Women's Empowerment and Education: Panchayats and Women's Self-Help Groups in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna; Chakravarti, Paromita; Mansi, Kumari

    2015-01-01

    While women have made many advances, their inferior status to men continues to be a global phenomenon. At a time of unprecedented economic growth, India is experiencing a dramatic intensification of violence against women and the majority of girls are still not getting equal educational opportunity. In one of the most important steps for the…

  6. Strategies developed and implemented by women's groups to improve mother and infant health and reduce mortality in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Rosato, M; Malamba, F; Kunyenge, B; Phiri, T; Mwansambo, C; Kazembe, P; Costello, A; Lewycka, S

    2012-09-01

    We evaluated the strategies to tackle maternal and infant health problems developed by women's groups in rural Malawi. Quantitative data were analyzed on strategies developed by 184 groups at two of the meetings in the community action cycle (attended by 3365 and 3047 women). Data on strategies implemented was collected through a survey of the 197 groups active in January 2010. Qualitative data on the identification and implementation of strategies was collected through 17 focus group discussions and 12 interviews with men and women. To address the maternal and child health problems identified the five most common strategies identified were: health education sessions, bicycle ambulances, training of traditional birth attendants, wetland vegetable garden (dimba garden) cultivation and distribution of insecticide treated bednets (ITNs). The five most common strategies actually implemented were: dimba garden cultivation, health education sessions, ITN distribution, health programme radio listening clubs and clearing house surroundings. The rationale behind the strategies and the factors facilitating and hindering implementation are presented. The potential impact of the strategies on health is discussed. Women's groups help communities to take control of their health issues and have the potential to reduce neonatal, infant and maternal mortality and morbidity in the longer term. PMID:24029397

  7. Lower Urinary Tract and Functional Bowel Symptoms in Women with Vulvar Diseases and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, Carolyn W.; Menees, Stacy. B.; Haefner, Hope K.; Berger, Mitchell. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to compare the prevalences of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and constipation in women with vulvar diseases to those from the general population. Methods Three groups of women were recruited from the University of Michigan Gynecology clinics, women with: 1) biopsy proven lichen sclerosus (LS), 2) non-LS vulvar diseases (vulvar controls, VC), and 3) presenting for annual exams (AE). All patients completed self-administered surveys and validated pelvic floor symptom questionnaires. Results 317 subjects were enrolled: 101 with LS, 86 VCs, and 130 AEs. Compared to women in the VC and AE groups, LS subjects were older and of higher parity, and also had a higher prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) and urinary incontinence. IBS was more common in the LS and VC groups compared to the AE group but no difference in constipation was seen. Similar results were found when all women with vulvar disease (LS and VC) were compared to the AEs. Age (adjusted OR 1.28, p=0.003) and IBS (adjusted OR 3.05, <0.001) were the two variables predictive of OAB. Urinary incontinence was predicted by age (adjusted OR 1.35, p=0.002), vulvar disease categorization (adjusted OR 2.31, p=0.004) and IBS (adjusted OR 4.51, p<0.001). Conclusions We find a significantly greater prevalence of LUTS and IBS in women with vulvar disease compared to women presenting for annual gynecologic exams, but no difference in constipation. Similar rates of LUTS, IBS and constipation were seen in women with LS and non-LS vulvar disease. PMID:26052645

  8. CONTROLLED SURGERY WITH TRIVIAL LOCAL FUNDAMENTAL GROUPS 

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Erik; Quinn, Frank; Ranicki, Andrew

    2001-11-27

    We provide a proof of the controlled surgery sequence, including stabil- ity, in the special case that the local fundamental groups are trivial. Stability is a key ingredient in the construction of exotic homology manifolds ...

  9. Does Screening or Providing Information on Resources for Intimate Partner Violence Increase Women’s Knowledge? Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Klevens, Joanne; Sadowski, Laura S.; Kee, Romina; Garcia, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background Screening for IPV in health care settings might increase women's knowledge or awareness around its frequency and its impact on health. When IPV is disclosed, assuring women it is not their fault should improve their knowledge that IPV is the perpetrator's responsibility. Providing information about IPV resources may also increase women's knowledge about the availability of solutions. Methods Women (n=2708) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) partner violence screen plus video referral and list of local partner violence resources if screening was positive (n=909); (2) partner violence resource list only without screen (n=893); and (3) a no-screen, no-partner violence resource list control group (n=898). One year later, 2364 women (87%) were re-contacted and asked questions assessing their knowledge of the frequency of partner violence, its impact on physical and mental health, the availability of resources to help women experiencing partner violence, and that it is the perpetrator's fault. Results There were no differences between women screened and provided with a partner violence resource list compared to a control group as to women's knowledge of the frequency of IPV, its impact on physical or mental health, or the availability of IPV services in their community. However, among women who experienced IPV in the year before or year after enrolling in the trial, those who were provided a list of IPV resources without screening were significantly less likely to know that IPV is not the victim's fault than those in the control or list plus screening conditions. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that providing information on partner violence resources, with or without asking questions about partner violence, did not result in improved knowledge.

  10. Under-representation of women on governing bodies: women general practitioners on Clinical Commissioning Groups in England.

    PubMed

    Segar, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Recently formed Clinical Commissioning Groups in the English National Health Service have important responsibility for commissioning local health and care services. Women are under-represented on the governing bodies of these significant primary care based organizations despite the fact that they constitute almost half of the general practitioner workforce in England. This essay examines some of the reasons for this under-representation including the predominance of women in the salaried and part-time sector of general practice and gendered management styles within the National Health Service. It is argued that the under-representation of women on Clinical Commissioning Group governing bodies matters in terms of social justice, representation of the broader community and role models. PMID:25589088

  11. Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, R; John, S; Ling, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Despite a recent surge in tobacco advertising and the recent advertising ban (pending enforcement at the time of this study), there are few studies describing current cigarette marketing in India. This study sought to assess cigarette companies' marketing strategies in Mumbai, India. Methods: A two week field study was conducted in Mumbai in September 2003, observing, documenting, and collecting cigarette advertising on billboards, storefronts and at point of sale along two major thoroughfares, and performing a content analysis of news, film industry, and women's magazines and three newspapers. Results: Cigarette advertising was ubiquitous in the environment, present in news and in film magazines, but not in women's magazines or the newspapers. The four major advertising campaigns all associated smoking with aspiration; the premium brands targeting the higher socioeconomic status market utilised tangible images of westernisation and affluence whereas the "bingo" (low priced) segment advertisements invited smokers to belong to a league of their own and "rise to the taste" using intangible images. Women were not depicted smoking, but were present in cigarette advertisements—for example, a woman almost always accompanied a man in "the man with the smooth edge" Four Square campaign. Advertisements and product placements at low heights and next to candies at point of sale were easily accessible by children. In view of the iminent enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertisements, cigarette companies are increasing advertising for the existing brand images, launching brand extensions, and brand stretching. Conclusion: Cigarette companies have developed sophisticated campaigns targeting men, women, and children in different socioeconomic groups. Many of these strategies circumvent the Indian tobacco advertising ban. Understanding these marketing strategies is critical to mimimise the exploitation of loopholes in tobacco control legislation. PMID:15923471

  12. An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

  13. Honoring the Ways of American Indian Women: A Group Therapy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.; Robbins, Rockey; Vaughn, Karen; Youngbull, Natalie; Burks, Derek; Willmon-Haque, Sadie; Schuetz, Suzan; Brandes, Joyce A.; Nael, Andrea Zainab Omidy

    2010-01-01

    A culturally grounded group intervention for a typically underserved population of urban American Indian women is described. The intervention is designed to increase interpersonal connection, improve inter-tribal acceptance and trust, and enhance psychological well being of marginalized urban American Indian women. Topics used to structure the…

  14. The stool microbiota of insulin resistant women with recent gestational diabetes, a high risk group for type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fugmann, Marina; Breier, Michaela; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Banning, Friederike; Ferrari, Uta; Sacco, Vanessa; Grallert, Harald; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Seissler, Jochen; Clavel, Thomas; Lechner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to metabolic diseases. However, information on the microbiome of young adults at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to investigate whether insulin resistant women with previous gestational diabetes (pGDM), a high risk group for T2D, differ in their stool microbiota from women after a normoglycemic pregnancy (controls). Bacterial communities were analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing using fecal samples from 42 pGDM and 35 control subjects 3–16 months after delivery. Clinical characterization included a 5-point OGTT, anthropometrics, clinical chemistry markers and a food frequency questionnaire. Women with a Prevotellaceae-dominated intestinal microbiome were overrepresented in the pGDM group (p?women pGDM (median 48.5 vs. 56.8%; p?=?0.013). Taxa richness (alpha diversity) was similar between the two groups and with correction for multiple testing we observed no significant differences on lower taxonomic levels. These results suggest that distinctive features of the intestinal microbiota are already present in young adults at risk for T2D and that further investigations of a potential pathophysiological role of gut bacteria in early T2D development are warranted. PMID:26279179

  15. The stool microbiota of insulin resistant women with recent gestational diabetes, a high risk group for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, Marina; Breier, Michaela; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Banning, Friederike; Ferrari, Uta; Sacco, Vanessa; Grallert, Harald; Parhofer, Klaus G; Seissler, Jochen; Clavel, Thomas; Lechner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to metabolic diseases. However, information on the microbiome of young adults at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to investigate whether insulin resistant women with previous gestational diabetes (pGDM), a high risk group for T2D, differ in their stool microbiota from women after a normoglycemic pregnancy (controls). Bacterial communities were analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing using fecal samples from 42 pGDM and 35 control subjects 3-16 months after delivery. Clinical characterization included a 5-point OGTT, anthropometrics, clinical chemistry markers and a food frequency questionnaire. Women with a Prevotellaceae-dominated intestinal microbiome were overrepresented in the pGDM group (p < 0.0001). Additionally, the relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes was significantly lower in women pGDM (median 48.5 vs. 56.8%; p = 0.013). Taxa richness (alpha diversity) was similar between the two groups and with correction for multiple testing we observed no significant differences on lower taxonomic levels. These results suggest that distinctive features of the intestinal microbiota are already present in young adults at risk for T2D and that further investigations of a potential pathophysiological role of gut bacteria in early T2D development are warranted. PMID:26279179

  16. Women Entering the Elite Group: A Limited Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yunshan; Wang, Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    Based on studies of literature and the freshman admission data from 1978 to 2005 in Peking University, the research reveals how female student enrollments grew from nil to a considerable size, and how the exclusion of women college admission was overcome to achieve gender balance. However, the paper argues that this progress is limited in that…

  17. Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…

  18. Obstetric outcomes for nulliparous women who received routine individualized treatment for severe fear of childbirth - a retrospective case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To study pregnancy and delivery outcomes in nulliparous women with severe FOC (fear of childbirth), all of whom had received routine treatment for their FOC and to make comparisons with a healthy reference group of nulliparous women. To study the possible relationship between the number of FOC-treatment sessions and the delivery method. Methods All nulliparous women with a diagnose FOC who received routine treatment for FOC (n?=?181) and a reference group of nulliparous women without FOC (n?=?431) at a university and a county hospital in the south east region of Sweden were analysed. Data from antenatal and delivery medical records were used to study outcome. Results The majority of women with severe FOC had a vaginal delivery. The incidence of elective CS was greater in the index group than in the reference group (p?women with a planned CS in the index group was 35 (19.4%) and in the control group 14 (3.2%). Thus, on average five women per year received an elective CS during the study years due to severe FOC. The women in the index group who wished to have a CS were similar to the other women in the index group with reference to age, BMI, chronic disease but had been in in-patient care more often during their pregnancy than those who did not ask for CS (p?=?0.009). Conclusion In this study of women treated for severe FOC, the majority gave birth vaginally and no relationship was found between number of treatment sessions and mode of childbirth. PMID:24694283

  19. The Relationship between Objectified Body Consciousness and Wellness in a Group of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Stacey L.; Myers, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Objectified body consciousness theory provides a framework for understanding young women's negative body experiences and their impact on well-being. This study examined the impact of body surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs, the 3 components of objectified body consciousness, on wellness in college women. Data indicated a…

  20. The effect of health and nutrition education intervention on women's postpartum beliefs and practices: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nian; Mao, Limei; Sun, Xiufa; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping; Chen, Banghua

    2009-01-01

    Background 'Sitting month' is the Chinese tradition for postpartum customs. Available studies indicate that some of the traditional postpartum practices are potentially harmful for women's health. However, no intervention study aiming at postpartum practices has been performed. In this paper we evaluated the effect of a health and nutrition education intervention, which focused on improving postpartum dietary quality and optimal health behaviors. Methods The study design was a randomized controlled trial conducted in both urban and rural area of Hubei between August 2003 and June 2004. A total of 302 women who attended the antenatal clinic during the third trimester with an uncomplicated pregnancy were recruited. Women randomized to the education intervention group in both urban and rural area received two two-hour prenatal education sessions and four postpartum counseling visits. Control group women received usual health care during pregnancy and postpartum period. Women were followed up until 42 days postpartum. Outcome measures were nutrition and health knowledge, dietary behavior, health behavior and health problems during the postpartum period. Results Women in the intervention groups exhibited significantly greater improvement in overall dietary behaviors such as consumption of fruits, vegetables, soybean and soybean products as well as nutrition and health knowledge than those in the control groups. Significantly more women in the intervention groups give up the traditional behavior taboos. The incidence of constipation, leg cramp or joint pain and prolonged lochia rubra was significantly lower in the intervention groups as compared with the control groups. Conclusion The study shows that health and nutrition education intervention enable the women take away some of the unhealthy traditional postpartum practices and decrease the prevalence of postpartum health problems. The intervention has potential for adaptation and development to large-scale implementation. Trial registration number klACTRN12607000549426 PMID:19183504

  1. ATLANTIC-DIP: prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus by International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

    PubMed

    Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Shea, Paula M; Dunne, Fidelma P

    2015-02-01

    Women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high-risk group for future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria significantly increase the number of women diagnosed with GDM. The long-term metabolic outcome in these women is unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using adult treatment panel-III criteria; and insulin resistance, using HOMA2-IR, in white European women with previous GDM. Using a cohort design, we invited women meeting IADPSG GDM criteria across four Irish antenatal centres between 2007 and 2010 to participate. Two hundred and sixty-five women with previous values meeting IADPSG criteria for GDM participated (44 % of the population eligible for participation). Mean age was 36.7 years (SD 5.0). These women were compared with a randomly selected control group of 378 women (mean age 37.6 years, SD 5.1) known to have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy during the same period. A total of 25.3 % of women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM met metabolic syndrome criteria, compared to 6.6 % of women with NGT [at 2.6 (SD 1.0) vs. 3.3 years (SD 0.7) post-partum]. The prevalence of HOMA2-IR >1.8 was higher in women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM (33.6 vs. 9.1 % with NGT, p < 0.001). Women with previous GDM by IADPSG criteria demonstrate a greater than threefold prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to women with NGT in pregnancy. Efforts to prevent projected long-term consequences of this should focus on interventions both in the preconception and post-partum periods. PMID:25002067

  2. Women's evaluation of abuse and violence care in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial (weave)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intimate partner abuse (IPA) is a major public health problem with serious implications for the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of women, particularly women of child-bearing age. It is a common, hidden problem in general practice and has been under-researched in this setting. Opportunities for early intervention and support in primary care need to be investigated given the frequency of contact women have with general practice. Despite the high prevalence and health consequences of abuse, there is insufficient evidence for screening in primary care settings. Furthermore, there is little rigorous evidence to guide general practitioners (GPs) in responding to women identified as experiencing partner abuse. This paper describes the design of a trial of a general practice-based intervention consisting of screening for fear of partner with feedback to GPs, training for GPs, brief counselling for women and minimal practice organisational change. It examines the effect on women's quality of life, mental health and safety behaviours. Methods/Design weave is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Approximately 500 women (16-50 years) seen by the GP in the previous year are mailed a short lifestyle survey containing an item to screen for IPA. Women who indicate that they were afraid of a partner/ex-partner in the last year and provide contact details are invited to participate. Once baseline data are collected, GPs are randomly assigned to either a group involving healthy relationship and responding to IPA training plus inviting women for up to 6 sessions of counselling or to a group involving basic education and usual care for women. Outcomes will be evaluated by postal survey at 6 and 12 months following delivery of the intervention. There will be an economic evaluation, and process evaluation involving interviews with women and GPs, to inform understanding about implementation and outcomes. Discussion The weave trial responds to an urgent need for more evidence on what can be achieved in primary care with regard to responding to women who experience IPA. It will provide important knowledge about the effectiveness of a brief method of screening, professional IPA training program and brief counselling for women. Trail Registration [ACTRN12608000032358] PMID:20044929

  3. Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

  4. Support Groups, Marriage, and the Management of Ambiguity among HIV-Positive Women in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Rhine, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the African HIV epidemic, support groups are not simply spaces for discussions of social and health well-being; neither are they institutions functioning solely to cultivate self-responsible and economically empowered patients. HIV-positive women in northern Nigeria have appropriated a support group to facilitate their marriage arrangements. In this group, women negotiate the threats of stigma and the promises of respectable marriage through what I call the management of ambiguity surrounding their HIV status. I further argue that the practice of support group matchmaking reveals the local political economic dynamics that shape social and illness trajectories in resource-poor settings. PMID:23946544

  5. Control of complex physically simulated robot groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogan, David C.

    2001-10-01

    Actuated systems such as robots take many forms and sizes but each requires solving the difficult task of utilizing available control inputs to accomplish desired system performance. Coordinated groups of robots provide the opportunity to accomplish more complex tasks, to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and to survive individual failures. Similarly, groups of simulated robots, represented as graphical characters, can test the design of experimental scenarios and provide autonomous interactive counterparts for video games. The complexity of writing control algorithms for these groups currently hinders their use. A combination of biologically inspired heuristics, search strategies, and optimization techniques serve to reduce the complexity of controlling these real and simulated characters and to provide computationally feasible solutions.

  6. The Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women: Report to the President and the Commission for Women--Recommendation Package #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

    The document presents partial recommendations of a Pennsylvania State University Study Group on the Status of Women at the University. Recommendations concern job assessment and evaluation, recruitment of women faculty, part-time benefits and compensation, and recruitment of women administrators. Among specific recommendations are the following:…

  7. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Strizzi, Jenna; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Pappadis, Monique; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Valdivia Tangarife, Edgar Ricardo; Fernandez Agis, Inmaculada; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can substantially alter many areas of a person's life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls) from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS). Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p < 0.001), FSFI subscales of desire (p < 0.05), arousal (p < 0.05), lubrication (p < 0.05), orgasm (p < 0.05), and satisfaction (p < 0.05), and the ISS (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs. PMID:26556951

  8. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Strizzi, Jenna; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Pappadis, Monique; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Valdivia Tangarife, Edgar Ricardo; Fernandez Agis, Inmaculada; Perrin, Paul B.; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can substantially alter many areas of a person's life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls) from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS). Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p < 0.001), FSFI subscales of desire (p < 0.05), arousal (p < 0.05), lubrication (p < 0.05), orgasm (p < 0.05), and satisfaction (p < 0.05), and the ISS (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs. PMID:26556951

  9. Dynamics of colonization with group B streptococci in relation to normal flora in women during subsequent trimesters of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brzychczy-W?och, Monika; Pabian, Wojciech; Majewska, Elzbieta; Zuk, Ma Gorzata; Kielbik, Jadwiga; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Bulanda, Ma Gorzata

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of the study was to compare the qualitative and quantitative composition of vaginal and rectal flora in GBS-positive (n=15) and GBS-negative (n=27) pregnant women examined in three subsequent trimesters of their pregnancy. Study samples consisted of vaginal and rectal smears and urine samples. GBS numbers were determined by the quantitatively cultured method [cfu/ml] and with the use of qPCR. Five GBS colonies were isolated per each positive sample and genotyped by PFGE and serotyping. The normal flora components: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Candida were quantitatively cultured. Carriage of GBS in subsequent trimesters in vagina/anus was variable and fluctuated between 17% and 28%. Quantitative GBS analyses showed that the vaginal population was at a constant level with the mean value equal to 3.94×104 cfu/ml, in contrast to the rectal population where the highest values appeared in the third trimester 4.37×105. The use of qPCR gave 7% more positive results for vaginal/rectal swabs. Genetic similarity analysis showed that one GBS clone was present in 73% of carriers during pregnancy, while in 27% of patients, 2 clones were found. H2O2-positive vaginal lactobacilli were detected in all women, while H2O2-negative lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium occurred more frequently in the anus in about 50% of women. Candida was present in the vagina in 30% of women. The analysis of women in three consecutive trimesters of pregnancy on the basis of a study group and control group showed no statistically significant differences in either the species (qualitative) or quantitative composition in vaginal and rectal flora in both of the groups. Therefore, GBS should be considered as a component of the microbiota and an opportunistic microorganism rather than a typical pathogen, because it does not distort the composition of women's normal genital tract flora. PMID:25180845

  10. Exploring the Self/Group Initiated and On-the-Job Learning Activities of Low Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterwick, Shauna

    The self- and group-initiated and on-the-job learning activities of low-income women were explored in a study of a small group of low-income mothers living in the greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Canada. During the study, the low-income women attended meetings during which a participating researcher documented the women's experiences.…

  11. A complex intervention to improve pregnancy outcome in obese women; the UPBEAT randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread recognition that obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, there is no intervention proven to reduce the risk of these complications. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess in obese pregnant women, whether a complex behavioural intervention, based on changing diet (to foods with a lower glycemic index) and physical activity, will reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and delivery of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. A secondary aim is to determine whether the intervention lowers the long term risk of obesity in the offspring. Methods/Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing a behavioural intervention designed to improve glycemic control with standard antenatal care in obese pregnant women. Inclusion criteria; women with a BMI ?30 kg/m2 and a singleton pregnancy between 15+0 weeks and 18+6 weeks’ gestation. Exclusion criteria; pre-defined, pre-existing diseases and multiple pregnancy. Randomisation is on-line by a computer generated programme and is minimised by BMI category, maternal age, ethnicity, parity and centre. Intervention; this is delivered by a health trainer over 8 sessions. Based on control theory, with elements of social cognitive theory, the intervention is designed to improve maternal glycemic control. Women randomised to the control arm receive standard antenatal care until delivery according to local guidelines. All women have a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 27+0- 28+6 weeks’ gestation. Primary outcome; Maternal: diagnosis of GDM, according to the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria. Neonatal; infant LGA defined as >90th customised birth weight centile. Sample size; 1546 women to provide 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the incidence of GDM and a 30% reduction in infants large for gestational age. Discussion All aspects of this protocol have been evaluated in a pilot randomised controlled trial, with subsequent optimisation of the intervention. The findings of this trial will inform whether lifestyle mediated improvement of glycemic control in obese pregnant women can minimise the risk of pregnancy complications. Trial registration Current controlled trials; ISRCTN89971375. PMID:24533897

  12. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods. All women treated with FCM for anemia during pregnancy between 2010 and 2012 at our institution were included. A matched control group was selected, including women who either were nonanemic or had anemia but were not considered for intravenous iron. Main outcome measures were maternal safety and pregnancy outcomes. Results. The study included 128 patients (FCM: 64; control: 64). Median FCM dose was 1000?mg and median gestational age at the time of first treatment was 34 weeks and 6 days. Median Hb increased from 8.4?g/dL (interquartile range 7.7; 8.9?g/dL) at the first FCM administration to 10.7?g/dL (9.8; 11.5?g/dL; n = 46 with available Hb at delivery) at the time of delivery, achieving levels similar to those in the control group (10.8?g/dL [9.8; 11.8?g/dL; n = 48]). No treatment-related adverse events were reported and no statistically significant differences in pregnancy outcomes were observed between groups. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this case control study, FCM was a safe and efficient treatment of anemia during pregnancy.

  13. Income, health and nutrition activities: examples from women's groups in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, G

    1987-01-01

    The accomplishments of 4 Kenyan women's groups, sponsored by seed grants of $2000-5000 from Center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) since 1982, are summarized. CEDPA provides professional management training and coordinates alumni groups, as well as grants for community projects in family planning, health and community development. Forty women from Ngamani started a project to sell floormats, raised vegetables, received a grant to raise poultry, and opened a nutrition clinic. In Kibuyuni women use profits from chickens, goats and vegetables, and milling grain to build a primary school, a health dispensary and a general store. With CEDPA funds, they stocked the store and furnished the clinic. Proceeds pay a health worker's salary. They have sponsored another women's group, which is building a bakery and managing dairy cows. The Makiwo women's group, with money from their craft business, built a multi-purpose community center for health, family planning services and reading classes. A CEDPA grant funded a charcoal business and a profitable water system built by the women, providing a salaried health educator. A women's group in Chonyi began raising cattle. A CEDPA graduate helped them to set a goal to reduce infant mortality. They started a training class for young mothers in techniques of nutrition, home economics, family planning and hygiene, such as growing vegetables an building latrines. Evaluation has shown that successful projects are based on previous work, strong links with other organizations, and entail a long-term process. Women's organizations can deliver results with some training, supervision and technical assistance, but minimal cost. PMID:12281244

  14. Integrating Group Counseling, Cell Phone Messaging, and Participant-Generated Songs and Dramas into a Microcredit Program Increases Nigerian Women’s Adherence to International Breastfeeding Recommendations123

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L.; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5–7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ?6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely given that >150 million women, many of childbearing age, are involved in microfinance globally. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01352351. PMID:24812071

  15. Evaluating a Survivors Group Pilot for Women with Significant Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Howlett, Susan; Corbett, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse has been associated with trauma, low self-esteem, anger, depression and challenging behaviours. This pilot study builds on a small published literature by evaluating a survivors group (SG) for women with an intellectual disability and an educational support group (ESG) for their carers. Method: The SG was delivered weekly…

  16. Enhancing Women's Lives: The Role of Support Groups among Breast Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Spiegel, David

    1999-01-01

    Reviews research indicating that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. States that Supportive-Expressive group therapy has been effective in assisting patients in reducing anxiety related to death and dying, strengthening interpersonal relationships, and improving the quality of…

  17. Conducting qualitative research on cervical cancer screening among diverse groups of immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    Karwalajtys, Tina L.; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda J.; Fowler, Nancy C.; Lohfeld, Lynne H.; Howard, Michelle; Kaczorowski, Janusz A.; Lytwyn, Alice

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the research lessons learned in the process of conducting qualitative research on cervical cancer screening perspectives among multiple ethnolinguistic groups of immigrant women and to provide guidance to family medicine researchers on methodologic and practical issues related to planning and conducting focus group research with multiple immigrant groups. DESIGN Observations based on a qualitative study of 11 focus groups. SETTING Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Women from 1 of 5 ethnolinguistic immigrant groups and Canadian-born women of low socioeconomic status. METHODS We conducted 11 focus groups using interactive activities and tools to learn about women’s views of cervical cancer screening, and we used our research team reflections, deliberate identification of preconceptions or potential biases, early and ongoing feedback from culturally representative field workers, postinterview debriefings, and research team debriefings as sources of information to inform the process of such qualitative research. MAIN FINDINGS Our learnings pertain to 5 areas: forming effective research teams and community partnerships; culturally appropriate ways of accessing communities and recruiting participants; obtaining written informed consent; using sensitive or innovative data collection approaches; and managing budget and time requirements. Important elements included early involvement, recruitment, and training of ethnolinguistic field workers in focus group methodologies, and they were key to participant selection, participation, and effective groups. Research methods (eg, recruitment approaches, inclusion criteria) needed to be modified to accommodate cultural norms. Recruitment was slower than anticipated. Acquiring signed consent might also require extra time. Novel approaches within focus groups increased the likelihood of more rich discussion about sensitive topics. High costs of professional translation might challenge methodologic rigour (eg, back-translation). CONCLUSION By employing flexible and innovative approaches and including members of the participating cultural groups in the research team, this project was successful in engaging multiple cultural groups in research. Our experiences can inform similar research by providing practical learning within the context of established qualitative methods. PMID:20393074

  18. Efficacy of a Group-Based Multimedia HIV Prevention Intervention for Drug-Involved Women under Community Supervision: Project WORTH

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A.; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Importance This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. Objective We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. Design, Setting, Participants, and Intervention We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n?=?237) and 63% (n?=?194) had multiple sex partners. Results Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (??=?0.10; 95% CI?=?0.02–0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR?=?0.72; 95% CI?=?0.57–0.90). Conclusion and Relevance The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01784809 PMID:25372149

  19. Comparing group dehumanization and intra-sexual competition among normally ovulating women and hormonal contraceptive users.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Valentina; Foroni, Francesco; Carnaghi, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Two studies address the role of hormonal shift across menstrual cycle in female dehumanization of other women. In Study 1, normally ovulating women (NOW) and women who use hormonal contraceptives (HCW) are compared in terms of how much they dehumanize other women and two other control targets (men and elderly people). In NOW, the level of dehumanization of other women, but not of men and elderly people, increases as the conception risk is enhanced. HCW do not show this pattern of results. In Study 2, we investigate the level of dehumanization of other women and of intra-sexual competition. Findings concerning dehumanization replicate those of Study 1. Intra-sexual competition increases with the rise of conception risk only in NOW. In addition, dehumanization is significantly associated with intra-sexual competition in NOW but not in HCW. Together, these studies demonstrate that dehumanization of women is elicited by menstrual cycle-related processes and associated with women's mate-attraction goals. PMID:23928396

  20. Family Group Decision Making: Protecting Children and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Joan; Burford, Gale

    2000-01-01

    Details implementation of the Family Group Decision Making Project in Canadian Newfoundland and Labrador among residents from Inuit and European backgrounds. Notes how the program offered solutions to problems of fostering cultural autonomy, measuring family violence, unifying families and protecting family members, and integrating child welfare…

  1. The Intersection of Everyday Life and Group Prenatal Care for Women in Two Urban Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Groce, Nora Ellen; Kennedy, Holly Powell

    2013-01-01

    Women from vulnerable populations encounter challenging circumstances that generate stress and may adversely affect their health. Group prenatal care (GPNC) incorporates features which address social stressors, and has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes and prenatal care experiences. In this qualitative study, we describe the complex circumstances in the lives of women receiving care in two urban clinics and how GPNC attenuated them. Stressors included problems with transportation and child care, demanding jobs, poverty, homelessness, difficult relationships with partners, limited family support, and frustrating health care experiences. Receiving prenatal care in groups allowed women to strengthen relationships with significant others, gain social support, and develop meaningful relationships with group leaders. By eliminating waits and providing the opportunity to participate in care, GPNC also offered sanctuary from frustrations encountered in receiving individual care. Reducing such stressors may help improve pregnancy outcomes; however, more evidence is needed on mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:22643609

  2. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...businesses under common control; controlled groups. 4001.3 Section...GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For purposes of...connection with any person, a controlled group consists of that...

  3. Adrenergic control of lipolysis in women compared with men

    PubMed Central

    Bessesen, Daniel H.; Stotz, Sarah; Peelor, Frederick F.; Miller, Benjamin F.; Horton, Tracy J.

    2014-01-01

    Data suggest women are more sensitive to the lipolytic action of epinephrine compared with men while maintaining similar glucoregulatory effects (Horton et al. J Appl Physiol 107: 200–210, 2009). This study aimed to determine the specific adrenergic receptor(s) that may mediate these sex differences. Lean women (n = 14) and men (n = 16) were studied on 4 nonconsecutive days during the following treatment infusions: saline (S: control), epinephrine [E: mixed ?-adrenergic (lipolytic) and ?2-adrenergic (antilipolytic) stimulation], epinephrine + phentolamine (E + P: mixed ?-adrenergic stimulation only), and terbutaline (T: selective ?2-adrenergic stimulation). Tracer infusions of glycerol, palmitate, and glucose were administered to determine systemic lipolysis, free fatty acid (FFA) release, and glucose turnover, respectively. Following basal measurements, substrate and hormone concentrations were measured in all subjects over 90 min of treatment and tracer infusion. Women had greater increases in glycerol and FFA concentrations with all three hormone infusions compared with men (P < 0.01). Glycerol and palmitate rate of appearance (Ra) and rate of disappearance (Rd) per kilogram body weight were greater with E infusion in women compared with men (P < 0.05), whereas no sex differences were observed with other treatments. Glucose concentration and kinetics were not different between sexes with any infusion. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the greater rate of lipolysis in women with infusion of E was likely due to lesser ?2 antilipolytic activation. These findings may help explain why women have greater lipolysis and fat oxidation during exercise, a time when epinephrine concentration is elevated. PMID:25190743

  4. Adrenergic control of lipolysis in women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stacy L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Stotz, Sarah; Peelor, Frederick F; Miller, Benjamin F; Horton, Tracy J

    2014-11-01

    Data suggest women are more sensitive to the lipolytic action of epinephrine compared with men while maintaining similar glucoregulatory effects (Horton et al. J Appl Physiol 107: 200-210, 2009). This study aimed to determine the specific adrenergic receptor(s) that may mediate these sex differences. Lean women (n = 14) and men (n = 16) were studied on 4 nonconsecutive days during the following treatment infusions: saline (S: control), epinephrine [E: mixed ?-adrenergic (lipolytic) and ?2-adrenergic (antilipolytic) stimulation], epinephrine + phentolamine (E + P: mixed ?-adrenergic stimulation only), and terbutaline (T: selective ?2-adrenergic stimulation). Tracer infusions of glycerol, palmitate, and glucose were administered to determine systemic lipolysis, free fatty acid (FFA) release, and glucose turnover, respectively. Following basal measurements, substrate and hormone concentrations were measured in all subjects over 90 min of treatment and tracer infusion. Women had greater increases in glycerol and FFA concentrations with all three hormone infusions compared with men (P < 0.01). Glycerol and palmitate rate of appearance (Ra) and rate of disappearance (Rd) per kilogram body weight were greater with E infusion in women compared with men (P < 0.05), whereas no sex differences were observed with other treatments. Glucose concentration and kinetics were not different between sexes with any infusion. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the greater rate of lipolysis in women with infusion of E was likely due to lesser ?2 antilipolytic activation. These findings may help explain why women have greater lipolysis and fat oxidation during exercise, a time when epinephrine concentration is elevated. PMID:25190743

  5. Interpersonal psychotherapy versus brief supportive therapy for depressed infertile women: first pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Koszycki, Diana; Bisserbe, Jean-Claude; Blier, Pierre; Bradwejn, Jacques; Markowitz, John

    2012-06-01

    Infertility is strongly associated with depression, yet treatment research for depressed infertile women is sparse. This study tested for the first time the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), the evidence-based antidepressant intervention with the greatest peripartum research support, as treatment for depressed women facing fertility problems. Patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder of at least moderate severity were randomized to either 12 sessions of IPT (n?=?15) or brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP; n?=?16), our control intervention. Eighty percent of IPT and 63 % of BSP patients completed the 12 sessions of therapy. Patients in both treatments improved. IPT produced a greater response rate than BSP, with more than two-thirds of women achieving a >50 % reduction in scores on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). IPT also tended to have lower posttreatment scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale, and anxiety subscale of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, with between-group effect sizes ranging from 0.61 to 0.76. Gains persisted at 6-month follow-up. This pilot trial suggests that IPT is a promising treatment for depression in the context of infertility and that it may fare better than a rigorous active control condition. Should subsequent randomized controlled trials support these findings, this will inform clinical practice and take an important step in assuring optimal care for depressed women struggling with infertility. PMID:22526405

  6. Women’s perceptions of the relationship between recent life events, transitions, and diet in midlife: findings from a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Natasha A.; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that history and early life events and trajectories influence women’s dietary behaviors. Yet, the social context in which recent life changes occur requires greater understanding, particularly regarding changes that embody the interconnectedness of women and their families, and how those changes affect women’s dietary decisions and behaviors. The data presented here were the product of eight focus groups that we conducted in one Maryland county in the fall of 2009. Our participants were 43 women with limited financial resources aged 40–64 years. In this analysis, we focused on women’s perceptions of the relation of recent life transitions and events to the dietary decisions they made for themselves and their families. Our findings suggested that transitions and events related to household structure, health status, phases of motherhood, and shifts in financial and employment status all had the potential to have profound and immediate effects on women’s dietary decisions and resulting dietary behaviors. We used the focus group data to consider implications for developing intervention strategies designed to improve self-efficacy and negotiation skills around dietary issues as a means of promoting healthy decision-making among women in midlife, particularly in times of familial upheaval and in circumstances where financial resources are limited. PMID:22533898

  7. Informal and Formal Support Groups Retain Women and Minorities in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Maria

    2005-10-01

    Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of "acceptable" appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of "accruing capital." Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.

  8. Looking for Celiac Disease in Italian Women with Endometriosis: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Sebastiano; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Gallo, Antonella; Campo, Vincenzo; Palombini, Guglielmo; Santoliquido, Angelo; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, a potential link between endometriosis and celiac disease has been hypothesized since these disorders share some similarities, specifically concerning a potential role of oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunological dysfunctions. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease among Italian women with endometriosis with respect to general population. Consecutive women with a laparoscopic and histological confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis were enrolled; female nurses of our institution, without a known history of endometriosis, were enrolled as controls. IgA endomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies measurement and serum total IgA dosage were performed in both groups. An upper digestive endoscopy with an intestinal biopsy was performed in case of antibodies positivity. Presence of infertility, miscarriage, coexistence of other autoimmune diseases, and family history of autoimmune diseases was also investigated in all subjects. Celiac disease was diagnosed in 5 of 223 women with endometriosis and in 2 of 246 controls (2.2% versus 0.8%; P = 0.265). Patients with endometriosis showed a largely higher rate of infertility compared to control group (27.4% versus 2.4%; P < 0.001). Our results confirm that also in Italian population an increased prevalence of celiac disease among patients with endometriosis is found, although this trend does not reach the statistical significance. PMID:24804204

  9. Sexual violence therapy group in a women's correctional facility: a preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Marie E; Bridges, Ana J; Bell, Jessica; Petretic, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    This pilot study was an evaluation of an 8-week exposure-based therapy group targeting sexual trauma in incarcerated women, an underserved population with high rates of trauma exposure. Preliminary findings from 14 female prisoners showed significant decreases in depressive and anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. Of the women who were above the screening cutoff for possible posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 13), depression (n = 12), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 12) at pretreatment, approximately 60% had recovered, meaning they had symptom reductions that placed them below the cutoff at posttreatment (n = 8 for PTSD; n = 8 for depression, and n = 9 for GAD). In addition, 85% of participants reported a clinically significant reduction in depressive symptoms and 50% in GAD symptoms. The findings show promise for successful group treatment of sexual violence sequelae in incarcerated women. PMID:24797176

  10. The Effect of Sleep Health Behavioral Education on the Depression of Pregnant Women With Sleep Disorders: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Elham; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Hagani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 79% of the pregnant women experience sleep disorders and 70% of pregnant women experience some symptoms of the depression. Physiologic, hormonal, and physical changes of pregnancy can predispose mothers to depression these disorders before, during, and after childbirth and might be aggravated by neglecting health behavior. Health behavior education might be useful for the management of depression in pregnant women. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sleep health behavioral education on the improvement of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial, performed on 96 pregnant women with sleep disorder diagnosed according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Tools for data collection included demographic questionnaire and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Easy and accessible sampling was done. Participants were randomly (simple) allocated to intervention and control groups. In intervention group, sleep health behavior education was presented during a four-hour session held in weeks 22, 23, 24, and 25; then the patients were followed up to fill out the BDIQ in follow-up session at weeks 29 and 33 of pregnancy. The control group received no intervention and only received routine prenatal care. The results were assessed by Chi-square tests, independent-samples t-test, and Fischer’s exact-test by SPSS 16. Results: A statistically significant change was reported in the severity of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders in the intervention group in comparison to the control group at weeks 29 (P < 0.000) and 33 (P < 0.00). Conclusions: Sleep health behavioral education improves depression in pregnant women who are experiencing insomnia. Findings from this study add support to the reported effectiveness of sleep health behavioral education in the prenatal care and clinical management of insomnia in pregnancy. PMID:25763271

  11. Pain control: mastery through group experience.

    PubMed

    Herman, E; Baptiste, S

    1981-02-01

    This paper describes a group program which is part of the therapeutic management of out-patients with chronic pain at the multidisciplinary Pain Clinic in Hamilton, Ontario (McMaster Division, Chedoke-McMaster Hospital). The programme seeks to assist chronic pain sufferers in developing more adaptive coping styles. Groups of 12--14 patients meet for 9 weeks, 3 h/week, under the co-leadership of a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist with backgrounds in psychology and psychiatry. Seventy-five patients with diverse aetiologies of chronic pain have completed these "pain control classes". Outcome was assessed on the basis of several parameters. Results indicate a considerable reduction in depression, pain perception and analgesic intake. Conversely, employment figures increased from 20 to 48% after completion of the program. 21% were considered failures. Significant variables differentiating successes from failures were sex, marital status, work incentive, employment and absence of litigation or Workmen's Compensation claims. PMID:7232014

  12. Group Psychotherapy for Women with a History of Incest: The Research Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and…

  13. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  14. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg…

  15. Deconstructing the Mirror's Reflection: Narrative Therapy Groups for Women Dissatisfied with Their Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duba, Jill D.; Kindsvatter, Aaron; Priddy, Constance J.

    2010-01-01

    Women facing middle age and beyond are pressured by a cultural ideal of slimness. The authors review literature pertaining to the factors affecting the societal perceptions of body image and address relevant counseling interventions, specifically, group therapy based on narrative theory, that are aimed at this population.

  16. 77 FR 41188 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ...Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and...Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and...Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, HHS, CDC, 4770 Buford...

  17. An Evidence-Based Group Coping Intervention for Women Living with HIV and History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Puffer, Eve S.; Kochman, Arlene; Hansen, Nathan B.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2013-01-01

    Women living with HIV/AIDS and a history of childhood sexual abuse often exhibit sexual trauma symptoms and elevated rates of HIV-risk behaviors. In this paper, we describe a coping skills group intervention that reduced traumatic stress and sexual-risk behavior in a recent randomized clinical trial. We focus on clinical issues that emerged among female participants receiving the intervention. Clinical observations showed that recognizing connections between trauma, psychological distress, and high risk behaviors was a new and powerful experience for many participants. Participants successfully applied psychoeducational material, expressing an increased sense of power and control over their relationships and behaviors as they developed more adaptive cognitive and behavioral skills. Women expressed high levels of satisfaction with the intervention. Recommendations for clinical practice are provided. PMID:21244204

  18. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belki?, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojevi?, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening. PMID:26134040

  19. Hot flashes and cardiac vagal control during women’s daily lives

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Christie, Israel C.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The physiology of menopausal hot flashes is not well understood. The autonomic nervous system may play a role in hot flashes, but the current understanding is limited. We previously demonstrated in the laboratory that decreases in high frequency heart rate variability, an index of cardiac vagal control, occur during hot flashes relative to preceding and following periods. In the present study, we tested whether we would observe a similar phenomenon in the ambulatory setting. We additionally considered respiratory rate in these associations. Methods 21 peri- and postmenopausal women ages 40–60 reporting daily hot flashes were monitored both for physiologic and reported hot flashes and heart rate variability over a 24-hour period as they went about their daily lives. Heart rate variability estimates were derived using the band-limited variance method. The interval during the hot flash was compared to two non-flash periods prior to and following the hot flash via mixed effects models. Results Heart rate variability significantly decreased during hot flashes relative to periods preceding (b=0.31, SE=0.03 p<0.0001) and following (b=0.30, SE=0.03, p<0.0001) physiologic hot flashes (covariates: age, race, education, menopausal status, physical activity, body mass index, anxiety). Findings were comparable considering self-reported hot flashes. Findings persisted controlling for respiratory rate. Conclusions Significant decreases in cardiac vagal control occurred during hot flashes assessed during women’s daily lives. These findings extend our work in the laboratory to the ambulatory setting, further shedding light on the physiology of hot flashes and underscoring a potential role of parasympathetic function in hot flashes. PMID:22095062

  20. Iyengar yoga for distressed women: a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav; Kessler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Distress is an increasing public health problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on perceived stress and psychological outcomes in distressed women and evaluated a potential dose-effect relationship. Seventy-two female distressed subjects were included into a 3-armed randomized controlled trial and allocated to yoga group 1 (n = 24) with twelve 90?min sessions over 3 months, yoga group 2 (n = 24) with 24 sessions over 3 months, or a waiting list control group (n = 24). The primary outcome was stress perception, measured by Cohen Stress Scale; secondary outcomes included state trait anxiety, depression, psychological and physical quality of life (QOL), profile of Mood States, well being, and bodily complaints. After three months, women in the yoga groups showed significant improvements in perceived stress (P = 0.003), state trait anxiety (P = 0.021 and P = 0.003), depression (P = 0.008), psychological QOL (P = 0.012), mood states being (P = 0.007), and bodily complaints well(P = 0.012) when compared to controls. Both yoga programs were similarly effective for these outcomes; however, compliance was better in the group with fewer sessions (yoga group 1). Dose effects were seen only in the analysis of group-independent effects for back pain, anxiety, and depression. These findings suggest that Iyengar yoga effectively reduces distress and improves related psychological and physical outcomes. Furthermore, attending twice-weekly yoga classes was not superior to once-weekly classes, as a result of limited compliance in the twice-weekly group. PMID:23049608

  1. The Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women: Report to the President and the Commission for Women--Recommendation Package #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

    The document presents partial recommendations of a Pennsylvania State University Study Group on the Status of Women at the University. Recommendations concern family-responsive and flexible employee benefits, clerical advancement and development, retention and advancement of women faculty, and sexual harassment of students. Among specific…

  2. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  3. The Impact of Trauma-Focused Group Therapy upon HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network “Women and Trauma” Multi-Site Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Killeen, Therese; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hansen, Cheri; Jiang, Huiping; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Miele, Gloria M.; Cohen, Lisa R.; Gan, Weijin; Resko, Stella M.; DiBono, Michele; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2009-01-01

    Women in drug treatment struggle with co-occurring problems, including trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can heighten HIV risk. This study examines the impact of two group therapy interventions on reduction of unprotected sexual occasions (USO) among women with substance use disorders (SUD) and PTSD. Participants were 346 women recruited from and receiving treatment at six community-based drug treatment programs participating in NIDA’s Clinical Trials Network. Participants were randomized to receive 12-sessions of either seeking safety (SS), a cognitive behavioral intervention for women with PTSD and SUD, or women’s health education (WHE), an attention control psychoeducational group. Participants receiving SS who were at higher sexual risk (i.e., at least 12 USO per month) significantly reduced the number of USO over 12-month follow up compared to WHE. High risk women with co-occurring PTSD and addiction may benefit from treatment addressing coping skills and trauma to reduce HIV risk. PMID:19452271

  4. Examining Delay Discounting of Condom-Protected Sex Among Opioid-Dependent Women and Non-Drug-Using Control Women

    PubMed Central

    Herrman, Evan S.; Hand, Dennis J.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Badger, Gary J.; Heil, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid-dependent (OD) women tend to engage in unprotected sex with high-risk partners, placing themselves at elevated risk for sexually transmitted HIV infection. This behavior generally persists after completion of interventions that increase sexual HIV risk reduction knowledge and skills, suggesting that decision-making biases may influence HIV transmission among OD women. Methods The primary aim of this report is to examine delay discounting of condom-protected sex among OD women and non-drug-using control women using the novel Sexual Discounting Task (SDT; Johnson and Bruner, 2012). Data were collected from 27 OD women and 33 non-drug-using control women using the SDT, a monetary discounting task, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Results OD women discounted the value of delayed condom-protected sex more steeply than controls for hypothetical sexual partners in the two sets of paired partner conditions examined. Overall, women discounted condom protected sex more steeply for partners they perceived as being lowest STI risk vs. those they perceived as being highest risk. Steeper discounting of condomprotected sex was significantly associated with higher scores on the BIS-11, but not with discounting of money. Conclusions Delay discounting of condom-protected sex differs between OD women and non-drug-using women, is sensitive to perceived partner risk, and is correlated with a self-report measure of impulsivity, the BIS-11. The effect of delay on sexual decision-making is a critical but underappreciated dimension of HIV risk among women, and the SDT appears to be a promising measure of this domain. Further investigation of these relationships is warranted. PMID:25190049

  5. Effects of a Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Repeat Mammography Screening in Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Molina, Yamile; Roshani, Daem

    2014-01-01

    Background Although mammography use has increased in developed countries, regular screening in developing countries including Iran remains low. Multiple frameworks, including the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), have been used to understand screening practices among Iranians. The HBM includes intrapersonal constructs such as perceptions of breast cancer and mammography. The TPB includes interpersonal and environmental constructs, such as perceived control and subjective norms. Objectives The current study had 2 objectives: (1) to examine changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening in women receiving either intervention and women in the control group and (2) to compare changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening across the 2 interventions. Methods One hundred eight-four women from 3 randomly selected health centers in Sanandaj, Iran, participated. Eligibility criteria were being 50 years or older, having received a mammogram in the past 2 to 3 years, and no intention to obtain a mammogram within the next year. Results The TPB and HBM participants exhibited greater changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and were more likely to have a mammogram relative to control participants. The TPB and HBM participants exhibited comparable changes in constructs and repeat mammography. Conclusion Findings suggest both interventions equally improved mammography screening. Additional studies are furthermore warranted to address nonadherent Iranian women’s needs in line with these conceptual models. Implications for Practice Use of the HBM and TPB constructs in clinical practice may be helpful to promote continued screening among this population. PMID:25122130

  6. Predictors of Plasma DDT and DDE Concentrations among Women Exposed to Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB)

    PubMed Central

    Bornman, Riana M.S.; Archer, Janet I.; Kudumu, Mwenda O.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Wilson, Ralph E.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined predictors of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels among residents in homes sprayed with DDT for malaria control with the aim of identifying exposure-reduction strategies. Methods: The present analysis included 381 women enrolled in the Study of Women and Babies (SOWB) during 2010–2011, from eight South African villages in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) occurred in half of the villages. Questionnaires regarding various demographic and medical factors were administered and blood samples were obtained. We classified the women into three exposure groups by type of residence: unsprayed village (n = 175), IRS village in household with a low likelihood of DDT use (non-DDT IRS household, n = 106), IRS village in household with a high likelihood of DDT use (DDT IRS household, n = 100). We used multivariable models of natural log-transformed DDT plasma levels (in micrograms per liter) and DDE (in micrograms per liter) to identify predictors for each group. Results: Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in unsprayed villages were 0.3 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.1–0.9] and 1.7 (IQR: 0.7–5.5), respectively. Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in DDT IRS households were 2.6 (IQR: 1.1–6.6) and 8.5 (IQR: 4.7–18.0), respectively. In unsprayed villages, women with water piped to the yard, rather than a public tap, had 73% lower DDT (95% CI: –83, –57%) and 61% lower DDE (95% CI: –74, –40%) levels. In DDT IRS households, women who reported taking more than six actions to prepare their home before IRS (e.g., covering water and food) had 40% lower DDT levels (95% CI: –63, –0.3%) than women who took fewer than four actions. Conclusion: The predictors of DDT and DDE plasma levels identified in the present study may inform interventions aimed at decreasing exposure. Among households where DDT is likely to be used for IRS, education regarding home preparations may provide an interventional target. Citation: Whitworth KW, Bornman RM, Archer JI, Kudumu MO, Travlos GS, Wilson RE, Longnecker MP. 2014. Predictors of plasma DDT and DDE concentrations among women exposed to indoor residual spraying for malaria control in the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB). Environ Health Perspect 122:545–552;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307025 PMID:24577839

  7. 3 CFR - Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls... Throughout our country, the spread of HIV/AIDS has had a devastating impact...

