Methods We pair-matched 42 geopolitical clusters in Makwanpur district, Nepal, selected 12 pairs randomly, and randomly assigned one of each pair to intervention or control. In each intervention cluster (average population 7000), a female facilitator convened nine women's group meetings every month. The facilitator supported groups through an action-learning cycle in which they identified local perinatal problems and formulated strategies
Dharma S Manandhar; David Osrin; Bhim Prasad Shrestha; Natasha Mesko; Joanna Morrison; Kirti Man Tumbahangphe; Suresh Tamang; Sushma Thapa; Dej Shrestha; Bidur Thapa; Jyoti Raj Shrestha; Angie Wade; Josephine Borghi; Madan Manandhar
Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…
Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio
Purpose To determine effectiveness of Group BMP in managing female urinary incontinence (UI), using a standardized protocol taught\\u000a to adult incontinent women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Forty-four adult women with slight to severe UI had baseline parameters collected (UI questionnaires, 3-day voiding diary,\\u000a pelvic floor muscle strength testing, 24-h pad test, and cough stress test) and were randomized to a control group (CG)
Ananias C. Diokno; Manuel S. Ocampo Jr; Ibrahim A. Ibrahim; Cindy R. Karl; Michelle J. Lajiness; Susan A. Hall
This study aimed to explore psychosocial factors contributing to the development of functional voice disorders (FVD) and those differentiating between organic voice disorders (OVD) and a non-voice-disordered control group. A case-control study was undertaken of 194 women aged 18-80 years diagnosed with FVD (n = 73), OVD (n = 55), and controls (n = 66). FVD women were allocated into psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) (n = 37) and muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD) (n = 36) for sub-group analysis. Dependent variables included biographical and voice assessment data, the number and severity of life events and difficulties and conflict over speaking out (COSO) situations derived from the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS), and psychological traits including emotional expressiveness scales. Four psychosocial components differentiated between the FVD and control group accounting for 84.9% of the variance: severe events, moderate events, severe COSO, and mild COSO difficulties. Severe events, severe and mild COSO difficulties differentiated between FVD and OVD groups, accounting for 80.5% of the variance. Moderate events differentiated between PVD and MTVD sub-groups, accounting for 58.9% of the variance. Psychological traits did not differentiate between groups. Stressful life events and COSO situations best differentiated FVD from OVD and control groups. More refined aetiological studies are needed to differentiate between PVD and MTVD. PMID:23075157
Baker, Janet; Ben-Tovim, David; Butcher, Andrew; Esterman, Adrian; McLaughlin, Kristin
This article provides information regarding the rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group titled Women Nurturing Women. Self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components of this group. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing in women. A crucial component of the group was to facilitate members in learning how to give and
Background Progress on neonatal survival has been slow in most countries. While there is evidence on what works to reduce newborn mortality, there is limited knowledge on how to deliver interventions effectively when health systems are weak. Cluster randomized trials have shown strong reductions in neonatal mortality using community mobilisation with women's groups in rural Nepal and India. A similar trial in Bangladesh showed no impact. A main hypothesis is that this negative finding is due to the much lower coverage of women's groups in the intervention population in Bangladesh compared to India and Nepal. For evidence-based policy making it is important to examine if women's group coverage is a main determinant of their impact. The study aims to test the effect on newborn and maternal health outcomes of a participatory women's group intervention with a high population coverage of women's groups. Methods A cluster randomised trial of a participatory women's group intervention will be conducted in 3 districts of rural Bangladesh. As we aim to study a women's group intervention with high population coverage, the same 9 intervention and 9 control unions will be used as in the 2005-2007 trial. These had been randomly allocated using the districts as strata. To increase coverage, 648 new groups were formed in addition to the 162 existing groups that were part of the previous trial. An open cohort of women who are permanent residents in the union in which their delivery or death was identified, is enrolled. Women and their newborns are included after birth, or, if a woman dies during pregnancy, after her death. Excluded are women who are temporary residents in the union in which their birth or death was identified. The primary outcome is neonatal mortality in the last 24 months of the study. A low cost surveillance system will be used to record all birth outcomes and deaths to women of reproductive age in the study population. Data on home care practices and health care use are collected through interviews. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN01805825
Group prenatal care (GPNC) is an innovative alternative to individual prenatal care. In this longitudinal study we used ethnographic methods to explore African American and Hispanic women’s experiences of receiving GPNC in two urban clinics. Methods included individual, in-depth, semistructured interviews of women and group leaders in GPNC, participant observation of GPNC sessions, and medical record review. GPNC offered positive experiences and met many of the women’s expressed preferences regarding prenatal care. Six themes were identified, which represented separate aspects of women’s experiences: investment, collaborative venture, a social gathering, relationships with boundaries, learning in the group, and changing self. Taken together, the themes conveyed the overall experience of GPNC. Women were especially enthusiastic about learning in groups, about their relationships with group leaders, and about having their pregnancy-related changes and fears normalized. There were also important boundaries on relationships between participants, and some women wished for greater privacy during physical examinations.
Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Cohen, Sally S.; Groce, Nora E.; Knafl, Kathleen A.
Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…
Examines and explains relational control interaction patterns in two decision-making groups and two women's consciousness-raising groups. Analyzes the interaction data using a Markov model and tracking the control dimension of relationships over time. (JMF)
Ellis, Donald G.
Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a culturally congruent group treatment model, entitled "Claiming Your Connections" (CYC) aimed at reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress, and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black women. Method: A total of 58 Black women recruited from health…
Jones, Lani V.; Warner, Lynn A.