  8. The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African…

  9. Control group design: enhancing rigor in research of mind-body therapies for depression.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research. PMID:23662111

  10. Bicultural resynthesis: Tailoring an effectiveness trial for a group of urban American Indian women.

    PubMed

    Napholz, L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study of a 6-week effectiveness trial was to describe among a group of urban American Indian women, the process of successful traditionalism in the form of bicultural resynthesis. Bicultural resynthesis represents a major current attempt on the part of the participants to integrate traditional and contemporary demands in a positive, culturally-consistent manner. The themes of shame and isolation, adapting to survive, deculturation, ethnic switching/renewal, and bicultural resynthesis are discussed. Further support is achieved for retraditionalization of American Indian women s roles as an effective means of achieving American Indian self-determination and as a potential way of helping women overcome problems. PMID:11279562

  11. Examining the efficacy of a brief group protective behavioral strategies skills training alcohol intervention with college women.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-12-01

    College students' use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students' use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women randomized to either a PBS skills training intervention or study skills control condition. Participants attended a 45-min group session and completed online surveys pre- and postintervention (1 month and 6 months). We conducted a series of 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANCOVAs with condition and baseline mental health (anxiety/depression) as the between-subjects factors and time as the within-subjects factor. Intervention participants, relative to controls, reported significantly greater increases in PBS use and reductions in both heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consequences. The intervention was particularly effective in increasing PBS use at 1 month among participants with high anxiety. Further, tests of moderated mediation showed a significant conditional indirect effect of condition on 1-month consequences through PBS use among participants with high levels of anxiety. Findings provide preliminary support for a brief PBS-specific group intervention to reduce alcohol risk among college women, particularly anxious women. Future research is needed to strengthen the long-term effectiveness of the present approach and further explore the moderating effects of mental health. PMID:25347024

  12. The Effect of Melatonin on Climacteric Symptoms in Menopausal Women; A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled, Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    PARANDAVAR, Nehleh; ABDALI, Khadijeh; KESHTGAR, Sara; EMAMGHOREISHI, Maasoumeh; AMOOEE, Seddegheh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Menopause is one of the most critical periods of woman’s life. With reducing of ovarian estrogen; women are more prone to psychological and physical symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the climacteric symptoms. Methods The present double blind, placebo randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 240 menopausal women (40 - 60 years old) referring to the gynecology clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (January - November 2012). The participants were randomly divided into two groups through sortition. Demographic characteristics, Goldberg’s general health questionnaire (GHQ), Greene Climacteric Scale and level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) were determined for both groups before the intervention. The intervention group received one 3mg melatonin tablet each night for 3 months and the control group received the placebo in the same period. Changes of climacteric symptoms and drug complications were measured 1, 2 and 3 months after the intervention Results We analyzed the data of 99 postmenopausal women in the intervention group and 101 postmenopausal women in the control group. In the melatonin group, the climacteric symptoms score decreased from 35.73+11.6 to 17.09+10.22 during the 3-month study period and regardless of time, a significant difference was observed between the two groups (P<0.001). In addition, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding various dimensions of the climacteric symptoms over time (P<0.001). No significant difference was found regarding side effects between the two groups (P= 0.135). Conclusion The study findings showed that using melatonin improved the climacteric symptoms. PMID:26060703

  13. A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Hooshmand, Shirin; Feresin, Rafaela G; Payton, Mark E; Gu, Jennifer; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2015-03-01

    Menopause leads to an increased risk for osteoporosis in women. Although drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer alternative therapies such as dietary supplements, for example, calcium, vitamin D, and collagen hydrolysates for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We have previously shown that a 3-month intervention using a calcium-collagen chelate (CC) dietary supplement was efficacious in improving bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biomarkers of bone turnover in osteopenic postmenopausal women. This study reports the long-term efficacy of CC in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Thirty-nine women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 5?g of CC containing 500?mg of elemental calcium and 200?IU vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) or control (500?mg of calcium and 200?IU vitamin D) daily for 12 months. Total body, lumbar, and hip BMD were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months to assess levels of blood biomarkers of bone turnover. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed using repeated measures analysis of variance pairwise comparisons and multivariate analysis to assess time and group interactions. The loss of whole body BMD in women taking CC was substantially lower than that of the control group at 12 months in those who completed the study and the ITT analysis, respectively (CC: -1.33% and -0.33% vs. control: -3.75% and -2.17%; P=.026, P=.035). The CC group had significantly reduced levels of sclerostin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) (P<.05), and higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase/TRAP5b ratio (P<.05) than control at 6 months. These results support the use of CC in reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. PMID:25314004

  14. Immigration transition and depressive symptoms: four major ethnic groups of midlife women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of symptoms and less severe symptoms than nonimmigrants (p <.01). When controlling for background characteristics, self-reported racial/ethnic identity and immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R(2) =.01, p <.05). PMID:24875592

  15. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups

    PubMed Central

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control. PMID:26074832

  16. The Effect of Education on Sexual Health of Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaviani, Maasumeh; Rahnavard, Tahereh; Azima, Sara; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Asadi, Nasrin; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexuality constitutes an important part of women’s life. Healthy and proper sexual functioning is one of the signs of physical and mental health. The present study aimed to identify the effect of education on sexual health of women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 80 married women at reproductive age were randomly divided into a control and an education group. These women participated in this study based on self-reporting of having hypoactive sexual desire disorder. After six weekly educational sessions regarding sexual health, percentage of changes in sexual desire was assayed using Hurlbert index of sexual desire. Independent and paired t-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: After the intervention, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the sexual desire score (P<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference within groups in this regard (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that educational intervention regarding sexual health was effective for the women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Thus, establishing sexual health education units in different health centers is highly necessary. These centers can help couples to promote their sexual knowledge and treat their sexual dysfunctions. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012101911032N2 PMID:25349850

  17. Effect of 6 months of whole body vibration on lumbar spine bone density in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chung-Liang; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Chen, Chung-Nan; Liao, Wan-Chun; Wang, Chun-Hou; Lee, Meng-Chih; Hsu, Pi-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Background The issue of osteoporosis-induced fractures has attracted the world’s attention. Postmenopausal women are particularly at risk for this type of fracture. The nonmedicinal intervention for postmenopausal women is mainly exercise. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise. There have been some studies investigating the effect of WBV on osteoporosis; however, the intervention models and results are different. This study mainly investigated the effect of high-frequency and high-magnitude WBV on the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Methods This study randomized 28 postmenopausal women into either the WBV group or the control group for a 6-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of high-frequency (30 Hz) and high-magnitude (3.2 g) WBV in a natural full-standing posture for 5 minutes, three times per week, at a sports center. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the lumbar BMD of the two groups before and after the intervention. Results Six months later, the BMD of the WBV group had significantly increased by 2.032% (P=0.047), while that of the control group had decreased by 0.046% (P=0.188). The comparison between the two groups showed that the BMD of the WBV group had increased significantly (P=0.016). Conclusion This study found that 6 months of high-frequency and high-magnitude WBV yielded significant benefits to the BMD of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women, and could therefore be provided as an alternative exercise. PMID:24348029

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Psycho-Education Intervention by Midwives in Reducing Childbirth Fear in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Toohill, Jocelyn; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Buist, Anne; Turkstra, Erika; Ryding, Elsa-Lena

    2014-01-01

    Background Childbirth fear is associated with increased obstetric interventions and poor emotional and psychological health for women. The purpose of this study is to test an antenatal psycho-education intervention by midwives in reducing women's childbirth fear. Methods Women (n = 1,410) attending three hospitals in South East Queensland, Australia, were recruited into the BELIEF trial. Participants reporting high fear were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 170) or control (n = 169) groups. All women received a decision-aid booklet on childbirth choices. The telephone counseling intervention was offered at 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. The control group received usual care offered by public maternity services. Primary outcome was reduction in childbirth fear (WDEQ-A) from second trimester to 36 weeks’ gestation. Secondary outcomes were improved childbirth self-efficacy, and reduced decisional conflict and depressive symptoms. Demographic, obstetric & psychometric measures were administered at recruitment, and 36 weeks of pregnancy. Results There were significant differences between groups on postintervention scores for fear of birth (p < 0.001) and childbirth self-efficacy (p = 0.002). Decisional conflict and depressive symptoms reduced but were not significant. Conclusion Psycho-education by trained midwives was effective in reducing high childbirth fear levels and increasing childbirth confidence in pregnant women. Improving antenatal emotional well-being may have wider positive social and maternity care implications for optimal childbirth experiences. PMID:25303111

  19. Women's Issues Searching with DIALOG OnDisc ERIC: Natural Language and Controlled Vocabulary Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Paul; Holtmann, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    Compares free text versus controlled vocabulary searching for information relating to women's issues on the ERIC laserdisk database from Dialog. Topics discussed include terminology and women's studies; Boolean operators; and adequacy of the ERIC thesaurus for searching relevant topics including women's social roles, antiabortion movement, teenage…

  20. Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of…

  1. Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

  2. Effects of a three-month therapeutic lifestyle modification program to improve bone health in postmenopausal Korean women in a rural community: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eui Geum; Yoo, Jae Yong; Lee, Jung Eun; Hyun, Sa Saeng; Ko, Il Sun; Chu, Sang Hui

    2014-08-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, we examined the effects of a 3-month therapeutic lifestyle modification (TLM) intervention on knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behaviors related to bone health in postmenopausal women in rural Korea. Forty-one women ages 45 or older were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n?=?21) or control (n?=?20) group. The intervention group completed a 12-week, 24-session TLM program of individualized health monitoring, group health education, exercise, and calcium-vitamin D supplementation. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant increases in knowledge and self-efficacy and improvement in diet and exercise after 12 weeks, providing evidence that a comprehensive TLM program can be effective in improving health behaviors to maintain bone health in women at high risk of osteoporosis. PMID:24976566

  3. Taking Control: Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Taking Control: Non-surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women What is UI? “Taking Control” (5- ... it. Page 0 Page 2 What is urinary incontinence (UI)? Taking Control (5-minute video) Click on ...

  4. Control Group Methods for HPT Program Evaluation and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Establishes a theoretical foundation for control groups; defines four types of control groups applicable to HPT (human performance technology) program evaluation and measurement; explores their validity; and presents scenarios for an electronic learning program to demonstrate the applicability of the control group methods for HPT program…

  5. 26 CFR 1.382-8 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...period. Example 1. Controlled group with respect to a controlled group loss. (a) Public L...On December 1, Year 3, L1 purchases all of the stock of corporation...carryover of L1 is a controlled group loss because L1 is a...

  6. Research Group of Translational Neuroimaging and Neural Control

    E-print Network

    Research Group of Translational Neuroimaging and Neural Control Journal Club Yi He 03: Introduction #12;Research Group of Translational Neuroimaging and Neural Control Problems of Medical Coma care unit staff Introduction #12;Research Group of Translational Neuroimaging and Neural Control Brain

  7. Do unto others as others have done unto you?: Perceiving sexism influences women's evaluations of stigmatized racial groups.

    PubMed

    Craig, Maureen A; Dehart, Tracy; Richeson, Jennifer A; Fiedorowicz, Luke

    2012-09-01

    The present research examines how making discrimination salient influences stigmatized group members' evaluations of other stigmatized groups. Specifically, three studies examine how salient sexism affects women's attitudes toward racial minorities. White women primed with sexism expressed more pro-White (relative to Black and Latino) self-report (Studies 1 and 3) and automatic (Study 2) intergroup bias, compared with White women who were not primed with sexism. Furthermore, group affirmation reduced the pro-White/antiminority bias White women expressed after exposure to sexism (Study 3), suggesting the mediating role of social identity threat. Overall, the results suggest that making discrimination salient triggers social identity threat, rather than a sense of common disadvantage, among stigmatized group members, leading to the derogation of other stigmatized groups. Implications for relations among members of different stigmatized groups are discussed. PMID:22569223

  8. Pilot Investigation of the Circadian Plasma Melatonin Rhythm across the Menstrual Cycle in a Small Group of Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari; Lespérance, Paul; Ng Ying Kin, N. M. K.; Boivin, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP) and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under “unmasked”, time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P?.03) worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P?=?.025) increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (P<.05) decreased melatonin at circadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed. PMID:23284821

  9. Efficacy of a group-based dietary intervention for limiting gestational weight gain among obese women: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Vesco, Kimberly K.; Karanja, Njeri; King, Janet C.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Leo, Michael C.; Perrin, Nancy; McEvoy, Cindy T.; Eckhardt, Cara L.; Smith, K. Sabina; Stevens, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Observational studies suggest that minimal gestational weight gain (GWG) may optimize pregnancy outcomes for obese women. This trial tested the efficacy of a group-based weight management intervention for limiting GWG among obese women. Methods We randomized 114 obese women (BMI [mean±SD] 36.7±4.9 kg/m2) between 7–21 weeks’ (14.9±2.6) gestation to intervention (n=56) or usual care control conditions (n=58). The intervention included individualized calorie goals, advice to maintain weight within 3% of randomization and follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern without sodium restriction, and attendance at weekly group meetings until delivery. Control participants received one-time dietary advice. Our three main outcomes were maternal weight change from randomization to 2 weeks postpartum and from randomization to 34 weeks gestation, and newborn large-for-gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile, LGA). Results Intervention participants gained less weight from randomization to 34 weeks gestation (5.0 vs 8.4 kg, mean difference=?3.4 kg, 95% CI [?5.1, ?1.8]), and from randomization to 2 weeks postpartum (?2.6 vs +1.2 kg, mean difference=?3.8 kg, 95% CI [?5.9, ?1.7]). They also had a lower proportion of LGA babies (9% vs. 26%, odds ratio=0.28, 95% CI [0.09, 0.84]). Conclusions The intervention resulted in lower GWG and lower prevalence of LGA newborns. PMID:25164259

  10. Prevention and treatment strategy in pregnant women with group B streptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Tevdorashvili, G; Tevdorashvili, D; Andghuladze, M; Tevdorashvili, M

    2015-04-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) are encapsulated gram-positive cocci belonging to Lancefield group B, that frequently colonizes the human genital and gastrointestinal tracts. It is an important cause of illness in three categories of population: infants, pregnant women, and adults with underlying medical conditions. In pregnant women and postpartum women, GBS is a frequent cause of asymptomatic bacteriuria, urinary tract infection, upper genital tract infection (i.e. intraamniotic infection or chorioamnionitis), postpartum endometritis (8%), pneumonia (2%), puerperal sepsis (2%), and bacteremia without a focal site (31%). It also can cause focal infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, and endocarditis, albeit rarely. Invasive maternal infection with GBS is associated with pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. Prior to the widespread use of maternal intrapartum chemoprophylaxis, maternal colonization with GBS conferred an increased risk of chorioamnionitis, and early postpartum infection. The serotype distribution of invasive GBS infection in pregnant women is similar to that of early-onset neonatal disease. The most common GBS serotypes causing invasive disease in adults and neonates are Ia, Ib, III, and V. Vaccination of adolescent women is considered an ideal solution. However, recent reports (April 2015) have shown that serotype IV GBS is emerging in pregnant carriers and causing infections in neonates and adults. This emergence is of concern because GBS conjugate vaccines that are being developed to prevent invasive disease may protect only against serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V, or combinations thereof. Though research for the development of such a vaccine is underway, a good candidate vaccine has yet to surface. PMID:25953932

  11. Prediction of criminal behavior in young Swedish women using a group administration of the Hand Test.

    PubMed

    Lie, N; Wagner, E E

    1996-06-01

    2,074 Swedish girls and adolescents were administered a group version of the Hand Test. About ten years later, 80 of these subjects had committed crimes serious enough to be entered on the General Police Register. These young women offenders were then matched by age with nonoffenders and the two groups compared on 17 quantitative Hand Test variables. Significance was found for the Tension and Pathology scores, suggesting that these young female lawbreakers were characterized as youngsters having scores indicating anxiety and other forms of psychopathology rather than innate hostility. PMID:8774041

  12. Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:…

  13. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Suriani; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Latiff, Khalib A.; Saad, Hazizi A.; Majid, Latifah A.; Othman, Fadlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B) and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A). Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01). Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively). Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08), BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01). Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients. PMID:25685394

  14. Intra-group Stigma: Examining Peer Relationships Among Women in Recovery for Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Alana J.; Canada, Kelli E.

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory study explores how women with histories of addiction perceive stigma while in treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women participating in a residential drug treatment center. Previous research has found that support from peers during recovery can be critical to managing illnesses. In fact, researchers have postulated that peers can be a more effective form of support than even family. This study extends existing literature indicating that peer support systems can be supportive, however they can also can be perceived as negative support that impose stigmas. Findings reveal that women perceive stigmas due to how various types of drug use violate societal expectations and conflict with notions of deservingness. Specifically, the “hard users” (i.e., women who use heroin or crack cocaine) perceive stigmas regarding how their drug use violates norms of womanhood. Moreover, the “soft users” (i.e., those who use alcohol or marijuana) perceive stigmas that their drug use is considered undeserving of support. This paper explores the factors that contribute to stigma amongst populations who potentially face marginalization from larger society. Implications for treatment and group work are discussed. PMID:26617439

  15. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  16. Daughters of Abya Yala: Native Women Regaining Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderete, Wara, Ed.; And Others

    This book compiles testimonies of the struggles, everyday life, and accomplishments of Indian women from Central and South America. Following an introduction to the increasing role of Indian women in international forums and indigenous organizations, the words of individual women describe the problems that affect them and their determination to…

  17. Evaluation of support groups for women with breast cancer: importance of the navigator role

    PubMed Central

    Till, James E

    2003-01-01

    Background At least some forms of breast cancer are increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness, where an emphasis is placed on meeting the various ongoing needs of people living with cancer, their families and other members of their social support networks. This commentary outlines some approaches to the evaluation of cancer-related support groups, with a particular emphasis on those designed to provide long-distance support, via the internet, for women with breast cancer. Discussion The literature on evaluations of community-based cancer support groups indicates that they offer a number of benefits, and that it is more reasonable to expect an impact of such interventions on psychosocial functioning and/or health-related quality of life than on survival. The literature on both face-to-face and online social support groups suggests that they offer many advantages, although evaluation of the latter delivery mechanism presents some ethical issues that need to be addressed. Many popular online support groups are peer-moderated, rather than professionally-moderated. In an evaluation of online support groups, different models of the role of the "navigator" need to be taken into account. Some conceptual models are outlined for the evaluation of the "navigator role" in meeting the informational, decisional and educational needs of women with breast cancer. The Breast-Cancer Mailing List, an example of an unmoderated internet-based peer-support group, is considered within the context of a Shared or Tacit Model of the navigator role. Conclusion Application of the concept of a "navigator role" to support groups in general, and to unmoderated online ones in particular, has received little or no attention in the research literature. The navigator role should be taken into account in research on this increasingly important aspect of cancer communication. PMID:12756054

  18. Controlling Images, Media, and Women's Development: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Tonya R.

    2009-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and controlling images are embedded in the cultural textbook of cinema. Women are disempowered and marginalized by these images, and it is important to explore the existence and prevalence of these images in order to examine their effects on women's development. A review of the literature concerning controlling images and the…

  19. Determinants of Weight Gain Prevention in Young Adult and Midlife Women: Study Design and Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of overweight and obesity through body weight reduction has been monumentally ineffective as few individuals are able to sustain weight loss. Rather than treating weight gain once it has become problematic, prevention of weight gain over time may be more effective. Objective The aim of this research is to preclude the burden of adult obesity in women by identifying the determinants of weight gain prevention. The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to compare a weight gain prevention intervention delivered by the registered dietitian versus counselor. Methods This is a 12-month parallel-arm weight gain prevention RCT designed to increase self-efficacy, self-regulation, outcome expectations and family and social support through the use of a nutrition education intervention in women, aged 18-45 years, from the Urbana-Champaign (Illinois, USA) area. Women have been randomized to registered dietitian, counselor or wait-list control groups (August 2014) and are undergoing weekly nutrition education sessions for four months, followed by monthly sessions for eight months (through August 2015). Outcome measures, including: (1) dietary intake, (2) physical activity, (3) anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, (4) biochemical markers of health, (5) eating behaviors and health perceptions, and (6) mediators of behavior change, were collected before the intervention began (baseline) and will be collected at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of the study. Results In total, 87 women have been randomized to intervention groups, and 81 women have completed first week of the study. Results are expected in early 2016. Conclusions This RCT is one of the first to examine weight gain prevention in women across normal, overweight, and obese body mass index categories. Results of this research are expected to have application to evidence-based practice in weight gain prevention for women and possibly have implication for policy regarding decreasing the encumbrance of overweight and obesity in the United States. PMID:25831450

  20. Home ovulation tests and stress in women trying to conceive: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tiplady, S.; Jones, G.; Campbell, M.; Johnson, S.; Ledger, W.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does the use of a digital home ovulation test have any effect on the level of stress in women seeking to conceive? SUMMARY ANSWER No difference was found in levels of stress between women using digital ovulation tests to time intercourse compared with women who were trying to conceive without any additional aids: in addition, their use did not negatively impact time to conception in users but may provide additional benefits, including an increased understanding of the menstrual cycle, reassurance and confidence in focusing conception attempts to the correct time in the cycle. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY It has been suggested that timing of intercourse in such a way that it coincides with ovulation by using ovulation tests can lead to emotional distress; however, no study has been conducted to investigate this hypothesis specifically, until now. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION The study was performed over two complete menstrual cycles as a prospective, randomized, controlled trial including quantitative and qualitative methods. The intervention (test) group were given digital ovulation tests to time intercourse to the most fertile time of the cycle and the control group were provided with the current National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for increasing the chances of conception (intercourse every 2–3 days) and asked not to use any additional methods to time when ovulation occurs. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND METHODS A total of 210 women who were seeking to conceive were recruited from the general UK population. A total of 115 women were randomized to the test group and 95 to the control group through block randomization. The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) were used to measure subjective stress levels, the Short-Form 12 health survey was used as a measure of general health and well-being and urine samples were measured for biochemical markers of stress including urinary cortisol. Qualitative data were collected in the form of a telephone interview upon study completion. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no evidence for a difference either in total stress as measured using the PSS or in total positive or negative affect using the PANAS questionnaire between the test and control groups at any time point for the duration of the study. During cycle 1, for example, on Day 6, the difference in total stress score (test–control) was ?0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) ?2.47 to 1.24] and on the day of the LH surge, it was 0.53 (95% CI ?1.38 to 2.44). In addition, no correlation was observed between time trying to conceive and levels of stress, or between age and levels of stress, and no evidence was found to show that stress affected whether or not a pregnancy was achieved. There is also no evidence that the biochemistry measurements are related to whether a pregnancy was achieved or of a difference in biochemistry between the treatment groups. The use of digital ovulation tests did not negatively affect time to conception and with an adequately sized study, could potentially show improvement. To ensure that the results of this study were not affected by chance, we used a number of different methods for measuring stress, each of which had been independently validated. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Randomization occurred before the start of the study because of the need to provide the ovulation tests in readiness for Day 6 of the first cycle. As a consequence, a number of women fell pregnant during this period (22 and 13 in the test and control groups, respectively). A further 15 women were either lost to follow-up or withdrew consent prior to study start. Pregnancy rate was higher overall in the test group, so to ensure that there were sufficient data from women who failed to become pregnant in the test group, we implemented an additional biased recruitment. This second cohort may have been different from the first, although no significant differences were observed between the two

  1. Innovative psycho-educational program to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a before and after controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Universal interventions to prevent postnatal mental disorders in women have had limited success, perhaps because they were insufficiently theorised, not gender-informed and overlooked relevant risk factors. This study aimed to determine whether an innovative brief psycho-educational program for mothers, fathers and first newborns, which addressed salient learning needs about infant behaviour management and adjustment tasks in the intimate partner relationship, prevented postpartum mental health problems in primiparous women. Methods A before and after controlled study was conducted in primary care in seven local government areas in Victoria, Australia. English-speaking couples with one-week old infants were invited consecutively to participate by the maternal and child health nurse at the universal first home visit. Two groups were recruited and followed sequentially: both completed telephone interviews at four weeks and six months postpartum and received standard health care. Intervention group participants were also invited to attend a half-day program with up to five couples and one month old infants, facilitated by trained, supervised nurses. The main outcome was any Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) diagnosis of Depression or Anxiety or Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Anxiety, or Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood in the first six months postpartum. Factors associated with the outcome were established by logistic regression controlling for potential confounders and analysis was by intention to treat. Results In total 399/646 (62%) women were recruited; 210 received only standard care and 189 were also offered the intervention; 364 (91%) were retained at follow up six months postpartum. In women without a psychiatric history (232/364; 64%), 36/125 (29%) were diagnosed with Depression or Anxiety or Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Anxiety, or Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood in the control group, compared with 16/107 (15%) in the intervention group. In those without a psychiatric history, the adjusted odds ratio for diagnosis of a common postpartum mental disorder was 0.43 (95% CI 0.21, 0.89) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusions A universal, brief psycho-educational group program for English-speaking first time parents and babies in primary care reduces de novo postpartum mental disorders in women. A universal approach supplemented by an additional program may improve effectiveness for women with a psychiatric history. Trial registration ACTRN 12605000567628. PMID:20653934

  2. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Methods A five group design included a comparison group and a 2?×?2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. Results At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Conclusions Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial intervention period, but only dietary changes persisted Enhanced social support and the ability to interact with others during the show were not effective complementary intervention components as conducted in this trial. Future research to strengthen the ability of this approach to achieve long term effects may offer even more promising outcomes. PMID:24373253

  3. Taking pictures to take control: Photovoice as a tool to facilitate empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic minority women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Teti, Michelle; Pichon, Latrice; Kabel, Allison; Farnan, Rose; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Poor and racial/ethnic minority women comprise the majority of women living with HIV (WLH) in the United States. Race, gender, class, and HIV-based stigmas and inequities limit women’s powers over their health and compromise their quality of life. To help WLH counter this powerlessness, we implemented a photovoice project called Picturing New Possibilities (PNP), and explored how women experienced empowerment through photovoice. PNP participants (N = 30) photographed their life experiences, attended 3 group discussions and a community exhibit of their photos, and completed a follow-up interview. We used strategies of Grounded Theory to identify key empowerment themes. Participants described empowerment through enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, critical thinking skills, and control. Our findings suggest that photovoice is an important tool for WLH. It offers women a way to access internal strengths and use these resources to improve their quality of life and health. PMID:24064314

  4. Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Norum, Jan; Svee, Tove E.; Heyd, Anca; Nieder, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD) rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. Methods The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group) were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age) were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999–2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR) of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15–44 years) were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami) and 23% (controls), respectively. Results Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded) ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94) or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82). Conclusions Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate. PMID:23687638

  5. Detection of Thyroid Autoimmunity Markers in Euthyroid Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Case-Control Study From Syria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saab, Raghad; Haddad, Shaden

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies in women in reproductive age. In many cases, PCOS is associated with infertility and increased risk of miscarriage. Recent studies have detected the presence of several organ specific and nonspecific autoantibodies in women with PCOS. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and levels of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid women with PCOS in Syria. Patients and Methods: This study included 56 euthyroid women with PCOS and 30 healthy women as a control group. PCOS was defined according to the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria. Thyroid function was evaluated by measurement of serum TSH and FT4 levels. Antithyroid peroxidase and antithyroglobulin antibodies (anti-TPO and anti-TG, respectively) were detected as markers for thyroid autoimmunity. All parameters were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: Women with PCOS had higher serum levels of anti-TPO in comparison to controls (39.9 ± 59.5 and 18.9 ± 11.2 IU/mL, respectively; P < 0.05) and no significant difference was found in serum levels of anti-TG, TSH, or FT4 between the two groups. Patients with PCOS had a higher prevalence of positive results for anti-TG and/or anti-TPO in comparison to controls (28.6% and 3.3%, respectively; P<0.05), anti-TPO alone (19.6% and 3.3%, respectively; P < 0.05) and anti-TG alone (21.4% and 3.3%, respectively; P < 0.05). No significant associations were found between antibodies and studied hormones. Conclusions: High prevalence of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid patients with PCOS refers to the importance of investigation for thyroid autoimmune state in those patients. PMID:25237328

  6. Effects of endurance and resistance training on total daily energy expenditure in young women: a controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Poehlman, Eric T; Denino, Walter F; Beckett, Travis; Kinaman, Kristen A; Dionne, Isabelle J; Dvorak, Roman; Ades, Philip A

    2002-03-01

    There exists considerable controversy regarding the impact of different modes of exercise training on total daily energy expenditure (TEE). To examine this question, young, nonobese women were randomly assigned to a supervised 6-month program of endurance training, resistance training, or control condition. TEE was measured before and 10 d after a 6-month exercise program was completed with doubly labeled water. Body composition was determined from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, maximum aerobic capacity from a treadmill test to exhaustion, and muscular strength from one-repetition maximum tests. Results showed that body composition did not change in endurance-trained women, but maximum aerobic capacity increased by 18%. Resistance-trained women increased muscular strength and fat-free mass (1.3 kg). TEE did not significantly change when measured subsequent to the endurance or resistance training programs. Absolute resting metabolic rate increased in resistance-trained women but not when adjusted for fat-free mass. No change in physical activity energy expenditure was found in any of the groups. These results suggest that endurance and resistance training does not chronically alter TEE in free-living young women. Thus, the energy-enhancing benefits of exercise training are primarily derived from the direct energy cost of exercise and not from a chronic elevation in daily energy expenditure in young, nonobese women. PMID:11889152

  7. Insulin binding to trophoblast plasma membranes and placental glycogen content in well-controlled gestational diabetic women treated with diet or insulin, in well-controlled overt diabetic patients and in healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Desoye, G; Hofmann, H H; Weiss, P A

    1992-01-01

    Insulin binding to trophoblast plasma membranes and the placental glycogen content were measured in twelve healthy women, in eleven well-controlled gestational diabetic women who were treated either with diet alone (n = 4) or with insulin (n = 7) and in 18 women with well-controlled overt diabetes mellitus (six White B; four White C; eight White D). The competitive binding assay was carried out with 22 concentrations of unlabelled insulin. Binding data were analysed by a non-linear direct model fitting procedure assuming one non-cooperative binding site. Maximum specific binding was unchanged in the total collective of gestational diabetic women, but was decreased by 30% in those treated with diet (6.2 +/- 2.2%) and increased by 90% in insulin-treated women (16.4 +/- 10.2%) as compared to the control subjects (8.7 +/- 2.5%). The diet-treated women had only 40% as many and those treated with insulin had more than twice as many receptors compared to control subjects on a per mg protein basis and if expressed per total placenta. In patients with overt diabetes mellitus maximum specific binding (18.5 +/- 10.6%) was higher (p less than 0.05) due to more receptors compared to control subjects but was similar to the insulin-treated gestational diabetic patients. Maximum specific binding and receptor concentrations did not correlate linearly with maternal plasma insulin levels. Receptor affinities were virtually similar in all groups (1.8 x 10(9) l/mol). The placental glycogen content was reduced (p less than 0.05) to about 80% of that of control subjects in the diet-treated collective, whereas it was unchanged compared to control subjects in the insulin-treated gestational diabetic women despite a 40% increase (p less than 0.001) of the maternal-to-cord serum glucose ratio. In overt diabetic patients the maternal-to-cord serum glucose ratio and the placental glycogen content were higher (p less than 0.05) than in the control subjects. We conclude that trophoblast plasma membranes from gestational diabetic women treated with diet alone express less and those from women treated with insulin express more insulin receptors than those from a healthy control group in vitro. These differences could not have been disclosed without consideration of the mode of treatment. Trophoblast plasma membranes from overt diabetic women have more insulin receptors than those from healthy control subjects. PMID:1541381

  8. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, M.; Pegels, E.; Oviedo, P.; Pereyra, E.; Vergara, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramón Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4%) > levofloxacin (93.5%) > ciprofloxacin (64.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7%) was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 ?g/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women. PMID:24031210

  9. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts. PMID:11161200

  10. Consumption of Calcium-Fortified Cereal Bars to Improve Dietary Calcium Intake of Healthy Women: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer T.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Radcliffe, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day) (intervention) to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control). At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d) when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001) or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001) periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01508689 PMID:25941810

  11. DCCPS: TCRB: TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Low SES Women and Girl

    Cancer.gov

    Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Home TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control

  12. Exploring Iranian Women's Perceptions regarding Control and Prevention of Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Eileen; Escandon, Socorro; Lamyian, Minoor; Ahmadi, Fazlolah; Setoode, Sam Mohammad; Golkho, Shokoofe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian women's perceptions, behaviors, and beliefs related to breast cancer screening, breast cancer, and follow up care. A qualitative descriptive inquiry with both individual and focus group interviews was conducted in Tehran with 31 Farsi-speaking women, age 35 to 65 years of age. A constant comparison…

  13. Exercising Choice and Control--Women with Learning Disabilities and Contraception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This research project used semi-structured in-depth interviews to ask women with learning disabilities about the experience of being prescribed contraception. It also asked general practitioners about their prescribing practices through a postal survey. A service user group was involved at different stages of the project. Most of the women

  14. Assessing the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.

  15. Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for weight loss in midlife women: a controlled study with follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Filipa; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be effective in weight reduction. This study explores whether individual, 8-session CBT can promote weight loss in midlife women. Methods Anthropometric (weight, abdominal perimeter, and body mass index calculation), psychological (health-related and sexual quality of life, stress, anxiety, and depression), and behavioral measures (binge eating disorder and restrained, external, and emotional eating) were assessed at baseline (T1), posttreatment (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3), for a total of 21 women at baseline; the CBT group (n = 11) and the control group (n = 10; waiting list) were compared. Results Statistically significant effects that were dependent on the intervention were observed on weight (F = 4.402; P = 0.035; ?p2 = 0.404; ? = 0.652) and body mass index (F = 3.804; P = 0.050; ?p2 = 0.369; ? = 0.585); furthermore, marginally significant effects were observed on external eating (F = 2.844; P = 0.095; ?p2 = 0.304; ? = 0.461). At follow-up, women in the CBT group presented with lower weight, abdominal perimeter, body mass index, and external eating; higher health-related quality-of-life and restrained eating were also observed in this group. Most differences identified were at a marginally significant level. Moreover, at follow-up, none of the participants of the CBT group met the criteria for binge eating disorder, whereas the number of women with binge eating disorder in the control group remained the same through all three assessments. Conclusion An effective, though small, weight loss was achieved. Changes in quality of life were also observed. Moreover, changes in external eating behavior were successful. PMID:23091402

  16. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Yoga in Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chandwani, Kavita D.; Perkins, George; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Raghuram, Nelamangala V.; Spelman, Amy; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Johnson, Kayla; Fortier, Adoneca; Arun, Banu; Wei, Qi; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Haddad, Robin; Morris, G. Stephen; Scheetz, Janet; Chaoul, Alejandro; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous research incorporating yoga (YG) into radiotherapy (XRT) for women with breast cancer finds improved quality of life (QOL). However, shortcomings in this research limit the findings. Patients and Methods Patients with stages 0 to III breast cancer were recruited before starting XRT and were randomly assigned to YG (n = 53) or stretching (ST; n = 56) three times a week for 6 weeks during XRT or waitlist (WL; n = 54) control. Self-report measures of QOL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form survey; primary outcomes), fatigue, depression, and sleep quality, and five saliva samples per day for 3 consecutive days were collected at baseline, end of treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months later. Results The YG group had significantly greater increases in physical component scale scores compared with the WL group at 1 and 3 months after XRT (P = .01 and P = .01). At 1, 3, and 6 months, the YG group had greater increases in physical functioning compared with both ST and WL groups (P < .05), with ST and WL differences at only 3 months (P < .02). The group differences were similar for general health reports. By the end of XRT, the YG and ST groups also had a reduction in fatigue (P < .05). There were no group differences for mental health and sleep quality. Cortisol slope was steepest for the YG group compared with the ST and WL groups at the end (P = .023 and P = .008) and 1 month after XRT (P = .05 and P = .04). Conclusion YG improved QOL and physiological changes associated with XRT beyond the benefits of simple ST exercises, and these benefits appear to have long-term durability. PMID:24590636

  17. Testosterone and mood dysfunction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome compared to subfertile controls.

    PubMed

    Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Saxby, Brian K; Kuczmierczyk, Andrew

    2011-06-01

    Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been found to suffer from fertility problems and mood dysfunction. To control for any effect of fertility problems, the present study compared mood dysfunction in women with PCOS to non-PCOS women with fertility problems. Seventy-six women with PCOS and 49 subfertile controls reported their anxiety, depression and aggression levels, and the relationship between mood and testosterone (T) was assessed. Controlling for age and BMI using MANCOVA, women with PCOS were significantly more neurotic (had difficulty coping with stress) than controls, had more anger symptoms, were significantly more likely to withhold feelings of anger and had more quality of life problems related to the symptoms of their condition (acne, hirsutism, menstrual problems and emotions). In a subgroup of 30 women matched on age, BMI and ethnicity, it was found that women with PCOS were significantly more anxious and depressed than controls. T was not generally correlated with mood states. This is the first study to identify problems with neuroticism and withholding anger in women with PCOS. These mood problems appear to be mainly attributable to PCOS symptoms, though other factors, such as hypoglycaemia, cannot be ruled out. PMID:21473679

  18. Belief in Divine Control, Coping, and Race/Ethnicity among Older Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Umezawa, Yoshiko; You, Jin; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Leake, Barbara; Maly, Rose C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Belief in divine control is often assumed to be fatalistic. However, the assumption has rarely been investigated in racial/ethnic minorities. Objectives This study aims to examine the association between belief in divine control and coping and how the association was moderated by ethnicity/acculturation in a multi-ethnic sample of breast cancer patients. Methods Latina, African American, and non-Hispanic White older women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (N=257) from a population-based survey completed the scale of Belief in Divine Control and the Brief COPE. Results Belief in divine control was positively related to approach coping (i.e., positive reframing, active coping, and planning) in all ethnic groups. Belief in divine control was positively related to acceptance and negatively related to avoidance coping (i.e., denial and behavioral disengagement) among low-acculturated Latinas. Conclusions Negative presumptions about fatalistic implications of belief in divine control should be critically reappraised, especially when such skepticism is applied to racial/ethnic minority patients. PMID:22529040

  19. Gastrointestinal Complications of Ferrous Sulfate in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jafarbegloo, Esmat; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some pregnant women discontinue iron supplements consumption due to Gastrointestinal (GI) complications, whereas pregnancy induces the same complications physiologically. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess GI complications of ferrous sulfate in pregnant women. Patients and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 176 pregnant women referred to prenatal care clinic of Maryam Hospital from April 2011 to February 2012. Pregnant women with Hb ? 13.2 gr/dL at 13th - 18th weeks of gestation were selected based on the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to the ferrous sulfate and placebo groups. The ferrous sulfate group (n = 90) received a 50-mg ferrous sulfate tablet daily from the 20th week to the end of pregnancy and the placebo group (n = 89) received one placebo tablet in the same way. All participants were visited twice at 24th - 28th and 32nd - 36th weeks to assess the GI complications as well as Hb level to determine the Hb changes in two groups. Chi-square test, t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used to analyze the data. P value of < 0.05 and confidence level of 95% were considered as statistically significant. Results: None of the GI complications were significantly different between the ferrous sulfate and placebo groups at 24th - 28th and 32nd - 36th weeks. Hemoglobin drop lower than 10.5 gr/dL at 24th - 28th weeks or lower than 11 g/dL at 32nd - 36th weeks was not observed in any cases. Conclusions: It can be concluded that GI complications in pregnant women using ferrous sulfate are mostly caused by physiologic changes of pregnancy rather than ferrous sulfate; therefore, it is not reasonable to stop using ferrous sulfate due to GI complications. PMID:26430520

  20. Reducing the risk of HIV infection during pregnancy among South African women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L; Peltzer, K; Villar-Loubet, O; Shikwane, E; Cook, R; Vamos, S; Weiss, S M

    2013-01-01

    Mpumalanga Province, South Africa has one of the highest HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates among pregnant women (~29.4%). This study sought to enhance male involvement in pregnancy to increase HIV disclosure, sexual communication, HIV knowledge and reduce unprotected sex. Participants attending Antenatal Clinics (ANC) completed HIV counseling and testing and were enrolled with male partners (n=239 couples, 478 individuals). Twelve ANCs were randomly assigned to provide a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) intervention or the standard of care, health education sessions plus PMTCT. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (approximately 6-8 weeks post-baseline) on demographics, sexual behavior, HIV-related knowledge, and conflict resolution strategies. Experimental participants increased HIV knowledge, use of negotiation, and decreased intimate partner violence. Additionally, they were more likely to have increased condom use from baseline to post-intervention (OR=5.1, 95% CI=[2.0, 13.3]). Seroconversions in the control condition exceeded experimental (6 vs. 0). HIV serostatus disclosure to partner did not increase over time for men or women within the experimental or control condition. Male involvement in pregnancy may be an important strategy to reduce sexual risk behavior and HIV transmission. Results support the utility of group interventions to enhance communication and HIV knowledge among pregnant couples. PMID:23438041

  1. A study of anticonvulsant medication on ovarian function in a group of women with epilepsy who have only ever taken one anticonvulsant compared with a group of women without epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Betts, Tim; Yarrow, Helen; Dutton, Nicola; Greenhill, Lyn; Rolfe, Ted

    2003-09-01

    A group of 105 women (54 of whom were, and had only ever been, taking valproate for at least a year, and 51 who had only ever taken either lamotrigine or carbamazepine, for at least a year) were compared with a group of 50 women who did not have epilepsy: any oral contraceptive taken at the time of testing was recorded and blood levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), testosterone and prolactin were estimated from days 2 to 6 of the menstrual cycle (day 1 being the first day of bleeding) and an MRI scan made of their pelvis. Women with epilepsy in general were significantly more likely to exhibit evidence on MRI scanning, of polycystic ovaries (PCO): women taking valproate but not an oral contraceptive were significantly more likely to have clinical biochemical evidence of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) with raised LH and/or testosterone levels between days 2 and 6 of their menstrual cycle than women who did not have epilepsy: this was not so for women taking lamotrigine or carbamazepine. Since the polycystic ovary syndrome has potentially serious consequences it is suggested that, where possible, valproate is avoided in women of child bearing potential. PMID:12915077

  2. Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of gentle Hatha yoga for women with major depression: findings from a randomized controlled mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Whaley, Diane; Hauenstein, Emily; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating chronic condition in the United States and worldwide. Particularly in women, depressive symptoms are often accompanied by high levels of stress and ruminations, or repetitive self-critical negative thinking. There is a research and clinical imperative to evaluate complementary therapies that are acceptable and feasible for women with depression and that target specific aspects of depression in women, such as ruminations. To begin to address this need, we conducted a randomized, controlled, mixed-methods community-based study comparing an 8-week yoga intervention with an attention-control activity in 27 women with MDD. After controlling for baseline stress, there was a decrease in depression over time in both the yoga group and the attention-control group, with the yoga group having a unique trend in decreased ruminations. Participants in the yoga group reported experiencing increased connectedness and gaining a coping strategy through yoga. The findings provide support for future large scale research to explore the effects of yoga for depressed women and the unique role of yoga in decreasing rumination. PMID:23706890

  3. Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of gentle Hatha yoga for women with major depression: Findings from a randomized controlled mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Whaley, Diane; Hauenstein, Emily; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating chronic condition in the United States and worldwide. Particularly in women, depressive symptoms are often accompanied by high levels of stress and ruminations, or repetitive self-critical negative thinking. There is a research and clinical imperative to evaluate complementary therapies that are acceptable and feasible for women with depression and that target specific aspects of depression in women, such as ruminations. To begin to address this need, we conducted a randomized, controlled, mixed-methods community-based study comparing an 8-week yoga intervention with an attention-control activity in 27 women with MDD. After controlling for baseline stress, there was a decrease in depression over time in both the yoga group and the attention-control group, with the yoga group having a unique trend in decreased ruminations. Participants in the yoga group reported experiencing increased connectedness and gaining a coping strategy through yoga. The findings provide support for future large scale research to explore the effects of yoga for depressed women and the unique role of yoga in decreasing rumination. PMID:23706890

  4. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba extract on sexual desire in postmenopausal women in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Pebdani, Mina Amiri; Taavoni, Simin; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Haghani, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the menopausal period, sexual desire may decrease. Therefore, restoring the sexual desire may help to improve sexual functioning in this group of women. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: In this triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 80 healthy female volunteers attending three healthcare centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) were enrolled. The instrument of this study had two main parts. The first part covered the personal characteristics of the volunteers and the second part used the Sabbatsberg Sexual Rating Scale (SSRS) to subjectively evaluate sexual desire before and after intervention. The participants received GBE at a dose of 120-240 mg (n = 40) or received placebo (n = 40) daily for 30 days. The results were analyzed using Mann–Whitney test. All analyses were performed using SPSS software. Results: The sexual desire was significantly improved in the GBE group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.02). Conclusions: In this study, we found that GBE had a positive effect on sexual desire of menopausal women; thus, these findings support the positive effect of GBE on the sexual function of menopausal women. PMID:24949064

  5. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  6. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting...

  7. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on...

  8. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on...