The second Women in Astronomy Lunchtime Meeting was held on Monday 21 August 2006, with more than 250 participants. The meeting was hosted by the EC Working Group for Women in Astronomy, established at the 2003 IAU General Assembly, and was attended by the current President, the Presidents-Elect for this and the next General Assembly, the General Secretary and Vice-Presidents,
Anne J. Green; Sarah T. Maddison; Johannes Andersen; Olga B. Dluzhnevskaya; Gloria M. Dubner; Andrea K. Dupree; R. Elizabeth Griffin; W. Miller Goss; Mary Kontizas; Birgitta Nordström; Francesca Primas; Sylvia Torres-Peimbert; Yiping Wang; Shahinaz M. Yousef
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The UK National Case-Control Study was carried out to investigate the relationship between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk. This study investigates whether general practitioner notes could be used as the sole data source for epidemiological studies of young women and what the effect would be on non-response and recall bias. DESIGN--Case-control study with data on gynaecological, obstetric, and contraceptive history collected at interview and from general practitioners' notes. Information from these two sources was compared. SETTING--This was a population-based study. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 755 women with breast cancer aged under 36 years at diagnosis, each with an age-matched control, participated in the study. Response rates at interview were 72% and 89% for cases and controls but GP data were available for 90% of the 1049 case and first-selected control pairs. MAIN RESULTS--There was generally good agreement between the two data sources with respect to obstetric history and gynaecological procedures (hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and tubal ligation). The use of intra-uterine devices, or diaphragm, and partner's vasectomy were not reliably recorded in the GP's notes. The overall results of the UK study would have been qualitatively the same with respect to the relationship between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk if GP notes only had been used, in spite of the fact that only about half of all oral contraceptive usage was recorded in the notes. Response rates would have been higher, recall bias eliminated, and the cost of the study halved. CONCLUSIONS--When planning case-control studies in young women, the possibility of using GP notes as the primary data source should be considered. Lack of data on potential confounding factors is a possible drawback to such use. The practice of destroying GP's notes shortly after the death of patients seriously restricts the possibility of using these notes when studying rapidly fatal conditions.
Chilvers, C E; Pike, M C; Taylor, C N; Hermon, C; Crossley, B; Smith, S J
The Working Group was created at the 25th IAU General Assembly in Sydney, Australia, in July 2003 by the IAU Executive Council as a Working Group of IAU Executive. The aims of the Working Group are to evaluate the status of women in astronomy through the collection of statistics over all countries where astronomy research is carried out; and to establish strategies and actions that can help women to attain true equality as research astronomers, which will add enormous value to all of astronomy.
Maddison, Sarah; Primas, Francesca; Aerts, Conny; Clayton, Geoffery; Combes, Françoise; Dubner, Gloria; Feretti, Luigina; Green, Anne; Griffin, Elizabeth; Liang, Yanchun; Motizuki, Yuko; Nordström, Birgitta
Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…
The second Women in Astronomy Lunchtime Meeting was held on Monday 21 August 2006, with more than 250 participants. The meeting was hosted by the EC Working Group for Women in Astronomy, established at the 2003 IAU General Assembly, and was attended by the current President, the Presidents-Elect for this and the next General Assembly, the General Secretary and Vice-Presidents, many senior astronomers, as well as students and young astronomers. It was a particular pleasure to welcome and congratulate the incoming President, Dr Catherine Cesarsky, the first woman to hold the position.
Green, Anne J.; Maddison, Sarah T.; Andersen, Johannes; Dluzhnevskaya, Olga B.; Dubner, Gloria M.; Dupree, Andrea K.; Griffin, R. Elizabeth; Goss, W. Miller; Kontizas, Mary; Nordström, Birgitta; Primas, Francesca; Torres-Peimbert, Sylvia; Wang, Yiping; Yousef, Shahinaz M.
Background Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD). The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. Method In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. Results Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55–64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57–24.90). For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40–54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27–96.15). For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55–64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77–43.26). For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55–64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56–125.18). Conclusions This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40–64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.
Chen, Chih-Wei; Chen, Ting-Chang; Huang, Kuang-Yung; Chou, Pesus; Chen, Pin-Fan; Lee, Ching-Chih
Background Neonatal mortality rates are high in rural Nepal where more than 90% of deliveries are in the home. Evidence suggests that death rates can be reduced by interventions at community level. We describe an intervention which aimed to harness the power of community planning and decision making to improve maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Methods The development of 111 women's groups in a population of 86 704 in Makwanpur district, Nepal is described. The groups, facilitated by local women, were the intervention component of a randomized controlled trial to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. Through participant observation and analysis of reports, we describe the implementation of this intervention: the community entry process, the facilitation of monthly meetings through a participatory action cycle of problem identification, community planning, and implementation and evaluation of strategies to tackle the identified problems. Results In response to the needs of the group, participatory health education was added to the intervention and the women's groups developed varied strategies to tackle problems of maternal and newborn care: establishing mother and child health funds, producing clean home delivery kits and operating stretcher schemes. Close linkages with community leaders and community health workers improved strategy implementation. There were also indications of positive effects on group members and health services, and most groups remained active after 30 months. Conclusion A large scale and potentially sustainable participatory intervention with women's groups, which focused on pregnancy, childbirth and the newborn period, resulted in innovative strategies identified by local communities to tackle perinatal care problems.