  9. Effect of culturally appropriate health education on glycaemic control and knowledge of diabetes in British Pakistani women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, K

    2001-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a growing problem in people of South Asian origin. It is associated with severe complications if it is not adequately controlled. This paper is a secondary assessment of 105 British Pakistani women within a larger randomized controlled trial of 200 Pakistani patients with diabetes. The trial used one-to-one structured diabetes health education, delivered by a linkworker with pictorial flashcards as a visual aid. Earlier published results from this study have shown that the women in the study knew less about diabetes and had poorer glycaemic control than men, which is why this assessment was performed to see what happened to them when they received appropriate health education. All patients were assessed before and 6 months after intervention by questionnaire and haemoglobin A1c blood tests to measure their overall blood sugar control. Nearly everyone improved their knowledge scores after 6 months in the intervention group, with women showing a catch-up improvement such that they equalled men. Multiple regression analysis found that glycaemic control improved in women receiving health education. Although this method of health education improved knowledge and glycaemic control in women in this sample, illiterate women did not do as well as their literate peers, continuing to score less on knowledge parameters. They also did not show an improvement in glycaemic control. Further work is needed to discover methods that will reach this sizeable subsection of the community. PMID:11497119

  10. Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD) loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength) are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks. Methods/Design A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen), bone formation (osteocalcin), and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16) to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal mechanical loads and postural control as mediators of fracture risk. Discussion Results of this study will provide preliminary evidence regarding the value of Tai Chi as an intervention for decreasing fracture risk in osteopenic women. They will also inform the feasibility, value and potential limitations related to the use of pragmatic designs for the study of Tai Chi and related mind-body exercise. If the results are positive, this will help focus future, more in-depth, research on the most promising potential mechanisms of action identified by this study. Trial registration This trial is registered in Clinical Trials.gov, with the ID number of NCT01039012. PMID:20193083

  11. Community, social group, and individual level correlates of rural Malawian men's and women's reproductive health intentions and practices

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Bisika, Thomas; deGraft-Johnson, Joseph; Tsui, Amy O.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 656 men and 930 women from rural Malawi in 2000, the authors examined the association between various individual and community level factors, as well as participation in social groups, and four reproductive health outcomes: intentions to use any contraceptives in the next six months, current use of modern contraceptives, wanting an HIV test, and having had an HIV test. Women in social groups have higher odds of reporting intentions to use contraceptives, wanting an HIV test, and of having had an HIV test than those not in groups. Among men, social group participation is only slightly associated with having had an HIV test. For all, education is positively associated with all four outcomes, and number of children is associated with intentions to use and actual use of contraceptives. At a community level, proximity to a health center or school is positively associated with three outcomes for women and with use of modern contraceptive methods for men. PMID:23437500

  12. Testing a Violence-Prevention Intervention for Incarcerated Women Using a Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kim, Woo Jong; Fedock, Gina; Bybee, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Beyond Violence (BV), a new prevention program for women with assaultive offenses, demonstrated feasibility in previous studies. This study's purpose is to assess the efficacy of BV using a randomized control trial. Method: Eligible women were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) and the experimental condition (BV). Measures of…

  13. Detection of Group B Streptococcus in Brazilian pregnant women and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Filho, Didier Silveira; da Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Nascimento, Thiago César; de Toledo Vieira, Marcel; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2010-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is still not routinely screened during pregnancy in Brazil, being prophylaxis and empirical treatment based on identification of risk groups. This study aimed to investigate GBS prevalence in Brazilian pregnant women by culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated to the enrichment culture, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated bacteria, so as to support public health policies and empirical prophylaxis. After an epidemiological survey, vaginal and anorectal specimens were collected from 221 consenting laboring women. Each sample was submitted to enrichment culture and sheep blood agar was used to isolate suggestive GBS. Alternatively, specific PCR was performed from enrichment cultures. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for isolated bacteria by agar diffusion method. No risk groups were identified. Considering the culture-based methodology, GBS was detected in 9.5% of the donors. Twenty five bacterial strains were isolated and identified. Through the culture-PCR methodology, GBS was detected in 32.6% specimens. Bacterial resistance was not detected against ampicillin, cephazolin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin, whereas 22.7% were resistant to erythromycin and 50% were resistant to clindamycin. GBS detection may be improved by the association of PCR and enrichment culture. Considering that colony selection in agar plates may be laboring and technician-dependent, it may not reflect the real prevalence of streptococci. As in Brazil prevention strategies to reduce the GBS associated diseases have not been adopted, prospective studies are needed to anchor public health policies especially considering the regional GBS antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. PMID:24031585

  14. Experimental determination of group flux control coefficients in metabolic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, T.W.; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1998-04-20

    Grouping of reactions around key metabolite branch points can facilitate the study of metabolic control of complex metabolic networks. This top-down Metabolic Control Analysis is exemplified through the introduction of group control coefficients whose magnitudes provide a measure of the relative impact of each reaction group on the overall network flux, as well as on the overall network stability, following enzymatic amplification. In this article, the authors demonstrate the application of previously developed theory to the determination of group flux control coefficients. Experimental data for the changes in metabolic fluxes obtained in response to the introduction of six different environmental perturbations are used to determine the group flux control coefficients for three reaction groups formed around the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate branch point. The consistency of the obtained group flux control coefficient estimates is systematically analyzed to ensure that all necessary conditions are satisfied. The magnitudes of the determined control coefficients suggest that the control of lysine production flux in Corynebacterium glutamicum cells at a growth base state resides within the lysine biosynthetic pathway that begins with the PEP/PYR carboxylation anaplorotic pathway.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Physical Activity among Women with Menopause Symptoms: Findings from a Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Tomás, Eija; Luoto, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is a period that may predispose one to a decrease in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and quality of life. A study was carried out to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women displaying symptoms of menopause. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on data from a six-month randomised controlled trial (n = 151). The women in the intervention group engaged in an unsupervised session of at least 50 minutes of physical activity four times a week. The control group continued their physical activity as before. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated in terms of maximal oxygen consumption, lean muscle mass, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. A bootstrap technique was utilised to estimate uncertainty around the point estimate for ICER associated with the intervention. The mean total cost in the intervention group was €1,307 (SEM: €311) and in the control group was €1,253 (SEM: €279, p = 0.10) per person. The mean intervention cost was €208 per person. After six months of the behaviour-change intervention, the ICER was €63 for a 1 ml/kg/min improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, the additional cost per one-gram increase in lean muscle mass was €126, and the cost per QALY gained was €46. According to the findings, physical activity among menopausal women was cost-effective for cardiorespiratory fitness, for lean muscle mass, and for QALYs gained, since the intervention was more effective than the actions within the control group and the additional effects of physical activity were gained at a very low price. From the societal perspective, the intervention used may promote ability to work and thereby save on further costs associated with early retirement or disability pension if the physical-activity level remains at least the same as during the intervention. PMID:26258804

  16. Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Matthew C; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043

  17. Taking pictures to take control: Photovoice as a tool to facilitate empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic minority women with HIV.

    PubMed

    Teti, Michelle; Pichon, Latrice; Kabel, Allison; Farnan, Rose; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Poor and racial/ethnic minority women comprise the majority of women living with HIV (WLH) in the United States. Race, gender, class, and HIV-based stigmas and inequities limit women's powers over their health and compromise their quality of life. To help WLH counter this powerlessness, we implemented a Photovoice project, called Picturing New Possibilities (PNP), and explored how women experienced empowerment through Photovoice. PNP participants (n = 30) photographed their life experiences, attended 3 group discussions and a community exhibit of their photos, and completed a follow-up interview. We used strategies of Grounded Theory to identify key empowerment themes. Participants described empowerment through enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, critical thinking skills, and control. Our findings suggest that Photovoice is an important tool for WLH. It offers women a way to access internal strengths and use these resources to improve their quality of life and health. PMID:24064314

  18. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  19. Efficacy of advice from healthcare professionals to pregnant women on avoiding constrictive clothing around the trunk: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Kenji; Kato, Sachiko; Sasaki, Aiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kakee, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Noguchi, Yuko; Aoki, Tomoko; Inoue, Eisuke; Nitta, Chieko; Ishii, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As a component of midwife care, eliminating clothing that constricts the trunk has been shown to markedly elevate the uterine fundus, soften the uterus and abdomen, and reduce the abdominal wall tension in women admitted to hospital due to the risk of miscarriage or premature delivery. However, no prospective study has conclusively verified the efficacy of avoiding constrictive clothes around the trunk in pregnant women. We aim to verify the efficacy of instructing pregnant women to wear loose clothing that does not constrict the trunk to reduce the risk of premature birth and improve quality of life (QoL) during pregnancy. Methods and analysis We will conduct a randomised controlled trial of pregnant women scheduled to deliver at the National Center for Child Health and Development in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 616 pregnant women, from whom written informed consent will be obtained, will be allocated randomly to an intervention group or a control group. Women in the control group will be provided with anaemia prevention leaflets at 20?weeks’ gestation and skin-care leaflets at 30?weeks’ gestation. Women in the intervention group will be provided with the same leaflets and will also receive health advice from health professionals to avoid constrictive clothing around the trunk. The primary outcome will be a difference between these groups in the frequency of any one of the following category variables: (1) cervical length <30?mm up to 28?weeks’ gestation, (2) hospital admission for threatened premature delivery, or (3) premature delivery. Secondary outcomes will include QoL during pregnancy, maternal state of health, and status of fetal development. Ethics and dissemination The Institutional Review Board and Ethics Committee at the National Center for Child Health and Development, Japan, has approved this study. Our findings will be widely disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number UMIN000016853. PMID:26423851

  20. Effectiveness of two year balance training programme on prevention of fall induced injuries in at risk women aged 75-85 living in community: Ossébo randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Cassou, Bernard; Latouche, Aurélien; Aegerter, Philippe; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a two year exercise programme of progressive balance retraining in reducing injurious falls among women aged 75-85 at increased risk of falls and injuries and living in the community. Design Pragmatic multicentre, two arm, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. Setting 20 study sites in 16 medium to large cities throughout France. Participants 706 women aged 75-85, living in their own home, and with diminished balance and gait capacities, randomly allocated to the experimental intervention group (exercise programme, n=352) or the control group (no intervention, n=354). Intervention Weekly supervised group sessions of progressive balance training offered in community based premises for two years, supplemented by individually prescribed home exercises. Outcome measures A geriatrician blinded to group assignment classified falls into one of three categories (no consequence, moderate, severe) based on physical damage and medical care. The primary outcome was the rate of injurious falls (moderate and severe). The two groups were compared for rates of injurious falls with a “shared frailty” model. Other outcomes included the rates of all falls, physical functional capacities (balance and motor function test results), fear of falling (FES-I), physical activity level, and perceived health related quality of life (SF-36). Analysis was by intention to treat. Results There were 305 injurious falls in the intervention group and 397 in the control group (hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.99). The difference in severe injuries (68 in intervention group v 87 in control group) was of the same order of magnitude (0.83, 0.60 to 1.16). At two years, women in the intervention group performed significantly better on all physical tests and had significantly better perception of their overall physical function than women in the control group. Among women who started the intervention (n=294), the median number of group sessions attended was 53 (interquartile range 16-71). Five injurious falls related to the intervention were recorded. Conclusion A two year progressive balance retraining programme combining weekly group and individual sessions was effective in reducing injurious falls and in improving measured and perceived physical function in women aged 75-85 at risk of falling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00545350). PMID:26201510

  1. Antioxidant effect of isoflavones: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study in oophorectomized women

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rakesh; Mittal, Niti; Hota, Debasish; Suri, Vanita; Aggarwal, Neelam; Chakrabarti, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the postulated mechanism for cardioprotective potential of isoflavones is their ability to exert antioxidant action. However, various reports give conflicting results in this area. Aim: The present study was conducted with an objective to probe into the cardioprotective mechanism of isoflavones by evaluating their antioxidant potential in oophorectomized women. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo controlled study. A total of 43 women were randomized to receive 75 mg/day isoflavones tablet or placebo for 12 weeks. Red blood cell antioxidant parameters including lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were determined at baseline and at the end of the study. Results: After 12 weeks of administration of isoflavones, there was no statistically significant difference in lipid peroxidation (P value for isoflavones: 0.37; for placebo: 0.37), catalase (P value for isoflavones: 0.35; for placebo: 0.84), SOD (P value for isoflavones: 0.41; for placebo: 0.28) and GSH-Px (P value for isoflavones: 0.92; for placebo: 0.29). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients experiencing adverse events in the two groups (P -1.00). Conclusion: The study strengthens the concept that the cardioprotective mechanism of isoflavones might be due to some other reason apart from the antioxidant pathway. PMID:24600575

  2. Vitamin D Status in Preeclamptic and Non-preeclamptic Pregnant Women: A Case-Control Study in the North West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadin, Bita; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Pourteymour Fard Tabrizi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are few studies on the vitamin D status in preeclamptic women. The objective of this case-control study was to determine vitamin D status, in preeclamptic women and compare it with that of healthy pregnant controls. Methods: Forty preeclamptic women, aged 18 to 45yr and forty age- and pregnancy weight-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured and its levels of <10, 10-30, 30-90 and >90 nanogram per milliliter (ng/ml) were considered as vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, sufficiency, and toxicity, respectively. Results: Sixty and forty percent of preeclamptic women were vitamin D deficient and insufficient, while in the control group they were 10% and 90%, respectively. No significant difference was found in the median intake of vitamin D between preeclamptic and non preeclamptic women (1.45 and 1.20µg/day respectively), but serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in preeclamptic cases compared to controls (10.09 ± 6.66 and 15.73 ± 5.85ng /ml respectively, P= 0.002) . Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is common among preeclamptic and non-preeclamptic pregnant women in the north-west of Iran. Preeclampsia can cause decreasing of serum level of 25(OH)D. PMID:26634196

  3. Women and postfertilization effects of birth control: consistency of beliefs, intentions and reported use

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Huong M; Stanford, Joseph B; Alder, Stephen C; Kim, Han S; Murphy, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    Background This study assesses the consistency of responses among women regarding their beliefs about the mechanisms of actions of birth control methods, beliefs about when human life begins, the intention to use or not use birth control methods that they believe may act after fertilization or implantation, and their reported use of specific methods. Methods A questionnaire was administered in family practice and obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Participants included women ages 18–50 presenting for any reason and women under age 18 presenting for family planning or pregnancy care. Analyses were based on key questions addressing beliefs about whether specific birth control methods may act after fertilization, beliefs about when human life begins, intention to use a method that may act after fertilization, and reported use of specific methods. The questionnaire contained no information about the mechanism of action of any method of birth control. Responses were considered inconsistent if actual use contradicted intentions, if one intention contradicted another, or if intentions contradicted beliefs. Results Of all respondents, 38% gave consistent responses about intention to not use or to stop use of any birth control method that acted after fertilization, while 4% gave inconsistent responses. The corresponding percentages for birth control methods that work after implantation were 64% consistent and 2% inconsistent. Of all respondents, 34% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization and would not use any birth control method that acts after fertilization (a consistent response), while 3% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization but would use a birth control method that acts after fertilization (inconsistent). For specific methods of birth control, less than 1% of women gave inconsistent responses. A majority of women (68% or greater) responded accurately about the mechanism of action of condoms, abstinence, sterilization, and abortion, but a substantial percentage of women (between 19% and 57%) were uncertain about the mechanisms of action of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices (IUDs), Depo-Provera, or natural family planning. Conclusion Women who believe that life begins at fertilization may not intend to use a birth control method that could have postfertilization effects. More research is needed to understand the relative importance of postfertilization effects for women in other populations, and in relation to other properties of and priorities for birth control methods. However, many women were uncertain about the mechanisms of action of specific methods. To respect the principles of informed consent, some women may need more education about what is known and not known about the mechanisms of action of birth control methods. PMID:16313677

  4. Maternal Fetal Attachment, Locus of Control and Adherence to STI/HIV Prevention and Prenatal Care Promotion Behaviors in Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Kornfield, Sara L.; Geller, Pamela A.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2015-01-01

    Young women of childbearing age are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. In particular, young women have more frequent and more serious health problems from STI or HIV infection than men, and among women, African American women have especially high rates of infection. Pregnancy is an important time for beginning or continued STI and HIV prevention behaviors as discontinuing condom use when the contraceptive motivation is gone puts women and their fetuses at risk for contraction of STIs and HIV if they remain sexually active. There are many personal attributes that predict adherence to STI risk reduction behaviors including health related locus of control. The current study surveyed a group of 100 low-income, urban dwelling minority women during their pregnancies to determine whether maternal-fetal attachment, a characteristic specific to pregnancy, favorably influences pregnant women’s health related locus of control such that women might be more inclined to engage in preventative STI/HIV risk reduction behaviors. Our findings revealed that while our sample has very high levels of MFA despite the high rate of unplanned pregnancy, condom use is not the method used to reduce the risk of contracting STIs/HIV. Rather, women are more likely to limit their number of sexual partners during pregnancy. While this is beneficial, pregnant women in non-monogamous relationships may discount the importance of condom use during pregnancy. Prenatal care providers can provide education about condom use as a beneficial prenatal care behavior similar to taking prenatal vitamins. PMID:25729776

  5. Birth Control for Women Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Maroncelli, Mark

    The Pill Birth Control for Women Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2 Revised 04/09/2014 The birth control pill is a combined hormonal contraceptive containing two hormones · skin changes Special Warnings with birth control pills containing the progestin Drospirenone: REGULAR

  6. Primary- and secondary-control strategies in later life: predicting hospital outcomes in men and women.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P

    2006-03-01

    Community-dwelling individuals (n = 143, 73-98 years old) were assessed to consider if their use of task-specific control strategies predicted hospital outcomes in the subsequent 2 years. The authors were interested in whether men and women facing health-induced task restrictions benefited equally from the use of primary- and secondary-control strategies. Gender interacted with primary-control strategies; men's more frequent use of these proactive strategies generally related to fewer hospital admissions. Gender also interacted with secondary-control strategies; women's more frequent use of compensatory (self-protective) strategies corresponded to fewer hospital admissions and shorter hospital stay durations. Taken together, our findings suggest that men benefit by adopting certain primary-control strategies and women benefit by adopting certain compensatory secondary-control strategies. PMID:16569115

  7. A systematic review of training interventions addressing sexual violence against marginalized at-risk groups of women.

    PubMed

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-12-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with sexual violence. A systematic review was applied. Inclusion criteria were English language published between 2003 and 2013; reporting on delivery and/or evaluation; focusing on any form of sexual violence; delivered to professionals, affected or at-risk women; targeting migrant, at-risk women or domestic workers. Data were extracted on the setting, content, evaluation process and target population. Four studies which focused on prevention or responding to sexual violence were included. One study provided sexual violence training to vulnerable female and one provided a HIV prevention intervention to marginalized women. Learning objectives included increasing knowledge around issues of sexual violence and/or gender and human rights, prevention and response strategies. Two studies aimed to train trainers. All studies conducted an outcome evaluation and two a process evaluation. It seems there is a gap on participatory empowerment training for marginalized women. Community train-the-trainer interventions are imperative to protect themselves and deal with the risk of sexual violence. PMID:26590245

  8. Preliminary Efficacy of Group Medical Nutrition Therapy and Motivational Interviewing among Obese African American Women with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephania T.; Oates, Veronica J.; Brooks, Malinda A.; Shintani, Ayumi; Jenkins, Darlene M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the efficacy and acceptability of a group medical nutritional therapy (MNT) intervention, using motivational interviewing (MI). Research Design & Method. African American (AA) women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participated in five, certified diabetes educator/dietitian-facilitated intervention sessions targeting carbohydrate, fat, and fruit/vegetable intake and management. Motivation-based activities centered on exploration of dietary ambivalence and the relationships between diet and personal strengths. Repeated pre- and post-intervention, psychosocial, dietary self-care, and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed using generalized least squares regression. An acceptability assessment was administered after intervention. Results. Participants (n = 24) were mostly of middle age (mean age 50.8 ± 6.3) with an average BMI of 39 ± 6.5. Compared to a gradual pre-intervention loss of HbA1c control and confidence in choosing restaurant foods, a significant post-intervention improvement in HbA1c (P = 0.03) and a near significant (P = 0.06) increase in confidence in choosing restaurant foods were observed with both returning to pre-intervention levels. 100% reported that they would recommend the study to other AA women with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. The results support the potential efficacy of a group MNT/MI intervention in improving glycemic control and dietary self-care-related confidence in overweight/obese AA women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25243082

  9. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group...Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force...SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply...

  10. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group...SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products to the Department of Defense (DoD), and GPS simulator users, both government and...

  11. 26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...becomes a member of a different controlled group filing consolidated or separate returns). Thus, for example, if S and B merge together in a transaction described in section 368(a)(1)(A), the surviving corporation is treated as the...

  12. 26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...becomes a member of a different controlled group filing consolidated or separate returns). Thus, for example, if S and B merge together in a transaction described in section 368(a)(1)(A), the surviving corporation is treated as the...

  13. 26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...becomes a member of a different controlled group filing consolidated or separate returns). Thus, for example, if S and B merge together in a transaction described in section 368(a)(1)(A), the surviving corporation is treated as the...

  14. 26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...becomes a member of a different controlled group filing consolidated or separate returns). Thus, for example, if S and B merge together in a transaction described in section 368(a)(1)(A), the surviving corporation is treated as the...

  15. A Group-Based Program of Emotional Recovery for Younger Women Following Myocardial Infarction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Michele J.; Buchanan, Marla J.

    2007-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of illness, disability, and death among women in Canada. Myocardial infarction (MI) accounts for almost half of these deaths yearly. The purpose of this study was to understand younger women's experience of recovery from MI. A purposive sample consisting of six younger women diagnosed with MI participated in …

  16. The Black Woman Worker: A Minority Group Perspective on Women at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    1986-01-01

    Being black and female is a double disadvantage in the labor market. Black women work in higher proportions than other women, but their wages are less and many have undesirable jobs. Some black women are experiencing more employment success, but as racial discrimination lessens, they face sexism. (VM)

  17. Different labour outcomes in primiparous women that have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse or rape in adulthood: a case–control study in a clinical cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nerum, H; Halvorsen, L; Straume, B; Sørlie, T; Øian, P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the duration and outcome of the first labour in women who have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and women who have been raped in adulthood (RA). Design Case–control study in a clinical cohort. Setting University Hospital of North Norway. Sample In all, 373 primiparas: 185 subjected to CSA, 47 to RA and 141 controls without a history of abuse. Methods Data on birth outcomes were retrieved from the patient files. Information on sexual abuse was reported in consultation with specialised midwives in the mental health team. Birth outcomes were analysed by multinominal regression analysis. Main outcome measures Vaginal births, delivery by caesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and duration of labour. Results As compared with controls, the RA group showed a significantly higher risk for caesarean section (adjusted OR 9.9, 95% CI 3.4–29.4) and operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 12.2, 95% CI 4.4–33.7). There were no significant differences between the CSA and the control group. The RA group displayed significantly longer duration of labour in all phases as compared with the control and CSA groups. Conclusions There were major differences in the duration of labour and birth outcomes in the two abuse groups. Despite a higher proportion of obstetric risk factors at onset of labour in the CSA group, women subjected to CSA had shorter labours and less risk for caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries than women subjected to RA. The best care for birthing women subjected to sexual abuse needs to be explored in further studies. PMID:23157417

  18. Effects of a Multi-Disciplinary Lifestyle Intervention on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Young Women with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Share, Bianca L.; Naughton, Geraldine A.; Obert, Philippe; Peat, Jennifer K.; Aumand, Elizabeth A.; Kemp, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Young women are under-represented in cardiovascular disease research, with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factor interventions generally targeting older adults. Furthermore, appropriate study designs for young women remain uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of a 12 week multi-disciplinary lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Methods Women aged 18–30 y with abdominal obesity [waist circumference (WC) ? 80 cm] were randomised to a 12 week lifestyle intervention (n = 26) of physical activity, nutrition education and cognitive behavioural therapy, or a wait-list control group (n = 17). Both groups completed anthropometric, biochemical, nutrition and fitness testing, at pre (0 weeks) and post (12 weeks), with intervention participants completed follow-up testing at 24 weeks. Results Results from a linear mixed model showed no between-group differences, other than increased physical activity in the intervention group, at post. In the intervention group alone, positive within-group changes were observed in WC, waist-hip-ratio (WHR), waist-height-ratio (WHtR), resting heart rate, blood pressure, predicted VO2max, and total energy intake. Most changes were maintained at 24 weeks post-intervention. Similar within-group improvements were observed in control participants in WC, WHR, WHtR, and systolic blood pressure but no changes were detected in physical activity and nutrition. Conclusions Cardiometabolic risk factors were decreased as a result of a lifestyle intervention in young women with abdominal obesity. It is difficult to describe observations in the control group without greater understanding of the behaviour of wait-list participants. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001017819 PMID:26114854

  19. Group therapy in a general practice setting for frequent attenders: a controlled study of mothers with pre-school children

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Pauline; Turk, Theresa

    1988-01-01

    The frequent attendance of women suffering from anxiety and depression is a common problem in general practice and the problems are often externalized through the women's children. A small controlled study was carried out in a general practice surgery to see whether demand for medical attention by mothers of pre-school children would decrease after they attended a discussion group. Twenty women who fulfilled the study criteria of more than double the national average consultation rate for their age group and of having at least one pre-school child, were sequentially allocated to a treatment or control group. The group therapy was held over two terms of 10 sessions, each of 90 minutes, and was led by a psychologist and a general practitioner. Consultation rates (including surgery visits, house calls and prescription requests) were recorded for five consecutive six-month periods before and after the intervention. At follow-up six months after the end of the treatment a significant reduction in consultation rate had been achieved and maintained by the treated group compared with the controls (P<0.01). This study shows the value of attending to the cause of frequent consultation as well as to the complaints presented. PMID:3267741

  20. Efficacy and safety of Baweidihuang-wan in women with overactive bladder: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongil; Choi, Changmin; Ahn, Insuk; Ryu, Ikhan; Choi, Minsun; Lee, Younsuk; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the efficacy and safety of Baweidihuang-wan (BWDH) in women with overactive bladder (OAB) and to investigate whether BWDH is more effective in OAB diagnosed as kidney yang deficiency pattern by the Korean medical pattern identification. The design of this study was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. One hundred eighty-six women with OAB were randomized to treatment (n=93) or control group (n=93). Participants received BWDH or placebo three times a day for eight weeks. Efficacy was assessed by overactive bladder symptom score and 3-day bladder diary. Subgroup analysis was conducted between kidney yang deficiency pattern and other patterns according to the Korean medical pattern identification. One hundred sixty-four participants completed this trial. The treatment group has improved in OABSS score, Total micturitions per 24 hr, Daytime micturitions per 24 hr, Total count of urgency, and Total urgency score over the control group, but differences were not statistically significant. By a subgroup analysis, OABSS score, total micturitions per 24 hr, total count of urgency and total urgency score improved most in the treatment group with the kidney yang deficiency pattern but this was also not statistically significant. No obvious adverse events were found in the use of BWDH. In conclusion, this trial did not show significant difference between BWDH and placebo in women with OAB. However BWDH tended to improve urinary frequency and urgency in OAB, especially diagnosed as kidney yang deficiency pattern. Further additional research will be needed. PMID:25356135

  1. Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial?,??

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Kelsey M.; Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L.; Kenny, Anne M.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Abourizk, Robin H.; Bruno, Richard S.; Lipcius, Rosanne; Fall, Pamela; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa; Prestwood, Karen M.; Kerstetter, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Soy foods contain several components, notably, isoflavones and amino acids, that may improve cardiovascular health. We evaluated the long-term effect of soy protein and/or soy isoflavones supplementation on serum lipids and inflammatory markers using a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-control, clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women older than 60 years. We hypothesized that soy protein, in combination with isoflavones, would have the largest positive effect on coronary heart disease risk factors (serum lipids and inflammatory markers) compared with either intervention alone and that, within groups receiving isoflavones, equol producers would have more positive effects on coronary heart disease risk factors than nonequol producers. After a 1-month baseline period, participants were randomized into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g/d) and isoflavone tablets (105 mg/d isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein and placebo tablets, control protein and isoflavone tablets, or control protein and placebo tablets. T Tests were used to assess differences between equol and nonequol producers. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone tablets did not differ among groups, and compliance with study powder and tablets was 79% and 90%, respectively. After 1 year, in the entire population, there were either no or little effects on serum lipids and inflammatory markers, regardless of treatment group. Equol producers, when analyzed separately, had significant improvements in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratios (?5.9%, P = .02; ?7.2%, P = .04 respectively). Soy protein and isoflavone (either alone or together) did not impact serum lipids or inflammatory markers. Therefore, they should not be considered an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease because of lipid modification in healthy late postmenopausal women lacking the ability to produce equol. PMID:24267042

  2. 60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at left, power distribution box at right, all at right of entrance to lcc. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  3. 2006 Nature Publishing Group A trehalose metabolic enzyme controls

    E-print Network

    Jackson, David

    © 2006 Nature Publishing Group A trehalose metabolic enzyme controls inflorescence architecture Inflorescence branching is a major yield trait in crop plants controlled by the developmental fate of axillary (inflorescences) and affect crop yield by influencing seed number or harvesting ability2,3 . Several growth

  4. Black women, work, stress, and perceived discrimination: the focused support group model as an intervention for stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Mays, V M

    1995-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the use of two components (small and large groups) of a community-based intervention, the Focused Support Group (FSG) model, to alleviate employment-related stressors in Black women. Participants were assigned to small groups based on occupational status. Groups met for five weekly 3-hr sessions in didactic or small- and large-group formats. Two evaluations following the didactic session and the small and large group sessions elicited information on satisfaction with each of the formats, self-reported change in stress, awareness of interpersonal and sociopolitical issues affecting Black women in the labor force, assessing support networks, and usefulness of specific discussion topics to stress reduction. Results indicated the usefulness of the small- and large-group formats in reduction of self-reported stress and increases in personal and professional sources of support. Discussions on race and sex discrimination in the workplace were effective in overall stress reduction. The study highlights labor force participation as a potential source of stress for Black women, and supports the development of culture- and gender-appropriate community interventions as viable and cost-effective methods for stress reduction. PMID:9225548

  5. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01490281 PMID:22336292

  6. A pilot study of a randomized controlled trial of yoga as an intervention for PTSD symptoms in women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Karen S; Dick, Alexandra M; DiMartino, Dawn M; Smith, Brian N; Niles, Barbara; Koenen, Karestan C; Street, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that affects approximately 10% of women in the United States. Although effective psychotherapeutic treatments for PTSD exist, clients with PTSD report additional benefits of complementary and alternative approaches such as yoga. In particular, yoga may downregulate the stress response and positively impact PTSD and comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms. We conducted a pilot study of a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-session Kripalu-based yoga intervention with an assessment control group. Participants included 38 women with current full or subthreshold PTSD symptoms. During the intervention, yoga participants showed decreases in reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms. The assessment control group, however, showed decreases in reexperiencing and anxiety symptoms as well, which may be a result of the positive effect of self-monitoring on PTSD and associated symptoms. Between-groups effect sizes were small to moderate (0.08-0.31). Although more research is needed, yoga may be an effective adjunctive treatment for PTSD. Participants responded positively to the intervention, suggesting that it was tolerable for this sample. Findings underscore the need for future research investigating mechanisms by which yoga may impact mental health symptoms, gender comparisons, and the long-term effects of yoga practice. PMID:24668767

  7. Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

  8. Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

  9. Efficacy of Escitalopram for Hot Flashes in Healthy Menopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Caan, Bette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Carpenter, Janet S.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Larson, Joseph C.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Reed, Susan; Newton, Katherine M.; Sherman, Sheryl; Sammel, Mary D.; La Croix, Andrea Z.

    2011-01-01

    Context Concerns for the risks of hormone therapy have resulted in its decline and a demand for non-hormonal treatments with demonstrated efficacy for hot flashes. Objective Determine the efficacy and tolerability of 10–20 mg/day escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in alleviating the frequency, severity and bother of menopausal hot flashes. Design, Setting and Patients Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial for 8 weeks in a sample stratified by race (African American n=95; white n=102) and conducted at 4 MsFlash network sites between July 2009 and June 2010. Of 205 women randomized, 194 (95%) completed week 8 (intervention endpoint), and 183 completed post-treatment follow-up. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were the frequency and severity of hot flashes assessed by prospective daily diaries. Secondary outcomes were hot flash "bother" recorded on daily diaries and clinical improvement (hot flash frequency >=50% decrease from baseline). Results Hot flash frequency was 9.78/day (SD 5.60) at baseline. At week 8, reduction in hot flash frequency was greater in the escitalopram group versus placebo (?4.60, SD 4.28 and ?3.20, SD 4.76, respectively, P=0.004). Fifty-five percent of the escitalopram group (versus 36% of the placebo group) reported >=50% decreases in hot flash frequency (P=0.009). Differences in decreases in the severity and bother of hot flashes were significant (P=0.003 and P=0.013, respectively), paralleling the decreases in hot flash frequency. Three weeks after treatment ended, hot flash frequency increased in the escitalopram group to the level of the placebo group, which remained stable in the follow-up interval (P=0.020). Overall discontinuation due to side effects was 4% (7 drug, 2 placebo). Conclusion Escitalopram 10–20 mg/day provides non-hormonal off-label treatment for menopausal hot flashes that is effective and well-tolerated in healthy women. PMID:21245182

  10. Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance education program that can be adopted by universities, to assess whether aspects of the program need to be strengthened, and also to indicate how long the effects of the program last and at which point in time refresher sessions may be necessary. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01338428 PMID:23702221

  11. 77 FR 20277 - Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ...Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...Agencies Throughout our country, the spread of HIV/AIDS has had a devastating impact on many...approximately 1.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS, including more than 290,000...

  12. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

  13. Everyday Conflict and Stress among Older African American Women: Findngs from a Focus Group Study and Pilot Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, Patricia Flynn; Dunigan, Robert; Hawkins, Robert L.; Weitzman, Eben A.; Levkoff, Sue E.

    2002-01-01

    Three focus groups examined stress and conflict among 30 older African American women in Boston. Stress stemmed from worries about functional disability, accessing transportation, conflicts with family and peers, and grandchildren's lack of respect. Participants tended to use avoidant strategies to deal with stress and conflict. A training program…

  14. Wii-Workouts on Chronic Pain, Physical Capabilities and Mood of Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; de Souza, Cíntia Pereira; Lattari, Eduardo; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F; Mura, Gioia; Machado, Sérgio; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is a public health problem and older women have higher incidence of this symptom, which affect body balance, functional capacity and behavior. The purpose of this study was to verifying the effect of exercises with Nintendo Wii on CLBP, functional capacity and mood of elderly. Thirty older women (68 ± 4 years; 68 ± 12 kg; 154 ± 5 cm) with CLBP participated in this study. Elderly individuals were divided into a Control Exercise Group (n = 14) and an Experimental Wii Group (n = 16). Control Exercise Group did strength exercises and core training, while Experimental Wii Group did ones additionally to exercises with Wii. CLBP, balance, functional capacity and mood were assessed pre and post training by the numeric pain scale, Wii Balance Board, sit to stand test and Profile of Mood States, respectively. Training lasted eight weeks and sessions were performed three times weekly. MANOVA 2 x 2 showed no interaction on pain, siting, stand-up and mood (P = 0.53). However, there was significant difference within groups (P = 0.0001). ANOVA 2 x 2 showed no interaction for each variable (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences within groups in these variables (P < 0.05). Tukey's post-hoc test showed significant difference in pain on both groups (P = 0.0001). Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests identified no significant differences on balance (P > 0.01). Capacity to Sit improved only in Experimental Wii Group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, physical exercises with Nintendo Wii Fit Plus additional to strength and core training were effective only for sitting capacity, but effect size was small. PMID:26556092

  15. Physical activity in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood: a case-control study among women shift workers.

    PubMed

    Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Canuto, Raquel; Olinto, Beatriz Anselmo; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity may have a protective effect against abdominal obesity, an important risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the practice of physical activities in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood among women shift workers in Southern Brazil in 2011. This case-control study included 215 cases (waist circumference greater than or equal to 88 cm) and 326 controls. For both the case and control groups, participation in leisure-time physical activities was most frequent in adolescence and was significantly less in adulthood. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, women who participated in five or more physical activities in adolescence were 50 percent less likely to have abdominal obesity than women who participated in one activity or no physical activities (Odds Ratio = 0.50; 95% confidential interval: 0.27-0.93, p value = .029). Participation in various types of leisure-time physical activities in adolescence may protect against abdominal obesity in adulthood, even if the number of physical activities decreases over time. This finding demonstrated the importance of physical activity as well as the period of life in which these should be encouraged for the prevention of health disorders, such as abdominal obesity. PMID:25893969

  16. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ?6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely given that >150 million women, many of childbearing age, are involved in microfinance globally. PMID:24812071

  17. Self-hypnosis for intrapartum pain management in pregnant nulliparous women: a randomised controlled trial of clinical effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Downe, S; Finlayson, K; Melvin, C; Spiby, H; Ali, S; Diggle, P; Gyte, G; Hinder, S; Miller, V; Slade, P; Trepel, D; Weeks, A; Whorwell, P; Williamson, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective (Primary) To establish the effect of antenatal group self-hypnosis for nulliparous women on intra-partum epidural use. Design Multi-method randomised control trial (RCT). Setting Three NHS Trusts. Population Nulliparous women not planning elective caesarean, without medication for hypertension and without psychological illness. Methods Randomisation at 28–32 weeks’ gestation to usual care, or to usual care plus brief self-hypnosis training (two × 90-minute groups at around 32 and 35 weeks’ gestation; daily audio self-hypnosis CD). Follow up at 2 and 6 weeks postnatal. Main outcome measures Primary: epidural analgesia. Secondary: associated clinical and psychological outcomes; cost analysis. Results Six hundred and eighty women were randomised. There was no statistically significant difference in epidural use: 27.9% (intervention), 30.3% (control), odds ratio (OR) 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64–1.24], or in 27 of 29 pre-specified secondary clinical and psychological outcomes. Women in the intervention group had lower actual than anticipated levels of fear and anxiety between baseline and 2 weeks post natal (anxiety: mean difference ?0.72, 95% CI ?1.16 to ?0.28, P = 0.001); fear (mean difference ?0.62, 95% CI ?1.08 to ?0.16, P = 0.009) [Correction added on 7 July 2015, after first online publication: ‘Mean difference’ replaced ‘Odds ratio (OR)’ in the preceding sentence.]. Postnatal response rates were 67% overall at 2 weeks. The additional cost in the intervention arm per woman was £4.83 (CI ?£257.93 to £267.59). Conclusions Allocation to two-third-trimester group self-hypnosis training sessions did not significantly reduce intra-partum epidural analgesia use or a range of other clinical and psychological variables. The impact of women's anxiety and fear about childbirth needs further investigation. Tweetable abstract Going to 2 prenatal self-hypnosis groups didn't reduce labour epidural use but did reduce birth fear & anxiety postnatally at < £5 per woman. PMID:25958769

  18. The Effect of Acupressure at GB-21 and SP-6 Acupoints on Anxiety Level and Maternal-Fetal Attachment in Primiparous Women: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Moradi, Parvin; Toosi, Monieh; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Delivery is one of the most stressful events in women’s life. Excessive anxiety, in turn, increases delivery and pregnancy complications. Mother’s positive experience of delivery leads to more effective maternal-fetal attachment in the first few hours of birth. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of acupressure at two different acupoints on anxiety level and maternal-fetal attachment in primiparous women. Materials and Methods: In this study, 150 primiparous women were allocated to acupressure at GB-21 acupoint, acupressure at SP-6 acupoint, and control group. The women in their active phase of delivery were enrolled in the study and pressure was applied to the acupoints for 20 minutes. Mother’s anxiety level was assessed using Spielberger’s questionnaire before and one hour after the intervention. In addition, maternal-fetal attachment behaviors were evaluated using Avant’s questionnaire during the first breastfeeding. Then the data were introduced to the SPSS (v. 13) and were analyzed using t test and one way ANOVA. Results: The results revealed no significant difference among the three groups regarding the anxiety level before the intervention (P > 0.05). One hour after the intervention, this measure was significantly lower in the intervention groups in comparison to the control group (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found between the two intervention groups in this regard (P > 0.05). Moreover, maternal-fetal attachment was higher in the intervention groups in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Acupressure at both acupoints reduced anxiety level and increased maternal-fetal attachment. This method can be easily used in the delivery room. PMID:25699279

  19. Internet-Based Video-Group Delivery of Healthy Relationships—a “Prevention with Positives” Intervention: Report on a Single Group Pilot Test among Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Marhefka, Stephanie L.; Iziduh, Sharon; Fuhrmann, Hollie J.; Lopez, Bernice; Glueckauf, Robert; Lynn, Vickie; Baldwin, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLH) face challenges related to stigma, disclosure of HIV status, and negotiating safer sex. Several effective behavioral interventions, such as Healthy Relationships (HR), help WLH address these challenges and are disseminated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) project. However, many WLH living in poor urban or rural locations cannot access interventions such as HR, because implementation is not feasible. Video-conferencing technology holds promise for expanding access to effective behavioral interventions for WLH. Following a systematic adaptation to the video-conferencing format, this pilot study tested the delivery of HR via video-group (VG) among WLH. The video-conferencing based intervention, HR-VG, consisted of six, two-hour sessions led by two facilitators, and used structured activities and video-clips to build disclosure and safer sex skills. Four minority WLH received HR-VG at four different community-based intervention sites in a private room equipped with a video-phone (VP) for participating in HR-VG and a desktop computer for completing assessments via Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview (ACASI). Participants completed a baseline assessment prior to HR-VG, and post-session assessment after each HR-VG session. The post-intervention assessment and video-focus group were completed following the last HR-VG session. Facilitators completed an assessment after each HR-VG session and an open-ended questionnaire following HR-VG. HR-VG was implemented in its entirety with minimal challenges. Both participants and facilitators reported feeling either “very comfortable” or “completely comfortable” with the technology and the overall intervention. Participants also reported high levels of unity and togetherness among the group. These preliminary findings suggest VG delivery of HR for WLH is both feasible and highly valued by participants. A follow-up randomized controlled trial is underway to test the feasibility and efficacy of HR-VG with a larger sample of WLH. PMID:23713756

  20. Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel

    1990-01-01

    Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…

  1. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  2. RN-to-MSN students' attitudes toward women experiencing homelessness: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Chung-Park, Min; Hatton, Diane; Robinson, Linda; Kleffel, Dorothy

    2006-08-01

    When health professionals, including RNs, have negative attitudes toward women experiencing homelessness, they create barriers to services. It is incumbent on nursing faculty to develop curricula that address homelessness and associated stereotypes, as well as to prepare students to provide safe and appropriate care to the homeless population. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the attitudes of RN-to-MSN students toward mothers living with their children in a transitional shelter. A convenience sample of 10 students enrolled in a community health nursing course at a university in southern California participated in the study. Two focus groups were conducted: one before and one after a 15-week clinical experience. Data analysis revealed that during the clinical experience, students discovered that they, or perhaps an individual like them, could become homeless. Their attitudes and views changed to include a bigger picture of homelessness, described by public health nursing researchers as "moving upstream." This article suggests strategies for integrating clinical experiences with socioeconomically vulnerable individuals into undergraduate nursing curricula. PMID:16915991

  3. An Implication of Health Sector Reform for Disadvantaged Women's Struggle for Birth Control: A Case of Kurdish Rural-Urban Migrant Women in Van, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Him, Miki Suzuki; Ho?gör, Ay?e Gündüz

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we examine how socioeconomically disadvantaged women are affected by health sector reform and family planning policy changes in Turkey through a case study of Kurdish women's struggles for birth control. In Turkey, a family planning program became relatively marginalized in primary health care services as a result of health sector reform as well as a shift of population policy toward a moderately pronatal approach. We argue that an emerging health care system would leave disadvantaged women unable to benefit from contraceptives and would perpetuate reproductive health inequalities between women in the country. PMID:24134209

  4. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Section 4001.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For purposes of title IV of...

  5. Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Chen, Lynn

    2014-11-23

    This study had two purposes: (i) to explore differences in sexual function between women with gynecological or rectal cancer after related pelvic-area treatments and women without cancer; and (ii) to investigate the relationships among body image, anxiety and depression, sexual relationship power, sexual self-schema, and female sexual function. The participants (n?=?139) were recruited through Internet cancer support groups and women's health organizations in the USA. Six structured questionnaires were mailed, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that women with gynecological or rectal cancer had significantly worse sexual function than women without cancer. Having gynecological/rectal cancer and a negative sexual self-schema were significantly related to poor sexual function. Furthermore, sexual self-schema moderated the relationship between sexual relationship power and female sexual function. Healthcare providers could give more attention to sexual issues in women who have undergone treatment for gynecological or rectal cancer, especially for those with a negative sexual self-schema and high sexual relationship power, which might improve these women's quality of life. PMID:25417724

  6. The effect of group mindfulness - based stress reduction program and conscious yoga on the fatigue severity and global and specific life quality in women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Soheila; Talepasand, Siavash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is not merely an event with a certain end, but it is a permanent and vague situation that is determined by delayed effects due to the disease, its treatment and its related psychological issues. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program and conscious yoga on the mental fatigue severity and life quality of women with breast cancer. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test and control group. In this study, 24 patients with the diagnosis of breast cancer were selected among the patients who referred to the Division of Oncology and Radiotherapy of Imam Hossein hospital in Tehran using available sampling method, and were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. All the participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale, Global Life Quality of Cancer Patient and Specific Life Quality of Cancer Patient questionnaires. Data were analyzed by multivariate repeated measurement variance analysis model. Results: Findings revealed that the mindfulness-based stress reduction treatment significantly improved the overall quality of life, role, cognitive, emotion, social functions and pain and fatigue symptoms in global life quality in the experimental group. It also significantly improved the body image, future functions and therapy side effects in specific life quality of the experimental group compared to the control group. In addition, fatigue severity caused by cancer was reduced significantly. Conclusion: The results showed that the mindfulness - based stress reduction treatment can be effective in improving global and specific life quality and fatigue severity in women with breast cancer. PMID:26034728

  7. Pregnancy and Lactation Alter Biomarkers of Biotin Metabolism in Women Consuming a Controlled Diet123

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Cydne A; West, Allyson A; Gayle, Antoinette; Lucas, Lauren K; Yan, Jian; Jiang, Xinyin; Malysheva, Olga; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biotin functions as a cofactor for several carboxylase enzymes with key roles in metabolism. At present, the dietary requirement for biotin is unknown and intake recommendations are provided as Adequate Intakes (AIs). The biotin AI for adults and pregnant women is 30 ?g/d, whereas 35 ?g/d is recommended for lactating women. However, pregnant and lactating women may require more biotin to meet the demands of these reproductive states. Objective: The current study sought to quantify the impact of reproductive state on biotin status response to a known dietary intake of biotin. Methods: To achieve this aim, we measured a panel of biotin biomarkers among pregnant (gestational week 27 at study entry; n = 26), lactating (postnatal week 5 at study entry; n = 28), and control (n = 21) women who participated in a 10- to 12-wk feeding study providing 57 ?g of dietary biotin/d as part of a mixed diet. Results: Over the course of the study, pregnant women excreted 69% more (vs. control; P < 0.001) 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIA), a metabolite that accumulates during the catabolism of leucine when the activity of biotin-dependent methylcrotonyl–coenzyme A carboxylase is impaired. Interestingly, urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (3-HIA-carnitine), a downstream metabolite of 3-HIA, was 27% lower (P = 0.05) among pregnant (vs. control) women, a finding that may arise from carnitine inadequacy during gestation. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected in plasma biotin, urinary biotin, or urinary bisnorbiotin between pregnant and control women. Lactating women excreted 76% more (vs. control; P = 0.001) of the biotin catabolite bisnorbiotin, indicating that lactation accelerates biotin turnover and loss. Notably, with respect to control women, lactating women excreted 23% less (P = 0.04) urinary 3-HIA and 26% less (P = 0.05) urinary 3-HIA-carnitine, suggesting that lactation reduces leucine catabolism and that these metabolites may not be useful indicators of biotin status during lactation. Conclusions: Overall, these data demonstrate significant alterations in markers of biotin metabolism during pregnancy and lactation and suggest that biotin intakes exceeding current recommendations are needed to meet the demands of these reproductive states. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127022. PMID:25122647

  8. Case management vocational rehabilitation for women with breast cancer after surgery: a feasibility study incorporating a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of methodologically robust vocational rehabilitation (VR) intervention trials. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a VR trial of women with breast cancer to inform the development of a larger interventional study. Methods Women were recruited in Scotland and randomised to either a case management VR service or to usual care. Data were collected on eligibility, recruitment and attrition rates to assess trial feasibility, and interviews conducted to determine trial acceptability. Sick leave days (primary outcome) were self-reported via postal questionnaire every 4 weeks during the first 6 months post-surgery and at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures were change in employment pattern, quality of life and fatigue. Results Of the 1,114 women assessed for eligibility, 163 (15%) were eligible. The main reason for ineligibility was age (>65 years, n = 637, 67%). Of those eligible, 111 (68%) received study information, of which 23 (21%) consented to participate in the study. Data for 18 (78%) women were analysed (intervention: n = 7; control: n = 11). Participants in the intervention group reported, on average, 53 fewer days of sick leave over the first 6 months post-surgery than those in the control group; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.122; 95% confidence interval ?15.8, 122.0). No statistically significant differences were found for secondary outcomes. Interviews with trial participants indicated that trial procedures, including recruitment, randomisation and research instruments, were acceptable. Conclusions Conducting a pragmatic trial of effectiveness of a VR intervention among cancer survivors is both feasible and acceptable, but more research about the exact components of a VR intervention and choice of outcomes to measure effectiveness is required. VR to assist breast cancer patients in the return to work process is an important component of cancer survivorship plans. Trial registration ISRCTN29666484 PMID:23768153

  9. Prevalence of Group B Streptococcus serotypes III and V in pregnant women of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Georgia Cristina Tavolaro; Alviano, Daniela Sales; da Silva Santos, Gabriela; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Nagao, Prescilla Emy

    2013-01-01

    GBS serotypes III and V were the most prevalent in pregnant women and exhibited resistance to tetracycline, clindamycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Serotype III showed high sialic acid content and PFGE analysis discerned 33 heterogeneous profiles. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization could be relevant to control GBS infections unaffected by intra-partum chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24516454

  10. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Tiffany L.; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Sharonda; Townsend, Sh'Nese; Ard, Jamy D.; Meneses, Karen; Partridge, Edward E.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2015-01-01

    Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n = 355) provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10), and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall) data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5?kg/m2) and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16) and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group). Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake. PMID:25821595

  11. Engaging South Asian women with type 2 diabetes in a culturally relevant exercise intervention: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Alamelu; Nimbal, Vani C; Ivey, Susan L; Wang, Elsie J; Madsen, Kristine A; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the efficacy of a culturally relevant exercise program in improving glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among South Asian women with type 2 diabetes, compared with usual care. Methods This was a randomized controlled 8-week pilot study of Bollywood dance among South Asian women with type 2 diabetes. The intervention consisted of 1?h Bollywood dance classes offered twice per week. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c. The effect of attendance on this outcome was also examined. Results The intervention group demonstrated a decrease in HbA1c from baseline (?0.18% (0.2%); p=0.018) compared with a non-significant increase in the usual care group (+0.03% (0.2%)); p value for difference between groups was 0.032. Participants attending at least 10 of 16 sessions had a statistically significant reduction in weight (?0.69?kg (0.76?kg)) compared with those attending fewer sessions (+0.86?kg (0.71?kg)). Conclusions These results support culturally relevant dance as a successful exercise intervention to promote HbA1c control, compared with usual care. Trial registration number NCT02061618. PMID:26566446

  12. Body Image and Quality of Life in a Group of African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks; Thomas, Dana-Marie; Ard, Jamy D.

    2010-01-01

    African American (AA) women's preference for a larger body size and underestimation of their body weight may affect the relationship between their body weight and weight-related quality of life (QOL). We wanted to examine the relationship between weight-related QOL and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of overweight AA women. Thirty-three…

  13. Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape Concerns among a Group of College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines three potential factors that might mediate the relationship between reading women's magazines and body shape and size concern. Finds that health and fitness magazine reading by college-aged women was linked directly to body shape concerns, indirectly through beliefs about men's thinness expectations. Explains that beauty and fashion…

  14. Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Korean American Women: A Mixed-Methods Study Using Surveys and Focus Group Interviews.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Kreps, Gary L; Lee, Eunice E

    2015-10-01

    Despite the high risk of cancer to the population, Korean Americans are known to have lower knowledge about cancer related information and a lower level of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. This indicates the necessity of cancer interventions targeting the Korean American population. To reach this population effectively, it is imperative to understand Korean Americans' cancer information seeking behaviors. This study (a) identified cancer information sources that are trusted and used by Korean American women and (b) examined how general media exposure and trust in cancer information sources are related to the use of these sources. It also (c) explored perceived usefulness and limitations of cancer information sources. A mixed methods study using seven focus group interviews with 34 Korean American women and surveys with 152 Korean American women was conducted in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area from 2011 to 2012. The results indicate that Korean American women viewed health care professionals as the most trusted cancer information source but used the Internet and Korean ethnic media more often for cancer information seeking because of language, cultural, and economic barriers. Korean American women were most likely to obtain cancer information from media they used frequently for general purposes. Correlations between usage frequency and trust in doctor/health providers and the Internet as cancer information sources were negligible. When seeking cancer information, important factors for Korean American women were accessibility, affordability, and language proficiency, cultural sensitivity, meeting immediate needs, understandability, convenience, and reliability of cancer information sources. Findings from this study support developing interventions using Korean language media, including print, television and the Internet for health promotion and cancer prevention targeting Korean American women. PMID:25950369

  15. Indian women cry foul.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen organizations in Bombay issued a position statement on women's reproductive health and family planning as part of a national Planned Parenthood Foundation 1990's meeting on new contraception. The statement asserted that women needed to have an understanding of their bodies, wanted contraceptives that would not harm physiological functions, and desired men's and women's joint responsibility for reproduction. Women's groups voiced a concern about women gaining awareness of their ability to control their own health and contraception. The Indian government has been concerned with population control since 1952 and has stressed reducing the birth rate rather than providing for people's needs. The Indian government has followed the advice of Western nations and promoted the IUD during the 1960s, vasectomies during the 1970s, female sterilization during the 1980s, and long acting contraceptives during the 1990s. Government policy after the 1970s that focused on women's methods was viewed as coercive. Women's groups such as Stree Shakti Sanghatana, Saheli, and Chingari and the Andhra Pradesh Civil Liberties Union protested the Indian's governments promotion of injectable contraceptives such as NET-EN which were considered hazardous to women's health. Women's groups asked for legislative action, which helped to focus discussion and debate on the issues of the side effects of contraception. The concern was raised that people needed to be made aware of the issues and that the NET-EN campaign was only a dialogue among experts. Women's groups have focused on creating understanding about family planning rather than on simplistic labeling of harmful contraception. Demands should be put in a positive framework that redefines couple relationships, explores a variety of expressions of sexuality, and asserts the primacy of women's decision making about reproduction. PMID:12290478

  16. Cognitive behavioural treatment for women who have menopausal symptoms after breast cancer treatment (MENOS 1): a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Eleanor; Smith, Melanie J; Hellier, Jennifer; Balabanovic, Janet A; Hamed, Hisham; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Hunter, Myra S

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Hot flushes and night sweats (HFNS) affect 65–85% of women after breast cancer treatment; they are distressing, causing sleep problems and decreased quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy is often either undesirable or contraindicated. Safe, effective non-hormonal treatments are needed. We investigated whether cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can help breast cancer survivors to effectively manage HFNS. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, we recruited women from breast clinics in London, UK, who had problematic HFNS (minimum ten problematic episodes a week) after breast-cancer treatment. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either usual care or usual care plus group CBT (1:1). Randomisation was done in blocks of 12–20 participants, stratifying by age (younger than 50 years, 50 years or older), and was done with a computer-generated sequence. The trial statistician and researchers collecting outcome measures were masked to group allocation. Group CBT comprised one 90 min session a week for 6 weeks, and included psycho-education, paced breathing, and cognitive and behavioural strategies to manage HFNS. Assessments were done at baseline, 9 weeks, and 26 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome was the adjusted mean difference in HFNS problem rating (1–10) between CBT and usual care groups at 9 weeks after randomisation. Analysis of the primary endpoint was done by modified intention to treat. The trial is registered, ISRCTN13771934, and was closed March 15, 2011. Findings Between May 5, 2009, and Aug 27, 2010, 96 women were randomly allocated to group CBT (n=47) or usual care (n=49). Group CBT significantly reduced HFNS problem rating at 9 weeks after randomisation compared with usual care (mean difference ?1·67, 95% CI ?2·43 to ?0·91; p<0·0001) and improvements were maintained at 26 weeks (mean difference ?1·76, ?2·54 to ?0·99; p<0·0001). We recorded no CBT-related adverse events. Interpretation Group CBT seems to be a safe and effective treatment for women who have problematic HFNS after breast cancer treatment with additional benefits to mood, sleep, and quality of life. The treatment could be incorporated into breast cancer survivorship programmes and delivered by trained breast cancer nurses. Funding Cancer Research UK. PMID:22340966

  17. Daily Text Messaging for Weight Control Among Racial and Ethnic Minority Women: Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Erica L; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-01-01

    Background Daily self-monitoring of diet and physical activity behaviors is a strong predictor of weight loss success. Text messaging holds promise as a viable self-monitoring modality, particularly among racial/ethnic minority populations. Objective This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of a text messaging intervention for weight loss among predominantly black women. Methods Fifty obese women were randomized to either a 6-month intervention using a fully automated system that included daily text messages for self-monitoring tailored behavioral goals (eg, 10,000 steps per day, no sugary drinks) along with brief feedback and tips (n=26) or to an education control arm (n=24). Weight was objectively measured at baseline and at 6 months. Adherence was defined as the proportion of text messages received in response to self-monitoring prompts. Results The average daily text messaging adherence rate was 49% (SD 27.9) with 85% (22/26) texting self-monitored behavioral goals 2 or more days per week. Approximately 70% (16/23) strongly agreed that daily texting was easy and helpful and 76% (16/21) felt the frequency of texting was appropriate. At 6 months, the intervention arm lost a mean of 1.27 kg (SD 6.51), and the control arm gained a mean of 1.14 kg (SD 2.53; mean difference –2.41 kg, 95% CI –5.22 to 0.39; P=.09). There was a trend toward greater text messaging adherence being associated with greater percent weight loss (r=–.36; P=.08), but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant association between goal attainment and text messaging adherence and no significant predictors of adherence. Conclusions Given the increasing penetration of mobile devices, text messaging may be a useful self-monitoring tool for weight control, particularly among populations most in need of intervention. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00939081; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00939081 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6KiIIcnk1). PMID:24246427

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis and incident fracture in women: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine fracture incidence in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for an entire geographical region of south-eastern Australia. Methods Women aged 35 years and older, resident in the Barwon Statistical Division (BSD) and clinically diagnosed with RA 1994–2001 were eligible for inclusion as cases (n?=?1,008). The control population (n?=?172,422) comprised the entire female BSD population aged 35 years and older, excluding those individuals identified as cases. Incident fractures were extracted from the prospective Geelong Osteoporosis Study Fracture Grid. We calculated rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare the age-adjusted rate of fracture between the RA and non-RA populations, and used a chi-square test to compare proportions of fractures between women with and without RA, and a two-sided Mann–Whitney U-test to examine age-differences. Results Among 1,008 women with RA, 19 (1.9%) sustained a fracture, compared to 1,981 fractures sustained by the 172,422 women without RA (1.2%). Fracture rates showed a trend for being greater among women diagnosed with RA (age-adjusted RR 1.43, 95%CI 0.98-2.09, p?=?0.08). Women with RA sustained vertebral fractures at twice the expected frequency, whereas hip fractures were underrepresented in the RA population (p?women with RA have a greater risk of fracture compared to women without RA, these patients may be a suitable target population for anti-resorptive agents; however, larger studies are warranted. PMID:24405804

  19. Lifestyle interventions for hypertension treatment among Iranian women in primary health-care settings: Results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hasandokht, Tolou; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Paknahad, Zamzam; Rajati, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle factors such as weight, salt intake, and physical activity have shown to be important in treating hypertension. The object of this study was to describe feasibility and to assess the effectiveness of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on high blood pressure (BP) of Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in four health centers by recruiting 161 women aged 35-65 years with high BP and randomizing them to a 4-week lifestyle modification (n = 80) or control group (n = 81). BP level and other health behavioral factors were assessed before and after the 4-week intervention and also after 6 months. Results: The mean systolic BP changed from 158.8 (±8.1) mmHg to 153.2 (±6.4) mmHg during 4-week and to 145.5 (±4.6)) mmHg after 6 months in the intervention group (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between two groups of study after 4-week mean = 5.6 (confidence interval [CI] = 5.1-6.6) and 6 months follow mean (CI = 12.3-14.6).(P < 0.001) A significant correlation was detected between systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) with weight, body mass index, waist circumference, salt intake, and physical activity level (P < 0.001). Stepwise regression analyses indicated that the weight, dietary salt intake, and physical activity level were significant predictors of SBP and DBP. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that lifestyle modification program is associated with improvements in BP level in Iranian women. PMID:25767523

  20. Perception of control, coping and psychological stress of infertile women undergoing IVF.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Potamianos, Grigorios; Lykeridou, Katerina; Schmidt, Lone; Vaslamatzis, Grigorios

    2012-06-01

    The study aimed to examine: (i) the association between perception of infertility controllability and coping strategies; and (ii) the association between perception of infertility controllability and coping strategies to psychological distress, applying multivariate statistical techniques to control for the effects of demographic variables. This cross-sectional study included 137 women with fertility problems undergoing IVF in a public hospital. All participants completed questionnaires that measured fertility-related stress, state anxiety, depressive symptomatology, perception of control and coping strategies. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. Low perception of personal and treatment controllability was associated with frequent use of avoidance coping and high perception of treatment controllability was positively associated with problem-focused coping. Multivariate analysis showed that, when controlling for demographic factors, low perception of personal control and avoidance coping were positively associated with fertility-related stress and state anxiety, and problem-appraisal coping was negatively and significantly associated with fertility-related stress and depressive symptomatology scores. The findings of this study merit the understanding of the role of control perception and coping in psychological stress of infertile women to identify beforehand those women who might be at risk of experiencing high stress and in need of support. PMID:22503340

  1. Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

  2. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group...Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Air Force, DoD. ACTION...206. This new meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply...

  3. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  4. Lie Group Integrators for Animation and Control of Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Desbrun, Mathieu

    Lie Group Integrators for Animation and Control of Vehicles Marin Kobilarov Keenan Crane Mathieu poses. Contributions. This paper introduces general integrators for vehicles which handle both holonomic for vehicle integration, spell out specific integrators for computer animation in the case of a car

  5. Summary of beam quality diagnostics and control working group

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, John; Piot, Philippe; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    The working group on beam quality, diagnostics, and control at the 12th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. The generation of bright charged-particle beams (in particular electron and positron beams), along with state-of-the-art beam diagnostics and synchronization were discussed.

  6. Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4–8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. Method/design A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. Discussion This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752 PMID:23714411

  7. A Study of the Effects of Latent Iron Deficiency on Measures of Cognition: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of Iron Supplementation in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Alecia J.; Chalmers, Kerry A.; Collins, Clare E.; Patterson, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of iron deficiency are high amongst healthy young women. Cognitive impairment occurs secondary to iron deficiency in infants and children, but evaluation of the impact on cognition among young women is inconsistent. The aim was to determine the suitability of the IntegNeuro test battery for assessing cognitive function in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient young women. A pilot double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted in iron-deficient (serum ferritin ? 20 ?g/L and haemoglobin > 120 g/L) and iron-sufficient young women (18–35 years). Cognitive function and haematological markers of iron status were measured at baseline and follow-up. Iron-deficient participants (n = 24) were randomised to receive placebo, 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron daily supplements for 16 weeks. A control group of iron-sufficient participants (n = 8) was allocated to placebo. Change scores for Impulsivity and Attention were significantly greater in plasma ferritin improvers than in non-improvers (p = 0.004, p = 0.026). IntegNeuro was easy to administer and acceptable to young women. Based on the differences in Memory and Attention scores between iron-deficient participants on iron treatment and those on placebo, it was decided that between 26 and 84 participants would be required in each iron treatment group for an adequately powered extension of this pilot RCT. PMID:24959952

  8. Effects of Acute 60 and 80% V[o.sub.2]max Bouts of Aerobic Exercise on State Anxiety of Women of Different Age Groups across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard H.; Thomas, Tom R.; Hinton, Pam S.; Donahue, Owen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on state anxiety of women while controlling for iron status (hemoglobin and serum ferritin). Participants were 24 active women, ages 18-20 years (n=12) and 35-45 years (n=12). In addition to a nonexercise control condition, participants completed one…

  9. Effect of iron supplementation on fatigue in nonanemic menstruating women with low ferritin: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Vaucher, Paul; Druais, Pierre-Louis; Waldvogel, Sophie; Favrat, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Background: The true benefit of iron supplementation for nonanemic menstruating women with fatigue is unknown. We studied the effect of oral iron therapy on fatigue and quality of life, as well as on hemoglobin, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels, in nonanemic iron-deficient women with unexplained fatigue. Methods: We performed a multicentre, parallel, randomized controlled, closed-label, observer-blinded trial. We recruited from the practices of 44 primary care physicians in France from March to July 2006. We randomly assigned 198 women aged 18–53 years who complained of fatigue and who had a ferritin level of less than 50 ug/L and hemoglobin greater than 12.0 g/dL to receive either oral ferrous sulfate (80 mg of elemental iron daily; n = 102) or placebo (n = 96) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was fatigue as measured on the Current and Past Psychological Scale. Biological markers were measured at 6 and 12 weeks. Results: The mean score on the Current and Past Psychological Scale for fatigue decreased by 47.7% in the iron group and by 28.8% in the placebo group (difference –18.9%, 95% CI ?34.5 to ?3.2; p = 0.02), but there were no significant effects on quality of life (p = 0.2), depression (p = 0.97) or anxiety (p = 0.5). Compared with placebo, iron supplementation increased hemoglobin (0.32 g/dL; p = 0.002) and ferritin (11.4 ?g/L; p < 0.001) and decreased soluble transferrin receptor (?0.54 mg/L; p < 0.001) at 12 weeks. Interpretation: Iron supplementation should be considered for women with unexplained fatigue who have ferritin levels below 50 ?g/L. We suggest assessing the efficiency using blood markers after six weeks of treatment. Trial registration no. EudraCT 2006–000478–56. PMID:22777991

  10. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Iranian Women: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Mina; Eivazi Ziaei, Jamal; Aghajari, Parvaneh; Vahidi, Maryam; Fateh, Alaviehe; Asghari, Elnaz

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death among women. In Asian countries such as Iran, the incidence of breast cancer is increasing. The present study aimed to assess the risk factors for breast cancer of women in Tabriz, Iran. Methods A hospital-based case-control study was undertaken to identify breast cancer risk factors. The study consisted of 140 cases confirmed via histopathological analysis and 280 group-matched controls without any malignancy. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods via the SPSS software version 18. Results In a multivariate analysis, educational level (odds ratio [OR], 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11-10.83), menopausal status (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.41-4.59), a high-fat diet (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.51-5.04), abortion (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.20-3.79), passive smoking (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.51-5.04), oral contraceptive use (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.80-5.59), stress (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.74-5.36), and migration (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.39-6.90) were factors associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer. Breastfeeding (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.97) and a diet containing sufficient fruit and vegetables (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.12-0.39) had protective roles against breast cancer. Conclusion The study revealed that the risk factors for breast cancer among women in the Tabriz area of Iran are related to the lifestyle. Therefore, the provision of education to change unhealthy lifestyle choices and periodic check-ups for early breast cancer detection are recommended. PMID:25320621

  11. One angry woman: Anger expression increases influence for men, but decreases influence for women, during group deliberation.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jessica M; Peter-Hagene, Liana C

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether expressing anger increases social influence for men, but diminishes social influence for women, during group deliberation. In a deception paradigm, participants believed they were engaged in a computer-mediated mock jury deliberation about a murder case. In actuality, the interaction was scripted. The script included 5 other mock jurors who provided verdicts and comments in support of the verdicts; 4 agreed with the participant and 1 was a "holdout" dissenter. Holdouts expressed their opinions with no emotion, anger, or fear and had either male or female names. Holdouts exerted no influence on participants' opinions when they expressed no emotion or fear. Participants' confidence in their own verdict dropped significantly, however, after male holdouts expressed anger. Yet, anger expression undermined female holdouts: Participants became significantly more confident in their original verdicts after female holdouts expressed anger-even though they were expressing the exact same opinion and emotion as the male holdouts. Mediation analyses revealed that participants drew different inferences from male versus female anger, which created a gender gap in influence during group deliberation. The current study has implications for group decisions in general, and jury deliberations in particular, by suggesting that expressing anger might lead men to gain influence, but women to lose influence over others (even when making identical arguments). These diverging consequences might result in women potentially having less influence on societally important decisions than men, such as jury verdicts. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322952

  12. Chlorhexidine for prevention of neonatal colonization with group B streptococci. II. Chlorhexidine concentrations and recovery of group B streptococci following vaginal washing in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dykes, A K; Christensen, K K; Christensen, P; Kahlmeter, G

    1983-11-01

    The effect of a single washing of the urogenital tract with 0.5 g/l chlorhexidine was studied in 6 women in weeks 38-40 of pregnancy, among whom 5 were carriers of group B streptococci in urethra and/or cervix. The chlorhexidine concentrations varied between 25 and 200 mg/l during the first hour after washing in 5 of the 6 women, whereas one patient showed concentrations below 25 mg/l. With the exception of one patient, all individuals showed concentrations less than 25 mg/l at 3-24 h after washing. A clear suppression of the number of colony-forming units of GBS was already apparent after 60 min and was still evident 6 h after chlorhexidine washing. PMID:6363152

  13. Effectiveness of a single education and counseling intervention in reducing anxiety in women undergoing hysterosalpingography: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    La Fianza, Alfredo; Dellafiore, Caterina; Travaini, Daniele; Broglia, Davide; Gambini, Francesca; Scudeller, Luigia; Tinelli, Carmine; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Brondino, Natascia

    2014-01-01

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is generally considered a stressful and painful procedure; we aimed to evaluate whether a single education and counseling intervention could reduce women's distress and pain after undergoing HSG for infertility. Patients were randomized into control group (n = 108) and intervention group (n = 109). All patients filled the following questionnaires before and after HSG: Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Z-SAS), Zung self-rating depression scale (Z-SDS), and an ad hoc questionnaire designed to evaluate HSG procedure knowledge. Pain was scored using a visual analog scale. The intervention consisted in a 45-minute individualised session 48 h before HSG. We observed a reduction of anxiety and depression scores in the intervention arm compared to the control group. After controlling for potential confounding variables, intervention was an independent predictor of the difference of Z-SAS score before and after HSG. This is the first randomised controlled trial to assess the potential effectiveness of a single education and counseling intervention to lower anxiety in a diagnostic setting. PMID:24574902

  14. Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.; Maibodi, M.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.

  15. The effectiveness of critical time intervention for abused women and homeless people leaving Dutch shelters: study protocol of two randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the main priorities of Dutch organisations providing shelter services is to develop evidence-based interventions in the care for abused women and homeless people. To date, most of these organisations have not used specific intervention models and the interventions which have been implemented rarely have an empirical and theoretical foundation. The present studies aim to examine the effectiveness of critical time intervention (CTI) for abused women and homeless people. Methods In two multi-centre randomised controlled trials we investigate whether CTI, a time-limited (nine month) outreach intervention, is more effective than care-as-usual for abused women and homeless people making the transition from shelter facilities to supported or independent housing. Participants were recruited in 19 women’s shelter facilities and 22 homeless shelter facilities across The Netherlands and randomly allocated to the intervention group (CTI) or the control group (care-as-usual). They were interviewed four times in nine months: once before leaving the shelter, and then at three, six and nine months after leaving the shelter. Quality of life (primary outcome for abused women) and recurrent loss of housing (primary outcome for homeless people) as well as secondary outcomes (e.g. care needs, self-esteem, loneliness, social support, substance use, psychological distress and service use) were assessed during the interviews. In addition, the model integrity of CTI was investigated during the data collection period. Discussion Based on international research CTI is expected to be an appropriate intervention for clients making the transition from institutional to community living. If CTI proves to be effective for abused women and homeless people, shelter services could include this case management model in their professional standards and improve the (quality of) services for clients. Trial registration NTR3463 and NTR3425 PMID:25927562

  16. Effect of whole-body vibration on calcaneal quantitative ultrasound measurements in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Slatkovska, Lubomira; Beyene, Joseph; Alibhai, Shabbir M H; Wong, Queenie; Sohail, Qazi Z; Cheung, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) on calcaneal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements; which has rarely been examined. We conducted a single-centre, 12-month, randomized controlled trial. 202 postmenopausal women with BMD T score between -1.0 and -2.5, not receiving bone medications, were asked to stand on a 0.3 g WBV platform oscillating at either 90- or 30-Hz for 20 consecutive minutes daily, or to serve as controls. Calcium and vitamin D was provided to all participants. Calcaneal broadband attenuation (BUA), speed of sound, and QUS index were obtained as pre-specified secondary endpoints at baseline and 12 months by using a Hologic Sahara Clinical Bone Sonometer. 12-months of WBV did not improve QUS parameters in any of our analyses. While most of our analyses showed no statistical differences between the WBV groups and the control group, mean calcaneal BUA decreased in the 90-Hz (-0.4 [95% CI -1.9 to 1.2] dB MHz(-1)) and 30-Hz (-0.7 [95% CI -2.3 to 0.8] dB MHz(-1)) WBV groups and increased in the control group (1.3 [95% CI 0.0-2.6] dB MHz(-1)). Decreases in BUA in the 90-, 30-Hz or combined WBV groups were statistically different from the control group in a few of the analyses including all randomized participants, as well as in analyses excluding participants who had missing QUS measurement and those who initiated hormone therapy or were <80% adherent. Although there are consistent trends, not all analyses reached statistical significance. 0.3 g WBV at 90 or 30 Hz prescribed for 20 min daily for 12 months did not improve any QUS parameters, but instead resulted in a statistically significant, yet small, decrease in calcaneal BUA in postmenopausal women in several analyses. These unexpected findings require further investigation. PMID:25388526

  17. Improving decision making about clinical trial participation – a randomised controlled trial of a decision aid for women considering participation in the IBIS-II breast cancer prevention trial

    PubMed Central

    Juraskova, I; Butow, P; Bonner, C; Bell, M L; Smith, A B; Seccombe, M; Boyle, F; Reaby, L; Cuzick, J; Forbes, J F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Decision aids may improve informed consent in clinical trial recruitment, but have not been evaluated in this context. This study investigated whether decision aids (DAs) can reduce decisional difficulties among women considering participation in the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II (IBIS-II) trial. Methods: The IBIS-II trial investigated breast cancer prevention with anastrazole in two cohorts: women with increased risk (Prevention), and women treated for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom participants were randomised to receive a DA (DA group) or standard trial consent materials (control group). Questionnaires were completed after deciding about participation in IBIS-II (post decision) and 3 months later (follow-up). Results: Data from 112 Prevention and 34 DCIS participants were analysed post decision (73 DA; 73 control); 95 Prevention and 24 DCIS participants were analysed at follow-up (58 DA; 61 control). There was no effect on the primary outcome of decisional conflict. The DCIS–DA group had higher knowledge post decision, and the Prevention-DA group had lower decisional regret at follow-up. Conclusions: This was the first study to evaluate a DA in the clinical trial setting. The results suggest DAs can potentially increase knowledge and reduce decisional regret about clinical trial participation. PMID:24892447

  18. Effect of berberine on insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: study protocol for a randomized multicenter controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and presence of polycystic ovaries on pelvic scanning. Insulin resistance is significantly associated with the long-term risks of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Berberine has effects on insulin resistance but its use in women with PCOS has not been fully investigated. In this paper, we present a research design evaluating the effects of berberine on insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Methods/design This is a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind trial. A total of 120 patients will be enrolled in this study and will be randomized into two groups. Berberine or placebo will be taken orally for 12 weeks. The primary outcome is the whole body insulin action assessed with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Discussion We postulate that women with PCOS will have improved insulin resistance following berberine administration. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01138930. PMID:23866924

  19. Fructose content of low calorie diets: effect on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Line K; Holven, Kirsten B; Nordstrand, Njord; Mellembakken, Jan R; Tanbo, Tom; Hjelmesæth, Jøran

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether a whole-grain crispbread (CB) low-fructose, low-calorie diet (LCD) might be superior to a traditional LCD based on fructose-rich liquid meal replacements (LMRs) with respect to improvement of various cardiometabolic risk factors and reproductive hormones. Parallel-group randomised controlled clinical trial. Morbidly obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) were randomised to either an 8-week CB-LCD or LMR-LCD (900–1100?kcal/day, fructose 17?g/day or 85?g/day). A total of 51 women completed the study. Body weight, fat mass and waist circumference reduced by mean (s.d.) 10.0 (4.8) kg, 7.4 (4.2) kg and 8.5 (4.4) cm, with no significant differences between groups. Total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and Apo-A1 were significantly reduced within both groups (all P values <0.01), with no significant between-group differences. The triacylglycerol and LDL-cholesterol levels were reduced within the LMR group only, with no significant between-group differences. Blood pressure and most measures of glucose metabolism improved significantly in both diet groups, with no significant between-group difference. Uric acid levels rose by 17.7 (46.4) and 30.6 (71.5) ?mol/l in the CB and LMR group, respectively, with no significant difference between groups. Gastrointestinal discomfort was significantly and equally reduced in both intervention groups. Free testosterone index was reduced in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. Morbidly obese women with PCOS who underwent either an 8-week low or high-fructose LCD-diet had similar changes in various cardiometabolic risk factors and reproductive hormones. Registration at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00779571. PMID:26138702

  20. Perceiving discrimination against one's gender group has different implications for well-being in women and men

    E-print Network

    Schmitt, Michael T.; Branscombe, Nyla R.; Kobrynowicz, D.; Owen, S.

    2002-02-01

    to reduce feelings of control precisely because they discount one?s own role in controlling outcomes across as wider variety of situations (Major & Crocker, 1993). Compared to privileged groups, members of disadvantaged groups are more likely... If recognizing discrimination and prejudice does harm psychological well-being in members of disadvantaged groups, how then do the disadvantaged cope with this harm? According to social identity Perceiving Gender Discrimination 8 theory, recognizing...

  1. PTS performance by flight- and control-group macaques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.

  2. Cabergoline for preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in women at risk undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment cycles: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    K?l?ç, Niyazi; Özdemir, Özhan; Ba?ar, Hakan Cevdet; Demircan, Fadime; Ekmez, F?rat; Yücel, O?uz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the most serious and potentially life-threatening iatrogenic complication associated with ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technology protocols. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of dopamine agonist as a preventive strategy of OHSS in women at high risk in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatment cycles. Methods: Seventy women at risk to develop OHSS undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment cycle were included. The study group received 0.5 mg of cabergoline for 8 days from the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration in comparison to those who undergo no treatment for the prevention of OHSS. The reduction of the incidence of OHSS was the primary outcome. Results: The actual incidence of OHSS was 8.33% in the cabergoline group and 20.58% in the control group. Thus, the incidence of OHSS was significantly reduced, by almost 60%, in the cabergoline group in comparison with the control group (relative ratios: 0.4, 95% confidence interval: 0.18–0.79). Conclusion: Prophylactic treatment with the dopamine agonist, cabergoline, reduces the incidence of OHSS in women at high risk undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. However, the effects of cabergoline on important outcomes, namely, live birth, miscarriage, and congenital abnormalities are still uncertain. PMID:26629467

  3. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Gallbladder Disease: A Hospital-based Case-Control Study in Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Jessri, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gallbladder disease is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders that may result from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. This study examined the association of dietary patterns with gallstone disease among Iranian women. This case-control study was conducted in general teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Participants were 101 female cases and 204 female controls aged 40-65 years who were admitted for problems other than GBD. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis based on food frequency questionnaire. Compared to the control group, cases were less educated, less physically active, and consumed more total energy (p<0.02). Having ?3 livebirths increased the risk of gallstone by more than 5 times, followed by having rapid weight loss, being single, having familial history of gallstone, and consuming high total energy. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified in women (healthy and unhealthy). After adjustment for several confounding variables, healthy dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of gallstone disease (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.048-0.4) while unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk (OR=3.77, 95% CI 1.52-9.36). These findings confirm that dietary pattern approach provides potentially useful and relevant information on the relationship between diet and disease. Identifying risk factors will provide an opportunity for prevention of gallbladder disease in developing countries facing an increased risk of obesity. PMID:25995720

  4. Dietary patterns and risk of gallbladder disease: a hospital-based case-control study in adult women.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2015-03-01

    Gallbladder disease is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders that may result from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. This study examined the association of dietary patterns with gallstone disease among Iranian women. This case-control study was conducted in general teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Participants were 101 female cases and 204 female controls aged 40-65 years who were admitted for problems other than GBD. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis based on food frequency questionnaire. Compared to the control group, cases were less educated, less physically active, and consumed more total energy (p<0.02). Having ? 3 livebirths increased the risk of gallstone by more than 5 times, followed by having rapid weight loss, being single, having familial history of gallstone, and consuming high total energy. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified in women (healthy and unhealthy). After adjustment for several confounding variables, healthy dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of gallstone disease (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.048-0.4) while unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk (OR=3.77, 95% CI 1.52-9.36). These findings confirm that dietary pattern approach provides potentially useful and relevant information on the relationship between diet and disease. Identifying risk factors will provide an opportunity for prevention of gallbladder disease in developing countries facing an increased risk of obesity. PMID:25995720

  5. MaiMwana women's groups: a community mobilisation intervention to improve mother and child health and reduce mortality in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Rosato, Mikey; Mwansambo, Charles; Lewycka, Sonia; Kazembe, Peter; Phiri, Tambosi; Malamba, Florida; Newell, Marie-Louise; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony

    2010-12-01

    This article presents a detailed description of a community mobilization intervention involving women's groups in Mchinji District, Malawi. The intervention was implemented between 2005 and 2010. The intervention aims to build the capacities of communities to take control of the mother and child health issues that affect them. To achieve this it comprises trained local female facilitators establishing groups and using a manual, participatory rural appraisal tools and picture cards to guide them through a community action cycle to identify and implement solutions to mother and child health problems. Significant resource inputs include salaries for facilitators and supervisors, and training, equipment and materials to support their work with groups. It is hypothesized that the groups will catalyse community collective action to address mother and child health issues and improve the health and reduce the mortality of mothers and children. Their impact, implementation and cost-effectiveness have been rigorously evaluated through a randomized controlled trial design. The results of these evaluations will be reported in 2011. PMID:21977831

  6. Stress, Locus of Control, and Age in College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Colleen; Seal, Justine

    Stress is the result of demand placed on the body by either positive or negative events. Locus of Control (LOC) refers to personal perception of the cause of events and reinforcement within the environment. Previous literature has indicated that low LOC scores are positively related to low stress scores. This study applied these concepts to female…

  7. Antioxidative Activity of Onion Peel Extract in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yim, Jung-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have anticholesterol, antithrombotic and insulin-sensitizing properties. Here, we investigated the effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidative defense in obese woman. Methods: This study was randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy obese participants were randomly assigned that eighteen subjects received red soft capsuled OPE (100 mg/d, 50 mg bis in die), while the other nineteen subjects received same capsuled placebo for 12 weeks. ROS production and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma were determined by using ROS and SOD assay kits, respectively. Results: Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. Compared with baseline values, OPE consumption significantly reduced waist and hip circumference. Plasma ROS level and SOD activity were decreased in both placebo and OPE groups compared with baseline values. However, plasma ROS level in OPE group was significantly lower than in placebo group while plasma SOD activity in OPE group was significantly higher than in placebo group after 12 weeks of consumption. Conclusions: These findings indicate that OPE consumption may exert antioxidative effect by preventing the decrease of SOD activity as well as the production of ROS in obese women. PMID:26473159

  8. Effects of Stellate Ganglion Block on Vasomotor Symptoms: Findings from a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Walega, David R.; Rubin, Leah H.; Banuvar, Suzanne; Shulman, Lee P.; Maki, Pauline M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Uncontrolled intervention studies, including studies involving breast cancer survivors, have demonstrated improvements in vasomotor symptoms (VMS) following stellate ganglion blockade (SGB) with local anesthetic. This study presents the first randomized, sham-controlled trial of SGB for the treatment of VMS. Methods Participants included 40 postmenopausal women aged 30 to 70 years with moderate-to-severe VMS. The design was a randomized, sham-controlled trial comparing the effect of SGB versus sham injection on the frequency of total and moderate-to-severe VMS as measured by daily diaries. Image-guided SGB was performed with 0.5% bupivacaine 5 mL. Sham injection of saline was performed in the subcutaneous tissue in the neck. VMS were recorded at baseline and for six months thereafter. Objective VMS were recorded using ambulatory sternal skin conductance monitoring over a 24-hour period at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Results There were no significant group differences in overall VMS frequency, but the frequency of moderate-to-very severe VMS was reduced more in the active compared to sham treatment group, RR 0.50, CI 0.35–0.71, p<0.001. The frequency of objective VMS was also reduced to a greater degree in the SGB group compared to the sham group (RR 0.71, CI 0.64–0.99, p<0.05). There were no study-related serious adverse events. Conclusions SGB may provide an effective treatment for VMS in women who seek non-hormonal therapies due to safety concerns and personal preference. The finding that SGB significantly reduces objectively measured VMS provides further evidence of efficacy. A larger trial is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:24496086

  9. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  10. Ibuprofen versus fosfomycin for uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bleidorn, Jutta; Kochen, Michael M; Schmiemann, Guido; Wegscheider, Karl; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Study question Can treatment of the symptoms of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) with ibuprofen reduce the rate of antibiotic prescriptions without a significant increase in symptoms, recurrences, or complications? Methods Women aged 18-65 with typical symptoms of UTI and without risk factors or complications were recruited in 42 German general practices and randomly assigned to treatment with a single dose of fosfomycin 3 g (n=246; 243 analysed) or ibuprofen 3×400 mg (n=248; 241 analysed) for three days (and the respective placebo dummies in both groups). In both groups additional antibiotic treatment was subsequently prescribed as necessary for persistent, worsening, or recurrent symptoms. The primary endpoints were the number of all courses of antibiotic treatment on days 0-28 (for UTI or other conditions) and burden of symptoms on days 0-7. The symptom score included dysuria, frequency/urgency, and low abdominal pain. Study answer and limitations The 248 women in the ibuprofen group received significantly fewer course of antibiotics, had a significantly higher total burden of symptoms, and more had pyelonephritis. Four serious adverse events occurred that lead to hospital referrals; one of these was potentially related to the trial drug. Results have to be interpreted carefully as they might apply to women with mild to moderate symptoms rather than to all those with an uncomplicated UTI. What this paper adds Two thirds of women with uncomplicated UTI treated symptomatically with ibuprofen recovered without any antibiotics. Initial symptomatic treatment is a possible approach to be discussed with women willing to avoid immediate antibiotics and to accept a somewhat higher burden of symptoms. Funding, competing interests, data sharing German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) No 01KG1105. Patient level data are available from the corresponding author. Patient consent was not obtained but the data are anonymised and risk of identification is low. Trial registration No ClinicalTrialGov Identifier NCT01488955. PMID:26698878

  11. Fast controlled unitary protocols using group or quasigroup structures

    E-print Network

    Li Yu

    2013-03-12

    A nonlocal bipartite unitary gate can sometimes be implemented using prior entanglement and only one round of classical communication in which the two parties send messages to each other simultaneously. This cuts the classical communication time by a half compared to the usual protocols, which require back-and-forth classical communication. We introduce such a "fast" protocol that can implement a class of controlled unitaries exactly, where the controlled operators form a subset of a projective representation of a finite group, which may be Abelian or non-Abelian. The entanglement cost is only related to the size of the group and is independent of the dimension of the systems. We also introduce a second fast protocol that can implement any given controlled unitary approximately. This protocol uses the algebraic structure of right quasigroups, which are generalizations of quasigroups, the latter being equivalent to Latin squares. This second protocol could optionally use shared classical randomness as a resource, in addition to using entanglement. When compared with other known fast unitary protocols, the entanglement cost of this second protocol is lower for general controlled unitaries except for some rare cases.

  12. An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, Sherryl A.; Robinson, John W. . E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S.; Keats, Melanie R.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

  13. Recruitment and retention of women in a large randomized control trial to reduce repeat preterm births: the Philadelphia Collaborative Preterm Prevention Project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of patients for randomized control trial (RCT) studies can provide formidable challenges, particularly with minority and underserved populations. Data are reported for the Philadelphia Collaborative Preterm Prevention Project (PCPPP), a large RCT targeting risk factors for repeat preterm births among women who previously delivered premature (< 35 weeks gestation) infants. Methods Design of the PCPPP incorporated strategies to maximize recruitment and retention. These included an advanced database system tracking follow-up status and assessment completion rates; cultural sensitivity training for staff; communication to the community and eligible women of the benefits of participation; financial incentives; assistance with transportation and supervised childcare services; and reminder calls for convenient, flexibly scheduled appointments. Analyses reported here: 1) compare recruitment projections to actual enrollment 2) explore recruitment bias; 3) validate the randomization process 4) document the extent to which contact was maintained and complete assessments achieved 5) determine if follow-up was conditioned upon socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, or other factors. Results Of eligible women approached, 1,126 (77.7%) agreed to participate fully. Of the 324 not agreeing, 118 (36.4%) completed a short survey. Consenting women were disproportionately from minority and low SES backgrounds: 71.5% consenting were African American, versus 38.8% not consenting. Consenting women were also more likely to report homelessness during their lifetime (14.6% vs. 0.87%) and to be unmarried at the time of delivery (81.6% versus 47.9%). First one-month postpartum assessment was completed for 83.5% (n = 472) of the intervention group (n = 565) and 76% (426) of the control group. Higher assessment completion rates were observed for the intervention group throughout the follow-up. Second, third, fourth and fifth postpartum assessments were 67.6% vs. 57.5%, 60.0% vs. 48.9%, 54.2% vs. 46.3% and 47.3% vs. 40.8%, for the intervention and control group women, respectively. There were no differences in follow-up rates according to race/ethnicity, SES or other factors. Greater retention of the intervention group may reflect the highly-valued nature of the medical and behavior services constituting the intervention arms of the Project. Conclusion Findings challenge beliefs that low income and minority women are averse to enrolling and continuing in clinical trials or community studies. PMID:20920265

  14. Primary carrier sites of group B streptococci in pregnant women correlated with serotype distributions and maternal parity.

    PubMed Central

    Islam, A K

    1981-01-01

    Perianal, perineal, vulval, and vaginal swabs from women attending an antenatal clinic were quantitatively cultured for group B streptococci using Islam's medium. The isolation rates from the four sites were very similar with an overall carriage rate of 21%. The findings suggest that the type II strains, a faecal flora, probably colonise the perianal site from a faecal source, and that the type III strains colonise primarily the genital site and then spread to the perineoperianal region. The type I strains did not conform to any pattern, suggesting a possible secondary involvement of these sites from another source. The types I, R, X, and non-typable isolates were almost exclusively isolated from primigravidae and second gravidae; the type III strains were conspicuously absent in 47 primigravidae. The primigravidae and second gravidae women consistently had high colony counts. PMID:7007446

  15. Claiming Your Connections: A Psychosocial Group Intervention Study of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.

    2009-01-01

    The emergent psychosocial competence practice model in mental health represents an innovative strengths-based paradigm with potential relevance and applicability to black college women struggling with problems of psychological and social adjustment. Using an experimental design, with pre- and posttest measures, this study investigated the…

  16. Gender, Discrimination Beliefs, Group-Based Guilt, and Responses to Affirmative Action for Australian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckmann, Robert J.; Feather, N. T.

    2007-01-01

    Views of a selection committee's decision to promote a woman over a man on the basis of affirmative action were studied in a random sample of Australians (118 men and 111 women). The relations between perceptions of workplace gender discrimination, feelings of collective responsibility and guilt for discrimination, and judgments of entitlement to…

  17. Effects of organized aerobic group training in elderly patients discharged after an acute coronary syndrome. A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ståhle, A; Nordlander, R; Rydén, L; Mattsson, E

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological effects of an individually adjusted outpatient group training programme to the standardized recommendations of walking in elderly patients (>65 years) discharged after an acute coronary episode. In all, 101 patients, 20 women and 81 men, aged 65-84 (mean 71) years, were randomized either to a supervised outpatient group training programme during three months (n = 50) or to a control group (n = 51). Exercise tolerance increased from 104 watts to 122 watts (p < 0.001) in the training group and from 102 watts to 105 watts (n.s.) in the control group. Self-estimated level of physical activity was higher in the patients in the training group than in the control group (p < 0.001), as was graded well-being (p < 0.05). Organized aerobic group training can easily be performed in elderly patients after acute coronary syndrome, with results of improved exercise tolerance and a higher self graded well-being. PMID:10380726

  18. Differences in muscle activity during hand-dexterity tasks between women with arthritis and a healthy reference group

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired hand function is common in patients with arthritis and it affects performance of daily activities; thus, hand exercises are recommended. There is little information on the extent to which the disease affects activation of the flexor and extensor muscles during these hand-dexterity tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation during such tasks in subjects with arthritis and in a healthy reference group. Methods Muscle activation was measured in m. extensor digitorium communis (EDC) and in m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR) with surface electromyography (EMG) in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n?=?20), hand osteoarthritis (HOA, n?=?16) and in a healthy reference group (n?=?20) during the performance of four daily activity tasks and four hand exercises. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was measured to enable intermuscular comparisons, and muscle activation is presented as %MVIC. Results The arthritis group used a higher %MVIC than the reference group in both FCR and EDC when cutting with a pair of scissors, pulling up a zipper and—for the EDC—also when writing with a pen and using a key (p?Women with arthritis tend to use higher levels of muscle activation in daily tasks than healthy women, and wrist extensors and flexors appear to be equally affected. It is important that hand training programs reflect real-life situations and focus also on extensor strength. PMID:24886491

  19. Identification of psychobiological stressors among HIV-positive women. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center (HNRC) Group.