Morrison, Joanna; Tamang, Suresh; Mesko, Natasha; Osrin, David; Shrestha, Bhim; Manandhar, Madan; Manandhar, Dharma; Standing, Hilary; Costello, Anthony
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention…
Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Tate, David C.; DiFranceisco, Wayne
Objective: To explore weight control beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and practices among rural Kansas women, and to characterize the relationship of these women with their primary-care providers around weight control. Design: Qualitative research using focus groups. Setting: Three separate communities of rural Kansas. Participants: Six focus groups…
Ely, Andrea C.; Befort, Christie; Banitt, Angela; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra
This paper describes the importance of a life management enhancement (LME) group intervention for older minority women in developing personal control and self-confidence in social relationships as they overcome homelessness. Women in the treatment group showed significantly greater personal control and higher levels of self-confidence following the six-week intervention than women in the control group. Increasing personal control and developing self-confidence in social relationships can help individuals achieve desired outcomes as a result of their actions, efforts, and abilities. These attributes can help women increase and sustain appropriate coping methods and overcome homelessness.
Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.
Third generation oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolic disorders: an international case-control study. Transnational Research Group on Oral Contraceptives and the Health of Young Women.
OBJECTIVE--To test whether use of combined oral contraceptives containing third generation progestogens is associated with altered risk of venous thromboembolism. DESIGN--Matched case-control study. SETTING--10 centres in Germany and United Kingdom. SUBJECTS--Cases were 471 women aged 16-44 who had a venous thromboembolism. Controls were 1772 women (at least 3 controls per case) unaffected by venous thromboembolism who were matched with corresponding case for age and for hospital or community setting. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Odds ratios derived with stratified analyses and unconditional logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding variables. RESULTS--Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for venous thromboembolism were: for any oral contraceptives versus no use, 4.0 (3.1 to 5.3); for second generation products (low dose ethinyl-oestradiol, no gestodene or desogestrel) versus no use, 3.2 (2.3 to 4.3); for third generation products (low dose ethinyloestradiol, gestodene or desogestrel) versus no use, 4.8 (3.4 to 6.7); for third generation products versus second generation products, 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1); for products containing gestodene versus second generation products, 1.5 (1.0 to 2.2); and for products containing desogestrel versus second generation products, 1.5 (1.1 to 2.2). Probability of death due to venous thromboembolism for women using third generation products is about 20 per million users per year, for women using second generation products it is about 14 per million users per year, and for non-users it is five per million per year. CONCLUSIONS--Risk of venous thromboembolism was slightly increased in users of third generation oral contraceptives compared with users of second generation products.
Spitzer, W. O.; Lewis, M. A.; Heinemann, L. A.; Thorogood, M.; MacRae, K. D.
This paper focuses on the way in which Jakarta women's groups responded to the crisis that preceded and succeeded the end of Suharto's regime in Indonesia. In particular it looks at the way in which the gang rapes of women of Chinese descent focused and united the feminist response to the turmoil of 1998. Women's groups developed a number of
The current study examines the role of group interaction in a women's self-defense class. Study methods included individual interviews with women who had completed a college-based women-only self-defense course as well as supplemental observation of group behavior during a mock "attack" simulation class. The unique relationship that develops among women's self-defense classmates seems to improve overall learning and performance due to the group collaboration and vicarious experiences. Results demonstrated that women's self-defense courses offer participants a beneficial and supportive group atmosphere. PMID:24626767
Brecklin, Leanne R; Middendorf, Rena K
Professionally led support groups can significantly reduce distress, trauma symptoms, and pain for women with breast cancer. Despite the known benefits, women with breast cancer from marginalized groups tend not to participate in support groups. It is important to address barriers that prevent their participation and to identify types of support groups that appeal to as wide a range of women as possible. For this study, we interviewed women with breast cancer from marginalized groups in the San Francisco Bay Area (United States). We asked them about social, cultural, and psychological barriers that prevent participation in support groups, and about the potential of art groups to overcome these barriers. Our qualitative analysis of the interviews yielded findings that suggest a model for a type of support group that could make the benefits of support groups available to more women with breast cancer. PMID:20852014
Collie, Kate; Kante, Anita
The author presents the Women's Development Program (WDP) - launched in six districts in Rajasthan, India in 1984, and now extending to nine - as a case study awareness-building and group formation among rural women. A departure from the traditional pattern of viewing women as objects of welfare, WDP has been a distinct success. Rural women have realized that their
A personal transformation group therapy program was designed to help Saudi women function more effectively in their daily lives. The major cognitive idea of these groups was to enable women to better understand their thinking patterns so that they could learn techniques to change. Personal transformation group topics included: Self-Esteem;…
Pharaon, Nora Alarifi
Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…
Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn
The "comadre" approach to group counseling with immigrant Mexican women creates an environment of sisterhood, trust, support, and education. This article describes a wellness-based, comadre pilot group designed to support monolingual Spanish-speaking, Mexican-born women who recently immigrated to the United States. The need for the group and group…
Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Sand, Jennifer K.; Brucato, Toni; Ortega, Jessica
This article will present two models for conducting group work with Women of Color (WOC): the SisterCircle Approach and the Group Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of group work that can assist group workers to conduct individual and group-level…
Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.
Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane
Three groups of women with sexual dysfunction were evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment. Two groups did not involve partner participation, while the third group included partners on two occasions. Results for all groups were similar. The question of whether orgasm through coitus alone is a reasonable goal is raised and challenged. (Author)
Leiblum, Sandra R.; Ersner-Hershfield, Robin
The "Being Who You Are" model is an integrative group counseling model for adult women, particularly those who are experiencing loss of control over their lives and/or are depressed and anxious. It was developed for a population of clinically depressed women in a psychiatric hospital. To date, variations of the original model have been presented…
Guindon, Mary Hardesty
This paper describes a model of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD). The need for specialized treatment derives from the high incidence of these comorbid disorders among women as well as from their particular clinical presentation and treatment needs. The treatment educates patients about the two disorders, promotes self-control skills
Lisa M Najavits; Roger D Weiss; Bruce S Liese
The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe midlife transition, spirituality, and healing of relationships for members of women's spirituality groups. Ten women completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (R. Paloutzian & C. Ellison, 1982) and a 45-minute interview about spirituality, religion, life transitions, relationships, and…
Geertsma, Elisabeth J.; Cummings, Anne L.