    PubMed

    Semple, S J; Patterson, T L; Temoshok, L R; McCutchan, J A; Straits-Tröster, K A; Chandler, J L; Grant, I

    1993-01-01

    This research describes major stressors in the lives of women who have been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thirty-one HIV antibody positive (HIV+) women infected primarily through heterosexual contact participated in a two hour semi-structured interview detailing the circumstances, context, and consequences of all stressful life events and difficulties experienced within the preceding six months. Qualitative methods of data analyses were utilized (Miles & Huberman, 1984). HIV-related life events and difficulties were classified into primary and secondary stressors based on the stress process model (Pearlin et al., 1981). Problems arising directly from one's seropositivity were defined as primary stressors. Stressful life events and difficulties occurring in other role areas were defined as secondary stressors. Six categories of HIV-related stressors were identified and quantified. Primary stressors were health-related, and included both gynecological problems (e.g., amenorrhea) and general symptoms of HIV infection (e.g., fatigue). Secondary stressors related to child and family (e.g., future guardianship of children), marital/partner relations (e.g., disclosure of HIV+ status), occupation (e.g., arranging time-off for medical appointments), economic problems (e.g., insurance "hassles"), and social network events (e.g., death of friends from AIDS). This research indicates that HIV-positive women are exposed to multiple stressors; some may be viewed as unique to women, whereas others may be considered common to both sexes. Identification of stressors has implications for the design of medical and psychiatric interventions for women. PMID:8171874

  20. Induction of labour versus expectant management for nulliparous women over 35 years of age: a multi-centre prospective, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background British women are increasingly delaying childbirth. The proportion giving birth over the age of 35 rose from 12% in 1996 to 20% in 2006. Women over this age are at a higher risk of perinatal death, and antepartum stillbirth accounts for 61% of all such deaths. Women over 40 years old have a similar stillbirth risk at 39 weeks as women who are between 25 and 29 years old have at 41 weeks. Many obstetricians respond to this by suggesting labour induction at term to forestall some of the risk. In a national survey of obstetricians 37% already induce women aged 40–44 years. A substantial minority of parents support such a policy, but others do not on the grounds that it might increase the risk of Caesarean section. However trials of induction in other high-risk scenarios have not shown any increase in Caesarean sections, rather the reverse. If induction for women over 35 did not increase Caesareans, or even reduced them, it would plausibly improve perinatal outcome and be an acceptable intervention. We therefore plan to perform a trial to test the effect of such an induction policy on Caesarean section rates. This trial is funded by the NHS Research for Patient Benefit (RfPB) Programme. Design The 35/39 trial is a multi-centre, prospective, randomised controlled trial. It is being run in twenty UK centres and we aim to recruit 630 nulliparous women (315 per group) aged over 35 years of age, over two years. Women will be randomly allocated to one of two groups: Induction of labour between 390/7 and 396/7 weeks gestation. Expectant management i.e. awaiting spontaneous onset of labour unless a situation develops necessitating either induction of labour or Caesarean Section. The primary purpose of this trial is to establish what effect a policy of induction of labour at 39 weeks for nulliparous women of advanced maternal age has on the rate of Caesarean section deliveries. The secondary aim is to act as a pilot study for a trial to answer the question, does induction of labour in this group of women improve perinatal outcomes? Randomisation will occur at 360/7 – 396/7 weeks gestation via a computerised randomisation programme at the Clinical Trials Unit, University of Nottingham. There will be no blinding to treatment allocation. Discussion The 35/39 trial is powered to detect an effect of induction of labour on the risk of caesarean section, it is underpowered to determine whether it improves perinatal outcome. The current study will also act as a pilot for a larger study to address this question. Trial registration ISRCTN11517275 PMID:23231750

  1. Challenging controlling images, oppression, poverty and other structural constraints: Survival strategies among African American women in distressed households

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Powerful controlling images perpetuate misguided messages about impoverished African American women that contribute to the oppression these women endure. These images inform policies and behavior that create and maintain structural barriers such as lack of access to education and meaningful employment further marginalizing oppressed individuals. This article uses in-depth interview data to analyze interlocking oppressions in the lived experience of impoverished African American women. The authentic women’s voices presented serve as a counter narrative of resistance. Our larger goal in writing this paper is to encourage the public, policy makers, service providers and impoverished African American women themselves to fight against controlling images by deconstructing personal biases, educating the public, and developing culturally congruent interventions to social problems. PMID:23555317

  2. Benefits of short-term structured exercise in non-overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Volkan; Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Solmaz, Ulas; Ekin, Atalay; Tosun, Ozge; Tosun, Gokhan; Mat, Emre; Gezer, Cenk; Malkoc, Mehtap

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The short-term effects of structured exercise on the anthropometric, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters of non-overweight women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome were evaluated. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty women with a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome were prospectively randomized to either a control group (n=16) or a training group (n=14) for a period of 8 weeks. Anthropometric, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters and hormone levels were measured and compared before and after the intervention. [Results] Waist and hip measurements (anthropometric parameters); diastolic blood pressure; respiratory rate (cardiovascular parameters); levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin; and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (metabolic parameters) were significantly lower in the training group after 8 weeks of exercise compared to the baseline values. After exercise, the training group had significantly higher oxygen consumption and high-density lipoprotein levels and significantly shorter menstrual cycle intervals. The corresponding values for controls did not significantly differ between the start and end of the 8-week experiment. [Conclusion] Short-term regular exercise programs can lead to improvements in anthropometric, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters of non-overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:26311969

  3. Women and tobacco control policies: social-structural and psychosocial contributions to vulnerability to tobacco use and exposure.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Lorraine; Hemsing, Natalie

    2009-10-01

    This article explores the psychosocial and social-structural vulnerability in relation to women's tobacco use, smoke exposure and responses to policy, and examines these issues in the context of women's lives and roles, describing forward looking strategies that could improve research and equity in outcomes for women. Various literatures on smoking among women and girls, and how women and sub-populations of women respond to tobacco control policies are reviewed. Specific sub-populations exhibiting more tobacco use and exposure are described, such as young pregnant and mothering women and low-income women. Emerging evidence also reveals links between smoking and experiences such as childhood sexual abuse, interpersonal violence, post-traumatic stress disorder, mental health issues and alcohol and drug dependence. Varied sub-populations of women respond in different ways to price and taxation, sales restrictions and location restrictions. However, tobacco control policies have, to date, been fashioned as broad instruments, not taking into account social context, trauma backgrounds, gendered roles such as mothering, unequal power relations affecting women in relationships and workplaces, and differences in access to resources and social support. When these issues are considered, the implications for tobacco policy development include: widening the policy purview, accounting for uneven and differential responses to policies, committing to an ethical framework, extending sex, gender and diversity based analyses, and improving research methods and approaches. PMID:19520523

  4. Indicators of glycemic control in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kunihiko; Koga, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has become clear that mild abnormal glucose tolerance increases the incidence of perinatal maternal-infant complications, and so the definition and diagnostic criteria of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been changed. Therefore, in patients with GDM and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus, even stricter glycemic control than before is required to reduce the incidence of perinatal maternal-infant complications. Strict glycemic control cannot be attained without an indicator of glycemic control; this review proposes a reliable indicator. The gold standard indicator of glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus is hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); however, we have demonstrated that HbA1c does not reflect glycemic control accurately during pregnancy because of iron deficiency. It has also become clear that glycated albumin, another indicator of glycemic control, is not influenced by iron deficiency and therefore might be a better indicator of glycemic control in patients with GDM and pregnant women with diabetes mellitus. However, large-population epidemiological studies are necessary in order to confirm our proposal. Here, we outline the most recent findings about the indicators of glycemic control during pregnancy including fructosamine and 1,5-anhydroglucitol. PMID:26240701

  5. Functional Fitness and Self-Reported Quality of Life of Older Women Diagnosed with Knee Osteoarthrosis: A Cross-Sectional Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Paula Andréa Malveira; Doro, Márcio Roberto; Suzuki, Frank Shiguemitsu; Rica, Roberta Luksevicius; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Pontes Junior, Francisco Luciano; Evangelista, Alexandre Lopes; Figueira Junior, Aylton José; Baker, Julien Steven; Bocalini, Danilo Sales

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Utilizing a cross-sectional case control design, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional fitness and self-reported quality of life differences in older people diagnosed with knee osteoarthrosis (O) who participated in health promotion groups. Methods. Ninety older women were distributed into two groups: control without O of the knee (C, n = 40) and a group diagnosed with primary and secondary knee O with grade II or higher, with definite osteophytes (OA, n = 50). Functional fitness was evaluated by specific tests, and the time spent in physical activity and quality of life was evaluated by the IPAQ and WHOQOL (distributed in four domains: physical: P, psychological: PS, social: S, and environmental: E) domain questionnaires. Results. No differences were found between ages of groups (C: 66 ± 7; OA: 67 ± 9; years). The values of the chair stand test (rep) in the OA (13 ± 5) group were different when compared to C group (22 ± 5). For the 6-minute walk test (meters), the values obtained for the C (635 ± 142) were higher (P < 0.01) than the OA (297 ± 143) group. The time spent in physical activity (min) was greater (P < 0.001) in the control (220 ± 12) group compared to OA (100 ± 10) group. Higher values (P < 0.001) in all domains were found in the C (P: 69 ± 16, PS: 72 ± 17, S: 67 ± 15, E: 70 ± 15) group compared to OA (P: 48 ± 7, PS: 43 ± 8, S: 53 ± 13, E: 47 ± 14) group. Conclusion. Our data suggests that knee O, in older women, can promote a decline in time spent performing physical activity and functional fitness with decline in quality of life with an increase in sitting time. PMID:26346896

  6. Functional Fitness and Self-Reported Quality of Life of Older Women Diagnosed with Knee Osteoarthrosis: A Cross-Sectional Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Paula Andréa Malveira; Doro, Márcio Roberto; Suzuki, Frank Shiguemitsu; Rica, Roberta Luksevicius; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Pontes Junior, Francisco Luciano; Evangelista, Alexandre Lopes; Figueira Junior, Aylton José; Baker, Julien Steven; Bocalini, Danilo Sales

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Utilizing a cross-sectional case control design, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional fitness and self-reported quality of life differences in older people diagnosed with knee osteoarthrosis (O) who participated in health promotion groups. Methods. Ninety older women were distributed into two groups: control without O of the knee (C, n = 40) and a group diagnosed with primary and secondary knee O with grade II or higher, with definite osteophytes (OA, n = 50). Functional fitness was evaluated by specific tests, and the time spent in physical activity and quality of life was evaluated by the IPAQ and WHOQOL (distributed in four domains: physical: P, psychological: PS, social: S, and environmental: E) domain questionnaires. Results. No differences were found between ages of groups (C: 66 ± 7; OA: 67 ± 9; years). The values of the chair stand test (rep) in the OA (13 ± 5) group were different when compared to C group (22 ± 5). For the 6-minute walk test (meters), the values obtained for the C (635 ± 142) were higher (P < 0.01) than the OA (297 ± 143) group. The time spent in physical activity (min) was greater (P < 0.001) in the control (220 ± 12) group compared to OA (100 ± 10) group. Higher values (P < 0.001) in all domains were found in the C (P: 69 ± 16, PS: 72 ± 17, S: 67 ± 15, E: 70 ± 15) group compared to OA (P: 48 ± 7, PS: 43 ± 8, S: 53 ± 13, E: 47 ± 14) group. Conclusion. Our data suggests that knee O, in older women, can promote a decline in time spent performing physical activity and functional fitness with decline in quality of life with an increase in sitting time. PMID:26346896

  7. Looking at Infertility Treatment through The Lens of The Meaning of Life: The Effect of Group Logotherapy on Psychological Distress in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Khodabakshi Koolee, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women in particular suffer from psychological stress when diagnosed with infertility. Psychosocial interventions are known to not only prevent and lessen various mental problems, but also to play a positive role in physical health and pregnancy rates. The aim of this study is to determine the unique impact of spiritual psychotherapy on concerns about infertility and their perceived psychological stresses. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study population included nearly 800 infertile couples who attended the Maternity and Gynecology Clinic of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran. We enrolled65 people who were randomly divided into two groups, experimental (n=33)and control (n=32). The experimental group received spiritual group psychotherapy counseling for 12 sessions, 2 hours per week for a 3 months period. The control group did not receive any intervention, but due to ethical considerations, we gave a presentation (one session) about infertility treatment for this group after the research process was completed. We used two questionnaires to obtain data, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Data analysis was done by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS 16 software. Results: Psychological intervention in the treatment group significantly decreased the PSWQ (p=0.004). There were significant differences in the mean score of the PSWQ in both groups as determined by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA; p=0.009). Psychological intervention in the treatment group decreased the level of perceived stress, when compared with the control group. According to ANCOVA there were significant differences between the mean PSS scores of both groups (p=0.01). Conclusion: Logotherapy is related to stress reduction and can decrease psychiatric symptoms of worry and perceived stress. This approach tends to improve an infertile person's ability to deal with their problem of finding the meaning of life. Thus it can be concluded that logotherapy along with other treatment methods, is a useful approach for infertile couples (Registration Number:IRCT201108247407N2). PMID:24520444

  8. Retaining women in a prenatal care randomized controlled trial in Canada: implications for program planning

    PubMed Central

    Tough, Suzanne C; Siever, Jodi E; Johnston, David W

    2007-01-01

    Background: Challenges to retention in prenatal care seem to exist under both universal systems of care, as in Canada, and non-universal systems of care, as in the United States. However, among populations being served by a system of publicly funded health care, the barriers are less well understood and universal uptake of prenatal services has not been realized. Determining the characteristics of women who dropped out of a prenatal care randomized controlled trial can help identify those who may need alternate retention and service approaches. Methods: In this study, pregnant women were randomized to: a) current standard of care; b) 'a' plus nursing support; or c) 'b' plus a paraprofessional home visitor. 16% of 2,015 women did not complete all three telephone interviews (197 dropped out and 124 became unreachable). Responders were compared to non-responders on demographics, lifestyle, psychosocial factors, and life events using chi-squared tests. Logistic regression models were constructed using stepwise logistic regression to determine the probability of not completing the prenatal program. Results: Completion rates did not differ by intervention. In comparison to responders, non-responders were more likely to be younger, less educated, have lower incomes, smoke, have low social support, have a history of depression, and have separated or divorced parents (all p < 0.05). Unreachable women were more likely to be single, use drugs, report distress and adverse life events (all p < 0.05). Non-Caucasian women were more likely to drop out (p = 0.002). Logistic regression modeling indicated that independent key risk factors for dropping out were: less than high school education, separated or divorced parents, lower social support, and being non-Caucasian. Pregnant women who were single/separated/divorced, less than 25 years old, had less than high school education, earned less than $40,000 in annual household income, and/or smoked had greater odds of becoming unreachable at some point during pregnancy and not completing the study. Conclusion: Women at risk due to lifestyle and challenging circumstances were difficult to retain in a prenatal care study, regardless of the intervention. For women with complex health, lifestyle and social issues, lack of retention may reflect incongruence between their needs and the program. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN64070727 PMID:17617914

  9. Randomized controlled trial to test the RHANI Wives HIV intervention for women in India at risk for HIV from husbands.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Naik, D D; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta

    2013-11-01

    This study involved evaluation of the short-term impact of the RHANI Wives HIV intervention among wives at risk for HIV from husbands in Mumbai, India. A two-armed cluster RCT was conducted with 220 women surveyed on marital sex at baseline and 4-5 month follow-up. RHANI Wives was a multisession intervention focused on safer sex, marital communication, gender inequities and violence; control participants received basic HIV prevention education. Generalized linear mixed models were conducted to assess program impact, with cluster as a random effect and with time, treatment group, and the time by treatment interaction as fixed effects. A significant time by treatment effect on proportion of unprotected sex with husband (p = 0.01) was observed, and the rate of unprotected sex for intervention participants was lower than that of control participants at follow-up (RR = 0.83, 95 % CI = 0.75, 0.93). RHANI Wives is a promising model for women at risk for HIV from husbands. PMID:23921584

  10. Multilocus Heterozygosity and Coronary Heart Disease: Nested Case-Control Studies in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Pers, Tune H.; Pai, Jennifer K.; Kraft, Peter; Rimm, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Generalized allelic heterozygosity has been proposed to improve reproductive fitness and has been associated with higher blood pressure, but its association with chronic disease is not well characterized. Methods Using the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human 6.0 array, we performed whole genome scans in parallel case-control studies of coronary heart disease (CHD) nested in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Nurses’ Health Study. We examined ~700,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 435 men with incident CHD and 878 matched controls and 435 women with incident CHD with 931 matched controls. We examined the relationship of genome-wide heterozygosity with risk of incident of CHD and with baseline levels of cardiovascular risk factors. Results In both cohorts, approximately 227650 (SD 2000) SNPs were heterozygous. The number of heterozygous SNPs was not related to risk of CHD in either men or women (adjusted odds ratios per 2000 heterozygous SNPs 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 0.91-1.13] in women and 0.94 [0.84-1.06] in men). We also found no consistent associations of genome-wide heterozygosity with levels of lipids, inflammatory markers, adhesion molecules, homocysteine, adiponectin, or body-mass index. Conclusions In these parallel nested case-control studies, we found no relationship of multilocus heterozygosity with risk of CHD or its major risk factors. Studies in other populations are needed to rule out associations with lower levels of heterozygosity. PMID:25970579

  11. Factors Controlling ?-Elimination Reactions in Group?10 Metal Complexes.

    PubMed

    Sosa Carrizo, E Daiann; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Fernández, Israel

    2015-10-01

    Trends in reactivity of ?-chloride and ?-hydride elimination reactions involving Group?10 transition-metal complexes have been computationally explored and analyzed in detail by DFT. These reactions do not require the initial formation of a vacant coordination site; they proceed concertedly without a prior ligand-dissociation step. Whereas ?-chloride elimination is associated with relatively moderate activation barriers, the high barriers calculated for analogous ?-hydride eliminations suggest that the latter process is unfeasible for this type of compounds. This differential behavior is analyzed within the activation strain model, which provides quantitative insight into the physical factors controlling these ?-elimination reactions. The effects of the nature of the Group?10 transition metal (Ni, Pd, Pt), as well as the substituents attached to the ?-eliminating fragment (R2 C?CR2 X; R, X=H, Cl) on the transformation have also been considered and are rationalized herein. PMID:26382722

  12. Can weight loss improve migraine headaches in obese women? Rationale and design of the WHAM randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; O’Leary, Kevin C.; Thomas, J. Graham; Lipton, Richard B.; Papandonatos, George D.; Roth, Julie; Rathier, Lucille; Daniello, Richard; Wing, Rena R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research demonstrates a link between migraine and obesity. Obesity increases the risk of frequent migraines and is associated with migraine prevalence among reproductive-aged women. These findings are substantiated by several plausible mechanisms and emerging evidence of migraine improvements after surgical and non-surgical weight loss. However, no previous study has examined the effect of weight loss on migraine within a treatment-controlled framework. The WHAM trial is a RCT to test the efficacy of behavioral weight loss as a treatment for migraine. Study design Overweight/obese women (n=140; BMI=25.0–49.9 kg/m2) who meet international diagnostic criteria for migraine and record ?3 migraines and 4–20 migraine days using a smartphone-based headache diary during a 4-week baseline period, will be randomly assigned to 4 months of either group-based behavioral weight loss (intervention) or migraine education (control). Intervention participants will be taught strategies to increase physical activity and consume fewer calories in order to lose weight. Control participants will receive general education on migraine symptoms/triggers and various treatment approaches. Both groups will use smartphones to record their headaches for 4 weeks at baseline, after the 16-week treatment period, and at the end of a 16-week follow-up period. Changes in weight and other potential physiological (inflammation), psychological (depression), and behavioral (diet and physical activity) mediators of the intervention effect will also be assessed. Conclusion The WHAM trial will evaluate the efficacy of a standardized behavioral weight loss intervention for reducing migraine frequency, and the extent to which weight loss and other potential mediators account for intervention effects. PMID:23524340

  13. Spiritual Therapy to Improve the Spiritual Well-Being of Iranian Women with Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Najmeh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Emami, Hamid; Loghmani, Amir; Jafari, Nooshin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of spiritual therapy intervention in improving the spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL) of Iranian women with breast cancer. Methods. This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) recruited 65 women with breast cancer, randomly assigned to a 6-week spirituality-based intervention (n = 34) or control group (n = 31). Before and after six-week spiritual therapy intervention, spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL) were assessed using Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-being scale (FACIT-Sp12) and cancer quality-of-life questionnaire (QLQ-C30), respectively. t-test, Paired t-test, pearson's correlation, and hierarchical regression analyses were used for analysis using Predictive Analytic software (PASW, version 18) for Windows. Results. After six spiritual therapy sessions, the mean spiritual well-being score from 29.76 (SD = 6.63) to 37.24 (SD = 3.52) in the intervention group (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between arms of study (F = 22.91, P < 0.001). A significant positive correlation was detected between meaning and peace with all subscales of functional subscales on European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of Life (EORTC QLQ-C30) (P < 0.05). Hierarchical regression analyses of participants indicated that the study arm, pain, and financial impact were significant predictors of spiritual well-being and overall QOL. Social functioning was another significant predictor of spiritual well-being. Conclusion. The results of this randomized controlled trial study suggest that participation in spiritual therapy program is associated with improvements in spiritual well-being and QOL. Targeted interventions to acknowledge and incorporate spiritual needs into conventional treatment should be considered in caring of Iranian patients with breast cancer. PMID:24023572

  14. Oxidative Stress Responses to Nigella sativa Oil Concurrent with a Low-Calorie Diet in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Namazi, Nazli; Mahdavi, Reza; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Farajnia, Safar

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Nigella sativa (NS) oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet on lipid peroxidation and oxidative status in obese women. In this double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 50 volunteer obese (body mass index?=?30-35?kg/m(2) ) women aged 25-50?years old were recruited. Participants were randomly divided into intervention (n?=?25) and placebo (n?=?25) groups. They received a low-calorie diet with 3?g/day NS oil or low-calorie diet with 3?g/day placebo for 8?weeks. Forty-nine women (intervention group?=?25; placebo group?=?24) completed the trial. NS oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet decreased weight in the NS group compared to the placebo group (-4.80?±?1.50 vs. -1.40?±?1.90?kg; p?group compared to the placebo group at the end of the study (88.98?±?87.46 vs. -3.30?±?109.80?U/gHb; p?women. However, more studies are suggested to confirm the positive effects of NS in obesity and its complications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26179113

  15. Children’s Oncology Group’s 2012 Blueprint for Research: Cancer Control and Supportive Care

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Lillian; Zaoutis, Theo; Ullrich, Nicole J.; Johnston, Donna; Dupuis, Lee; Ladas, Elena

    2015-01-01

    In cancer control research, the objective is to reduce overall morbidity and mortality by decreasing acute and delayed treatment-related toxicities in all children with cancer. To date, the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) has focused on infection, neurocognition, quality of life (QoL), and nutrition/antiemetics. COG is conducting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine prophylaxis strategies that will reduce infections in high-risk populations. Two RCTs are determining if modafinil or computerized cognitive training improve cognitive functioning in pediatric brain tumor patients. QoL is being assessed in acute leukemia patients. Improved supportive care outcomes will only occur when the most effective interventions are established. PMID:23255159

  16. 77 FR 41188 - Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in.... Fairley, Ph.D., Designated Federal Officer, Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Women, HHS,...

  17. Compensatory Weight Control Behaviors of Women in Emerging Adulthood: Associations between Childhood Abuse Experiences and Adult Relationship Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Jackson, Michelle A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine correlates of compensatory weight control behaviors among women in transition between adolescence and adulthood. Participants: The authors recruited a sample of undergraduate women ("N" = 759) at a large northwestern university during the 2009-2010 academic year. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess…

  18. Impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on attention, rumination and resting blood pressure in women with cancer: a waitlist-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Tavis S; Labelle, Laura E; Bacon, Simon L; Faris, Peter; Carlson, Linda E

    2012-06-01

    The present study is a waitlist-controlled investigation of the impact of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program on mindful attentiveness, rumination and blood pressure (BP) in women with cancer. Female post-treatment cancer patients were recruited from the MBSR program waitlist. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness and rumination and measured casual BP at home before and after the 8-week MBSR program or waiting period. MBSR group participants demonstrated higher levels of mindful attentiveness and decreased ruminative thinking following the intervention but no difference in BP, when compared to controls. In the MBSR group, decreases in rumination correlated with decreases in SBP and increases in mindful attention. When participants were assigned to "Higher BP" and "Lower BP" conditions based on mean BP values at week 1, "Higher BP" participants in the MBSR group (n=19) had lower SBP at week 8 relative to the control group (n=16). A MBSR program may be efficacious in increasing mindful attention and decreasing rumination in women with cancer. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate an impact on clinically elevated BP. PMID:21667281

  19. Long-term effect of physical activity on health-related quality of life among menopausal women: a 4-year follow-up study to a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mansikkamäki, Kirsi; Raitanen, Jani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Tomás, Eija; Rutanen, Reetta; Luoto, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to explore the long-term effects of physical activity intervention on quality of life (QoL) 4?years after an original randomised controlled trial (RCT). Design Cohort study after an RCT. Setting 95 of the 159 women from the original RCT participated in weight, height and waist circumference measurements, performed the UKK 2?km Walk Test and completed the SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire. Multilevel mixed regression models were performed in order to compare the original and current group in an RCT setting. Participants There were 159 participants in the original RCT; 2.5?years later, 102 of the women responded to a questionnaire and 4-year after the trial, there were 95 respondents. The inclusion criteria in the original RCT were: being symptomatic, experiencing daily hot flushes, age between 40 and 63?years, not using hormone therapy now or in the past 3?months, sedentary lifestyle and having last menstruated 3–36?months earlier. Main outcome measure Health-related QoL as measured with the SF-36 instrument. Results Women in the intervention group had a significantly higher probability of improved physical functioning (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.99) as compared with women in the control group. In addition, women in the intervention group had higher odds of good role functioning (OR 1.21; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.67), physical health (OR 1.33; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.84) and general health (OR 1.14; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.62), relative to women in the control group, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Women in the intervention group showed positive long-term effects on physical and mental dimensions of QoL after 4?years. Trial registration number ISRCTN54690027. PMID:26362664

  20. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: Detailed Analysis of the Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Kristina M.; Carlsen, Emma M.; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth; Pryds, Ole; Secher, Niels J.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lifestyle interventions targeting obese pregnant women often result in modest reduction in gestational weight gain, pregnancy complications and related risk factors. Examining adherence to the intervention can, however, provide valuable information on the importance of the different factors targeted. Objective To evaluate improvements and relevance of different dietary factors targeted with respect to gestational weight gain in a 3-arm Randomised Controlled Trial (n=342) among obese pregnant women with BMI?30 kg/m2. Methods Randomisation 1:1:1 to either hypocaloric Mediterranean type of diet and physical activity intervention (D+PA); physical activity intervention alone (PA); or control (C). Diet was assessed at baseline (weeks 11–14) and endpoint (weeks 36–37) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results During the intervention women in the D+PA group significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ?2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (<1wk) intake. The results for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks. Conclusion In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant for limiting gestational weight gain than encouraging strict compliance to more specific diets. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01345149 PMID:26192183

  1. Heart Disease Management by Women: Does Intervention Format Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Noreen M.; Janz, Nancy K.; Dodge, Julia A.; Lin, Xihong; Trabert, Britton L.; Kaciroti, Niko; Mosca, Lori; Wheeler, John R.; Keteyian, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial of two formats of a program (Women Take PRIDE) to enhance management of heart disease by patients was conducted. Older women (N = 575) were randomly assigned to a group or self-directed format or to a control group. Data regarding symptoms, functional health status, and weight were collected at baseline and at 4, 12,…

  2. Heart Disease Management by Women: Does Intervention Format Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Noreen M.; Janz, Nancy K.; Dodge, Julia A.; Lin, Xihong; Trabert, Britton L.; Kaciroti, Niko; Mosca, Lori; Wheeler, John R.; Keteyian, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial of two formats of a program (Women Take PRIDE) to enhance management of heart disease by patients was conducted. Older women (N = 575) were randomly assigned to a group or self-directed format or to a control group. Data regarding symptoms, functional health status, and weight were collected at baseline and at 4, 12,…

  3. 'My body is mine': Qualitatively exploring agency among internally displaced women participants in a small-group intervention in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; Daniel, CarolAnn

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 earthquake resulted in the breakdown of Haiti's social, economic and health infrastructure. Over one-quarter of a million people remain internally displaced (ID). ID women experience heightened vulnerability to intimate partner violence (IPV) due to increased poverty and reduced community networks. Scant research has examined experiences of IPV among ID women in post-earthquake Haiti. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the impact of participating in Famn an Aksyon Pou Santé Yo (FASY), a small-group HIV prevention intervention, on ID women's agency in Leogane, Haiti. We conducted four focus groups with ID women, FASY participants (n = 40) and in-depth individual interviews with peer health workers (n = 7). Our study was guided by critical ethnography and paid particular attention to power relations. Findings highlighted multiple forms of IPV (e.g., physical, sexual). Participants discussed processes of intrapersonal (confidence), interpersonal (communication), relational (support) and collective (women's rights) agency. Yet structural factors, including patriarchal gender norms and poverty, silenced IPV discussions and constrained women's agency. Findings suggest that agency among ID women is a multi-level, non-linear and incremental process. To effectively address IPV among ID women in Haiti, interventions should address structural contexts of gender inequity and poverty and concurrently facilitate multi-level processes of agency. PMID:25833376

  4. Women with epilepsy in reproductive age group: special issues and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shehanaaz; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2013-08-01

    Women with epilepsy (WWE) have several gender based problems pertaining to social and biological domains. The stigma of epilepsy and its consequences appear to be more for women than men. They have more difficulty in getting married and sustaining a married life. The cyclical variations in the reproductive hormones can adversely impact the seizure pattern in WWE. Epileptiform discharges in the brain can influence the hypothalamic functions and lead to sexual dysfunction. The Antiepileptic drugs (AED) may alter their metabolic and hormone profile and contribute to this disorder. Most WWE tend to have uneventful pregnancies and healthy babies. Nevertheless, the risk of fetal malformations appears to be increased when AEDs are used during pregnancy. This risk is higher for those who are on polytherapy, or using valproate. Recent studies have also demonstrated that antenatal exposure to AEDs could lead to neurocognitive and developmental impairment, low IQ or language problems in exposed infants. Clinicians need to consider these special issues while initiating AED therapy in adolescent girls. All WWE need to have a detailed pre conception evaluation wherein the need to continue AEDs, the ideal AED and dosage are reassessed. The AED therapy would have to be individualized according to the clinical situations, obstetric background and family concerns. Folic acid should be prescribed to all women who could potentially become pregnant. Detailed screening for fetal malformations by estimation of serum alpha fetoprotein and fetal ultrasonography need to be carried out between 14 - 18 weeks of pregnancy. The dosage of AEDs may have to be escalated in the second half of pregnancy in selected patients. The family should be provided detailed counseling and information on how to cope with the pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and contraception. PMID:24818330

  5. Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy with Mefloquine in HIV-Infected Women Receiving Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis: A Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Salim; Aponte, John J.; Bulo, Helder; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor M.; Katana, Abraham; Maculuve, Sonia; Mayor, Alfredo; Nhacolo, Arsenio; Otieno, Kephas; Pahlavan, Golbahar; Rupérez, María; Sevene, Esperança; Slutsker, Laurence; Vala, Anifa; Williamsom, John; Menéndez, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for malaria prevention in HIV-negative pregnant women, but it is contraindicated in HIV-infected women taking daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTXp) because of potential added risk of adverse effects associated with taking two antifolate drugs simultaneously. We studied the safety and efficacy of mefloquine (MQ) in women receiving CTXp and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs). Methods and Findings A total of 1,071 HIV-infected women from Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania were randomized to receive either three doses of IPTp-MQ (15 mg/kg) or placebo given at least one month apart; all received CTXp and a LLITN. IPTp-MQ was associated with reduced rates of maternal parasitemia (risk ratio [RR], 0.47 [95% CI 0.27–0.82]; p?=?0.008), placental malaria (RR, 0.52 [95% CI 0.29–0.90]; p?=?0.021), and reduced incidence of non-obstetric hospital admissions (RR, 0.59 [95% CI 0.37–0.95]; p?=?0.031) in the intention to treat (ITT) analysis. There were no differences in the prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes between groups. Drug tolerability was poorer in the MQ group compared to the control group (29.6% referred dizziness and 23.9% vomiting after the first IPTp-MQ administration). HIV viral load at delivery was higher in the MQ group compared to the control group (p?=?0.048) in the ATP analysis. The frequency of perinatal mother to child transmission of HIV was increased in women who received MQ (RR, 1.95 [95% CI 1.14–3.33]; p?=?0.015). The main limitation of the latter finding relates to the exploratory nature of this part of the analysis. Conclusions An effective antimalarial added to CTXp and LLITNs in HIV-infected pregnant women can improve malaria prevention, as well as maternal health through reduction in hospital admissions. However, MQ was not well tolerated, limiting its potential for IPTp and indicating the need to find alternatives with better tolerability to reduce malaria in this particularly vulnerable group. MQ was associated with an increased risk of mother to child transmission of HIV, which warrants a better understanding of the pharmacological interactions between antimalarials and antiretroviral drugs. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00811421; Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR 2010020001813440 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25247995

  6. Inner strength as identified in narratives of elderly women: a focus group interview study.

    PubMed

    Boman, Erika; Häggblom, Anette; Lundman, Berit; Nygren, Björn; Fischer, Regina Santamaki

    2015-01-01

    By identifying sources of inner strength, health care personnel can be given valuable information about elderly people's capacities regardless of frailty. The focus of this interview-based study was to explore how inner strength and its dimensions can be identified in narratives of elderly women. The analysis was based on a theoretical model where inner strength is composed of 4 interacting dimensions of connectedness, creativity, firmness, and flexibility. Our findings add nuance to the notion of inner strength and deepen empirical knowledge about the concept. PMID:25635502

  7. Effect of Escitalopram on Insomnia Symptoms and Subjective Sleep Quality in Healthy Menopausal Women with Hot Flashes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ensrud, Kristine E.; Joffe, Hadine; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Larson, Joseph C.; Reed, Susan D.; Newton, Katherine M.; Sternfeld, Barbara; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Landis, Carol A.; Woods, Nancy F.; Freeman, Ellen W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine effect of escitalopram on insomnia symptoms and subjective sleep quality in healthy menopausal women with hot flashes. Methods Randomized, blinded, multi-center, placebo-controlled, parallel group 8-week trial in 205 women (95 African American; 102 white; 8 other) conducted between July 2009 and June 2010. Participants received escitalopram (10–20 mg/day) or placebo. Insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]) and subjective sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) at week 4 and 8 were prespecified secondary outcomes. A total of 199 women (97%) provided ISI data and 194 (95%) provided PSQI data at follow-up. Results At baseline, mean hot flash frequency was 9.78/day (SD 5.60), mean ISI was 11.4 (SD 6.3), and mean PSQI was 8.0 (SD 3.7). Treatment with escitalopram reduced ISI at week 8 (mean difference ?2.00, 95% CI: ?3.43 to ?0.57, p<0.001 overall treatment effect), with mean reductions of ?4.73 (95% CI ?5.72 to ?3.75) in the escitalopram group and ?2.73 (95% CI ?3.78 to ?1.69) in the placebo group. Reduction in PSQI was greater in the escitalopram versus placebo group at week 8 (mean difference ?1.31, 95% CI ?2.14 to ?0.49, p<0.001 overall treatment effect). Clinical improvement in insomnia symptoms and subjective sleep quality (?50% decreases in ISI and PSQI from baseline) was observed more frequently in the escitalopram group versus placebo group (ISI: 50.0% versus 35.4%, p=0.04; PSQI 29.6% versus 19.2%, p=0.09). Conclusions Among healthy menopausal women with hot flashes, escitalopram at 10–20 mg/day compared with placebo reduced insomnia symptoms and improved subjective sleep quality at 8 weeks of follow-up. PMID:22433978

  8. Effects of Nigella sativa oil with a low-calorie diet on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Namazi, Nazli; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Farajnia, Safar

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is typically associated with increased risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, a therapeutic approach that aims to control body weight and metabolic profile might be effective in preventing CVDs. We aimed to determine the effects of Nigella Sativa (NS) oil with a low-calorie diet on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women. In this double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 90 obese women were recruited. Participants were females aged 25-50 years old with body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 35 kg m(-2). They were randomly assigned to receive a low-calorie diet with 3 g per day (1 g before each meal) NS oil or placebo for 8 weeks. Anthropometric indices, dietary intake and biochemical parameters were measured at the baseline and after the intervention. Eighty-four females completed the trial (intervention n = 43, placebo n = 41). Two groups were similar in the baseline characteristics. After the intervention, dietary intake was changed in both groups compared to the baseline, but the differences were not significant between the two groups. In the NS group, weight (-6.0 vs. -3.6%; p < 0.01) and waist circumference (-6.9 vs. -3.4%; p < 0.01) decreased significantly compared with the placebo group at the end of the trial. Comparison of biochemical parameters presented a significant decline in triglyceride (-14.0 vs. 1.4%; p = 0.02) and very low density lipoprotein (-14.0 vs. 7%; p < 0.01) levels in the NS group compared to the placebo group. NS oil concurrent with a low-calorie diet can reduce cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women. However, more clinical trials are needed to elucidate efficacy of NS as a complementary therapy in obese subjects. PMID:26029855

  9. Cost-utility of an 8-month aquatic training for women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gusi, Narcís; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Physical therapy in warm water has been effective and highly recommended for persons with fibromyalgia, but its efficiency remains largely unknown. Should patients or health care managers invest in this therapy? The aim of the current study was to assess the cost-utility of adding an aquatic exercise programme to the usual care of women with fibromyalgia. Methods Costs to the health care system and to society were considered in this study that included 33 participants, randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 17) or a control group (n = 16). The intervention in the experimental group consisted of a 1-h, supervised, water-based exercise sessions, three times per week for 8 months. The main outcome measures were the health care costs and the number of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) using the time trade-off elicitation technique from the EuroQol EQ-5D instrument. Sensitivity analyses were performed for variations in staff salary, number of women attending sessions and time spent going to the pool. The cost effectiveness acceptability curves were created using a non-parametric bootstrap technique. Results The mean incremental treatment costs exceeded those for usual care per patient by € 517 for health care costs and € 1,032 for societal costs. The mean incremental QALY associated with the intervention was 0.131 (95% CI: 0.011 to 0.290). Each QALY gained in association with the exercise programme cost an additional € 3,947/QALY (95% CI: 1,782 to 47,000) for a health care perspective and € 7,878/QALY (3,559 to 93,818) from a societal perspective. The curves showed a 95% probability that the addition of the water-based programme is a cost-effective strategy if the ceiling of inversion is € 14,200/QALY from a health care perspective and € 28,300/QALY from a societal perspective. Conclusion The addition of an aquatic exercise programme to the usual care regime for fibromyalgia in women is cost effective in terms of both health care costs and societal costs. However, the characteristics of facilities (distance from the patients' homes and number of patients that can be accommodated per session) are major determinants to consider before investing in such a programme. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN53367487. PMID:18294367

  10. Women Bar Drinkers’ Discussions about Birth Control and Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Parks, Kathleen A.; Collins, R. Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated how birth control discussions prior to sexual activity affected condom use in a sample of 225 young women bar drinkers. The use of alcohol and other drugs (AOD) and partner type also were assessed. Data were collected through daily reports and qualitative interviews over 12 weeks. A total of 1671 sexual events were reported (M = 7.4 events per participant), of which 64.7% (n = 1081) did not involve condom use. Discussions of birth control occurred prior to 10.9% (n = 183) of all sexual events. These discussions were more likely to be initiated by the woman and to occur when AOD had been used. Thematic analysis revealed four common themes: confirmation of the need to use condoms, confirmation of oral/hormonal contraceptive use, use of sufficient birth control, and discrepant condom use. The discussions reduced rates of risky sex when the sexual partner was more intimate (i.e., boyfriend/dating partner), regardless of AOD use and when the sexual partner was a friend or ex-partner and no AOD were used. The thematic analysis suggested that pregnancy prevention was a stronger motivation for discussing condom use, rather than risk of contracting an STI. Given the substantial rate of high risk partners, history of STIs, and limited amount of time women reported knowing “regular” partners, we suggest that interventions designed to reduce risky sex should be tailored to increase women’s awareness of STI and pregnancy risk when under the influence of AOD, and promote condom use regardless of partner type. PMID:21892691

  11. The effect of combination treatment using palonosetron and dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting versus dexamethasone alone in women receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, Seung-hwa; Yoo, Jae Hwa; Kim, Mun Gyu; Lee, Ki Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of palonosetron combined with dexamethasone for the prevention of PONV compared to dexamethasone alone in women who received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) using fentanyl. Methods In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 204 healthy female patients who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anesthesia followed by IV-PCA for postoperative pain control were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups: the PD group (palonosetron 0.075 mg and dexamethasone 5 mg IV; n = 102) and the D group (dexamethasone 5 mg IV; n = 102). The treatments were given after the induction of anesthesia. The incidence of nausea, vomiting, severity of nausea, and the use of rescue anti-emetics during the first 48 hours after surgery were evaluated. Results The incidence of PONV was significantly lower in the PD group compared with the D group during the 0-24 hours (43 vs. 59%) and 0-48 hours after surgery (45 vs. 63%) (P < 0.05). The severity of nausea during the 6-24 hours after surgery was significantly less in the PD group compared with the D group (P < 0.05). The incidence of rescue antiemetic used was significantly lower in the PD group than in the D group during the 0-6 hours after surgery (13.1 vs. 24.5%) (P < 0.05). Conclusions Palonosetron combined with dexamethasone was more effective in preventing PONV compared to dexamethasone alone in women receiving IV-PCA using fentanyl. PMID:26045930

  12. Effect of L-Methionine on Hot Flashes in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Guttuso, Thomas; McDermott, Michael P.; Ng, Phillip; Kieburtz, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Objective Based on a common mechanism of action with gabapentin, we investigated the effects of L-methionine on hot flashes in postmenopausal women. Design After a 1 week baseline period, 51 postmenopausal women experiencing at least 5 moderate-severe hot flashes per day were randomized to 1 of 3 groups in a 13:13:25 ratio: placebo/placebo, placebo/L-methionine, or L-methionine/L-methionine, respectively (Phase 1/Phase 2). Phase 1 was 12 weeks long and Phase 2 was 8 weeks long. Subjects took 1g po bid in Phase 1 and 2g po bid in Phase 2 of either L-methioinine or placebo. All subjects also took folate 1mg and methylcobalamin 0.5mg a day to help minimize the L-methionine-induced elevation in serum homocysteine. The primary outcome variable was the percent change in hot flash composite score from baseline to Week 12 obtained from subjects’ daily hot flash diaries. Results In Phase 1 and Phase 2, there were no significant differences between the L-methionine and placebo groups for any of the hot flash outcome measures. At Week 12, there was a mean 37.4% decrease in hot flash composite score compared to baseline in the L-methionine group and a mean 33.4% decrease in the placebo group (p = 0.60). There were expected significant increases in fasting serum homocysteine (1.7 and 5.8 µmol/L) and fasting serum methionine (13.9 and 22.3 µmol/L) at Weeks 12 and 20, respectively, associated with the 2 dosages of L-methionine therapy relative to placebo therapy. Conclusion L-methionine therapy appears to be ineffective in the treatment of hot flashes in postmenopausal women. PMID:19407666

  13. Media Images and Ideal Body Shapes: A Perspective on Women with Emphasis on Anorexics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda Lazier

    A study was conducted to determine whether the images of "standard" or "acceptable" thinness that women suffering from eating disorders strive to achieve come primarily from advertising. A questionnaire was administered to 19 college women in counseling for anorexia, a control group of 29 college women, and to 30 high school women. The…

  14. Group vs. individual exercise interventions for women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Both during and after treatment, cancer survivors experience declines in physical and psychosocial quality of life (QoL). Prior research indicates that exercise interventions alleviate problems in physical functioning and some aspects of psychological functioning. For survivors seeking social support, exercise programs that are conducted in group settings may foster optimal QoL improvement (by addressing additional issues related to isolation, social support) over individually-based exercise programs. Methods We reviewed literature on group cohesion in exercise studies, and conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that group as compared to individual exercise interventions for breast cancer survivors would show greater improvement in QoL. Results As currently implemented, group exercise interventions showed no advantage. However, they typically did not provide any evidence that they capitalized upon potentially beneficial group processes. Conclusions Future exercise intervention studies could investigate the effect on QoL of deliberately using group dynamics processes, such as team building experiences and group goal setting to foster group cohesion. PMID:20607139

  15. Paging “Dr. Google”: Does Technology Fill the Gap Created by the Prenatal Care Visit Structure? Qualitative Focus Group Study With Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Cynthia H; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Blubaugh, Ian; Pauli, Jaimey; Feher, Alyssa; Reddy, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    Background The prenatal care visit structure has changed little over the past century despite the rapid evolution of technology including Internet and mobile phones. Little is known about how pregnant women engage with technologies and the interface between these tools and medical care, especially for women of lower socioeconomic status. Objective We sought to understand how women use technology during pregnancy through a qualitative study with women enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. Methods We recruited pregnant women ages 18 and older who owned a smartphone, at a WIC clinic in central Pennsylvania. The focus group guide included questions about women’s current pregnancy, their sources of information, and whether they used technology for pregnancy-related information. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed. Three members of the research team independently analyzed each transcript, using a thematic analysis approach. Themes related to the topics discussed were identified, for which there was full agreement. Results Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 17 women. Three major themes emerged as follows. First, the prenatal visit structure is not patient-centered, with the first visit perceived as occurring too late and with too few visits early in pregnancy when women have the most questions for their prenatal care providers. Unfortunately, the educational materials women received during prenatal care were viewed as unhelpful. Second, women turn to technology (eg, Google, smartphone applications) to fill their knowledge gaps. Turning to technology was viewed to be a generational approach. Finally, women reported that technology, although frequently used, has limitations. Conclusions The results of this qualitative research suggest that the current prenatal care visit structure is not patient-centered in that it does not allow women to seek advice when they want it most. A generational shift seems to have occurred, resulting in pregnant women in our study turning to the Internet and smartphones to fill this gap, which requires significant skills to navigate for useful information. Future steps may include developing interventions to help health care providers assist patients early in pregnancy to seek the information they want and to become better consumers of Internet-based pregnancy resources. PMID:24892583

  16. Sexual Function in Women on Estradiol or Venlafaxine for Hot Flushes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Susan D.; Mitchell, Caroline M.; Joffe, Hadine; Cohen, Lee; Shifren, Jan L.; Newton, Katherine M.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Larson, Joseph C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Guthrie, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sexual function in midlife women taking low-dose oral estradiol or venlafaxine for hot flushes. Methods In an 8-week randomized controlled trial among women aged 40-62 years, sexual function was compared between oral estradiol 0.5 mg/day or venlafaxine 75 mg/day (both compared with placebo). Measures included composite and 6 domain scores from the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and sexually related personal distress. Results Participants were aged 54.6 (standard deviation [SD] 3.8) years, 59% Caucasian, with 8.1 (SD 5.3) daily hot flushes. Median composite baseline FSFI score was 16.3 (SD 11.9, n=256) for all women and 21.7 (SD 9.3, n=198) among sexually active women. Composite mean FSFI change from baseline to week-8 was 1.4 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] -0.4, 3.2) for estradiol, 1.1 (95% CI -0.5, 2.7) for venlafaxine and -0.3 (95% CI -1.6, 1.0) for placebo. Composite FSFI and sexually-related distress change from baseline did not differ between estradiol and placebo (p= 0.38, p=0.30) or venlafaxine and placebo (p=0.79, p=0.48). Among sexually active women, FSFI domain score change from baseline differences (active compared with placebo) in desire was 0.3 (95% CI 0.0, 0.6) for estradiol; -0.6 (95% CI -1.2, 0.0) in orgasm for venlafaxine, and 0.9 (95% CI 0.2, 1.6) in penetration pain for venlafaxine. No women reported adverse events related to sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Overall sexual function among nondepressed midlife women experiencing hot flushes did not change over 8-weeks with low-dose oral estradiol or venlafaxine (compared with placebo), although subtle increase in desire (estradiol), and decreases in orgasm and pain (venlafaxine) may exist. PMID:25004335

  17. Cognitive Ability and Everyday Functioning in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Jennifer; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of 23 Turner syndrome (TUS) women with 23 women with constitutional short stature (CSS) found significant group differences for Performance and Full Scale IQ, largely due to TUS women's deficits in spatial and mathematical ability. TUS individuals had significantly lower educational and occupational attainment than CSS controls but did…

  18. Randomized controlled trial on the effects of legumes on cardiovascular risk factors in women with abdominal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Safaeiyan, Abdolrasoul; Pourghassem-Gargari, Bahram; Zarrin, Rasoul; Fereidooni, Javid; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effect of legume-based hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women is unclear. This study provides an opportunity to find effects of high-legume diet on CVD risk factors in women who consumed high legumes at baseline. METHODS This randomized controlled trial was undertaken in 34 premenopausal women with central obesity. After 2 weeks of a run-in period on an isocaloric diet, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: (1) hypocaloric diet enriched with legumes (HDEL) (n = 17) (two servings per day) and (2) hypocaloric diet without legumes (HDWL) (n = 17) for 6 weeks. The following variables were assessed before intervention, 3, and 6 weeks after it: Waist to hip ratio (WHR), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-sensitive-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), nitric oxides (NOx), and Malondialdehyde (MDA). RESULTS Both hypocaloric diets reduced hs-CRP in 3 weeks and returned it to basal values after 6 weeks (P = 0.004). HDWL significantly reduced WHR [P = 0.010 (3.2%)] and increased TC [P < 0.001 (6.3%)]. Despite the significant effect of HDEL on increasing TAC in 3 weeks [P = 0.050 (4%)], the level of TAC remained the same in 6 weeks. None of the diets had any significant effects on NOx and MDA. CONCLUSION The study indicated that beneficial effects of legumes on TC, LDL-C, and hs-CRP were achieved by three servings per week, and consuming more amounts of these products had no more advantages. PMID:26405440

  19. The Women's international study of long-duration oestrogen after menopause (WISDOM): a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Madge R; Martin, Jeannett; Meade, Tom W

    2007-01-01

    Background At the time of feasibility work and final design of the trial there was no randomised control trial evidence for the long-term risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy. Observational studies had suggested that long term use of estrogen was likely to be associated, amongst other things, with reduced risks of osteoporosis and ischaemic heart disease and increased risks of breast and endometrial cancer. Concomitant use of progestogens had been shown to protect against endometrial cancer, but there were few data showing how progestogen might affect estrogen actions on other conditions. Disease specific risks from observational studies suggested that, overall, long-term HRT was likely to be beneficial. Several studies showed that mortality from all causes was lower in HRT users than in non-users. Some secondary cardiovascular prevention trials were ongoing but evidence was also required for a range of outcomes in healthy women. The WISDOM trial was designed to compare combined estrogen and progestogen versus placebo, and estrogen alone versus combined estrogen and progestogen. During the development of WISDOM the Women's Health Initiative trial was designed, funded and started in the US. Design Randomised, placebo, controlled, trial. Methods The trial was set in general practices in the UK (384), Australia (94), and New Zealand (24). In these practices 284175 women aged 50–69 years were registered with 226282 potentially eligible. We sought to randomise 22300 postmenopausal women aged 50 – 69 and treat for ten years. The interventions were: conjugated equine estrogens, 0.625 mg orally daily; conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5/5.0 mg orally daily; matched placebo. Primary outcome measures were: major cardiovascular disease, osteoporotic fractures, breast cancer and dementia. Secondary outcomes were: other cancers, all cause death, venous thromboembolism and cerebro-vascular disease. Results The trial was prematurely closed during recruitment following publication of early results from the Women's Health Initiative. At the time of closure, 56583 had been screened, 8980 entered run-in, and 5694 (26% of target of 22,300) randomised. Those women randomised had received a mean of one year of therapy, mean age was 62.8 years and total follow-up time was 6491 person years. Discussion The WISDOM experience leads to some simple messages. The larger a trial is the more simple it needs to be to ensure cost effective and timely delivery. When a trial is very costly and beyond the resources of one country, funders and investigators should make every effort to develop international collaboration with joint funding. PMID:17324282

  20. Effect of Oral Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation on Physical Performance in Healthy Old Women Over 65 Years: An Open Label Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berton, Linda; Bano, Giulia; Carraro, Sara; Veronese, Nicola; Pizzato, Simona; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Valmorbida, Elena; De Ronch, Irene; Perissinotto, Egle; Coin, Alessandra; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Although older people are particularly liable to sarcopenia, limited research is available on beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in this population, particularly in healthy subjects. In this parallel-group, randomized, controlled, open-label trial, we aimed to evaluate whether an oral supplement containing 1.5 g of calcium HMB for 8 weeks could improve physical performance and muscle strength parameters in a group of community-dwelling healthy older women. Eighty healthy women attending a twice-weekly mild fitness program were divided into two equal groups of 40, and 32 of the treated women and 33 control completed the study. We considered a change in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score as the primary outcome and changes in the peak torque (PT) isometric and isokinetic strength of the lower limbs, 6-minute walking test (6MWT), handgrip strength and endurance as secondary outcomes. Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). The mean difference between the two groups on pre-post change were finally calculated (delta) for each outcome. After 8 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups’ SPPB, handgrip strength or DXA parameters. The group treated with HMB scored significantly better than the control group for PT isokinetic flexion (delta = 1.56±1.56 Nm; p = 0.03) and extension (delta = 3.32±2.61 Nm; p = 0.03), PT isometric strength (delta = 9.74±3.90 Nm; p = 0.02), 6MWT (delta = 7.67±8.29 m; p = 0.04), handgrip endurance (delta = 21.41±16.28 s; p = 0.02), and muscle density assessed with pQCT. No serious adverse effects were reported in either group. In conclusion, a nutritional supplement containing 1.5 g of calcium HMB for 8 weeks in healthy elderly women had no significant effects on SPPB, but did significantly improve several muscle strength and physical performance parameters. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02118181 PMID:26529601

  1. A STUDY OF THE PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A GROUP OF WOMEN WHO HAD PARTICIPATED IN SEWING CLASSES IN AN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM AND A GROUP OF THEIR FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS WHO HAD NOT PARTICIPATED IN ANY ADULT EDUCATION ACTIVITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SITTS, MARVIN RALPH

    IN THIS STUDY OF PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES, THE SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTOR QUESTIONNAIRE AND AN ADULT EDUCATION INTERVIEW SHEET WERE ADMINISTERED TO A GROUP OF WOMEN WHO HAD PARTICIPATED IN SEWING CLASSES OFFERED BY THE MOTT ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM OF THE FLINT, MICHIGAN, BOARD OF EDUCATION, AND TO A GROUP OF THEIR FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS WHO HAD NOT…

  2. Individualized Exercise Training at Maximal Fat Oxidation Combined with Fruit and Vegetable-Rich Diet in Overweight or Obese Women: The LIPOXmax-Réunion Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Besnier, Florent; Lenclume, Victorine; Gérardin, Patrick; Fianu, Adrian; Martinez, Jérémy; Naty, Nadège; Porcherat, Sylvaine; Boussaid, Karim; Schneebeli, Stéphane; Jarlet, Eric; Hatia, Sarah; Dalleau, Georges; Verkindt, Chantal; Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Gonthier, Marie-Paule; Favier, François

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Lifestyle combined interventions are a key strategy for preventing type-2 diabetes (T2DM) in overweight or obese subjects. In this framework, LIPOXmax individualized training, based on maximal fat oxidation [MFO], may be a promising intervention to promote fat mass (FM) reduction and prevent T2DM. Our primary objective was to compare three training programs of physical activity combined with a fruit- and vegetable-rich diet in reducing FM in overweight or obese women. Design and setting A five months non-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three parallel groups in La Réunion Island, a region where metabolic diseases are highly prevalent. Subjects One hundred and thirty-six non-diabetic obese (body mass index [BMI]: 27–40 kg/m2) young women (aged 20–40) were randomized (G1: MFO intensity; G2: 60% of VO2-peak intensity; G3: free moderate-intensity at-home exercise following good physical practices). Outcomes Anthropometry (BMI, bodyweight, FM, fat-free mass), glucose (fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR) and lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides) profiles, and MFO values were measured at month-0, month-3 and month-5. Results At month-5, among 109 women assessed on body composition, the three groups exhibited a significant FM reduction over time (G1: -4.1±0.54 kg; G2: -4.7±0.53 kg; G3: -3.5±0.78 kg, p<0.001, respectively) without inter-group differences (p = 0.135). All groups exhibited significant reductions in insulin levels or HOMA-IR index, and higher MFO values over time (p<0.001, respectively) but glucose control improvement was higher in G1 than in G3 while MFO values were higher in G1 than in G2 and G3. Changes in other outcome measures and inter-group differences were not significant. Conclusion In our RCT the LIPOXmax intervention did not show a superiority in reducing FM in overweight or obese women but is associated with higher MFO and better glucose control improvements. Other studies are required before proposing LIPOXmax training for the prevention of T2DM in overweight or obese women. Trial Registration ClincialTrials.gov NCT01464073 PMID:26555595

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Women with Lifelong Vaginismus: A Randomized Waiting-List Controlled Trial of Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; ter Kuile, Moniek M.; de Groot, H. Ellen; Melles, Reinhilde; Nefs, Janneke; Zandbergen, Maartje

    2006-01-01

    Women with lifelong vaginismus (N = 117) were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral group therapy, cognitive-behavioral bibliotherapy, or a waiting list. Manualized treatment comprised sexual education, relaxation exercises, gradual exposure, cognitive therapy, and sensate focus therapy. Group therapy consisted of ten 2-hr sessions with 6 to 9…

  4. 76 FR 8353 - Positioning Systems Directorate Will Be Hosting an Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ...Group (ICWG) Meeting for Document ICD-GPS-870 AGENCY: Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) meeting for document ICD-GPS-870. ACTION: Meeting Notice...Group (ICWG) meeting for document ICD-GPS-870, Navstar Next Generation GPS...

  5. Effects of phylloquinone supplementation on lipid profile in women with rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Kolahi, Sousan; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Mesgari Abbasi, Mehran; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an excess mortality from cardiovascular disease which is likely attributed to an atherogenic lipid profile. Among nutritional factors vitamin K has been recently focused as a pivotal nutrient in improvement of lipid related markers. Thus, this study was designed to determine the effects of vitamin K on lipid profile in this disease. SUBJECTS/METHODS Fifty eight patients with definitive RA were participated in the present double blind placebo controlled study. They were randomly allocated into two groups to receive vitamin K1 as phylloquinone [10 mg/day] (n = 30) or placebo pills (n = 28), for eight weeks. In order to control the effects of probable confounders dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements including weight and height, clinical status using disease activity score-28 (DAS-28), physical activity and anxiety status were evaluated at baseline. Moreover, serum levels of lipid related markers including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) were measured at baseline and at the end of intervention. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding any of the baseline characteristics. After adjusting for some relevant confounders, in comparison between two groups, we observed no significant changes in lipid related markers at the end of intervention. Also, there was no significant difference between before and after intervention values within groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Function of vitamin K1 in lipid profile modification remains still controversial. This study showed that vitamin K1 has no effect on lipid profile in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Further studies with a longer follow-up are required to determine the effects of vitamin K on atherogenic lipid profile. PMID:25861426

  6. Improving hypertension control among excessive alcohol drinkers: a randomised controlled trial in France. The WALPA Group.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, T; Nicaud, V; Darné, B; Rueff, B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To improve blood pressure control among hypertensive ( > 140/90 mmHg) excessive alcohol drinkers. DESIGN--Fourteen worksite physicians were randomised onto an intervention group and a control group. The intervention was based on training the worksite physicians and follow up of those hypertensive subjects defined as excessive drinkers. Follow up was based on self monitoring of alcohol consumption by the subject, in view of the results of their gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity determination. SETTING--Fourteen workplaces in France - mainly in the industrial sector. SUBJECTS--Altogether 15 301 subjects were screened by the 14 physicians: 129 of these were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--This was the difference between the initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the SBP one year later (delta BP). Secondary criteria were the difference between the initial and final diastolic blood pressure (delta DBP) and delta BP at two years; antihypertensive treatment; state alcohol consumption (delta AC); delta GGT; and body mass index (delta BMI). RESULTS--The decrease in SBP levels was significantly larger in the intervention group than in the control group: at one year, delta SBP values were -11.9 (15.6) mmHg and -4.6 (13.8) respectively (p < 0.05). This benefit was still observed after two years of follow up (-13.8 (17.4) mmHg v -7.5 (14.2) mmHg (p < 0.05)). No difference was observed in DBP. The percentage of treated subjects did not differ between groups. At one year, delta AC was larger in the intervention group (-2.8 (5.2) U/d) than in the control group (-1.6 (3.4) (p < 0.1)). delta GGT and delta BMI did not differ between the two groups. A weak positive correlation was observed between delta AC and delta SBP (r = 0.16). CONCLUSION--An intervention aimed at the hypertensive excessive drinkers in a working population was found to be effective in reducing SBP on a long term basis (two years). The mechanisms of reduction in alcohol consumption and improved drug compliance cannot be ascertained in this pragmatic study. From a public health point of view, reducing the excess cardiovascular risk among a "hard to reach" population seems feasible with a strategy specifically designed for this high risk group. PMID:8596098

  7. Randomized, placebo-controlled, calcium supplementation trial in pregnant Gambian women accustomed to a low calcium intake: effects on maternal blood pressure and infant growth1234

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Gail R; Jarjou, Landing MA; Cole, Tim J; Prentice, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary calcium intake in rural Gambian women is very low (?350 mg/d) compared with international recommendations. Studies have suggested that calcium supplementation of women receiving low-calcium diets significantly reduces risk of pregnancy hypertension. Objective: We tested the effects on blood pressure (BP) of calcium carbonate supplementation (1500 mg Ca/d) in pregnant, rural Gambian women. Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled supplementation trial from 20 wk of gestation (P20) until delivery (calcium: n = 330; placebo; n = 332). BP and anthropometric measures were taken at P20 and then 4 weekly until 36 wk of gestation (P36), and infant anthropometric measures were taken at 2, 13, and 52 wk postdelivery. Results: A total of 525 (calcium: n = 260; placebo: n = 265) women had BP measured at P36 and subsequently delivered a healthy term singleton infant. Mean compliance was 97%, and urinary calcium measures confirmed the group allocation. At P20, the mean (±SD) systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 101.2 ± 9.0 and 102.1 ± 9.3 mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 54.5 ± 7.3 and 55.8 ± 7.8 mm Hg, in the calcium and placebo groups, respectively. The intention-to-treat analysis that was adjusted for confounders showed no significant effect of calcium supplementation on the change between P20 and P36 (calcium compared with placebo; mean ± SEM) in SBP (?0.64 ± 0.65%; P = 0.3) or DBP (?0.22 ± 1.15%; P = 0.8). There was no significant effect of supplementation on BP, pregnancy weight gain, weight postpartum, or infant weight, length, and other measures of growth. However, the comparability of the original randomly assigned groups may have been compromised by the exclusion of 20.7% of women from the final analysis. Conclusions: Calcium supplementation did not affect BP in pregnancy. This result may have been because the Gambian women were adapted to a low dietary calcium intake, and/or obesity, high gestational weight gain, high underlying BP, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and sedentary lifestyles were rare. This trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Register (www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/) as ISRCTN96502494. PMID:24004887

  8. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women. PMID:12347277

  9. New Tools for Examining Undergraduate Students' STEM Stereotypes: Implications for Women and Other Underrepresented Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Wyer, Mary; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Schneider, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although both domestic U.S. and international statistics on population demographics within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields indicate overall gains and more even representation among various groups, caution must be taken to interpret these gains as suggesting blanket improvement in underrepresentation issues. When…

  10. Correlation between Group B Streptococcal Genotypes, Their Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles, and Virulence Genes among Pregnant Women in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Hannoun, Antoine; Shehab, Marwa; Khairallah, Marie-Therese; Sabra, Ahmad; Abi-Rached, Roland; Bazi, Tony; Yunis, Khalid A.; Araj, George F.; Matar, Ghassan M.

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 76 Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococci [GBS]) isolates from vaginal specimens of pregnant women near term were correlated to their genotypes generated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA analysis and their virulence factors encoding genes cylE, lmb, scpB, rib, and bca by PCR. Based on the distribution of the susceptibility patterns, six profiles were generated. RAPD analysis detected 7 clusters of genotypes. The cylE gene was present in 99% of the isolates, the lmb in 96%, scpB in 94.7%, rib in 33%, and bca in 56.5% of isolates. The isolates demonstrated a significant correlation between antimicrobial resistance and genotype clusters denoting the distribution of particular clones with different antimicrobial resistance profiles, entailing the practice of caution in therapeutic options. All virulence factors encoding genes were detected in all seven genotypic clusters with rib and bca not coexisting in the same genome. PMID:20148175

  11. Correlation between Group B Streptococcal Genotypes, Their Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles, and Virulence Genes among Pregnant Women in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Hannoun, Antoine; Shehab, Marwa; Khairallah, Marie-Therese; Sabra, Ahmad; Abi-Rached, Roland; Bazi, Tony; Yunis, Khalid A; Araj, George F; Matar, Ghassan M

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 76 Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococci [GBS]) isolates from vaginal specimens of pregnant women near term were correlated to their genotypes generated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA analysis and their virulence factors encoding genes cylE, lmb, scpB, rib, and bca by PCR. Based on the distribution of the susceptibility patterns, six profiles were generated. RAPD analysis detected 7 clusters of genotypes. The cylE gene was present in 99% of the isolates, the lmb in 96%, scpB in 94.7%, rib in 33%, and bca in 56.5% of isolates. The isolates demonstrated a significant correlation between antimicrobial resistance and genotype clusters denoting the distribution of particular clones with different antimicrobial resistance profiles, entailing the practice of caution in therapeutic options. All virulence factors encoding genes were detected in all seven genotypic clusters with rib and bca not coexisting in the same genome. PMID:20148175

  12. Women bar drinkers' discussions about birth control and risky sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Parks, Kathleen A; Collins, R Lorraine

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated how birth control discussions prior to sexual activity affected condom use in a sample of 225 young women bar drinkers. The use of alcohol and other drugs (AOD) and partner type also were assessed. Data were collected through daily reports and qualitative interviews over 12 weeks. A total of 1671 sexual events were reported (M = 7.4 events per participant), of which 64.7% (n = 1081) did not involve condom use. Discussions of birth control occurred prior to 10.9% (n = 183) of all sexual events. These discussions were more likely to be initiated by the woman and to occur when AOD had been used. Thematic analysis revealed four common themes: confirmation of the need to use condoms, confirmation of oral/hormonal contraceptive use, use of sufficient birth control, and discrepant condom use. The discussions reduced rates of risky sex when the sexual partner was more intimate (i.e., boyfriend/dating partner), regardless of AOD use and when the sexual partner was a friend or ex-partner and no AOD were used. The thematic analysis suggested that pregnancy prevention was a stronger motivation for discussing condom use, rather than risk of contracting an STI. Given the substantial rate of high risk partners, history of STIs, and limited amount of time women reported knowing "regular" partners, we suggest that interventions designed to reduce risky sex should be tailored to increase women's awareness of STI and pregnancy risk when under the influence of AOD, and promote condom use regardless of partner type. PMID:21892691

  13. Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus in women: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, L; Chilvers, C E D; Cheng, K K; McKinney, P A; Logan, R F A; Cook-Mozaffari, P; Ahmed, A; Day, N E

    2001-01-01

    Oesophageal cancer rates in women in the UK are more than 3 times higher than in most other European populations. A population-based matched case–control study of histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus in women was carried out in 4 regions in England and Scotland. Interviews were carried out in hospital or at home and topics included: smoking; alcohol; tea and coffee consumption; medical and obstetric history; and diet. Response rates were 62% for cases and 65% for first-chosen controls. There were 159 case–control pairs. Significant results were found for: eating salads (odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95% CI 0.20–0.92 in the highest quartile of consumption) and a light (as distinct from no) breakfast (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.07?–?0.48) were protective; quantity of tea was a risk factor and there was a significant positive trend with temperature at which hot drinks were consumed (P = 0.03). Alcohol consumption was unrelated to risk, but there was a significant trend with years of smoking (P = 0.015). A protective effect of aspirin consumption was confined to the English centres (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01–0.56). Comparison with a parallel study of adenocarcinoma indicated a common protective effect of a healthy diet but otherwise distinct risk factors. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11742485

  14. Food groups associated with a composite measure of probability of adequate intake of 11 micronutrients in the diets of women in urban Mali.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gina; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Seghieri, Chiara; Arimond, Mary; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain; Kok, Frans J; Brouwer, Inge D

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency is high among women of reproductive age living in urban Mali. Despite this, there are little data on the dietary intake of micronutrients among women of reproductive age in Mali. This research tested the relationship between the quantity of intake of 21 possible food groups and estimated usual micronutrient (folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, iron, thiamin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, and zinc) intakes and a composite measure of adequacy of 11 micronutrients [mean probability of adequacy (MPA)] based on the individual probability of adequacy (PA) for the 11 micronutrients. Food group and micronutrient intakes were calculated from 24-h recall data in an urban sample of Malian women. PA was lowest for folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, and riboflavin. The overall MPA for the composite measure of 11 micronutrients was 0.47 ± 0.18. Grams of intake from the nuts/seeds, milk/yogurt, vitamin A-rich dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV), and vitamin C-rich vegetables food groups were correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.20-0.36; P < 0.05) with MPA. Women in the highest consumption groups of nuts/seeds and DGLV had 5- and 6-fold greater odds of an MPA > 0.5, respectively. These findings can be used to further the development of indicators of dietary diversity and to improve micronutrient intakes of women of reproductive age. PMID:20881080

  15. Development and Implementation of CHOICES Group to Reduce Drinking, Improve Contraception, and Prevent Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies in American Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Ingersoll, Karen; Pourier, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Public health officials assert that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) should begin before conception, by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk for or planning pregnancy, and/or preventing pregnancy in women who are drinking at risky levels. One such effort is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES Program. While the OST CHOICES Program has been successfully implemented, a community-based needs assessment determined that the OST CHOICES intervention should expand and be delivered in a group setting using group motivational interviewing (MI) techniques. After extensive group MI and CHOICES group trainings, recruitment for CHOICES Group began and within a ten month period, a total of twelve groups with non-pregnant American Indian women were held for this pilot intervention. Evaluations completed by participants indicated that CHOICES Group sessions positively engaged members, had low levels of anger or tension, and had average levels of avoidance of personal responsibility. An evaluation of the CHOICES Group leaders indicated strengths in certain MI skills, although improvement is needed in some core MI and group leadership skills. This is an important expansion of a successful AEP prevention program (CHOICES), as well as a novel application of MI, and recommendations and future plans for this intervention are outlined. PMID:26265591

  16. Is the Belief in Meritocracy Palliative for Members of Low Status Groups? Evidence for a Benefit for Self-Esteem and Physical Health via Perceived Control

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Shannon K.; Wellman, Joseph D.; Cosley, Brandon; Saslow, Laura; Epel, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    Consensually held ideologies may serve as the cultural “glue” that justifies hierarchical status differences in society (e.g. Augustinos, 1998). Yet to be effective these beliefs need to be embraced by low-status groups. Why would members of low-status groups endorse beliefs that justify their relative disadvantage? We propose that members of low-status groups in the United States may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs (such as the belief in meritocracy) to the extent that these beliefs emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. In 2 studies, among women, lower-SES women, and women of color, we found a positive relationship between the belief in meritocracy and well-being (self-esteem and physical health) that was mediated by perceived control. Members of low-status groups may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs to the extent that these beliefs, like the belief in meritocracy, emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. PMID:24039310

  17. Risk Behavior among Women enrolled in a Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial of an Adenoviral Vector Vaccine to Prevent HIV Acquisition: the Step Study

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Richard M.; Metch, Barbara; Buchbinder, Susan; Cabello, Robinson; Donastorg, Yeycy; Figoroa, John-Peter; Adbul-Jauwad, Hend; Joseph, Patrice; Koenig, Ellen; Metzger, David; Sobieszycz, Magda; Tyndall, Mark; Zorilla, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Report of risk behavior, HIV incidence, and pregnancy rates among women participating in the Step Study, a phase IIB trial of MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine in HIV-negative individuals who were at high risk of HIV-1. Design Prospective multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial Methods Women were from North American (NA) and Caribbean and South America (CSA) sites. Risk behavior was collected at screening and 6-month intervals. Differences in characteristics between groups were tested with Chi-square, two-sided Fisher’s exact tests, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess behavioral change. Results Among 1134 enrolled women, the median number of male partners was 18; 73.8% reported unprotected vaginal sex, 15.9% unprotected anal sex and 10.8% evidence of a sexually transmitted infection in the 6 months prior to baseline. With 3344 person-years (p–y) of follow up, there were 15 incident HIV infections: incidence rate was 0.45 per 100/p-y (95% CI 0.25, 0.74). Crack cocaine use in both regions (relative risk [RR]=2.4 [1.7,3.3]) and in CSA, unprotected anal sex (RR=6.4 [3.8. 10.7]) and drug use (RR=4.1 [2.1, 8.0]) were baseline risk behaviors associated with HIV acquisition. There was a marked reduction in risk behaviors after study enrollment with some recurrence in unprotected vaginal sex. Of 963 non-sterilized women, 304 (31.6%) became pregnant. Conclusions Crack cocaine use and unprotected anal sex are important risk criteria to identify high-risk women for HIV efficacy trials. Pregnancy during the trial was a common occurrence and needs to be considered in trial planning for prevention trials in women. PMID:23807272

  18. Randomised controlled trial of aspirin and aspirin plus heparin in pregnant women with recurrent miscarriage associated with phospholipid antibodies (or antiphospholipid antibodies)

    PubMed Central

    Rai, R.; Cohen, H.; Dave, M.; Regan, L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether treatment with low dose aspirin and heparin leads to a higher rate of live births than that achieved with low dose aspirin alone in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage associated with phospholipid antibodies (or antiphospholipid antibodies), lupus anticoagulant, and cardiolipin antibodies (or anticardiolipin antibodies). DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Specialist clinic for recurrent miscarriages. SUBJECTS: 90 women (median age 33 (range 22-43)) with a history of recurrent miscarriage (median number 4 (range 3-15)) and persistently positive results for phospholipid antibodies. INTERVENTION: Either low dose aspirin (75 mg daily) or low dose aspirin and 5000 U of unfractionated heparin subcutaneously 12 hourly. All women started treatment with low dose aspirin when they had a positive urine pregnancy test. Women were randomly allocated an intervention when fetal heart activity was seen on ultrasonography. Treatment was stopped at the time of miscarriage or at 34 weeks' gestation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of live births with the two treatments. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the two groups in age or the number and gestation of previous miscarriages. The rate of live births with low dose aspirin and heparin was 71% (32/45 pregnancies) and 42% (19/45 pregnancies) with low dose aspirin alone (odds ratio 3.37 (95% confidence interval 1.40 to 8.10)). More than 90% of miscarriages occurred in the first trimester. There was no difference in outcome between the two treatments in pregnancies that advanced beyond 13 weeks' gestation. Twelve of the 51 successful pregnancies (24%) were delivered before 37 weeks' gestation. Women randomly allocated aspirin and heparin had a median decrease in lumbar spine bone density of 5.4% (range -8.6% to 1.7%). CONCLUSION: Treatment with aspirin and heparin leads to a significantly higher rate of live births in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage associated with phospholipid antibodies than that achieved with aspirin alone. PMID:9022487

  19. Uterine Natural Killer Cell and Human Leukocyte Antigen-G1 and Human Leukocyte Antigen-G5 Expression in Vaginal Discharge of Threatened-Abortion Women: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Shobeiri, Saeideh Sadat; Rahmani, Zahra; Hossein Nataj, Hadi; Ranjbaran, Hossein; Mohammadi, Masoud; Abediankenari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    The immunotolerant human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) molecules have a major role in fetal-maternal tolerance during pregnancy. Interaction between these molecules and uterine natural killer (uNK) cells inhibitory receptors prevents NK cell invasion against fetus trophoblast cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentages of uNK cells and HLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression in vaginal discharge of threatened-abortion women in comparison with control. In a case-control study, we investigated 30 threatened-abortion women with bleeding or spotting less than 20 weeks of pregnancy as compared to 30 normal pregnant women. uNK cells percentage was assessed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, we evaluated HLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression by Real-Time PCR in these groups. The results of this study showed that threatened-abortion women had increased uNK cells and decreased T cells percentage in vaginal discharge in comparison with normal pregnant women (p = 0.01, p = 0.003, resp.). In addition, HLA-G1 isoform had lower expression in threatened-abortion women in comparison with control group (p = 0.0001). The increase of uNK cells level with the decrease of HLA-G expression in vaginal discharge of threatened-abortion pregnant women is an indicator of mother's immune dysregulation. It is concluded that HLA-G expression level with uNK cells percentage can be determined as a diagnostic marker for threatened-abortion women. PMID:26509178

  20. Uterine Natural Killer Cell and Human Leukocyte Antigen-G1 and Human Leukocyte Antigen-G5 Expression in Vaginal Discharge of Threatened-Abortion Women: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shobeiri, Saeideh Sadat; Rahmani, Zahra; Hossein Nataj, Hadi; Ranjbaran, Hossein; Mohammadi, Masoud; Abediankenari, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    The immunotolerant human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) molecules have a major role in fetal-maternal tolerance during pregnancy. Interaction between these molecules and uterine natural killer (uNK) cells inhibitory receptors prevents NK cell invasion against fetus trophoblast cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentages of uNK cells and HLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression in vaginal discharge of threatened-abortion women in comparison with control. In a case-control study, we investigated 30 threatened-abortion women with bleeding or spotting less than 20 weeks of pregnancy as compared to 30 normal pregnant women. uNK cells percentage was assessed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, we evaluated HLA-G1 and HLA-G5 isoforms expression by Real-Time PCR in these groups. The results of this study showed that threatened-abortion women had increased uNK cells and decreased T cells percentage in vaginal discharge in comparison with normal pregnant women (p = 0.01, p = 0.003, resp.). In addition, HLA-G1 isoform had lower expression in threatened-abortion women in comparison with control group (p = 0.0001). The increase of uNK cells level with the decrease of HLA-G expression in vaginal discharge of threatened-abortion pregnant women is an indicator of mother's immune dysregulation. It is concluded that HLA-G expression level with uNK cells percentage can be determined as a diagnostic marker for threatened-abortion women. PMID:26509178

  1. Process evaluation for the FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Leone; MacLennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of a feeding team intervention with an embedded randomised controlled trial of team-initiated (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after hospital discharge. Design Participatory approach to the design and implementation of a pilot trial embedded within a before-and-after study, with mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women initiating breast feeding and living in disadvantaged areas. Methods Quantitative data: telephone call log and workload diaries. Qualitative data: interviews with women (n=40) with follow-up (n=11) and staff (n=17); ward observations 2?weeks before and after the intervention; recorded telephone calls (n=16) and steering group meetings (n=9); trial case notes (n=69); open question in a telephone interview (n=372). The Framework approach to analysis was applied to mixed-method data. Main outcome measures Quantitative: telephone call characteristics (number, frequency, duration); workload activity. Qualitative: experiences and perspectives of women and staff. Results A median of eight proactive calls per woman (n=35) with a median duration of 5?min occurred in the 14?days following hospital discharge. Only one of 34 control women initiated a call to the feeding team, with women undervaluing their own needs compared to others, and breast feeding as a reason to call. Proactive calls providing continuity of care increased women's confidence and were highly valued. Data demonstrated intervention fidelity for woman-centred care; however, observing an entire breast feed was not well implemented due to short hospital stays, ward routines and staff–team–woman communication issues. Staff pragmatically recognised that dedicated feeding teams help meet women's breastfeeding support needs in the context of overstretched and variable postnatal services. Conclusions Implementing and integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST) trial within routine postnatal care was feasible and acceptable to women and staff from a research and practice perspective and shows promise for addressing health inequalities. Trial registration ISRCTN27207603. The study protocol and final report is available on request. PMID:22535794

  2. Randomized controlled trial comparing letrozole with laparoscopic ovarian drilling in women with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    LIU, WEI; DONG, SHENGNAN; LI, YUMEI; SHI, LIHONG; ZHOU, WEI; LIU, YINGLING; LIU, JIE; JI, YAZHONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the reproductive outcomes of letrozole and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 141 women with CC-resistant PCOS were enrolled and randomly allocated into groups A and B. Group A (n=71) received 2.5 mg letrozole from days 5 to 10 of menses for up to six cycles, and group B (n=70) underwent LOD. A 6-month follow-up was performed. No statistically significant difference was found in the baseline clinical characteristics and the major serum hormone profiles, including luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol and free testosterone, between the two groups. Women receiving letrozole had a lower rate of spontaneous abortion (6.9 vs. 15.8%) and higher clinical pregnancy (40.8 vs. 27.1%) and live birth (38.0 vs. 22.9%) rates; however, the differences were not statistically significant. Letrozole had superior reproductive outcomes compared with LOD in women with CC-resistant PCOS; therefore, letrozole could be used as the first-line treatment for women with CC-resistant PCOS. PMID:26622481

  3. Effects of a group-based step aerobics training on sleep quality and melatonin levels in sleep-impaired postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zong-Yan; Wen-Chyuan Chen, Kenny; Wen, Huei-Jhen

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of regular moderate- to high-intensity step aerobics training on the melatonin levels and sleep quality of sleep-impaired postmenopausal women (PMW). PMW with poor sleep (having a score over 5 in the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index [PSQI]) were divided into a training group (TG, n = 10) and an age-, height-, weight-, and PSQI score-matched control group (CG, n = 9). The participants in the TG performed 40-45 minutes of step aerobics exercise 3 times per week for 10 weeks at an intensity of 75-85% of the heart rate reserve, whereas the participants in the CG maintained their regular lifestyle. The fasting blood was analyzed, and the PSQI questionnaire and aerobic fitness test were administered before and after the 10-week program. The results revealed that for the participants in the TG, the PSQI score significantly decreased (TG from 9.40 ± 0.81 to 7.40 ± 0.43; CG from 7.56 ± 0.34 to 7.78 ± 0.68; between-group difference = 2.22, p ? 0.05) and the melatonin levels significantly increased (TG from 12.08 ± 4.20 to 44.42 ± 7.03 pg·ml; CG from 11.81 ± 2.03 to 5.5 ± 1.39 pg·ml, between-group difference = 38.65, p ? 0.05). In conclusion, a 10-week moderate- to high-intensity step aerobics training program can improve sleep quality and increase the melatonin levels in sleep-impaired PMW. Therefore, regular moderate- to high-intensity step aerobics training is recommended for sleep-impaired PMW. PMID:24552792

  4. Operation transformation based concurrency control in group editors 

    E-print Network

    Li, Rui

    2006-10-30

    Collaborative editing systems (or group editors) allow a geographically dispersed group of human users to view and modify shared multimedia documents, such as research papers, design diagrams, web pages and source code ...

  5. Explaining cohesion, fragmentation, and control in insurgent groups

    E-print Network

    Staniland, Paul Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The internal unity and discipline of insurgent groups helps us understand the military effectiveness of armed groups, patterns of violence against civilians, and the ability of insurgent organizations to negotiate and ...

  6. Case–control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. Results The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P?women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition. PMID:24902596

  7. DCCPS: TCRB: TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Low SES Women and Girl

    Cancer.gov

    Tobacco control policies, such as increases in cigarette excise taxes, worksite smoking bans, and youth-focused media campaigns show promise in reducing smoking at the population level. However, few studies have examined the effects of policies in reducing smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure among disadvantaged women and girls. Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher-than-average rates of tobacco use and suffer disproportionately from the health consequences of tobacco.

  8. Multivitamin and Iron Supplementation to Prevent Periconceptional Anemia in Rural Tanzanian Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gunaratna, Nilupa S.; Masanja, Honorati; Mrema, Sigilbert; Levira, Francis; Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Saronga, Naomi; Irema, Kahema; Shuma, Mary; Elisaria, Ester; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Women’s nutritional status during conception and early pregnancy can influence maternal and infant outcomes. This study examined the efficacy of pre-pregnancy supplementation with iron and multivitamins to reduce the prevalence of anemia during the periconceptional period among rural Tanzanian women and adolescent girls. Design A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in which participants were individually randomized to receive daily oral supplements of folic acid alone, folic acid and iron, or folic acid, iron, and vitamins A, B-complex, C, and E at approximately single recommended dietary allowance (RDA) doses for six months. Setting Rural Rufiji District, Tanzania. Subjects Non-pregnant women and adolescent girls aged 15–29 years (n = 802). Results The study arms were comparable in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, food security, nutritional status, pregnancy history, and compliance with the regimen (p>0.05). In total, 561 participants (70%) completed the study and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Hemoglobin levels were not different across treatments (median: 11.1 g/dL, Q1-Q3: 10.0–12.4 g/dL, p = 0.65). However, compared with the folic acid arm (28%), there was a significant reduction in the risk of hypochromic microcytic anemia in the folic acid and iron arm (17%, RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42–0.90, p = 0.01) and the folic acid, iron, and multivitamin arm (19%, RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45–0.96, p = 0.03). Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to adjust for potential selection bias due to loss to follow-up did not materially change these results. The effect of the regimens was not modified by frequency of household meat consumption, baseline underweight status, parity, breastfeeding status, or level of compliance (in all cases, p for interaction>0.2). Conclusions Daily oral supplementation with iron and folic acid among women and adolescents prior to pregnancy reduces risk of anemia. The potential benefits of supplementation on the risk of periconceptional anemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes warrant investigation in larger studies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01183572 PMID:25905863

  9. Moving MobileMums forward: protocol for a larger randomized controlled trial of an improved physical activity program for women with young children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women with young children (under 5 years) are a key population group for physical activity intervention. Previous evidence highlights the need for individually tailored programs with flexible delivery mechanisms for this group. Our previous pilot study suggested that an intervention primarily delivered via mobile phone text messaging (MobileMums) increased self-reported physical activity in women with young children. An improved version of the MobileMums program is being compared with a minimal contact control group in a large randomised controlled trial (RCT). Methods/design This RCT will evaluate the efficacy, feasibility and acceptability, cost-effectiveness, mediators and moderators of the MobileMums program. Primary (moderate-vigorous physical activity) and secondary (intervention implementation data, health service use costs, intervention costs, health benefits, theoretical constructs) outcomes are assessed at baseline, 3-months (end of intervention) and 9-months (following 6-month no contact: maintenance period). The intervention commences with a face-to-face session with a behavioural counsellor to initiate rapport and gather information for tailoring the 12-week text message program. During the program participants also have access to a: MobileMums Participant Handbook, MobileMums refrigerator magnet, MobileMums Facebook© group, and a MobileMums website with a searchable, on-line exercise directory. A nominated support person also receives text messages for 12-weeks encouraging them to offer their MobileMum social support for physical activity. Discussion Results of this trial will determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the MobileMums program, and the feasibility of delivering it in a community setting. It will inform the broader literature of physical activity interventions for women with young children and determine whether further investment in the translation of the program is warranted. Trial registration The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12611000481976). PMID:23777245

  10. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the effect of water exercise in controlling bone loss in Japanese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, N; Toda, A; Goto, J; Ezawa, I

    1994-02-01

    The effects of water exercise, as a form of daily physical activity (water exercise in a warm water pool), on bone loss in healthy Japanese postmenopausal women have been cross-sectionally and longitudinally investigated from the viewpoint of preventing osteoporosis. In the cross-sectional study, the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (Z-score (%)) in the Veterans group (N = 27), who had been exercising for 35.2 months on average, was significantly higher than that in the Newcomers (N = 40), who had only begun to exercise 3 or 4 weeks before, and that in the Non-exercisers (N = 30), serving as a control group. The rate of change in the BMD of the lumbar spine was -0.92%/year in the Non-exercisers (N = 30), +1.55%/year in the Veterans (N = 20), and +2.16%/year in the Newcomers (N = 15), based on BMD Z-scores. In the Exercisers groups, it was found that the rate of change in the BMD showed a slight increase rather than a decrease irrespective of the duration of menopause. On the other hand, in the Non-exercisers group, the rate of change in the BMD decreased slightly. The results of questionnaires showed that the subjects' general awareness of health and fitness in daily life was enhanced after starting the water exercise program. These results suggest that consistently participating in water exercise is an important factor in preventing bone loss, and moreover, appears not only to indirectly improve awareness of daily physical activity but also to promote health and improve daily life. PMID:8089770

  11. Effect of calcium-vitamin D supplementation on metabolic profiles in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Asemi, Zatollah; Tabassi, Zohreh; Heidarzadeh, Zahra; Khorammian, Hassan; Sabihi, Sima-Sadat; Samimi, Mansooreh

    2012-04-01

    Increased metabolic profiles during pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and remain a significant medical challenge. To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of calcium-vitamin D supplementation on metabolic profiles among pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia. This study was designed to determine the effects of consumption calcium-vitamin D supplements on metabolic profiles among Iranian pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia. This randomized single-blind controlled clinical trial was performed among 49 pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia, primigravida, aged 18-35 year old who were carrying singleton pregnancy at their third trimester. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume the placebo (n = 25) or calcium-vitamin D supplements (n = 24) for 9 weeks. Calcium-vitamin D supplements were containing 500 mg carbonate calcium plus 200 IU vitamin D3. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 9 week intervention to measures of Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and serum lipid profiles. Consumption of calcium-vitamin D supplements resulted in decreased FPG and serum triglycerides levels as compared to the placebo (-9.1 vs. 0.5 mg dL(-1); p = 0.03, -11.7 vs. 49.9 mg dL(-1); p = 0.001, respectively). No significant differences were found comparing calcium-vitamin D supplements and the placebo in terms of their effect on serum total-, HDL-, LDL-cholesterol levels. Within-group differences in the placebo group revealed a significant increase in serum triglycerides levels (+49.9 mg dL(-1), p < 0.0001). In conclusion, consumption of calcium-vitamin D supplements for 9 weeks during pregnancy among pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia resulted in decreased FPG and serum triglycerides levels as compared to the placebo group, but could not affect serum total-, HDL-, LDL-cholesterol levels. PMID:24163957

  12. Controlling behavior, power relations within intimate relationships and intimate partner physical and sexual violence against women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. Methods This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Results Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69), and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34). In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Conclusion Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and intimate partner violence within the society. PMID:21714854

  13. The women's health movement in the United States.

    PubMed

    Norsigian, J

    1992-01-01

    The current women's health movement in the US had its origins in the late 1960s, when women's groups, health and medical providers, and others organized a country wide effort to legalize abortion. Some established women-controlled health centers, some produced women's health publications and other educational materials, and others carried out a number of women's health advocacy projects to change public policies affecting women's health. Sterilization abuse became the focus of government inquiry after activists publicized that certain women, especially women of color and Native American women, were sterilized without informed consent. During the 1970s, dozens of women-controlled health centers emerged as alternatives to the conventional delivery of health and medical care. Several years of hard work resulted in a landmark National Cancer Institute recommendation that breast biopsies be done as part of a 2-step procedure in most cases. Childbirth is another issue, Cesarean section rates averaging 1: 4 births nationwide remain unjustifiably high. Childbirth is a medicalized experience for most women, when it should be an essentially normal event. Abortion and reproductive rights are primary concerns in the women's health movement, although prochoice groups are well-organized. Some feminists argue that reproductive technologies expand women's choices, while other emphasize their potential for exploitation. The women's health movement has not yet changed the way most medical institutions are run. Thus, a new coalition with the disability rights movement, the various aging movements, and the civil rights movement will be crucial in the future. PMID:12285927

  14. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Maca Root as Treatment for Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    PubMed Central

    Dording, Christina M.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Dalton, Elizabeth D.; Parkin, Susannah R.; Walker, Rosemary S. W.; Fehling, Kara B.; Fava, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We sought to demonstrate that maca root may be an effective treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction (AISD) in women. Method. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of maca root (3.0?g/day) in 45 female outpatients (mean age of 41.5 ± 12.5 years) with SSRI/SNRI-induced sexual dysfunction whose depression remitted. Endpoints were improvement in sexual functioning as per the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ). Results. 45 of 57 consented females were randomized, and 42 (30 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal women) were eligible for a modified intent-to-treat analysis based on having had at least one postmedication visit. Remission rates by the end of treatment were higher for the maca than the placebo group, based on attainment of an ASEX total score ? 10 (9.5% for maca versus 4.8% for placebo), attaining an MGH-SFQ score ? 12 (30.0% for maca versus 20.0% for placebo) and reaching an MGH-SFQ score ? 8 (9.5% for maca versus 5.0% for placebo). Higher remission rates for the maca versus placebo group were associated with postmenopausal status. Maca was well tolerated. Conclusion. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with NCT00568126. PMID:25954318

  15. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of maca root as treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in women.

    PubMed

    Dording, Christina M; Schettler, Pamela J; Dalton, Elizabeth D; Parkin, Susannah R; Walker, Rosemary S W; Fehling, Kara B; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We sought to demonstrate that maca root may be an effective treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction (AISD) in women. Method. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of maca root (3.0?g/day) in 45 female outpatients (mean age of 41.5 ± 12.5 years) with SSRI/SNRI-induced sexual dysfunction whose depression remitted. Endpoints were improvement in sexual functioning as per the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ). Results. 45 of 57 consented females were randomized, and 42 (30 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal women) were eligible for a modified intent-to-treat analysis based on having had at least one postmedication visit. Remission rates by the end of treatment were higher for the maca than the placebo group, based on attainment of an ASEX total score ? 10 (9.5% for maca versus 4.8% for placebo), attaining an MGH-SFQ score ? 12 (30.0% for maca versus 20.0% for placebo) and reaching an MGH-SFQ score ? 8 (9.5% for maca versus 5.0% for placebo). Higher remission rates for the maca versus placebo group were associated with postmenopausal status. Maca was well tolerated. Conclusion. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with NCT00568126. PMID:25954318

  16. Colonization in the rectum and uterine cervix with group B streptococci may induce specific antibody responses in cervical secretions of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hordnes, K; Tynning, T; Kvam, A I; Jonsson, R; Haneberg, B

    1996-05-01

    We have studied the relationships between genital or rectal carriage of group B streptococci (GBS) with the levels of systemic and mucosal antibodies to GBS in 200 women at about week 17 of pregnancy. Secretions from the uterine cervix were collected with absorbent cylindrical wicks for quantification of antibody levels with whole cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GBS were cultured from the cervix (with or without concomitant rectal colonization) of 13.5%, from the rectum (with or without concomitant cervical colonization) of 12%, and from both culture sites of 8.5% of the women. Serotypes Ia, II, and III were predominant. Compared with culture-negative women, the group of women colonized rectally had markedly elevated levels of both immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibodies to GBS in cervical secretions and also had a moderate but significant elevation of IgA antibodies in sera. Women colonized only in the cervix had increases of specific IgA and IgG antibodies in cervical secretions, but their serum antibody levels were not elevated. In cervical secretions, the increase in antibody levels in the groups of colonized women was most pronounced for the IgG isotype, indicating a mucosal immune response involving IgG as well as IgA. A close correlation was found among the levels of antibodies to each of the three GBS serotypes tested. Evidence for such cross-reacting antibodies to different serotypes of GBS, as well as to group A streptococci, was also obtained from absorption experiments. Altogether, our results show that undiluted secretions for antibody determination can be easily collected from the uterine cervix with absorbent wicks and demonstrate that colonization of GBS in the rectum and the uterine cervix may induce a systemic as well as a pronounced local immune response in the female genital tract. The findings may have implications for the development of a mucosal vaccine against GBS disease. PMID:8613373

  17. Comparison of the effects of gestational weight gain on pregnancy outcomes between non-diabetic and diabetic women

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Ji Man; Kim, Tae Hyun; Hahn, Myeong Hi; Cho, Geum Joon; Hong, Soon Cheol; Oh, Min Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Appropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) is important in diabetic women. Current GWG guideline is for US general population, but not specific for diabetic women. We compared the effect of GWG on perinatal outcomes between diabetic and non-diabetic women. Methods Fifty two hundred and twelve women who delivered live singleton infants at Korea University Medical Center from January 2009 to December 2013 were included. One hundred twenty-nine overt diabetes women and 322 gestational diabetes women were categorized as diabetic women, and the others were categorized as none-diabetic women. 5,212 women were categorized by GWG (low 1,081; adequate 2,102; or high 2,029; according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines), and each of the 3 GWG groups was categorized into 2 groups; diabetic or non-diabetic women. And then, we compared perinatal outcomes between diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Results In each 3 GWG groups, primary cesarean section delivery, high birth weight, and large for gestational age rates were significantly higher in diabetic women than non-diabetic women. Only in adequate GWG group, preterm birth rate was significantly higher in diabetic women than non-diabetic women. Conclusion Our study shows that diabetic women had higher rates of adverse perinatal outcomes than non-diabetic women, although they achieved same GWG. It suggests that current GWG guideline may not be adequate for diabetic women, and that diabetic women may need more strict GWG control than normal population. PMID:26623409

  18. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral and Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutin, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the literature revealed 20 studies that examined the extent to which cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT), and a combination of these two treatments impact women with breast cancer. Based on this review, it is determined that CBT and SEGT have repeated experimental support for positively…

  19. Web-Based Symptom Management for Women with Recurrent Ovarian Cancer: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of the WRITE Symptoms Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Heidi S.; Ward, Sandra E.; Sereika, Susan; Knapp, Judith; Sherwood, Paula; Bender, Catherine M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Fields, Margaret; Ingel, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Context Little research has focused on symptom management among women with ovarian cancer. WRITE Symptoms (Written Representational Intervention To Ease Symptoms) is an educational intervention delivered through asynchronous web-based message boards between a study participant and a nurse. Objectives We evaluated WRITE Symptoms for: 1) feasibility of conducting the study via message boards; 2) system usability; 3) participant satisfaction; and 4) initial efficacy. Methods Participants were 65 women (mean age 56.5 [SD=9.23]) with recurrent ovarian cancer randomized using minimization with race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White vs. minority) as the stratification factor. Measures were obtained at baseline and two and six weeks post-intervention. Outcomes were: feasibility of conducting the study, system usability, participant satisfaction, and efficacy (symptom severity, distress, consequences, and controllability). Results Fifty-six (87.5%) participants were retained and the mean usability score (range 1–7) was 6.18 (SD=1.29). All satisfaction items were scored at 5 (of 7) or higher. There were significant between-group effects at T2 for symptom distress, with those in the WRITE Symptoms group reporting lower distress than those in the control group [t(88.4)=?2.57; P=0.012], with a similar trend for symptom severity [t(40.4)=?1.95; P=0.058]. Repeated measures analysis also supported a group effect, with those in the WRITE Symptoms group reporting lower symptom distress compared with those in the control condition [F(1, 56.7)=4.59; P=0.037]. Conclusion Participants found the intervention and assessment system easy to use and had high levels of satisfaction. Initial efficacy was supported by decreases in symptom severity, distress, and consequences. PMID:24018206

  20. Group Coordination and Cooperative Control of Steered Particles in the Plane

    E-print Network

    Leonard, Naomi

    head- ings. 1 Introduction Feedback control laws that stabilize collective motions of particle groups1 1 2 #12;#12;Group Coordination and Cooperative Control of Steered Particles in the Plane Rodolphe and are subject to steering controls that change their orientation. In recent work [SPL05], see This paper

  1. Double jeopardy--drug and sex risks among Russian women who inject drugs: initial feasibility and efficacy results of a small randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With HIV prevalence estimated at 20% among female injecting drug users (IDUs) in St. Petersburg, Russia, there is a critical need to address the HIV risks of this at-risk population. This study characterized HIV risks associated with injecting drug use and sex behaviors and assessed the initial feasibility and efficacy of an adapted Woman-Focused intervention, the Women's CoOp, relative to a Nutrition control to reduce HIV risk behaviors among female IDUs in an inpatient detoxification drug treatment setting. Method Women (N = 100) were randomized into one of two one-hour long intervention conditions--the Woman-Focused intervention (n = 51) or a time and attention-matched Nutrition control condition (n = 49). Results The results showed that 57% of the participants had been told that they were HIV-positive. At 3-month follow-up, both groups showed reduced levels of injecting frequency. However, participants in the Woman-Focused intervention reported, on average, a lower frequency of partner impairment at last sex act and a lower average number of unprotected vaginal sex acts with their main sex partner than the Nutrition condition. Conclusion The findings suggest that improvements in sexual risk reduction are possible for these at-risk women and that more comprehensive treatment is needed to address HIV and drug risks in this vulnerable population. PMID:22233728