Motherhood affects women's household labor and paid employment, but little previous research has explored the extent to which hours of housework may explain per child wage penalties or differences in such penalties across racial-ethnic groups. In this paper, I use longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data to examine how variations in household labor affect the motherhood penalty for White, Black, and Hispanic women. In doing so, I first assess how children affect hours of household labor across these groups and then explore the extent to which this household labor mediates the relationship between children and wages for these women. I find that household labor explains a portion of the motherhood penalty for White women, who experience the most dramatic increases in household labor with additional children. Black and Hispanic women experience slight increases in housework with additional children, but neither children nor housework affects their already low wages. PMID:24767591
Parrott, Heather Macpherson
Findings of an outcome evaluation of a mothering group intervention with women abused by their partners are presented, based on measurements of intervention and control groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. At Time 1, both groups reported moderate well-being, high parental self-efficacy, and low mothering-related…
Peled, Einat; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Perel, Guy
To determine if different racial groups shared common types of vaginal microbiota we characterized the composition and structure of vaginal bacterial communities in asymptomatic and apparently healthy Japanese women in Tokyo, Japan and compared them with those of White and Black women from North America. The composition of vaginal communities was compared based on community profiles of terminal restriction fragments of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences of the numerically dominant bacterial populations. The types of vaginal communities found in Japanese women were similar to those of Black and White women. As with White and Black women, most vaginal communities were dominated by lactobacilli, and only four species of Lactobacillus (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. gasseri) were commonly found. Communities dominated by multiple species of lactobacilli were common in Japanese and White women, but rare in Black women. The incidence in Japanese women of vaginal communities with several non-Lactobacillus species at moderately high frequencies was intermediate between Black women and White women. The limited number of community types found among women in different ethnic groups suggests that host genetic factors, including the innate and adaptive immune systems, may be more important in determining the species composition of vaginal bacterial communities than are cultural and behavioral differences.
Zhou, Xia; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Davis, Catherine C.; Suzuki, Haruo; Brown, Celeste J.; Schutte, Ursel; Pierson, Jacob D.; Forney, Larry J.
In 1999 the General Assembly of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) voted to establish a Working Group on Women in Physics with the following charge: to survey the situation for women in physics in IUPAP member countries; to analyze and report the data collected along with suggestions on how to improve the situation; to suggest ways that women can become more involved in IUPAP, including the Liaison Committees, the Commissions, the Council, and the General Assemblies; and to report all findings at the next General Assembly in 2002. The Working Group was established in 2000 with 11 members representing North and South America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East/Africa. The Group has been gathering data on women in physics and is planning to hold an International Conference on Women in Physics at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris in March, 2002. I will discuss some of the findings and the plans for the future.
At least a third of women across reproductive ages experience low sexual desire and impaired arousal. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental present moment awareness, may improve women's sexual functioning. The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy, either immediately or after a 3-month waiting period, in women seeking treatment for low sexual desire and arousal. Women participated in four 90-min group sessions that included mindfulness meditation, cognitive therapy, and education. A total of 117 women were assigned to either the immediate treatment (n = 68, mean age 40.8 yrs) or delayed treatment (n = 49, mean age 42.2 yrs) group, in which women had two pre-treatment baseline assessments followed by treatment. A total of 95 women completed assessments through to the 6-month follow-up period. Compared to the delayed treatment control group, treatment significantly improved sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, sexual satisfaction, and overall sexual functioning. Sex-related distress significantly decreased in both conditions, regardless of treatment, as did orgasmic difficulties and depressive symptoms. Increases in mindfulness and a reduction in depressive symptoms predicted improvements in sexual desire. Mindfulness-based group therapy significantly improved sexual desire and other indices of sexual response, and should be considered in the treatment of women's sexual dysfunction. PMID:24814472
Brotto, Lori A; Basson, Rosemary
Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N?=?12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.
Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.
Compared a control, a cognitive, and a behavior therapy group in the reduction of depression in low-income Puerto Rican women. Clients (N=26) were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions. Results showed a significant reduction in depression for therapy groups and no significant differences between the behavior and cognitive approaches.…
An attempt is made in this paper to explain the fertility behavior of Patels; a major peasant caste in village Mogra in Rajasthan, India. The Patels make up 162 of the 404 households in the village and nearly 50% of the village's population of 2610. The Patels claim to have migrated from Gujarat a few centuries ago. This paper is based on a study of 140 randomly selected Patel households comprising 168 couples by using the method of intensive fieldwork over a period of about 6 months. Every household in Mogra, with the possible exception of 1 household of a Bania trader, is involved in agriculture in 1 capacity or another. The Patels are the major landowning caste, and all but 2 of the households in the sample of 140 own land. The Patels marry early, and the practice of child marriage remains common today. Being a patrilineal people, Patels consider sons as heirs to family property and status. Of the 140 households in the sample, 65 are complex in composition while 75 are simple. All the simple households are consequences of the partition of complex households. The consummation of marriage marks an immediate loss of independence to the woman. The Patels of Mogra have sound economic reasons for having a large number of children. They prefer to use family labor to the maximum possible extent. When labor is the major input, the land can absorb whatever labor is available. A great demand exists for labor in the domestic sphere as well. Compared to the returns, the cost of bringing up children is negligible. The expenditure on their clothing and education is minimal. Economics alone do not explain high fertility. Sons are essential to continue the line and for old age security. The marriage of daughters brings in bride price and religious merit. 1 son may find the burden of carrying out the kinship obligations inherited from his parents too high. When there are several sons, they can share the burden among themselves. Religious values and the obligations of kinship and marriage impel couples toward large families. It is this conjunction of forces rather than any single factor which is crucial. All these forces find expression in interpersonal relations within the family. The young mother is the person most interested in restricting births, but she is also interested in the additional labor supply that children would bring in. It is difficult for her to carry the load of domestic and farm work, childbearing and child rearing. When her reproductive career is at the peak, the woman's own power within the domestic group is at its lowest. It is through the process of giving birth to many children that she gains in power and status. PMID:12279417
This study examined the effects of life events, social support, personality traits, and siblings' birth-order on the health of women. 199 middle-class participants were included. 95 women, randomly assigned from four different patient groups, were compared with a control group of 96 randomly selected women without any special health problems. They completed a questionnaire which included questions regarding family background, health, different life events, social support, and signs of disease and a projective test, the Sivik Psychosomatism Test. Analysis indicated that report of negative life events was associated with more physical symptoms than positive life events and that the patient groups reported more negative life events and less social support than the control group. PMID:10778252
Norlander, T; Dahlin, A; Archer, T
The Newcastle project, "New Opportunities for Women," tests the feasibility of group admission for women who prefer to apply and study as a group at the Open University. Characteristics and achievement of 18 such women are described. (LBH)
Peacock, Geraldine; And Others
We are conducting a long-term randomized controlled trial to determine if intervention with a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet reduces breast cancer risk. The present study examines the effects of 2 years of dietary intervention on serum sex hormone levels in premenopausal women. Subjects with extensive mammographic densities were enrolled in a dietary intervention trial. The intervention involved intensive individual counselling aimed at reducing total dietary fat to 15% of calories. Control subjects received general advice about diet but were not counselled to change their fat intake. Serum sex hormone levels were measured in 220 premenopausal subjects at entry and 2 years after randomization. Two years after randomization oestradiol levels were 20% (70 pmol l(-1)) lower (P = 0.04) and progesterone levels were 35% (1.0 nmol l(-1)) lower (P = 0.004) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were 7% (1 IU) higher (P = 0.38) in the intervention group than in the control group. The FSH-oestradiol ratio was 13% higher in the intervention group (P = 0.18). Samples analysed accounting for the timing of the blood sample in relation to the menstrual cycle showed that, in the intervention group, oestradiol and progesterone levels were lower and FSH levels higher in subjects with blood samples taken more than 30 days after the last menstrual period. Because of the strong evidence linking ovarian hormonal activity to breast cancer risk, these results suggest that a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet may reduce risk of breast cancer by reducing exposure to ovarian hormones that are a stimulus to cell division in the breast.
Boyd, N. F.; Lockwood, G. A.; Greenberg, C. V.; Martin, L. J.; Tritchler, D. L.
Community mobilisation with women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to improve maternal and newborn health in underserved areas of Jharkhand and Orissa: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial
Background Around a quarter of the world's neonatal and maternal deaths occur in India. Morbidity and mortality are highest in rural areas and among the poorest wealth quintiles. Few interventions to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes with government-mandated community health workers have been rigorously evaluated at scale in this setting. The study aims to assess the impact of a community mobilisation intervention with women's groups facilitated by ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes among rural tribal communities of Jharkhand and Orissa. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial and will be implemented in five districts, three in Jharkhand and two in Orissa. The unit of randomisation is a rural cluster of approximately 5000 population. We identified villages within rural, tribal areas of five districts, approached them for participation in the study and enrolled them into 30 clusters, with approximately 10 ASHAs per cluster. Within each district, 6 clusters were randomly allocated to receive the community intervention or to the control group, resulting in 15 intervention and 15 control clusters. Randomisation was carried out in the presence of local stakeholders who selected the cluster numbers and allocated them to intervention or control using a pre-generated random number sequence. The intervention is a participatory learning and action cycle where ASHAs support community women's groups through a four-phase process in which they identify and prioritise local maternal and newborn health problems, implement strategies to address these and evaluate the result. The cycle is designed to fit with the ASHAs' mandate to mobilise communities for health and to complement their other tasks, including increasing institutional delivery rates and providing home visits to mothers and newborns. The trial's primary endpoint is neonatal mortality during 24 months of intervention. Additional endpoints include home care practices and health care-seeking in the antenatal, delivery and postnatal period. The impact of the intervention will be measured through a prospective surveillance system implemented by the project team, through which mothers will be interviewed around six weeks after delivery. Cost data and qualitative data are collected for cost-effectiveness and process evaluations. Study registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN31567106
Evaluated the effectiveness of three 16-hour-long unstructured marathon groups composed of female illicit drug users in a woman's prison (N=78), using evaluative adjective pairs of the semantic differential concept Women. Marathon groups rated women as more successful and more pleasurable than did controls. (JAC)
Page, Richard C.