  2. Healthy lifestyle and risk of breast cancer for indigenous and non-indigenous women in New Zealand: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The reasons for the increasing breast cancer incidence in indigenous M?ori compared to non-M?ori New Zealand women are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the association of an index of combined healthy lifestyle behaviours with the risk of breast cancer in M?ori and non-M?ori women. Methods A population-based case–control study was conducted, including breast cancer cases registered in New Zealand from 2005–2007. Controls were matched by ethnicity and 5-year age bands. A healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) was generated for 1093 cases and 2118 controls, based on public health and cancer prevention recommendations. The HLIS was constructed from eleven factors (limiting red meat, cream, and cheese; consuming more white meat, fish, fruit and vegetables; lower alcohol consumption; not smoking; higher exercise levels; lower body mass index; and longer cumulative duration of breastfeeding). Equal weight was given to each factor. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between breast cancer and the HLIS for each ethnic group stratified by menopausal status. Results Among M?ori, the mean HLIS was 5.00 (range 1–9); among non-M?ori the mean was 5.43 (range 1.5-10.5). There was little evidence of an association between the HLIS and breast cancer for non-M?ori women. Among postmenopausal M?ori, those in the top HLIS tertile had a significantly lower odds of breast cancer (Odds Ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.94) compared to those in the bottom tertile. Conclusion These findings suggest that healthy lifestyle recommendations could be important for reducing breast cancer risk in postmenopausal M?ori women. PMID:24410858

  3. The effect of herbal extract (EstroG-100) on pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Albert; Kwak, Bo-Yeon; Yi, Kwontaek; Kim, Jae Soo

    2012-04-01

    This clinical research study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a new herbal product, EstroG-100, containing a mixture of standardized extracts of Cynanchum wilfordii, Phlomis umbrosa and Angelica gigas, on menopausal symptoms. This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed for 12 weeks with 64 pre-, peri- and postmenopausal White Hispanic, White non-Hispanic and African American women who were randomly allocated to either the EstroG-100 group (n = 31) or the placebo group (n =? 33). Primary end-points were the mean change in scores of the Kupperman menopause index (KMI) that evaluates 11 symptoms, and the mean change in scores of vaginal dryness. The mean KMI score was significantly reduced in the EstroG-100 group from 29.5 ± 7.4 at baseline to 11.3 ± 5.8 (p < 0.01) compared with change of the placebo group (29.2 ± 6.6 at baseline vs 23.7 ± 7.7 at week 12). The constituting symptoms of vasomotor, paresthesia, insomnia, nervousness, melancholia, vertigo, fatigue and rheumatic pain were significantly improved in the EstroG-100 group in comparison with the placebo group (p < 0.05). Statistically significant improvement in vaginal dryness in the EstroG-100 group was also observed compared with that of the placebo group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, EstroG-100 significantly improved the menopausal symptoms of pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women without weight gain or any serious side effects. PMID:21887807

  4. Japanese-Style Acupuncture for Endometriosis-Related Pelvic Pain in Adolescents and Young Women: Results of a Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Peter M.; Kerr, Catherine E.; Schnyer, Rosa N.; Legedza, Anna T. R.; Savetsky-German, Jacqueline; Shields, Monica H.; Buring, Julie E.; Davis, Roger B.; Conboy, Lisa A.; Highfield, Ellen; Parton, Barbara; Thomas, Phaedra; Laufer, Marc R.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objective To assess feasibility, and collect preliminary data for a subsequent randomized, sham-controlled trial to evaluate Japanese-style acupuncture for reducing chronic pelvic pain and improving health related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents with endometriosis. Design Randomized, sham-controlled trial. Settings Tertiary-referral hospital. Participants Eighteen young women (13–22y) with laparoscopically-diagnosed endometriosis-related chronic pelvic pain. Interventions A Japanese style of acupuncture and a sham acupuncture control. Sixteen treatments were administered over 8 weeks. Main outcome measures Protocol feasibility, recruitment numbers, pain not associated with menses or intercourse, and multiple HRQOL instruments including Endometriosis Health Profile, Pediatric Quality of Life, Perceived Stress, and Activity Limitation. Results Fourteen participants (out of 18 randomized) completed the study per protocol. Participants in the active acupuncture group (n=9) experienced an average 4.8 (sd=2.4) point reduction on a 11 point scale (62%) in pain after 4 weeks, which differed significantly from the control group’s (n=5) average reduction of 1.4 (s.d.=2.1) points (P=0.004). Reduction in pain in the active group persisted through a 6 month assessment; however, after 4 weeks, differences between the active and control group decreased and were not statistically significant. All HRQOL measures indicated greater improvements in the active acupuncture group compared to the control; however, the majority of these trends were not statistically significant. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Preliminary estimates indicate that Japanese-style acupuncture may be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated adjunct therapy for endometriosis-related pelvic pain in adolescents. A more definitive trial evaluating Japanese-style acupuncture in this population is both feasible and warranted. PMID:18794019

  5. The effect of distant reiki on pain in women after elective Caesarean section: a double-blinded randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    vanderVaart, Sondra; Berger, Howard; Tam, Carolyn; Goh, Y Ingrid; Gijsen, Violette M G J; de Wildt, Saskia N; Taddio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 25% of all babies in North America are delivered via Caesarean section (C-section). Though a common surgical procedure, C-section recovery can be painful. Opioids, specifically codeine, are commonly used to ease pain; however, its active metabolite, morphine, passes into breast milk, and may produce unwanted side effects in neonates; therefore, alternatives to opioids are being sought. Reiki is an ancient Japanese form of healing where practitioners transfer healing energy through light touch and positive healing intention. Although 1.2 million Americans use reiki to reduce pain or depression, there is a lack of strong evidence supporting its effectiveness. A recent systematic review showed existing studies to be of poor methodological quality, with the common limitation of lack of blinding. To overcome this issue, the authors used distant reiki to assess its effectiveness in reducing pain following an elective C-section. Methods In this randomised, double-blinded study, women who underwent an elective C-section were allocated to either usual care (control, n=40) or three distant reiki sessions in addition to usual care (n=40). Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The primary endpoint was the Area Under the VAS-Time Curve (AUC) for days 1–3. Secondary measures included: the proportion of women who required opioid medications and dose consumed, rate of healing and vital signs. Results AUC for pain was not significantly different in the distant reiki and control groups (mean±SD; 212.1±104.7 vs 223.1±117.8; p=0.96). There were no significant differences in opioid consumption or rate of healing; however, the distant reiki group had a significantly lower heart rate (74.3±8.1?bpm vs 79.8±7.9?bpm, p=0.003) and blood pressure (106.4±9.7?mm?Hg vs 111.9±11.0?mm?Hg, p=0.02) post surgery. Conclusion Distant reiki had no significant effect on pain following an elective C-section. Clinical Trial Registration Number ISRCTN79265996. PMID:22021729

  6. Perception on prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV among women of reproductive age group in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olugbenga-Bello, AI; Adebimpe, WO; Osundina, FF; Abdulsalam, ST

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The fastest growing group of adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is women. As more women contract the virus, the number of children infected in utero, intra-partum, and during breastfeeding has been growing. This study assessed the knowledge and attitude of women of child bearing age towards the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Materials and methods This is a descriptive cross sectional survey of 420 women of the reproductive age group (15–49 years) selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data were obtained using interviewer-administered, pretested, semistructured questionnaires. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 15. Results A high level of awareness about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was observed among the respondents (99.8%). The knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV was high, 92.1% and 91.4%, respectively. However, a significant portion (71.27%) of the study population had poor attitudes towards PMTCT of HIV. Conclusion Despite the high level of awareness of HIV/AIDS, and good knowledge about MTCT and PMTCT of HIV/AIDS among the respondents, the attitude towards PMTCT is poor. There is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge and attitude of prevention of MTCT of HIV among women. PMID:23874124

  7. The effects of intermittent vitamin D3 supplementation on muscle strength and metabolic parameters in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Roseane; Maia, Juliana; Henrique, Rafael; Griz, Luiz; Bandeira, Maria P.; Bandeira, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of weekly vitamin D3 supplementation on metabolic parameters and muscle strength of postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 38 patients with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] below 30 ng/ml and hand strength below 20 kg were randomly assigned to oral vitamin D3 (6600 IU/week in 2 cc oil preparation) or 2 cc olive oil weekly for 3 months. Results: There were nonsignificant increases in serum 25(OH)D in the intervention group to 22.98 ± 4.23 ng/ml and nonsignificant decreases in the control group to 22.84 ± 3.88 (26% of the intervention and 48% of the control groups had 25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml). Handgrip strength improved significantly in the intervention group (right arm 17.4 ± 2.68 to 19.9 ± 3.53 kg, p = 0.002; left arm 16.31 ± 2.6 to 18.46 ± 3.2 kg, p < 0.001) but not in the control group (right arm 16.87 ± 3.99 to 17.93 ± 4.91 kg, p = 0.1; left arm 16.13 ± 4.29 to 16.86 ± 4.79 kg, p < 0.2). More patients in the control group became obese at the end of the study period (p = 0.014). There were no significant changes in mean fasting glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), serum triglycerides and blood pressure with vitamin D supplementation. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly in the control group from 136.6 ± 18.6 to 141.4 ± 17.6 mmHg, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Vitamin D3 supplementation in doses equivalent to 942 IU/day improved isometric handgrip strength, but had no effect on glycaemic control in postmenopausal women with longstanding type 2 diabetes. PMID:26301064

  8. Group Lidcombe Program Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Simone; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study adds to the Lidcombe Program evidence base by comparing individual and group treatment of preschoolers who stutter. Method: A randomized controlled trial of 54 preschoolers was designed to establish whether group delivery outcomes were not inferior to the individual model. The group arm used a rolling group model, in which a…

  9. A group-based HIV and sexually transmitted infections prevention intervention for lesbian, bisexual, queer and other women who have sex with women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada: study protocol for a non-randomised cohort pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H; Navia, Daniela; Rwigema, Marie-Jolie; Tharao, Wangari; Este, David; Loutfy, Mona R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The limited research that exists suggests that lesbian, bisexual queer (LBQ) and other women who have sex with women are at similar risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) as heterosexual women. However, scant research has evaluated HIV and STI prevention strategies for LBQ women. The authors present the rationale and study protocol for developing and pilot testing a psychoeducational group-based HIV and STI prevention intervention with LBQ women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre non-randomised cohort pilot study. The target population is LBQ women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada. The authors aim to recruit 40 participants using purposive peer-driven recruitment methods. Participants will conduct a pretest followed by a 2-day group programme of six 2?h sessions addressing stigma, STI and HIV prevention, healthy relationships, safer sex self-efficacy, self-worth, social support and LBQ community engagement. Participants will conduct a post-test directly following the intervention and 6?weeks after the intervention. The primary outcome is safer sex practices; our prespecified index of clinically significant change is an effect size of 0.50. Secondary outcomes include: safer sex self-efficacy, STI testing frequency, STI knowledge, resilient coping, social support, sexual stigma, access to care, depression and self-esteem. We will conduct mixed-effects regression to calculate mean outcome pre–post test score change. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval was attained from the Office of Research Ethics (REB: 29291), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Trial results will be published according to the Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomised Designs (TREND) statement, regardless of the outcomes. Trial registration number This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT02067845. PMID:24760356

  10. Effect of pelvic floor muscle training compared with watchful waiting in older women with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse: randomised controlled trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wiegersma, Marian; Panman, Chantal M C R; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Berger, Marjolein Y; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of pelvic floor muscle training and watchful waiting on pelvic floor symptoms in a primary care population of women aged 55 years and over with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Dutch primary care. Participants Women aged 55 years or over with symptomatic mild prolapse (leading edge above the hymen) were identified by screening. Exclusion criteria were current prolapse treatment or treatment in the previous year, malignancy of pelvic organs, current treatment for another gynaecological disorder, severe/terminal illness, impaired mobility, cognitive impairment, and insufficient command of the Dutch language. Interventions Pelvic floor muscle training versus watchful waiting. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was change in bladder, bowel, and pelvic floor symptoms measured with the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20), three months after the start of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in condition specific and general quality of life, sexual function, degree of prolapse, pelvic floor muscle function, and patients’ perceived change in symptoms. Results Of the 287 women who were randomised to pelvic floor muscle training (n=145) or watchful waiting (n=142), 250 (87%) completed follow-up. Participants in the intervention group improved by (on average) 9.1 (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 15.4) points more on the PFDI-20 than did participants in the watchful waiting group (P=0.005). Of women in the pelvic floor muscle training group, 57% (82/145) reported an improvement in overall symptoms from the start of the study compared with 13% (18/142) in the watchful waiting group (P<0.001). Other secondary outcomes showed no significant difference between the groups. Conclusions Although pelvic floor muscle training led to a significantly greater improvement in PFDI-20 score, the difference between the groups was below the presumed level of clinical relevance (15 points). Nevertheless, 57% of the participants in the intervention group reported an improvement of overall symptoms. More studies are needed to identify factors related to success of pelvic floor muscle training and to investigate long term effects. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register (www.trialregister.nl) identifier: NTR2047. PMID:25533442

  11. Outcomes in Women Treated With MammoSite Brachytherapy or Whole Breast Irradiation Stratified by ASTRO Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Consensus Statement Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Zauls, A. Jason; Watkins, John M.; Wahlquist, Amy E.; Brackett, N. Craig; Aguero, Eric G.; Baker, Megan K.; Jenrette, Joseph M.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Harper, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology published a Consensus Statement for accelerated partial breast irradiation identifying three groups: Suitable, Cautionary, and Unsuitable. The objective of this study was to compare oncologic outcomes in women treated with MammoSite brachytherapy (MB) vs. whole breast irradiation (WBI) after stratification into Statement groups. Methods: Eligible women had invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) {<=}3 cm, and {<=}3 lymph nodes positive. Women were stratified by radiation modality and Statement groups. Survival analysis methods including Kaplan-Meier estimation, Cox regression, and competing risks analysis were used to assess overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), time to local failure (TTLF), and tumor bed failure (TBF). Results: A total of 459 (183 MB and 276 WBI) patients were treated from 2002 to 2009. After a median follow-up of 45 months, we found no statistical differences by stratification group or radiation modality with regard to OS and DFS. At 4 years TTLF or TBF were not statistically different between the cohorts. Univariate analysis in the MB cohort revealed that nodal positivity (pN1 vs. pN0) was related to TTLF (hazard ratio 6.39, p = 0.02). There was a suggestion that DCIS histology had an increased risk of failure when compared with invasive ductal carcinoma (hazard ratio 3.57, p = 0.06). Conclusions: MB and WBI patients stratified by Statement groups seem to combine women who will have similar outcomes regardless of radiation modality. Although outcomes were similar, we remain guarded in overinterpretation of these preliminary results until further analysis and long-term follow-up data become available. Caution should be used in treating women with DCIS or pN1 disease with MB.

  12. I am pregnant and want to do better but i can't: focus groups with low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings. PMID:25115522

  13. Pregnant Women Living with HIV (WLH) Supported at Clinics by Peer WLH: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Linda; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Van Heerden, Alastair; Stein, Alan; Tomlinson, Mark; Harwood, Jessica M.; Rochat, Tamsen; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Comulada, W. Scott; Tang, Zihling

    2014-01-01

    Throughout Africa, Peer Mentors who are women living with HIV (WLH) are supporting pregnant WLH at antenatal and primary healthcare clinics (McColl in BMJ 344:e1590, 2012). We evaluate a program using this intervention strategy at 1.5 months post-birth. In a cluster randomized controlled trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, eight clinics were randomized for their WLH to receive either: standard care (SC), based on national guidelines to prevent mother-to-child transmission (4 clinics; n = 656 WLH); or an enhanced intervention (EI; 4 clinics; n = 544 WLH). The EI consisted of four antenatal and four postnatal small group sessions led by Peer Mentors, in addition to SC. WLH were recruited during pregnancy and 70 % were reassessed at 1.5 months post-birth. EI's effect was ascertained on 16 measures of maternal and infant well-being using random effects regressions to control for clinic clustering. A binomial test for correlated outcomes evaluated EI's overall effectiveness. Among EI WLH reassessed, 87 % attended at least one intervention session (mean 4.1, SD 2.0). Significant overall benefits were found in EI compared to SC using the binomial test. However, it is important to note that EI WLH were significantly less likely to adhere to ARV during pregnancy compared to SC. Secondarily, compared to SC, EI WLH were more likely to ask partners to test for HIV, better protected their infants from HIV transmission, and were less likely to have depressed mood and stunted infants. Adherence to clinic intervention groups was low, yet, there were benefits for maternal and infant health at 1.5 months post-birth. PMID:24469222

  14. Pregnant women living with HIV (WLH) supported at clinics by peer WLH: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Van Heerden, Alastair; Stein, Alan; Tomlinson, Mark; Harwood, Jessica M; Rochat, Tamsen; Van Rooyen, Heidi; Comulada, W Scott; Tang, Zihling

    2014-04-01

    Throughout Africa, Peer Mentors who are women living with HIV (WLH) are supporting pregnant WLH at antenatal and primary healthcare clinics (McColl in BMJ 344:e1590, 2012). We evaluate a program using this intervention strategy at 1.5 months post-birth. In a cluster randomized controlled trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, eight clinics were randomized for their WLH to receive either: standard care (SC), based on national guidelines to prevent mother-to-child transmission (4 clinics; n = 656 WLH); or an enhanced intervention (EI; 4 clinics; n = 544 WLH). The EI consisted of four antenatal and four postnatal small group sessions led by Peer Mentors, in addition to SC. WLH were recruited during pregnancy and 70 % were reassessed at 1.5 months post-birth. EI's effect was ascertained on 16 measures of maternal and infant well-being using random effects regressions to control for clinic clustering. A binomial test for correlated outcomes evaluated EI's overall effectiveness. Among EI WLH reassessed, 87 % attended at least one intervention session (mean 4.1, SD 2.0). Significant overall benefits were found in EI compared to SC using the binomial test. However, it is important to note that EI WLH were significantly less likely to adhere to ARV during pregnancy compared to SC. Secondarily, compared to SC, EI WLH were more likely to ask partners to test for HIV, better protected their infants from HIV transmission, and were less likely to have depressed mood and stunted infants. Adherence to clinic intervention groups was low, yet, there were benefits for maternal and infant health at 1.5 months post-birth. PMID:24469222

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Efficacy of a Stigma Reduction Intervention for HIV-Infected Women in the Deep South

    PubMed Central

    Relf, Michael V.; Williams, Megan Scull; Arscott, Joyell; Moore, Elizabeth D.; Caiola, Courtney; Silva, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare outcomes (self-esteem, coping self-efficacy, and internalized stigma) across time in HIV-infected women living in the Deep South who received a stigma reduction intervention (n=51) with those of a control group (n=49) who received the usual care at baseline, and at 30 and 90 days. We recruited 99 women from clinics and an AIDS service organization; they were randomized by recruitment site. A video developed from the results of a qualitative metasynthesis study of women with HIV infection was loaded onto iPod Touch devices. Participants were asked to watch the video weekly for 4 weeks, and to record the number of times they viewed it over a 12-week period. We examined the trajectory model results for efficacy outcomes for the intent-to-treat and the supplemental completers groups. There was a treatment-by-time effect for improved self-esteem (intent-to-treat: p=0.0308; completers: p=0.0284) and decreases in internalized stigma (intent-to-treat: p=0.0036; completers: p=0.0060), and a treatment-by-time-by-time effect for improved coping self-efficacy (intent-to-treat: p=0.0414; completers: p=0.0321). A medium effect of the intervention in terms of improving self-esteem was observed when compared with the control condition in those who completed the study. The magnitude of the intervention effect, however, was large with regard to reducing overall stigma, improving social relationships, and decreasing stereotypes in both groups. PMID:25084499

  16. Exploring Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control as Risk Factors in Sexual Decision Making for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpleton, Asher M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…

  17. A randomised controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for women who have menopausal symptoms following breast cancer treatment (MENOS 1): Trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a group cognitive behavioural intervention to alleviate menopausal symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats) in women who have had breast cancer treatment. Hot flushes and night sweats are highly prevalent but challenging to treat in this population. Cognitive behaviour therapy has been found to reduce these symptoms in well women and results of an exploratory trial suggest that it might be effective for breast cancer patients. Two hypotheses are tested: Compared to usual care, group cognitive behavioural therapy will: 1. Significantly reduce the problem rating and frequency of hot flushes and nights sweats after six weeks of treatment and at six months post-randomisation. 2. Improve mood and quality of life after six weeks of treatment and at six months post-randomisation. Methods/Design Ninety-six women who have completed their main treatment for breast cancer and who have been experiencing problematic hot flushes and night sweats for over two months are recruited into the trial from oncology and breast clinics in South East London. They are randomised to either six weekly group cognitive behavioural therapy (Group CBT) sessions or to usual care. Group CBT includes information and discussion about hot flushes and night sweats in the context of breast cancer, monitoring and modifying precipitants, relaxation and paced respiration, stress management, cognitive therapy for unhelpful thoughts and beliefs, managing sleep and night sweats and maintaining changes. Prior to randomisation women attend a clinical interview, undergo 24-hour sternal skin conductance monitoring, and complete questionnaire measures of hot flushes and night sweats, mood, quality of life, hot flush beliefs and behaviours, optimism and somatic amplification. Post-treatment measures (sternal skin conductance and questionnaires) are collected six to eight weeks later and follow-up measures (questionnaires and a use of medical services measure) at six months post-randomisation. Discussion MENOS 1 is the first randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for hot flushes and night sweats that measures both self-reported and physiologically indexed symptoms. The results will inform future clinical practice by developing an evidence-based, non-medical treatment, which can be delivered by trained health professionals. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13771934 PMID:21281461

  18. Ironic Effects of Sexual Minority Group Membership: Are Lesbians Less Susceptible to Invoking Negative Female Stereotypes than Heterosexual Women?

    PubMed

    Niedlich, Claudia; Steffens, Melanie C; Krause, Jacqueline; Settke, Elisabeth; Ebert, Irena D

    2015-07-01

    The traditional stereotype of the typical woman has been described as "nice, but incompetent." However, such general gender stereotypes are applied to individual targets only under certain conditions: They are used to "fill in the blanks" (Heilman, 2012) if little personal information is provided about a target. "Typical lesbians" are regarded to have more typically masculine (agentic) characteristics such as task competence than the typical woman does. We thus hypothesized that if a woman displays behavior coinciding with the stereotype of the typical woman, it is more readily interpreted as stereotypically female if performed by a heterosexual woman than by a lesbian. Participants (N = 296) read a hypothetical job interview in which we manipulated the target's sexual orientation (between subjects). Findings demonstrated that a lesbian was judged as more competent than a heterosexual woman in the presence of behavior that may be interpreted as gender-stereotypical (Experiments 1 and 2). This difference in competence judgments was not found in the absence of gender-stereotypical behavior (Experiment 1). Judging the heterosexual woman as low in masculinity was related to a judgment of lower competence (Experiment 2). Our findings demonstrate that there are conditions under which lesbians, a group often stereotyped negatively, are less susceptible to invoking negative female stereotypes than heterosexual women are. PMID:25510890

  19. No detection of 'high-risk' human papillomaviruses in a group of Iranian women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahangar-Oskouee, Mahin; Shahmahmoodi, Shohreh; Jalilvand, Somayeh; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Ziaee, Abed Ali; Esmaeili, Heidar-Ali; Keshtvarz, Maryam; Pishraft-Sabet, Leila; Yousefi, Maryam; Mollaei-Kandelous, Yaghoob; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Nategh, Rakhshandeh

    2014-01-01

    The presence of viral DNA in breast cancer cells is controversial. However, some studies have revealed a possible role for the human papillomavirus in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of HPV-DNA in breast tissue in a group of Iranian women with and without breast cancer and identification of the detected HPV types. Paraffin-embedded specimens from 65 malignant breast cancer cases and 65 cases with benign breast lesions were investigated for presence of HPV-DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction. We found HPV-DNA in 22 (33.8%) of the breast cancer specimens. All non-cancerous specimens were negative. Low and high-risk HPV types, including HPV-6 (26.2%), HPV-16 (1.5%), HPV-35 (1.5%), HPV-52 (1.5%), and HPV-11 (1.5%) were detected in our study. HPV-6 was the most prevalent type in the breast cancer specimens. Although high-risk HPV types have been shown to have a major role in cervix cancer, there have been no data that support the same relevance for other types of malignancies. Furthermore, presence of low-risk HPV types in malignancies still is a matter of debate. The data presented in this study indicates a strong need for epidemiological studies correlating different HPV types in human breast cancer. PMID:24935597

  20. Group CBT for psychosis: a longitudinal, controlled trial with inpatients.

    PubMed

    Owen, Mary; Sellwood, William; Kan, Stephen; Murray, John; Sarsam, May

    2015-02-01

    Individual cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is a recommended treatment in the acute phase and beyond. However, less is known about the effectiveness of group CBTp in acute care. This mixed methods study explored the implementation and effectiveness of brief group CBTp with inpatients. This prospective trial compared inpatients who received either a four week group CBTp program or treatment as usual (TAU). Participants (n = 113 at baseline) completed self-report measures of distress, confidence and symptoms of psychosis at baseline, post-intervention and one month follow up. CBTp group participants also completed a brief open-ended satisfaction questionnaire. Using complete case analysis participants who received CBTp showed significantly reduced distress at follow up compared to TAU and significantly increased confidence across the study and follow up period. However, these effects were not demonstrated using a more conservative intention-to-treat analysis. Qualitative analysis of the satisfaction data revealed positive feedback with a number of specific themes. The study suggests that brief group CBTp with inpatients may improve confidence and reduce distress in the longer term. Participants report that the groups are acceptable and helpful. However, given the methodological limitations involved in this 'real world' study more robust evidence is needed. PMID:25577190

  1. Peptide dimethylation: fragmentation control via distancing the dimethylamino group.

    PubMed

    McShane, Adam J; Shen, Yuanyuan; Castillo, Mary Joan; Yao, Xudong

    2014-10-01

    Direct reductive methylation of peptides is a common method for quantitative proteomics. It is an active derivatization technique; with participation of the dimethylamino group, the derivatized peptides preferentially release intense a1 ions. The advantageous generation of a1 ions for quantitative proteomic profiling, however, is not desirable for targeted proteomic quantitation using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; this mass spectrometric method prefers the derivatizing group to stay with the intact peptide ions and multiple fragments as passive mass tags. This work investigated collisional fragmentation of peptides whose amine groups were derivatized with five linear ?-dimethylamino acids, from 2-(dimethylamino)-acetic acid to 6-(dimethylamino)-hexanoic acid. Tandem mass spectra of the derivatized tryptic peptides revealed different preferential breakdown pathways. Together with energy resolved mass spectrometry, it was found that shutting down the active participation of the terminal dimethylamino group in fragmentation of derivatized peptides is possible. However, it took a separation of five methylene groups between the terminal dimethylamino group and the amide formed upon peptide derivatization. For the first time, the gas-phase fragmentation of peptides derivatized with linear ?-dimethylamino acids of systematically increasing alkyl chain lengths is reported. PMID:25091822

  2. Peptide Dimethylation: Fragmentation Control via Distancing the Dimethylamino Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, Adam J.; Shen, Yuanyuan; Castillo, Mary Joan; Yao, Xudong

    2014-10-01

    Direct reductive methylation of peptides is a common method for quantitative proteomics. It is an active derivatization technique; with participation of the dimethylamino group, the derivatized peptides preferentially release intense a1 ions. The advantageous generation of a1 ions for quantitative proteomic profiling, however, is not desirable for targeted proteomic quantitation using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; this mass spectrometric method prefers the derivatizing group to stay with the intact peptide ions and multiple fragments as passive mass tags. This work investigated collisional fragmentation of peptides whose amine groups were derivatized with five linear ?-dimethylamino acids, from 2-(dimethylamino)-acetic acid to 6-(dimethylamino)-hexanoic acid. Tandem mass spectra of the derivatized tryptic peptides revealed different preferential breakdown pathways. Together with energy resolved mass spectrometry, it was found that shutting down the active participation of the terminal dimethylamino group in fragmentation of derivatized peptides is possible. However, it took a separation of five methylene groups between the terminal dimethylamino group and the amide formed upon peptide derivatization. For the first time, the gas-phase fragmentation of peptides derivatized with linear ?-dimethylamino acids of systematically increasing alkyl chain lengths is reported.

  3. Case-control study of intracranial meningiomas in women in Los Angeles County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Preston-Martin, S.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Henderson, B.E.; Pike, M.C.; Wood, C.

    1980-07-01

    A case-control study was conducted among women in Los Angeles County to investigate possible causes of intracranial meningiomas. Questionnaires sought information from patients and from a neighbor of each one on characteristics and past experiences that might be associated with the development of this disease. Information was obtained on 188 matched patient-neighbor pairs. Three primary factors appeared to be associated with meningioma occurrence: 1) a history of head trauma (odds ratio = 2.0, p = 0.01), 2) consumption of certain cured meats (odds ratio = 2.8, p = less than 0.01), and 3) exposure to medical and dental diagnostic X-rays to the head. For diagnostic X-rays, the strongest association was with early exposure (less than 20 yr old) to full-mouth dental X-ray series (odds ratio = 4.0, p less than 0.01).

  4. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the CD-1 mouse.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul; Reeve, Lesley

    2007-06-01

    Current regulatory thinking allows for the use of single control groups for rodent carcinogenicity testing although there has been a trend until recently to use dual control groups. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether a shift from dual to single control groups will affect the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. A recent evaluation of dual control carcinogenicity data in the rat (Baldrick, Toxicol Pathol 2005, 33: 283-291) showed that although no major differences in tumor incidences between the control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred and in cases were a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. In this paper, the results of 10 mouse carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2004, with 2 control groups, are presented. As in the rat, interstudy variation was seen and in some cases, the use of dual control groups assisted in the tumor risk assessment. Thus, the continued use of 2 control groups can have a vital role in mouse carcinogenicity studies. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used mouse strain. PMID:17562489

  5. Effect of Facilitation of Local Maternal-and-Newborn Stakeholder Groups on Neonatal Mortality: Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Lars Åke; Nga, Nguyen T.; Målqvist, Mats; Thi Phuong Hoa, Dinh; Eriksson, Leif; Wallin, Lars; Selling, Katarina; Huy, Tran Q.; Duc, Duong M.; Tiep, Tran V.; Thi Thu Thuy, Vu; Ewald, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Background Facilitation of local women's groups may reportedly reduce neonatal mortality. It is not known whether facilitation of groups composed of local health care staff and politicians can improve perinatal outcomes. We hypothesised that facilitation of local stakeholder groups would reduce neonatal mortality (primary outcome) and improve maternal, delivery, and newborn care indicators (secondary outcomes) in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam. Methods and Findings In a cluster-randomized design 44 communes were allocated to intervention and 46 to control. Laywomen facilitated monthly meetings during 3 years in groups composed of health care staff and key persons in the communes. A problem-solving approach was employed. Births and neonatal deaths were monitored, and interviews were performed in households of neonatal deaths and of randomly selected surviving infants. A latent period before effect is expected in this type of intervention, but this timeframe was not pre-specified. Neonatal mortality rate (NMR) from July 2008 to June 2011 was 16.5/1,000 (195 deaths per 11,818 live births) in the intervention communes and 18.4/1,000 (194 per 10,559 live births) in control communes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.96 [95% CI 0.73–1.25]). There was a significant downward time trend of NMR in intervention communes (p?=?0.003) but not in control communes (p?=?0.184). No significant difference in NMR was observed during the first two years (July 2008 to June 2010) while the third year (July 2010 to June 2011) had significantly lower NMR in intervention arm: adjusted OR 0.51 (95% CI 0.30–0.89). Women in intervention communes more frequently attended antenatal care (adjusted OR 2.27 [95% CI 1.07–4.8]). Conclusions A randomized facilitation intervention with local stakeholder groups composed of primary care staff and local politicians working for three years with a perinatal problem-solving approach resulted in increased attendance to antenatal care and reduced neonatal mortality after a latent period. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN44599712 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23690755

  6. What's Good for the Goose May Not Be as Good for the Gander: The Benefits of Self-Monitoring for Men and Women in Task Groups and Dyadic Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Francis J.; Ames, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors posit that women can rely on self-monitoring to overcome negative gender stereotypes in certain performance contexts. In a study of mixed-sex task groups, the authors found that female group members who were high self-monitors were considered more influential and more valuable contributors than women who were low self-monitors. Men…

  7. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...de minimis 10-percent segment of the plan's old controlled...controlled groups—one segment consisting of Company A and the other segment consisting of Companies...effective, Company Q has the reporting obligation. If the...

  8. Self-reported legal needs of women with or at risk for HIV infection. The Her Study Group.

    PubMed

    Distabile, P; Dubler, N N; Solomon, L; Klein, R S

    1999-12-01

    Women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are often poor and members of racial or ethnic minorities. In addition to legal concerns that might be common among persons with similar sociodemographic characteristics, HIV infection adds the potential of possible stigma and discrimination, as well as the prospect of illness and increased mortality. To determine women's perceptions of need for and access to legal services and whether such perceptions are affected by HIV infection, from November 1993 through September 1995 we interviewed 509 women with or at risk for HIV infection by virtue of injection drug use or high-risk sexual behaviors in New York and Baltimore, Maryland. A majority of women, regardless of HIV serostatus, reported current or future needs for legal assistance with government benefits. More than 25% reported needing current or future legal help with housing, debts, arrangements for care of children, a will, and advance directives. Substantial minorities of women reported other legal needs. HIV-positive women were significantly more likely to report anticipated future need for help with paternal custody or visitation, current need in making a will, and anticipated future assistance with advance directives. For most items, a majority of women thought they knew where to receive help. However, among women reporting a current need, only a minority actually were receiving legal assistance. This study suggests that the extent of legal needs among women with or at risk for HIV infection is substantial, and that few receive legal assistance. With few exceptions, at least for women early in the course of illness, HIV infection does not appear to alter the pattern or extent of legal needs. There are dramatic differences, regardless of HIV status, between expectation and reality in women's access to legal services. PMID:10609593

  9. Sterilization and birth control in the shadow of eugenics: married, middle-class women in Alberta, 1930-1960s.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The history of eugenic sterilization connotes draconian images of coerced and involuntary procedures robbing men and women of their reproductive health. While eugenics programs often fit this characterization, there is another, smaller, and less obvious legacy of eugenics that arguably contributed to a more empowering image of reproductive health. Sexual sterilization surgeries as a form of contraception began to gather momentum alongside eugenics programs in the middle of the 20th century and experiences among prairie women serve as an illustrative example. Alberta maintained its eugenics program from 1929 to 1972 and engaged in thousands of eugenic sterilizations, but by the 1940s middle-class married women pressured their Albertan physicians to provide them with sterilization surgeries to control fertility, as a matter of choice. The multiple meanings and motivations behind this surgery introduced a moral quandary for physicians, which encourages medical historians to revisit the history of eugenics and its relationship to the contemporaneous birth control movement. PMID:24909023

  10. Women, population and development: rural women's passage to empowerment.

    PubMed

    Villareal, F L

    1995-12-01

    This article describes the Women's Population and Development (WPD) program among rural women in 35 poor counties in 10 provinces in China in 1988. The provinces included Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Guizhou, Hubei, and Anhui, which are mostly located in the arid northwest or pastoral northeast China. The study area is inclined to have harsh agro-ecological conditions and environmental degradation. Women's income ranges from RMB 350 to 650 Yuan. About 35% were literate. 40-50% of the rural agricultural labor force and about 60% of all farm labor were women. Out migration of men was increasing. This WPD program was supported by the Ministry of Foreign Technical and Economic Cooperation, the UNFPA, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. The program aim is to use alternative family planning strategies, alleviate poverty, and improve rural women's status. Initial discussions revealed different goals among rural women and county leaders. Women wanted direct access and control over resources. County leaders desired increased productivity among a selected number of small scale enterprises. The project stipulated that 80% of funding was to be allocated as credit for rural women, that a revolving fund would give women direct access and control of resources, and that women would be recognized for their dual roles. Partnerships were formed between women's voluntary groups and project management. Prospective members of women's self-help groups received a 60-70 hour workshop. This workshop helped to identity the root causes of low status and feasible approaches to improving the status and to developed program activities. Counties were gradually included during 1990-93. This program evaluation pertains to analysis of 1994-95 data among 1300 respondents at four points in time. Impact indicators include 18 measures. The most important measure is that women gained control over their own lives and a partnership with husbands. The program was successful due to increased productivity, rational childbearing and rearing practices, and the expansion and diversification of the village economy. One of the lessons learned was that poor women need not be a burden and can be a precious resource. PMID:12346908

  11. 3 CFR - Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls, and Gender-related Health Disparities Presidential... Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls, and Gender-related Health Disparities Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Throughout our country, the spread of HIV/AIDS...

  12. Melatonin and female hormone secretion in postmenopausal overweight women.

    PubMed

    Walecka-Kapica, Ewa; Chojnacki, Jan; St?pie?, Agnieszka; Wachowska-Kelly, Patrycja; Klupi?ska, Gra?yna; Chojnacki, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency is considered to be the main cause of increased appetite and increased weight in postmenopausal women. In this period, reduced secretion of melatonin (MEL) was also observed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the secretion of melatonin, 17-? estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in relation to body mass index (BMI) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The study included 90 women divided into three equal groups: group I (control)-women without menstrual disorders, group II-postmenopausal women without change in appetite and body weight, group III-postmenopausal women experiencing increased appetite and weight gain. In each patient, serum melatonin, 17-?-estradiol, FSH and urine a 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) were determined. Compared to the control group, the level of melatonin and estradiol was statistically lower. The FSH level was higher than in the groups of postmenopausal women. No significant correlation was found in all groups between the level of melatonin and the levels of estradiol and FSH. A negative correlation was found between aMT6s excretion and BMI, and a positive correlation between the level of FSH and BMI, mainly in overweight women. The obtained results indicate a significant effect of melatonin deficiency on the process of weight gain in postmenopausal women and justify its use in treatment of these disorders. PMID:25569084

  13. Blastocyst-stage versus cleavage-stage embryo transfer in women with high oestradiol concentrations: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Elgindy, Eman A; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Mostafa, Magdy I

    2011-12-01

    This prospective, randomized, controlled trial tested the hypothesis that delaying embryo transfer to the blastocyst stage can increase the probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth in women with high oestradiol concentrations on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection using the long protocol. A total of 200 women with oestradiol >3000 pg/ml on the HCG day with four or more good-quality, day-3 embryos were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to undergo day-3 or day-5 embryo transfer. Clinical pregnancy rates (CPR; 41% versus 59%; relative risk 0.70, 95% CI 0.52–0.93) and ongoing pregnancy/live-birth rates (35% versus 52%; relative risk 0.67, 95% CI 0.46–0.93) were lower in women undergoing cleavage-stage than blastocyst-stage embryo transfer. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, among women undergoing cleavage-stage embryo transfer, a detrimental cut-off value for not achieving pregnancy for oestradiol was 4200 pg/ml, with lower CPR and ongoing pregnancy/live-birth rates (P = 0.006 and 0.02, respectively). No detrimental cut-off value for oestradiol was identified among women undergoing blastocyst-stage embryo transfer. Delaying embryo transfer to the blastocyst stage can increase the probability of pregnancy in women with high oestradiol on the HCG day PMID:22050864

  14. A Case-Control Study of Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk in White and African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Berstad, Paula; Coates, Ralph J.; Bernstein, Leslie; Folger, Suzanne G.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Weiss, Linda K.; Liff, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Jill A.; Strom, Brian L.; Simon, Michael S.; Deapen, Dennis; Press, Michael F.; Burkman, Ronald T.; Spirtas, Robert; Ursin, Giske

    2010-01-01

    Objective Large body size has been associated with decreased risk of breast cancer in premenopausal, but with increased risk in postmenopausal women. Limited information is available about African American women and differences by estrogen- and progesterone-receptor (ERPR) status. Methods We analyzed data from the Women's Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences (CARE) Study among 3,997 white and African American breast cancer case patients diagnosed in 1994-98 and 4,041 control participants aged 35 to 64. We calculated multivariate odds ratios (ORs) as measures of relative risk of breast cancer associated with self-reported body mass index (BMI) at age 18 and 5 years before diagnosis (recent BMI). Results Risk tended to decrease with increasing BMI at age 18 in all women (ORBMI?25 kg/m2 vs <20kg/m2=0.76, 95% CI:0.63–0.90, Ptrend=0.005) and with recent BMI in premenopausal women (ORBMI ?35 kg/m2 vs <25kg/m2=0.81, 95% CI:0.61–1.06, Ptrend=0.05), unmodified by race. Among postmenopausal white but not African American women, there was an inverse relation between recent BMI and risk. High recent BMI was associated with increased risk of ERPR positive tumors among postmenopausal African American women (ORBMI ?35 kg/m2 vs <25kg/m2=1.83, 95% CI:1.08–3.09, Ptrend=0.03). Conclusion Among women at age 35-64, BMI at age 18 is inversely associated with risk of breast cancer, but association with recent BMI varies by menopause status, race and hormone receptor status. Impact Our findings indicate that studies of BMI and breast cancer should consider breast cancer subtypes. PMID:20501755

  15. Effectiveness of Topical Curcumin for Treatment of Mastitis in Breastfeeding Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Afshariani, Raha; Farhadi, Pooya; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Roozbeh, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of topical curcumin in reducing breast inflammation in women suffering from lactational mastitis. Methods A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 63 breastfeeding women with lactational mastitis were randomly assigned to receive curcumin topical cream, one pump every 8 hours for 3 days (n=32) or topical moisturizer as placebo (n=31). Using an index for severity of breast inflammation, all of the patients had moderate breast inflammation before entering the study. The outcome of treatment was evaluated using the same index at 24, 48 and 72 hours of starting the treatment. Results There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the baseline characteristics such as age (p=0.361) and duration of lactation (p=0.551). After 72-hour of therapy, patients in curcumin groups had significantly lower rate of moderate (p=0.019) and mild (p=0.002) mastitis. Patients in curcumin group had significantly lower scores for tension (p<0.001), erythema (p<0.001) and pain (p<0.001), after 72-hour of treatment. Conclusion The results of the current study indicate that topical preparation of curcumin successfully decrease the markers of lactational mastitis such as pain, breast tension and erythema within 72 hours of administration without side effects. Thus, topical preparation of curcumin could be safely administered for those suffering from lactational mastitis after excluding infectious etiologies. PMID:25337308

  16. Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

  17. Choice of contraceptive method for birth control and attitudes toward abortion in Swedish women ages 23-29.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M E; Olsson, H M; Sjödén, P O

    1995-01-01

    In Sweden, contraceptive methods for birth control are readily available, but one in four pregnancies was legally terminated during the period from 1975 to 1990. Our purpose in conducting the present study was to describe young women's choices and use of contraceptive methods and their attitudes to abortion. The participants were 305 Swedish women ages 23-29 years. Eighty-eight percent of the women were using some contraceptive method. The most common method was hormonal (43%), followed by a barrier method (22%). The women considered that abortion should not be used as a method of birth control and that the fact that a pregnancy is unintended is not a sufficient reason for terminating it. An acceptable reason, they thought, for a woman to have an abortion is the woman's present situation, in particular her social situation. The women were aware that the use of contraceptive methods gives them the chance to choose if and when they wish to have children. PMID:7706142

  18. Effects of continuous percutaneous estradiol administration on skeletal turnover in postmenopausal women: a 1-year prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Cicinelli, E; Cantatore, F P; Galantino, P; Rubini, G; Cerundolo, M; Balzano, G; D'Aquino, T M

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short and long term effects of continuous percutaneous administration of estradiol (E2) cream on skeletal turnover in women in surgical postmenopause. Forty women were randomly divided into two groups, one treated with a single daily application of 3 mg/day E2 cream continuously for 12 months, the other receiving placebo cream. Forearm densitometry was performed before and at the end of treatment. Serum E2, osteocalcin (BGP), alkaline posphatase (AP) and urinary N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) were also measured at baseline, month 4 and 12 of the protocol. At month 4, bone turnover was also assessed by evaluating 99mtechnetium-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) skeletal uptake. Changes in E2, BGP, AP and NTX as well as 99mTc-MDP skeletal uptake in hormone group vs. placebo were significant after 4 months of treatment. At month 12, proximal site densitometry showed no variation in either group whereas the percentage of variation in distal site measurements resulted significantly different with an increase in the hormone group and a reduction in the placebo group. In conclusion continuous percutaneous administration of E2 cream was effective in rapidly reducing bone turnover in postmenopausal women and in counteracting the accelerated postmenopausal bone loss. PMID:8902442

  19. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  20. The NGDO Co-ordination Group for Onchocerciasis Control.

    PubMed

    Haddad, D

    2008-09-01

    Since the beginning of the donation of Mectizan by Merck & Co., Inc., non-governmental development organizations (NGDO) have been actively involved in the mass distribution of this drug to control onchocerciasis. In 2006, the network of NGDO involved in onchocerciasis control assisted in the treatment of over 62 million people. The current strategy that is used for distribution in Africa, community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), is very well suited for integration with other health activities. NGDO have been the pioneers in integrating comprehensive eye care, insecticide-treated nets for malaria, the control of multiple 'neglected' tropical diseases, and vitamin-A supplementation. These expanded activities bring with them new challenges, which need to be addressed by all partners and where the NGDO will play an active role. PMID:18718153

  1. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that will cease to be in the plan's controlled group. (c) Waivers—(1) De minimis 10-percent segment... represent a de minimis 10-percent segment of the plan's old controlled group for the most recent fiscal year...—one segment consisting of Company A and the other segment consisting of Companies B and C....