Discusses how a systems approach, particularly Virginia Satir's communication/validation therapy, was used by the cofaciliatators of a nontraditional college women's group in conjunction with the Stone Center's Relational and Cultural Model to lessen holiday stress and to implement change. (Author/MKA)
Quinn, Kathleen; Cowardin-Bach, Anne
Examined effects of 4-month or 9-month multidimensional therapy group on bulimic women. Results suggest that participants altered behaviors, attitudes, feelings, and thoughts related to bingeing, purging, and physical appearance and developed more adaptive life skills. Decreases in bingeing and purging were maintained after treatment; no…
Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Hotelling, Kathy
Safety and acceptability of vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride in HIV infected pregnant women in west Africa: ANRS 049b phase II randomized, double blinded placebo controlled trial. DITRAME Study Group
OBJECTIVES: To study the tolerance and acceptability in Africa of a perinatal intervention to prevent vertical HIV transmission using benzalkonium chloride disinfection. DESIGN: A randomized, double blinded phase II trial. SETTING: Prenatal care units in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). PATIENTS: Women accepting testing and counselling who were seropositive for HIV-1 and under 37 weeks of pregnancy were eligible. A total of 108 women (54 in each group) enrolled from November 1996 to April 1997, with their informed consent. INTERVENTION: Women self administered daily a vaginal suppository of 1% benzalkonium chloride or matched placebo from 36 weeks of pregnancy, and a single intrapartum dose. The neonate was bathed with 1% benzalkonium chloride solution or placebo within 30 minutes after birth. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse events were recorded weekly, with a questionnaire and speculum examination in women through delivery, and examination of the neonate through day 30. The incidence of genital signs and symptoms in the women and cutaneous or ophthalmological events in newborns were compared between groups on an intent to treat basis. RESULTS: The median duration of prepartum treatment was 21 days (range 0-87 days). Compliance was 87% for prepartum and 69% for intrapartum treatment, and 88% for the neonatal bath, without differences between the two groups. In women, the most frequent event was leucorrhoea; the incidence of adverse events did not differ between treatment groups. In children, the incidence of dermatitis and conjunctivitis did not differ between the benzalkonium chloride and placebo groups (p = 0.16 and p = 0.29, respectively). CONCLUSION: Vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride is a feasible and well tolerated intervention in west Africa. Its efficacy in preventing vertical HIV transmission remains to be demonstrated. ???
Msellati, P.; Meda, N.; Leroy, V.; Likikouet, R.; Van de Perre, P.; Cartoux, M.; Bonard, D.; Ouangre, A.; Combe, P.; Gautier-Charpenti..., L.; Sylla-Koko, F.; Lassalle, R.; Dosso, M.; Welffens-Ekra, C.; Dabis, F.; Mandelbrot, L.
Objectives To test the effectiveness of a physiotherapist delivered intervention designed to prevent urinary incontinence among women three months after giving birth. Design Prospective randomised controlled trial with women randomised to receive the intervention (which entailed training in pelvic floor exercises and incorporated strategies to improve adherence) or usual postpartum care. Setting Postpartum wards of three tertiary teaching hospitals in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Participants Women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or whose babies had a high birth weight (?4000 g), or both—676 (348 in the intervention group and 328 in the usual care group) provided endpoint data at three months. Main outcome measures Urinary incontinence at three months measured as a dichotomous variable. The severity of incontinence was also measured. Self report of the frequency of performance of pelvic floor exercises was recorded. Results At three months after delivery, the prevalence of incontinence in the intervention group was 31.0% (108 women) and in the usual care group 38.4% (125 women); difference 7.4% (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 14.6%, P=0.044). At follow up significantly fewer women with incontinence were classified as severe in the intervention group (10.1%) v (17.0%), difference 7.0%, 1.6% to 11.8%). The proportions of women reporting doing pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels was 84% (80% to 88%) for the intervention group and 58% (52% to 63%) for the usual care group (P=0.001). Conclusions The intervention promoting urinary continence reduced the prevalence of urinary incontinence after giving birth, particularly its severity, and promoted the performance of pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels; both continence and adherence to the programme were measured at three months after delivery in women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or babies weighing 4000 g or more. What is already known on this topicIntensive pelvic floor exercise programmes can reduce urinary incontinence in selected groups of female patientsThe effectiveness of interventions promoting continence in reducing urinary incontinence in the female population overall has not been investigatedPelvic floor exercises are widely held to be an important component of continence promotion programmesWhat this study addsContinence promotion programmes delivered to a selected population are able to prevent urinary incontinence in that populationFew studies have examined the efficacy of compliance aiding strategies in helping women adhere to prescribed pelvic floor exercise programmes
Chiarelli, Pauline; Cockburn, Jill
Multi and bilateral agencies have been promoting village level organizations to mobilize the poor for collective action to achieve good development outcomes in different sectors in Karnataka State, India. The World Bank formed self-help groups consisting of women for their economic development and empowerment in six districts of the State since 2000. It has also intervened in drinking water and
D Rajasekhar; R Manjula
Objective The impact of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy and women's coping strategies were evaluated through international focus groups. Methods Three-hour focus groups of three to five postmenopausal women who had symptoms of vaginal atrophy but had not sought treatment were conducted in Canada, Sweden, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Participants were asked about their experience with menopause and vaginal atrophy, including use of non-prescription treatments and their interactions with health-care providers. Women were classified as one of five personality types, based on their interaction with the world (individualism or belonging) and strategies for coping with stress (control or liberation). Results Vaginal atrophy was not recognized as a medical condition by focus group participants, and women had not used treatments for vaginal atrophy apart from non-prescription lubricants. Women who had discussed vaginal atrophy symptoms with their doctor felt their concerns were dismissed as a normal part of aging, and they did not receive counseling about treatment options such as low-dose estrogen therapy. Those whose coping strategy involved dominance, combatting, or individualism were more likely to seek treatment than those whose strategy involved submission, acceptance, or belonging. Women who used control to cope with menopausal changes were more likely to respond to information validated by perceived experts than were those who used a strategy of release. Conclusions Women's reactions to their vaginal atrophy varied according to personality. Use of a personality-based approach to patient counseling may encourage patients to discuss vaginal atrophy with their health-care provider and seek treatment.
This study compared adult women with childhood ADHD to adult women without childhood ADHD and to adult men with childhood\\u000a ADHD. The participants, all from a larger longitudinal study, included 30 women and 30 men (approximately age 23 to 24) with\\u000a childhood ADHD, and 27 women without ADHD. Women with childhood ADHD were matched to comparison women on age, ethnicity,
Dara E. Babinski; William E. Pelham Jr; Brooke S. G. Molina; Daniel A. Waschbusch; Elizabeth M. Gnagy; Jihnhee Yu; Margaret H. Sibley; Aparajita Biswas
Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a protective role, regardless age and weight. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the potential deleterious effect of lipid metabolism-related components, including fat intake and body fatness and worse lipid profile, on bone mass and metabolism in healthy women.
This paper presents the findings of a small research project conducted with male participants, and women co-facilitators, of a support group for male sex offenders. The project, which was conducted through the use of group and individual interviews, invited participants to express their opinions about the role of women co-facilitators. The data indicate that women have a valuable role to
Self help groups (SHGs) have emerged as popular method of working with people in recent years. Since SHG based micro finance programmes cover a large number of women, it is expected that such programmes will have an important bearing on womens empowerment. Self-Help Groups (SHGs) have emerged in order to help poor women to secure inputs like credit and other
Sanjay Kanti Das
Objective. Impulse control disorders (ICDs) include intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, trichotillomania, pyromania and pathological gambling. Several studies have showed an association between ICDs and alcohol use disorders. The rate of co-occurrence ICDs and nicotine dependence has never been investigated. We thus assessed the frequency of all ICDs in a population of nicotine-dependent women compared to non-smoking women. We also checked criteria of two other impulsive behaviours, compulsive buying and bulimia. Methods. Five hundred consecutive patients were assessed by a general practitioner in Paris (France). One hundred and twenty-seven women presenting the DSM-IV-R criteria for nicotine dependence were included. They were compared to 127 women consulting the same practitioner but who did not smoke. Diagnosis of ICD (pyromania, kleptomania, trichotillomania, intermittent explosive disorder, pathological gambling) and of bulimia was based on DSM-IV criteria and a modified version of the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview (MIDI). Diagnosis of compulsive buying was made with the McElroy et al. criteria and a specific questionnaire. Cigarette smoking was studied using the Fagerström questionnaire and the DSM-IV-R criteria for nicotine dependence. Alcohol use disorders were assessed with the DSM-IV-R criteria for dependence and the CAGE and the MAST questionnaires. Results. Thirteen patients presented trichotillomania, 22 explosive intermittent disorder and 12 pathological gambling. All these diagnoses were equally frequent in the nicotine-positive and nicotine-negative groups. We found no case of pyromania. Compulsive buying was the most frequent impulse control disorder. It was significantly more frequent in the nicotine-positive group than in the nicotine-negative group (58 vs. 39 cases, P=0.01). Scores of the compulsive buying scale were higher in the nicotine-positive group (4.07 vs. 2.9, P=0.01). None of the patients presented an association of two or more ICDs. Patients from the nicotine-positive group drunk higher quantities of alcohol each day, consumed alcohol more frequently each week and were more often intoxicated each week with alcohol. Their mean MAST scores of alcohol abuse disorders were higher. Conclusion. A total of 45.6% of the nicotine-dependent women presented compulsive buying and 23.6% bulimia. Compulsive buying was significantly more frequent among nicotine-dependent subjects than controls. Other impulse control disorders were as frequent among nicotine-dependent women as in controls. A total of 8.6% presented explosive intermittent disorder, 4.7% pathological gambling and 5% trichotillomania. Nicotine dependence in women was also associated with a higher level of alcohol consumption. These results indicate the possible need to systematically screen nicotine-dependent women, regardless of their motivation for consultation, for alcohol dependence, bulimia and compulsive buying. PMID:24941141
Lejoyeux, Michel; Kerner, Laurent; Thauvin, Isabelle; Loi, Sabrina
Most women in substance abuse treatment have experienced significant losses. This preliminary study examined the effectiveness of a therapy group addressing grief and loss among women enrolled in a gender?specific residential substance abuse treatment program. The intervention group consisted of 24 grief group participants and the comparison group consisted of 31 nonparticipants. Qualitative analysis revealed a pattern: participants identified traumatic
Judith Fry McComish; Rivka Greenberg; Heather L. Chruscial; Joel Ager; Florice Hines; Scott B. Ransom
Most women in substance abuse treatment have experienced significant losses. This preliminary study examined the effectiveness of a therapy group addressing grief and loss among women enrolled in a gender-specific residential substance abuse treatment program. The intervention group consisted of 24 grief group participants and the comparison group consisted of 31 nonparticipants. Qualitative analysis revealed a pattern: participants identified traumatic
Judith Fry McComish; Rivka Greenberg; Jennifer Kent-Bryant; Heather L. Chruscial; Joel Ager; Florice Hines; Scott B. Ransom
This intervention sought to improve overall quality of life and health behavior in women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We contrasted the effect of a group cognitive behavioral stress management expressive supportive therapy (CBSM+) intervention plus a healthier lifestyles (HL) component with an individual educational/informational format plus HL on HIV-medication adherence. Women, n = 237, predominantly African-American and Latina, living with HIV were recruited from Miami, New York and New Jersey and randomized to group or individual conditions (ten weekly sessions) plus group or individual HL, i.e., four conditions. Women reported relatively high levels of adherence at baseline. Participants in any of the group conditions increased self-reported adherence and emotion-focused coping skills in comparison with individual participation. This study suggests that group interventions may be an important adjunct in increasing medication adherence for HIV positive women.