  2. Effects of an 8-Month Ashtanga-Based Yoga Intervention on Bone Metabolism in Middle-Aged Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, SoJung; Bemben, Michael G; Knehans, Allen W; Bemben, Debra A

    2015-12-01

    Although Yoga has the potential to be an alternative physical activity to enhance bone health, there is a lack of high quality evidence for this type of intervention. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of a progressive 8-month Ashtanga-based Yoga program on bone turnover markers (BTM), areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone characteristics in premenopausal women. Thirty-four premenopausal women (35-50 years) were randomly assigned either to a Yoga group (YE, n = 16) or a control group (CON, n = 18). Participants in YE group performed 60 minutes of an Ashtanga-based Yoga series 2 times/week with one day between sessions for 8 months, and the session intensity was progressively increased by adding the number of sun salutations (SS). Participants in CON were encouraged to maintain their normal daily lifestyles monitored by the bone specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) at 2 month intervals for 8 months. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase, Bone ALP) and bone resorption (Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase-5b, TRAP5b) markers were assessed at baseline and after 8 months. aBMD of total body, lumbar spine and dual proximal femur and tibia bone characteristics were measured using DXA and peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT), respectively. We found that the serum Bone ALP concentrations were maintained in YE, but significantly (p = 0.005) decreased in CON after the 8 month intervention, and there were significant (p = 0.002) group differences in Bone ALP percent changes (YE 9.1 ± 4.0% vs. CON -7.1 ± 2.3%). No changes in TRAP5b were found in either group. The 8-month Yoga program did not increase aBMD or tibia bone strength variables. Body composition results showed no changes in weight, fat mass, or % fat, but small significant increases in bone free lean body mass occurred in both groups. The findings of this study suggest that regular long-term Ashtanga Yoga had a small positive effect on bone formation but did not alter aBMD or tibia bone characteristics in premenopausal women. Key pointsRegular long-term Ashtanga-based Yoga program had a small positive effect on bone formation, but no effects were found on bone resorption.None of the bone density or geometry variables were changed by the 8-month Ashtanga-based Yoga intervention.Future Yoga interventions should focus on longer duration and greater frequency to elicit improvements in bone mineral density. PMID:26664272

  3. Effects of an 8-Month Ashtanga-Based Yoga Intervention on Bone Metabolism in Middle-Aged Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SoJung; Bemben, Michael G.; Knehans, Allen W.; Bemben, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    Although Yoga has the potential to be an alternative physical activity to enhance bone health, there is a lack of high quality evidence for this type of intervention. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of a progressive 8-month Ashtanga-based Yoga program on bone turnover markers (BTM), areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone characteristics in premenopausal women. Thirty-four premenopausal women (35-50 years) were randomly assigned either to a Yoga group (YE, n = 16) or a control group (CON, n = 18). Participants in YE group performed 60 minutes of an Ashtanga-based Yoga series 2 times/week with one day between sessions for 8 months, and the session intensity was progressively increased by adding the number of sun salutations (SS). Participants in CON were encouraged to maintain their normal daily lifestyles monitored by the bone specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) at 2 month intervals for 8 months. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase, Bone ALP) and bone resorption (Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase-5b, TRAP5b) markers were assessed at baseline and after 8 months. aBMD of total body, lumbar spine and dual proximal femur and tibia bone characteristics were measured using DXA and peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT), respectively. We found that the serum Bone ALP concentrations were maintained in YE, but significantly (p = 0.005) decreased in CON after the 8 month intervention, and there were significant (p = 0.002) group differences in Bone ALP percent changes (YE 9.1 ± 4.0% vs. CON -7.1 ± 2.3%). No changes in TRAP5b were found in either group. The 8-month Yoga program did not increase aBMD or tibia bone strength variables. Body composition results showed no changes in weight, fat mass, or % fat, but small significant increases in bone free lean body mass occurred in both groups. The findings of this study suggest that regular long-term Ashtanga Yoga had a small positive effect on bone formation but did not alter aBMD or tibia bone characteristics in premenopausal women. Key points Regular long-term Ashtanga-based Yoga program had a small positive effect on bone formation, but no effects were found on bone resorption. None of the bone density or geometry variables were changed by the 8-month Ashtanga-based Yoga intervention. Future Yoga interventions should focus on longer duration and greater frequency to elicit improvements in bone mineral density. PMID:26664272

  4. Acute effects of calcium supplements on blood pressure and blood coagulation: secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Sarah M; Gamble, Greg D; Stewart, Angela; Horne, Anne M; Reid, Ian R

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that Ca supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular events, but the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is uncertain. In a study primarily assessing the effects of various Ca supplements on blood Ca levels, we also investigated the effects of Ca supplements on blood pressure and their acute effects on blood coagulation. We randomised 100 post-menopausal women to 1 g/d of Ca or a placebo containing no Ca. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and every 2 h up to 8 h after their first dose and after 3 months of supplementation. Blood coagulation was measured by thromboelastography (TEG) in a subgroup of participants (n 40) up to 8 h only. Blood pressure declined over 8 h in both the groups, consistent with its normal diurnal rhythm. The reduction in systolic blood pressure was smaller in the Ca group compared with the control group by >5 mmHg between 2 and 6 h (P?0·02), and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was smaller at 2 h (between-groups difference 4·5 mmHg, P=0·004). Blood coagulability, assessed by TEG, increased from baseline over 8 h in the calcium citrate and control groups. At 4 h, the increase in the coagulation index was greater in the calcium citrate group compared with the control group (P=0·03), which appeared to be due to a greater reduction in the time to clot initiation. These data suggest that Ca supplements may acutely influence blood pressure and blood coagulation. Further investigation of this possibility is required. PMID:26420590

  5. Selection of the control group for VBM analysis: influence of covariates, matching and sample size.

    PubMed

    Pell, Gaby S; Briellmann, Regula S; Chan, Chow Huat Patrick; Pardoe, Heath; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D

    2008-07-15

    Variability in the control group plays a crucial role in voxel-based morphometry (VBM) detection of structural abnormalities. Two common methods of minimising this variance are inclusion of covariates and matching of control and patient groups. We address two major questions: What are the optimal covariates in the VBM design? When a large pool of controls are available, is it better to choose a subset of matched control subjects at the expense of numbers, or include all available controls? We used regression analysis in a group of 176 controls to determine the contribution of gender, age, and total intracranial volume (TIV) to volume variation. We then used different matching and covariate strategies to determine the optimal design for VBM detection of abnormality in epilepsy patients with hippocampal sclerosis. In the regression analysis, focal gender effects disappeared with inclusion of TIV as an additional regressor. Age had a small but unique contribution to focal volume changes. In the VBM analysis of HS patients, detection of abnormalities was strongly influenced by choice of covariates. The optimal combination was different for grey and white matter (for grey matter: TIV; for temporal lobe white matter: TIV, age and gender). A control group size of 70-90 subjects allowed optimal detection of volume loss in the hippocampus and thalamus. At these group sizes, matched control groups did not consistently prove superior to deliberately "unmatched" groups of the same size. The optimal detection of volume loss was obtained with all available control subjects. PMID:18467131

  6. 78 FR 36541 - Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Control System (OCX) to User Support Community Interfaces (ICD-GPS-870). Dates and times can be found... Interfaces All comments must be submitted in Comments Resolution Matrix (CRM) form. These forms along with... process for IS-GPS-200, IS-GPS-705, and IS-GPS-800. Point of Contact: Please provide them in the CRM...

  7. The effect of pregnancy on seizure control and antiepileptic drugs in women with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Burakgazi, Evren; Pollard, John; Harden, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic conditions seen by obstetricians, primary care physicians, and neurologists. It is present in three to five per 1000 births, and most women with epilepsy (WWE) can expect to have a normal pregnancy and delivery. The clinician's goal is to establish the best seizure control with the fewest possible number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) prior to pregnancy. Clinicians need to be aware of how the pharmacokinetic features of AEDs change during the pregnancy and postpartum period. During pregnancy AED concentrations may decrease, thereby increasing the risk of seizure deterioration. Levels of some AEDs must be monitored and the doses adjusted routinely during pregnancy and after birth. Understanding and applying these principles will ensure better seizure control during and after pregnancy and minimize the risk to the mother and the fetus due to recurrent seizures and fluctuating AED levels. This review emphasizes significant changes in pharmacokinetics of AEDs, the importance of monitoring serum concentration of AEDs, and routine dose adjustment prior to conception and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:21769067

  8. Fixed versus Flexible Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Antagonist Protocol in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for Invitro Fertilization in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Behrouzi Lak, Tahereh; ShahrokhTehrani, Ensiyeh; Davari Tanha, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to compare the results of fixed versus flexible GnRH antagonist protocols in controlled ovarian stimulation for Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) in patients with PCOS. Materials and methods: A randomized clinical trial was performed on 100 PCOS women, who were admitted to a tertiary infertility clinic and were candidate for IVF/ICSI. They were divided into two groups based on the GnRH antagonist protocol. We started GnRH antagonist 0.25mg in flexible protocol when a follicle ? 14 mm in diameter was seen in transvaginalsonography (Group 1). In fixed protocol, GnRH antagonist was administered from day 6 of stimulation (Group 2). Number of oocytes in methapase 2, number of developed and frozen embryo as main outcome and days of stimulation, number of gonadotropin and antagonist used assecondry outcome measures were assessed and compared between the two groups. Results: The days of stimulation and the number of antagonist used was not significantly different between fixed and flexible group (p ? 0.05).Although the number of gonadotropin injections was significantly lower in flexible group (p = 0.03), the number of oocyte retrieved and the number of embryo which cryopreserved was significantly higher in flexible compared to fixed protocol (p < 0.01). Conclusion: It seems using flexible antagonist protocol in PCOS infertile patients is in favor of better outcomes in terms of number of good quality oocytes and embryo and possibility for cryopreservation for future cycles. PMID:26622314

  9. Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…

  10. Brief Group Intervention Using Emotional Freedom Techniques for Depression in College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Church, Dawson; De Asis, Midanelle A.; Brooks, Audrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred thirty-eight first-year college students were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Thirty students meeting the BDI criteria for moderate to severe depression were randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group. The treatment group received four 90-minute group sessions of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques), a novel treatment that combines exposure, cognitive reprocessing, and somatic stimulation. The control group received no treatment. Posttests were conducted 3 weeks later on those that completed all requirements (N = 18). The EFT group (n = 9) had significantly more depression at baseline than the control group (n = 9) (EFT BDI mean = 23.44, SD = 2.1 versus control BDI mean = 20.33, SD = 2.1). After controlling for baseline BDI score, the EFT group had significantly less depression than the control group at posttest, with a mean score in the “nondepressed” range (P = .001; EFT BDI mean = 6.08, SE = 1.8 versus control BDI mean = 18.04, SE = 1.8). Cohen's d was 2.28, indicating a very strong effect size. These results are consistent with those noted in other studies of EFT that included an assessment for depression and indicate the clinical usefulness of EFT as a brief, cost-effective, and efficacious treatment. PMID:22848802

  11. Testosterone Dose-Response Relationships With Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Androgen-Deficient Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Elizabeth; Aakil, Adam; Anderson, Stephan; Jara, Hernan; Davda, Maithili; Stroh, Helene; Travison, Thomas G.; Bhasin, Shalender; Basaria, Shehzad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine dose-dependent effects of T administration on cardiovascular risk markers in women with low T levels. Methods: Seventy-one hysterectomized women with or without oophorectomy with total T < 31 ng/dL and/or free T < 3.5 pg/mL received a standardized transdermal estradiol regimen during the 12-week run-in period and were then randomized to receive weekly im injections of placebo or 3-, 6.25-, 12.5-, or 25-mg T enanthate for 24 weeks. Total and free T levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and equilibrium dialysis, respectively. Insulin resistance and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and 24 weeks. In a subset of women, magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen was performed to quantify abdominal fat volume. Results: Fifty-nine women who completed the 24-week intervention were included in the final analysis. The five groups were similar at baseline. Mean on-treatment nadir total T concentrations were 14, 79, 105, 130, and 232 ng/dL in the placebo group and the 3-, 6.25-, 12.5-, and 25-mg groups, respectively. No significant changes in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, blood pressure, and heart rate were observed at any T dose when compared to placebo. Similarly, no dose- or concentration-dependent changes were observed in abdominal fat on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion: Short-term T administration over a wide range of doses for 24 weeks in women with low T levels was not associated with worsening of cardiovascular risk markers. PMID:24712568

  12. Body size over-estimation in women with anorexia nervosa is not qualitatively different from female controls.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Piers L; Johns, Anna; Tovée, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Over-estimation of body size is a cardinal feature of anorexia nervosa (AN), usually revealed by comparing individuals who have AN with non-AN individuals, the inference being that over-estimation is pathological. We show that the same result can be reproduced by sampling selectively from a single distribution of performance in body size judgement by comparing low BMI individuals with normal BMI individuals. Over-estimation of body size in AN is not necessarily pathological and can be predicted by normal psychophysical biases in magnitude estimation. We confirm this prediction in a dataset from a morphing study in which 30 women with AN and 137 control women altered a photograph of themselves to estimate their actual body size. We further investigated the relative contributions of sensory and attitudinal factors to body-size overestimation in a sample of 166 women. Our results suggest that both factors play a role, but their relative importance is task dependent. PMID:23102545

  13. Functional neuroimaging of emotional processing in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Courtney A.; Berent-Spillson, Alison; Love, Tiffany; Persad, Carol C.; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Smith, Yolanda R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate emotional processing in women with insulin-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (IR-PCOS) and its relationship to glucose regulation and the mu-opioid system. Design Case-control pilot. Setting Tertiary referring medical center. Patient(s) Seven women with IR-PCOS and five non-insulin-resistant controls, aged 21–40 years, recruited from the general population. Intervention(s) Sixteen weeks of metformin (1,500 mg/day) in women with IR-PCOS. Main Outcome Measure(s) Assessment of mood, metabolic function, and neuronal activation during an emotional task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and mu-opioid receptor availability using positive emission tomography (PET). Result(s) We found that insulin-resistant PCOS patients [1] had greater limbic activation during an emotion task than controls (n = 5); [2] trended toward decreased positive affect and increased trait anxiety; [3] after metformin treatment, had limbic activation that no longer differed from controls; and [4] had positive correlations between fMRI limbic activation during emotional processing and mu-opioid binding potential. Conclusion(s) Patients with IR-PCOS had greater regional activation during an emotion task than the controls, although this resolved with metformin therapy. Alterations in mu-opioid neurotransmission may underlie limbic system activity and mood disorders in IR-PCOS. Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT00670800. PMID:23557757

  14. Optimal Control on Non-Compact Lie Groups: A Projection Operator approach

    E-print Network

    Schenato, Luca

    1 / 40 Optimal Control on Non-Compact Lie Groups: A Projection Operator approach Alessandro Saccon Optimization? y Minimization of Trajectory Functionals y Unconstrained (?) Optimal Control y Projection of Trajectory Functionals y Unconstrained (?) Optimal Control y Projection Operator Approach y Projection

  15. Unsafe abortion as a birth control method: maternal mortality risks among unmarried cambodian migrant women on the Thai-Cambodia border.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shalika; Hoban, Elizabeth; Nevill, Annemarie

    2012-11-01

    Reproductive health research and policies in Cambodia focus on safe motherhood programs particularly for married women, ignoring comprehensive fertility regulation programs for unmarried migrant women of reproductive age. Maternal mortality risks arising due to unsafe abortion methods practiced by unmarried Cambodian women, across the Thai-Cambodia border, can be considered as a public health emergency. Since Thailand has restrictive abortion laws, Cambodian migrant women who have irregular migration status in Thailand experimented with unsafe abortion methods that allowed them to terminate their pregnancies surreptitiously. Unmarried migrant women choose abortion as a preferred birth control method seeking repeat "unsafe" abortions instead of preventing conception. Drawing on the data collected through surveys, in-depth interviews, and document analysis in Chup Commune (pseudonym), Phnom Penh, and Bangkok, the authors describe the public health dimensions of maternal mortality risks faced by unmarried Cambodian migrant women due to various unsafe abortion methods employed as birth control methods. PMID:21551135

  16. Women and Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Laura

    Increases in the divorce rate, decreases in women's childbearing, and increases in women's participation in the labor force represent three major trends that have had a great impact on women and on the family as a setting in which to work, raise children, and control resources. Although women's employment is clearly related in part to their…

  17. Risk factors for cervical presence of human papillomavirus DNA among women at risk for HIV infection. DIANAIDS Collaborative Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Rezza, G.; Giuliani, M.; Serraino, D.; Branca, M.; Benedetto, A.; Garbuglia, A.; Ippolito, G.; Franceschi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Risk factors for cervical infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) were assessed among 236 Italian women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (intravenous drug users (IVDU) or sexual partners of males at risk for HIV infection). All study participants underwent a structured interview, determination of HIV serostatus and detection of HPV cervical infection by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, the cervical presence of HPV DNA was ascertained in 86 of these 236 women (36.4%), while squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) were diagnosed in 57 (24.1%). HPV-infected and non-infected women did not differ in age, education and cigarette smoking. A statistically significant trend in the risk of HPV infection with increasing number of lifetime sexual partners was noted (P = 0.01), but such trend was attenuated in multivariate analysis (multiple logistic regression (MLR) odds ratio (OR) for > or = 20 partners vs 1 = 1.6, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.4-5.9). A nearly threefold higher risk of HPV cervical infection emerged among IVDU women (MLR-OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0), and this difference was not influenced by HIV serostatus. The prevalence of HIV infection was higher among HPV-positive than HPV-negative women (62.8% and 54.0%, respectively) (MLR-OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.9-3.8), and the proportion of women with less than 200 CD4+ cells/mm3 was slightly and not significantly higher among HPV-positive (47.1%) than negative women (37.2%). PMID:9747769

  18. Analysis of high risk factors and characteristics of coronary artery in premenopausal women with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhijuan; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping; Yan, Peng; Liu, Xiangyong; Zhao, Debao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the high risk factors and coronary lesion features in premenopausal women with coronary artery disease (CAD) and provide guideline for diagnosis and therapy. Methods: 114 premenopausal women and 134 postmenopausal women were conducted coronary angiography in our hospital from September, 2012 to September, 2014. According to the results of coronary angiography, premenopausal and postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease were divided into two groups respectively, including 48 premenopausal women with CAD group, 66 premenopausal women with normal coronary artery group, 76 postmenopausal women with CAD group and 58 postmenopausal women with normal coronary artery group. Clinical characteristics and coronary lesion features were analyzed. Results: Incidence rates of hypertension disease and diabetes were higher in premenopausal women with CAD group than control group. Most of premenopausal women suffered from single vessel lesion and the length of impaired vessel was less than 20 mm, meanwhile, postmenopausal women easily confronted from double vessels or mutivessle lesion and the length of impaired vessel was more than 20 mm. Left anterior descending coronary artery lesion was common for premenopausal women. Conclusion: Hypertension disease and diabetes were the main high risk factors for premenopausal women and high triglyceride was the optimal predictable factor, furthermore, single vessel lesion and short artery lesion were common in premenopausal women, which often happened in the anterior descending coronary artery.

  19. The effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on obesity in postmenopausal women: secondary analysis for a large-scale, placebo controlled, double-blind, 4-year longitudinal clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is undetermined whether calcium supplementation has an effect on obesity or body composition in postmenopausal women. The purpose of the study is to detect the effect of calcium supplementation on indices of obesity and body composition. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial designed to determine the effects of calcium and vitamin D on osteoporotic fractures. The cohort included 1179 postmenopausal women who were randomly assigned into one of three groups: 1) supplemental calcium (1400 mg/d or 1500 mg/d) plus vitamin D placebo (Ca-only group); 2) supplemental calcium (1400 mg/d or 1500 mg/d) plus supplemental vitamin D3 (1100 IU/d) (Ca + D group); or, 3) two placebos (placebo group). After applying the exclusion criteria for this analysis, 870 subjects were included in this study. The primary outcomes for the present study were changes in body mass index, trunk fat, trunk lean, and percentage of trunk fat after calcium supplementation. Results Changes in trunk fat, trunk lean, and percentage of trunk fat were significantly different between the calcium intervention groups (Ca-only group or Ca + D group) and the placebo group during the trial (P < 0.05). The calcium intervention groups gained less trunk fat and maintained more trunk lean when compared to the placebo group. No significant difference was observed for body mass index between groups. Conclusion Calcium supplementation over four years has a beneficial effect on body composition in postmenopausal women. PMID:20650013

  20. The costs of recruitment and retention of women from community-based programs into a randomized controlled contraceptive study. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    This study assessed recruitment and retention activities needed to enroll women identified through community-based programs (such as the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program) into a randomized controlled clinical trial on nurse-delivered contraceptives in the home. The majority of women in this study were young and had low socioeconomic status indicators and low levels of education. The most successful recruitment method was self-referral.

  1. Association of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Women: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunyan; Yang, Hongling; Geng, Qingshan; Ma, Qingling; Long, Yan; Zhou, Cheng; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relationship between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and oxidative stress has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the association between biomarkers of oxidative stress and GDM. Methods We conducted a case-control study which included 36 women presenting with GDM and 36 asymptomatic matched control subjects who visited Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Centre, China, from June 2012 to December 2012. Pregnant women were prospectively recruited to the study, and blood samples were collected at the time of a routine oral glucose tolerance test. These samples were then analyzed for levels of endocrine and surrogate markers of oxidative stress. Results Compared to control subjects, women with GDM exhibited elevated values for plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance (IR), and showed reduced HOMA pancreatic ?-cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), insulinogenic index, and corrected insulin response at 24–28 weeks gestation. A bivariate logistic regression analysis showed that levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and high fluorescence reticulocytes at fasting, and hs-CRP in a 1-h OGTT, were significantly associated with GDM. A linear regression analysis showed that levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.003) and reticulocytes (P = 0.029) at fasting were associated with IR, and levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.002) and monocytes (P = 0.006) in a 1-h OGTT were associated with ISI. Conclusions Pregnant women with GDM developed a pathological IR and exhibited ?-cell dysfunction. Their decreased ability to compensate for oxidative stress was associated with increased IR and a reduced ISI, which might be important factors in GDM. PMID:25915047

  2. Social Control and the Education of Nineteenth-Century American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Colleen

    The expansion of higher education in the 19th century United States to include women both restricted and increased their freedom. Because the industrial revolution and the movement westward limited the availability of men, the "moral guardian" role society prescribed for women was logically extended to teaching. The reason, however, for the…

  3. A Body Image and Disordered Eating Intervention for Women in Midlife: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Sian A.; Paxton, Susan J.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the outcome of a body image and disordered eating intervention for midlife women. The intervention was specifically designed to address risk factors that are pertinent in midlife. Method: Participants were 61 women aged 30 to 60 years (M = 43.92, SD = 8.22) randomly assigned to intervention (n = 32) or (delayed…

  4. Enhancing Women's Resistance to Sexual Coercion: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the DATE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson Rowe, Lorelei; Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to develop sexual assault prevention programs for college women, few have been rigorously evaluated, and fewer have demonstrable effects on victimization. This study pilots the Dating Assertiveness Training Experience (DATE), designed to train young women in assertiveness skills for responding to sexual…

  5. Rationale and design of the iPap trial: a randomized controlled trial of home-based HPV self-sampling for improving participation in cervical screening by never- and under-screened women in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Organized screening based on Pap tests has substantially reduced deaths from cervical cancer in many countries, including Australia. However, the impact of the program depends upon the degree to which women participate. A new method of screening, testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA to detect the virus that causes cervical cancer, has recently become available. Because women can collect their own samples for this test at home, it has the potential to overcome some of the barriers to Pap tests. The iPap trial will evaluate whether mailing an HPV self-sampling kit increases participation by never- and under-screened women within a cervical screening program. Methods/Design The iPap trial is a parallel randomized controlled, open label, trial. Participants will be Victorian women age 30–69 years, for whom there is either no record on the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry (VCCR) of a Pap test (never-screened) or the last recorded Pap test was between five to fifteen years ago (under-screened). Enrolment information from the Victorian Electoral Commission will be linked to the VCCR to determine the never-screened women. Variables that will be used for record linkage include full name, address and date of birth. Never- and under-screened women will be randomly allocated to either receive an invitation letter with an HPV self-sampling kit or a reminder letter to attend for a Pap test, which is standard practice for women overdue for a test in Victoria. All resources have been focus group tested. The primary outcome will be the proportion of women who participate, by returning an HPV self-sampling kit for women in the self-sampling arm, and notification of a Pap test result to the Registry for women in the Pap test arm at 3 and 6 months after mailout. The most important secondary outcome is the proportion of test-positive women who undergo further investigations at 6 and 12 months after mailout of results. Discussion The iPap trial will provide strong evidence about whether HPV self-sampling could be used in Australia to improve participation in cervical screening for never-and under-screened women. Trial registration ANZCTR Identifier: ACTRN12613001104741; UTN: U1111-1148-3885 PMID:24646201

  6. 1986 Index/Directory of Women's Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Martha Leslie, Ed.

    This is a directory of women's media, i.e., media primarily owned and operated by and for women. The mission of this annual publication is to aid networking among women, women's organizations, and women's media, both nationally and internationally. The directory includes two sections: women's media groups, and individual media women and…

  7. Breast cancer risk perception, benefits of and barriers to mammography adherence among a group of Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Allahverdipour, Hamid; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Emami, Azita

    2011-05-01

    The study aimed to assess associations between Health Belief Model variables, stages of change, and participation in mammography for early detection of breast cancer in a sample of Iranian women. A total of 414 women, aged 40 to 73 years, were recruited by random sampling. The study took place in the winter of 2007, using a self-report questionnaire and structured interviews, designed to measure the five Health Belief Model constructs and stages of adoption for mammography. The study indicated that 45.8% of the women were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages of a mammogram, and 29% of participants reported having had at least one mammogram. Screening behavior was associated with older age, familial history of breast cancer, history of breast disease, health insurance coverage, and living in an urban area. Furthermore, the perceived susceptibility to breast cancer, perceived benefits and barriers for mammography, and cues to action variables defined by the Health Belief Model were four factors related to having a mammogram. The study concludes that health care professionals must provide women with more fear appeals that outline vulnerability to developing breast cancer, remove cognitive barriers to seeking mammography, and apply effective guidance on the participation of women in breast cancer screening programs. PMID:21547858

  8. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Mike; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  9. Menstrual and reproductive factors in the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in young women in France: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Xhaard, Constance; Rubino, Carole; Cléro, Enora; Maillard, Stéphane; Ren, Yan; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Sassolas, Geneviève; Schvartz, Claire; Colonna, Marc; Lacour, Brigitte; Danzon, Arlette; Velten, Michel; Buemi, Antoine; Bailly, Laurent; Mariné Barjoan, Eugènia; Schlumberger, Martin; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Adjadj, Elisabeth; de Vathaire, Florent

    2014-11-15

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in eastern Europe since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Although the radioactive fallout was much less severe and the thyroid radiation dose was much lower in France, a case-control study was initiated in eastern France. The present study included 633 young women who were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer before 35 years of age between 2002 and 2006 and matched with 677 controls. Face-to-face interviews were conducted from 2005 to 2010. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regressions and were reported in the total group and by histopathological type of cancer ("only papillary" and "excluding microcarcinomas"). The risk of thyroid cancer was higher in women who had a higher number of pregnancies, used a lactation suppressant, or had early menarche. Conversely, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, and late age at first pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of thyroid cancer. No association was observed between thyroid cancer and having irregular menstrual cycle, undergoing treatment for menstrual cycle regularity shortly after menarche, having a cessation of menstruation, use of another contraceptive, history of miscarriage or abortion for the first pregnancy, or having had gestational diabetes. This study confirms the role of hormonal and reproductive factors in thyroid cancer, and our results support the fact that exposure to estrogens increases thyroid cancer risk. PMID:25269571

  10. Skin-whitening and skin-condition-improving effects of topical oxidized glutathione: a double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumiko; Hashizume, Erika; Chan, Gertrude P; Kamimura, Ayako

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Glutathione is a tripeptide consisting of cysteine, glycine, and glutamate and functions as a major antioxidant. It is synthesized endogenously in humans. Glutathione protects thiol protein groups from oxidation and is involved in cellular detoxification for maintenance of the cell environment. Reduced glutathione (GSH) has a skin-whitening effect in humans through its tyrosinase inhibitory activity, but in the case of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) this effect is unclear. We examined the skin-whitening and skin-condition effects of topical GSSG in healthy women. Subjects and methods The subjects were 30 healthy adult women aged 30 to 50 years. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, matched-pair, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects applied GSSG 2% (weight/weight [w/w]) lotion to one side of the face and a placebo lotion to the other side twice daily for 10 weeks. We objectively measured changes in melanin index values, moisture content of the stratum corneum, smoothness, wrinkle formation, and elasticity of the skin. The principal investigator and each subject also used subjective scores to investigate skin whitening, wrinkle reduction, and smoothness. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences between groups. Results The skin melanin index was significantly lower with GSSG treatment than with placebo from the early weeks after the start of the trial through to the end of the study period (at 10 weeks, P<0.001). In addition, in the latter half of the study period GSSG-treated sites had significant increases in moisture content of the stratum corneum, suppression of wrinkle formation, and improvement in skin smoothness. There were no marked adverse effects from GSSG application. Conclusion Topical GSSG is safe and effectively whitens the skin and improves skin condition in healthy women. PMID:25378941

  11. High co-occurrence of anorectal chlamydia with urogenital chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic revealed by routine universal testing in an observational study; a recommendation towards a better anorectal chlamydia control in women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Symptom- and sexual history-based testing i.e., testing on indication, for anorectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women is common. Yet, it is unknown whether this strategy is effective. Moreover, little is known about alternative transmission routes i.e. by fingers/toys. This study assesses anorectal STI prevalence and infections missed by current testing practice, thereby informing the optimal control strategy for anorectal STIs in women. Methods Women (n?=?663) attending our STI-clinic between May 2012-July 2013 were offered routine testing for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Data were collected on demographics, sexual behaviour and symptoms. Women were assigned to one of the categories: indication (reported anal sex/symptoms), fingers/toys (only reported use of fingers/toys), or without indication. Results Of women, 92% (n?=?654) participated. There were 203 reports (31.0%) of anal sex and/or symptoms (indication), 48 reports (7.3%) of only using fingers/toys (fingers/toys), and 403 reports (61.6%) of no anal symptoms, no anal sex and no anal use of fingers/toys (without indication). The overall prevalence was 11.2% (73/654) for urogenital chlamydia and 8.4% (55/654) for anorectal chlamydia. Gonorrhoea infections were not observed. Prevalence of anorectal chlamydia was 7.9% (16/203) for women with indication and 8.6% (39/451) for all other women (P?=?0.74). Two-thirds (39/55) of anorectal infections were diagnosed in women without indication. Isolated anorectal chlamydia was rare (n?=?3): of all women with an anorectal infection, 94.5% (52/55) also had co-occurrence of urogenital chlamydia. Of all women with urogenital chlamydia, 71.2% (52/73) also had anorectal chlamydia. Conclusions Current selective testing on indication of symptoms and sexual history is not an appropriate control strategy for anorectal chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic. Routine universal anorectal testing is feasible and may be a possible control strategy in women. Yet costs may be a problem. When more restricted control measures are preferred, possible alternatives include (1) anorectal testing only in women with urogenital chlamydia (problem: treatment delay or loss to follow up), and (2) direct treatment for urogenital chlamydia that is effective for anorectal chlamydia as well. PMID:24885306

  12. Effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-Day Bed Rest on Postural Control in Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esteves, Julie; Taylor, Laura C.; Vanya, Robert D.; Dean, S. Lance; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDT) has been used as a safe gr ound-based analog to mimic and develop countermeasures for the physiological effects of spaceflight, including decrements in postural stability. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-day bed rest on postural control in men and women. METHODS Twenty-nine subjects (18M,11F) underwent 13 days of ambula tory acclimatization and were placed in 6? HDT for 30 (n=12), 60 (n=8), or 90 (n=9) days, followed by 14 days of ambulatory recovery. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) was used to assess changes in sensory and motor components of postural control, and recovery after HDT. Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) objectively evaluate one?s ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Stability during the SOTs was assessed using peak-to-peak sway and convergence toward stability limits to derive an equilibrium score. Motor Control Tests (MCTs) evaluate one?s ability to recover from unexpected support surface perturbations, with performance determined by center-of-pressure path length. Whole-body kinematic data were collected to determine body-sway strategy used to maintain stability during each condition. Baselines were determined pre-HDT. Recovery was tracked post-HDT on days 0, 1, 2, and 4. RESULTS Immediately after HDT, subjects showed decreased performance on most SOTs, primarily on sway-referenced support conditions, typically returning to baseline levels within 4 days. MCT performance was not significantly affected. There were no significant gender or duration differences in performance. Kinematic data revealed a tendency to use ankle strategy to maintain an upright stance during most SOT conditions. Interestingly, six subjects (2M,4F) experienced orthostatic intolerance and were unable to complete day 0 testing. CONCLUSION HDT mimics some un loading mechanisms of spaceflight and elicits orthostatic issues present post-spaceflight (contributing to instability); however, it does not sufficiently address the vestibular dysfunction which occurs post-spaceflight.

  13. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of the effects of a multi-modal exercise program on cognition and physical functioning in older women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intervention studies testing the efficacy of cardiorespiratory exercise have shown some promise in terms of improving cognitive function in later life. Recent developments suggest that a multi-modal exercise intervention that includes motor as well as physical training and requires sustained attention and concentration, may better elicit the actual potency of exercise to enhance cognitive performance. This study will test the effect of a multi-modal exercise program, for older women, on cognitive and physical functioning. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial involves community dwelling women, without cognitive impairment, aged 65–75 years. Participants are randomised to exercise intervention or non-exercise control groups, for 16 weeks. The intervention consists of twice weekly, 60 minute, exercise classes incorporating aerobic, strength, balance, flexibility, co-ordination and agility training. Primary outcomes are measures of cognitive function and secondary outcomes include physical functioning and a neurocognitive biomarker (brain derived neurotrophic factor). Measures are taken at baseline and 16 weeks later and qualitative data related to the experience and acceptability of the program are collected from a sub-sample of the intervention group. Discussion If this randomised controlled trial demonstrates that multimodal exercise (that includes motor fitness training) can improve cognitive performance in later life, the benefits will be two-fold. First, an inexpensive, effective strategy will have been developed that could ameliorate the increased prevalence of age-related cognitive impairment predicted to accompany population ageing. Second, more robust evidence will have been provided about the mechanisms that link exercise to cognitive improvement allowing future research to be better focused and potentially more productive. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registration Number: ANZCTR12612000451808 PMID:23009189

  14. Case manager-reported utilization of support group, substance use and mental health services among HIV-positive women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kupprat, Sandra A; Dayton, Alex; Guschlbauer, Andrea; Halkitis, Perry N

    2009-07-01

    A retrospective, longitudinal analysis of case management and medical charts was used to evaluate utilization of support group, mental health, and substance abuse treatment services among HIV-positive women in New York City. Analyses of 4134 case management and supportive service transactions revealed that 70% utilized support groups over the two-year study period. In contrast, only 35% utilized mental health services (therapy) and of those identified as using substances, only 48% utilized substance abuse treatment services. Considering the high prevalence of mental illness (63%, n=29) and substance use (54%, n=25) in the sample, the low utilization rates highlight unmet needs for service. Significant differences were found in utilization of mental health and substance abuse treatment services, with those who received services at a medical model agency (integrated care) being more likely to receive both types of treatment. In contrast, participants attending support groups in non-medical model agencies (77.8%, n=7) were significantly more likely to be retained in group (i.e., attend 11 or more sessions) than those at medical model agencies (39.1%, n=9). Based on the higher utilization rates of support groups among seropositive women, perhaps these groups could be a vehicle for establishing rapport between mental health professionals and group members to bridge the utilization gap and reduce the stigma associated with therapy and substance abuse treatment services. These findings both taut the success and highlight weaknesses regarding accessing mental health and substance abuse care, and support group retention. Sharing of information regarding recruitment and retention efforts between agencies of different modalities would be beneficial and also could identify service niches that capitalize on their subsequent strengths. PMID:19504374

  15. Is there a relationship between complaints of impaired balance and postural control disorder in community-dwelling elderly women? A cross-sectional study with the use of posturography

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Erika H.; Santos, Paulo F.; Reis, Júlia G.; Rodrigues, Natalia C.; Moraes, Renato; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Risk of falls increases as age advances. Complaints of impaired balance are very common in the elderly age group. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate whether the subjective perception of impaired balance was associated with deficits in postural control (objective analysis) in elderly community-dwelling women. Method: Static posturography was used in two groups: elderly women with (WC group) and without (NC group) complaints of impaired balance. The area, mean sway amplitude and mean speed of the center of pressure (COP) in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions were analyzed in three stances: single-leg stance, double-leg stance and tandem stance, with eyes open or closed on two different surfaces: stable (firm) and unstable (foam). A digital chronometer was activated to measure the time limit (Tlimit) in the single-leg stance. Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Mann-Whitney tests, Friedman analyses followed by post hoc Wilcoxon tests and Bonferroni corrections, and Spearman statistical tests were used in the data analysis. Differences of p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results of posturography variables revealed no differences between groups. The timed single-leg stance test revealed a shorter Tlimit in the left single-leg stance (p=0.01) in WC group compared to NC group. A negative correlation between posturography variables and Tlimit was detected. Conclusions: Posturography did not show any differences between the groups; however, the timed single-leg stance allowed the authors to observe differences in postural control performance between elderly women with and those without complaints of impaired balance. PMID:26083602

  16. Adverse fetomaternal outcome among pregnant overweight women

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Shazia; Bibi, Seema; Makhdoom, Asadullah; Farooq, Sumaiya; SM, Tahir; Qazi, Roshan Ara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the adverse fetometernal out come in overweight and normal weight pregnant women. Methods: This comparative cohort study was conducted from 1st October 2010 to 30 September 2012. Total 200 gravid women 100 were overweight and 100 normal weight pregnant women with gestational age for 08-40 weeks were included. Women having BMI (25 – 29.9 Kg/m2) were measured overweight and included in group A and 100 women having normal BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 as controls were in-group B. Chi-square test was applied to compare the proportion of maternal and fetal outcomes. Significant P – value of < 0.05 was considered. Results: The age range was between 30 to 45 years with mean age of 30±4.1 years in both groups. Overweight pregnant women had significantly high frequency of pre-eclampsia (27% versus 9% in controls), PIH (24% versus 8% in controls), gestational diabetes mellitus (22% versus 5% in controls), prolonged labour (4% versus 6% in controls), Caesarean section (44% versus 16% in controls), Wound infection (3% versus 2% in controls) and Postpartum Hemorrhage (5% versus 2% in controls). P-value < 0.001 was considered significance. Fetal complications in overweight pregnant women compared to controls i.e. Still birth (13% versus 2%), Early neonatal death (11% versus 1%), shoulder dystocia (5% versus 1%) and NICU admission (47% versus 10%). Results were statistically significant except shoulder dystocia. Conclusion: We conclude that the result of present study indicates obesity exerts deleterious effect, both on fetal and maternal outcome. PMID:26101496

  17. Schisandra chinensis fruit modulates the gut microbiota composition in association with metabolic markers in obese women: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi-young; Wang, Jing-hua; Eom, Taewoong; Kim, Hojun

    2015-08-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit (SCF) is known to have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, including obesity, and to affect gut microbiota in in vivo studies. However, in human research, there have been a few studies in terms of its clinical roles in lipid metabolism and modulation of gut microbiota. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 28 obese women with SCF or placebo was conducted for 12 weeks. Anthropometry and blood and fecal sampling were performed before and after treatment. Analysis of the gut microbiota in feces was performed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although the values did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, the SCF group tended to show a greater decrease in waist circumference, fat mass, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase than the placebo group. Clustering of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints for total bacteria before and after treatment indicated more separate clustering in SCF group than placebo. In correlation analysis, Bacteroides and Bacteroidetes (both increased by SCF) showed significant negative correlation with fat mass, aspartate aminotransferase, and/or alanine aminotransferase, respectively. Ruminococcus (decreased by SCF) showed negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose. In conclusion, administration of SCF for 12 weeks resulted in modulation of the gut microbiota composition in Korean obese women, and significant correlations with some bacterial genera and metabolic parameters were noted. However, in general, SCF was not sufficient to induce significant changes in obesity-related parameters compared with placebo. PMID:26048342

  18. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Reduces Inflammation in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haghiac, Maricela; Yang, Xiao-hua; Presley, Larraine; Smith, Shoi; Dettelback, Shirley; Minium, Judi; Belury, Martha A.; Catalano, Patrick M.; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) exert potent anti-inflammatory properties in humans. This study characterized the effects of omega-3 ?-3 fatty acids supplements (?-3 FA) on the inflammatory status in the placenta and adipose tissue of overweight/obese pregnant women. Study Design A randomized, double-masked controlled trial was conducted in overweight/obese pregnant women that were randomly assigned to receive DHA plus EPA (2g/day) or the equivalent of a placebo twice a day from week 10–16 to term. Inflammatory pathways were characterized in: 1) adipose tissue and placenta of treated vs. untreated women; and 2) adipose and trophoblast cells cultured with long chain FAs. Results The sum of plasma DHA and EPA increased by 5.8 fold and ?-3 FA/ ?-6 FA ratio was 1.5 in treated vs. untreated women (p< 0.005). Plasma CRP concentrations were reduced (p<0.001). The adipose tissue and placenta of treated women exhibited a significant decrease in TLR4 adipose and placental expression as well as IL6, IL8, and TNF? In vitro, EPA and DHA suppressed the activation of TLR4, IL6, IL8 induced by palmitate in culture of adipose and trophoblast cells. Conclusion Supplementation of overweight/obese pregnant women with dietary ?-3 FAs for >25 weeks reduced inflammation in maternal adipose and the placental tissue. TLR4 appears as a central target of the anti-inflammatory effects at the cellular level. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00957476 PMID:26340264

  19. Effect of Gross Motor Group Exercise on Functional Status in Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanghyun; Lee, Byungjoon; Lee, Wanhee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to understand the effects of task-oriented gross motor group exercise based on motor development on chronic stroke patients’ joint, bone, muscle, and motor functions and activities of daily living. [Subjects] Twenty-eight stroke patients hospitalized at P municipal nursing facility for the severely handicapped were randomly assigned to the gross motor group exercise group (experimental group, n=14) or the control group (n=14). [Methods] The two groups performed morning exercise led by a trainer for 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week for 6 weeks in total. The experimental group performed a gross motor group exercise in addition to this exercise for 50 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 6 weeks in total. Before the experiment, all subjects were measured with the Modified Barthel Index (MBI) and for their neuromuscular skeletal and motor-related functions according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. [Results] Significant improvements were found in the experimental group’s neuromusculoskeletal and motor-related functions and MBI test, except for the stability of joint functions. The control group showed no significant difference from the initial evaluation. [Conclusion] The gross motor group exercise based on motor development is recommended for chronic stroke patients with severe handicaps. PMID:25140077

  20. Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy with Mefloquine in HIV-Negative Women: A Multicentre Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Salim; Accrombessi, Manfred; Aponte, John J.; Akerey-Diop, Daisy; Basra, Arti; Briand, Valérie; Capan, Meskure; Cot, Michel; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor M.; Kleine, Christian; Kremsner, Peter G.; Macete, Eusebio; Mackanga, Jean-Rodolphe; Massougbodgi, Achille; Mayor, Alfredo; Nhacolo, Arsenio; Pahlavan, Golbahar; Ramharter, Michael; Rupérez, María; Sevene, Esperança; Vala, Anifa; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Menéndez, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended by WHO to prevent malaria in African pregnant women. The spread of SP parasite resistance has raised concerns regarding long-term use for IPT. Mefloquine (MQ) is the most promising of available alternatives to SP based on safety profile, long half-life, and high efficacy in Africa. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of MQ for IPTp compared to those of SP in HIV-negative women. Methods and Findings A total of 4,749 pregnant women were enrolled in an open-label randomized clinical trial conducted in Benin, Gabon, Mozambique, and Tanzania comparing two-dose MQ or SP for IPTp and MQ tolerability of two different regimens. The study arms were: (1) SP, (2) single dose MQ (15 mg/kg), and (3) split-dose MQ in the context of long lasting insecticide treated nets. There was no difference on low birth weight prevalence (primary study outcome) between groups (360/2,778 [13.0%]) for MQ group and 177/1,398 (12.7%) for SP group; risk ratio [RR], 1.02 (95% CI 0.86–1.22; p?=?0.80 in the ITT analysis). Women receiving MQ had reduced risks of parasitemia (63/1,372 [4.6%] in the SP group and 88/2,737 [3.2%] in the MQ group; RR, 0.70 [95% CI 0.51–0.96]; p?=?0.03) and anemia at delivery (609/1,380 [44.1%] in the SP group and 1,110/2743 [40.5%] in the MQ group; RR, 0.92 [95% CI 0.85–0.99]; p?=?0.03), and reduced incidence of clinical malaria (96/551.8 malaria episodes person/year [PYAR] in the SP group and 130/1,103.2 episodes PYAR in the MQ group; RR, 0.67 [95% CI 0.52–0.88]; p?=?0.004) and all-cause outpatient attendances during pregnancy (850/557.8 outpatients visits PYAR in the SP group and 1,480/1,110.1 visits PYAR in the MQ group; RR, 0.86 [0.78–0.95]; p?=?0.003). There were no differences in the prevalence of placental infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes between groups. Tolerability was poorer in the two MQ groups compared to SP. The most frequently reported related adverse events were dizziness (ranging from 33.9% to 35.5% after dose 1; and 16.0% to 20.8% after dose 2) and vomiting (30.2% to 31.7%, after dose 1 and 15.3% to 17.4% after dose 2) with similar proportions in the full and split MQ arms. The open-label design is a limitation of the study that affects mainly the safety assessment. Conclusions Women taking MQ IPTp (15 mg/kg) in the context of long lasting insecticide treated nets had similar prevalence rates of low birth weight as those taking SP IPTp. MQ recipients had less clinical malaria than SP recipients, and the pregnancy outcomes and safety profile were similar. MQ had poorer tolerability even when splitting the dose over two days. These results do not support a change in the current IPTp policy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00811421; Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR 2010020001429343 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25247709

  1. Learning Wisdom through Collectivity: The Women Writing Women Collective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Luanne; Bickel, Barbara; Fels, Lynn; Gerhard, Gillian; Hoy, Alyson; Jordan, Nané; Nielsen, Wendy; Smith, Annie; Stubbs, Jeannie; Triggs, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    The Women Writing Women Collective was a collegial and collaborative response to the isolation that is often experienced by women scholars as they pursue their academic careers. For 5 years, a group of women gathered on a monthly basis to share their writing. In doing so, the group members provided a sounding board for each other as they engaged…

  2. Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota--a randomised controlled trial in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brahe, Lena K; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Prifti, Edi; Pons, Nicolas; Kennedy, Sean; Blædel, Trine; Håkansson, Janet; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Larsen, Lesli H

    2015-08-14

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and its progression towards metabolic disease. Dietary interventions that target the gut microbiota have been suggested to improve metabolic health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of interventions with Lactobacillus paracasei F19 or flaxseed mucilage on the gut microbiota and metabolic risk markers in obesity. A total of fifty-eight obese postmenopausal women were randomised to a single-blinded, parallel-group intervention of 6-week duration, with a daily intake of either L. paracasei F19 (9.4 × 1010 colony-forming units), flaxseed mucilage (10 g) or placebo. Quantitative metagenomic analysis of faecal DNA was performed to identify the changes in the gut microbiota. Diet-induced changes in metabolic markers were explored using adjusted linear regression models. The intake of flaxseed mucilage over 6 weeks led to a reduction in serum C-peptide and insulin release during an oral glucose tolerance test (P< 0.05) and improved insulin sensitivity measured by Matsuda index (P< 0.05). Comparison of gut microbiota composition at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention with flaxseed mucilage showed alterations in abundance of thirty-three metagenomic species (P< 0.01), including decreased relative abundance of eight Faecalibacterium species. These changes in the microbiota could not explain the effect of flaxseed mucilage on insulin sensitivity. The intake of L. paracasei F19 did not modulate metabolic markers compared with placebo. In conclusion, flaxseed mucilage improves insulin sensitivity and alters the gut microbiota; however, the improvement in insulin sensitivity was not mediated by the observed changes in relative abundance of bacterial species. PMID:26134388

  3. Developing a Leadership Identity: A Case Study Exploring a Select Group of Hispanic Women at a Hispanic Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onorato, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Leadership is a socially constructed concept shaped by the context, values and experiences of society (Klenke, 1996); the historical context of gender and ethnicity in society affects views about leadership and who merits a leadership role. Therefore, developing an understanding of Hispanic women students' leadership identity development is…

  4. IDENTIFYING FOOD GROUPINGS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE ENERGY DENSITY OF DIETS OF WOMEN IN THE GEISINGER RURAL AGING STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, energy density (ED) (kcal/wt of food) rather than energy intake was shown to be associated with weight status in rural older women. Specifically, diets higher in ED were associated with higher BMI and waist circumference. To understand how to guide specific dietary recommendat...

  5. Initial Outcomes From a 4-Week Follow-Up Study of the Text4baby Program in the Military Women’s Population: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wallace Bihm, Jasmine; Szekely, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter; Murray, Elizabeth; Abroms, Lorien; Snider, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of mobile phone technologies for health promotion and disease prevention has advanced rapidly in recent years. Text4baby is a theory-based mobile health (mHealth) program in which text messages are delivered to pregnant women and new mothers to improve their health care beliefs and behaviors and improve health status and clinical outcomes. Recent evaluations of Text4baby have found that it improves targeted health attitudes and beliefs, but effects on behavior have not yet been determined. Objective In this study, investigators aimed to evaluate Text4baby in the military women’s population. Methods Investigators conducted a randomized controlled trial at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington, from December 2011 through September 2013. All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at Madigan. Investigators conducted a baseline assessment using a 24-item, self-administered online survey of attitudes and behaviors related to Text4baby message content. Participants were randomized to Text4baby plus usual care (intervention) or usual care alone (control). Investigators analyzed treatment effects of Text4baby on short-term targeted outcomes 4 weeks post enrollment. Results For this study, 943 patients were randomized and completed a baseline assessment. The average patient age was 28 years and nearly 70% self-identified as Caucasian. 48.7% of enrollees (459/943) completed the first follow-up assessment. Higher rates of single and working/in-school patients dropped out of the intervention arm of the study, and we adjusted for this finding in subsequent models. However, while investigators were unable to re-survey these participants, only 1.9% of Text4baby enrollees (18/943) dropped the service during the study period. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic generalized estimating equation models were developed to assess intervention effects on measured outcomes. In the model adjusting for age, marital status, having had a previous baby, and race/ethnicity, there was a significant effect of Text4baby intervention exposure on increased agreement with belief in the importance of taking prenatal vitamins (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.08-3.34, P=.024). All of these attitudes had been targeted by at least one text message during the 4-week evaluation period examined in this study. In unadjusted models, there was a significant effect of intervention exposure on belief in the importance of visiting a health care provider to be a healthy new mother (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.31, P=.046) and in the health risks of alcohol during pregnancy (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.00-4.31, P=.05). No behavioral effects of the intervention were observed in this analysis. Conclusions Text4baby is a promising program that offers lessons for future mHealth activities. This large-scale study demonstrated initial effects of the program on attitudes and beliefs targeted by the messages received by women during the study period. Results confirm previous findings from Text4baby studies and other mHealth research. Future analyses will examine dosage effects of the intervention on behaviors and clinical outcomes. PMID:24846909