McPherson-Baker, Shvawn; Lydston, David; Camille, Joanne; Brondolo, Elizabeth; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Weiss, Stephen M.
There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to
J. G. Schenker; V. H. Eisenberg
The purpose of this article is to describe a 6-week, semi-structured group counseling experience for university women students (undergraduate and graduate) from diverse backgrounds exploring archetypes and using group empowerment skills. Theoretical perspectives on women's empowerment groups and the use of archetypes in counseling are discussed as…
Singh, Anneliese; Hofsess, Christy D.
Women's groups projects have played a key role in community development in Kenya. The Mwethya women's groups of Machakos District, Kenya are best known for the role they have played in soil and water conservation activities. The major soil and water conservation activities undertaken by the groups were found to be on farm terracing, tree planting, both in farms and
Margaret J. Kamar
We evaluated predictors of plasma concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a group of 240 women, controls from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study. We considered personal attributes such as age, serum cholesterol, region of residence, adiposity, lactation, and dietary intake. DDE levels increased 0.17 ppb/year of age (p = 0.0003), and PCBs increased 0.08 ppb (p = 0.0001). DDE and PCBs increased 0.20 (p = 0.02) and 0.13 ppb (p = 0.001), respectively, per 10 mg/dl serum cholesterol. Women living in the western United States had higher levels of DDE (mean = 11.0 ppb; p = 0.003), and women in the Northeast and Midwest had higher levels of PCBs (mean = 5.6 ppb; p = 0.0002) as compared to women from other parts of the country (mean DDE = 6.3; mean PCBs = 4. 5 ppb). Levels of DDE could not be predicted from consumption of meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and grains. There was a positive association between fish consumption and PCB concentrations among women in the Northeast and Midwest. Using data from the cases in the nested case-control study to assess the predictive ability of the models, we confirmed that the most reliable predictors of DDE were age and serum cholesterol, and the most important predictors of PCBs were age, serum cholesterol, and residence in the Midwest or Northeast. The null results for the majority of the food variables suggest that specific dietary factors, other than fish, are not currently a substantial contributor to human exposure to DDE and PCBs.
Laden, F; Neas, L M; Spiegelman, D; Hankinson, S E; Willett, W C; Ireland, K; Wolff, M S; Hunter, D J
There is a higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in South African white than black women. The objective of this study was to determine biochemical explanations for this prevalence. The study group con- tained 15 obese black women (OBW) and 14 obese white women (OWW), all premenopausal, who were examined after an overnight fast. Anthropometric measurements and blood concentrations
C. Punyadeera; N. J. Crowther; M. Toman; G. P. Schlaphoff; I. P. Gray
Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for heart disease. With heart disease as the leading cause of death in women, barriers to physical activity require exploration. Low-income women are the least likely to be physically active. The purpose of this study was to explore perceived barriers to physical activity in low-income women. Focus group methodology and content analysis were
Substance abuse and trauma co-occur at very high rates among women in clinical settings. However, clinical programs that address both problems are rare, due in part to knowledge deficits and attitudinal barriers in both substance abuse and mental health treatment settings. We describe core competencies for clinicians who treat women with co-occurring substance abuse and trauma, and some of the
Jonathan Krejci; Judith Margolin; Marcy Rowland; Catherine Wetzell
Women and girls with disabilities face obstacles to community participation and social acceptance. Consequently, as adolescent women with disabilities mature into adulthood, they may have difficulty feeling that they belong both in the general community and in the community of all women. The positive impact of peer support groups for young women with disabilities on their sense of belonging has been underinvestigated. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 9 members of a well-established empowerment support group for young women with disabilities to explore how the group might foster a sense of belonging to the general community as well as a sense of shared womanhood. Results revealed that self-confidence and disability pride stemming from participation in the group were essential in helping the women counteract exclusionary messages from the outside world. The group provided an opportunity to develop a positive disability identity and to gain new information regarding the ability and right to identify as women. Reciprocal bonds with other group members helped cultivate feelings of belonging. In turn, the women communicated their empowered identities and the disability rights information they learned in the group to their friends, family, and community members. The group offered the women various platforms to assert their right to belong and, therefore, to participate in the world as women and as independent members of their broader communities. These results show how peer support groups for young women with disabilities can positively influence their sense of belonging both within the group and in the world outside the group. PMID:24660692
Mejias, Norma J; Gill, Carol J; Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa
The Women's Health Trial:Feasibility Study in Minority Populations (WHT:FSMP) examined the feasibility of recruiting postmenopausal women from a broad range of racial and socioeconomic backgrounds into a primary prevention trial requiring marked reductions in dietary fat. Postmenopausal women aged 50-79 yr who had no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer and who consumed 36% or more total energy from fat qualified to participate. We randomized the women into dietary intervention (60%) or control (40%) groups; we aimed to randomize 750 women in 18 months in each of the three clinical centers. All centers achieved goals for randomization based on ethnicity, and two centers exceeded overall recruitment goals. The greatest source of randomized participants was mass mailing, followed by items in the media, referrals, and community outreach. Recruitment yields were generally similar for the ethnic groups but lower for less-educated participants. The experience of WHT:FSMP indicates that postmenopausal women from the African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white communities can be recruited into dietary intervention studies for the prevention of disease. PMID:9741867
Lewis, C E; George, V; Fouad, M; Porter, V; Bowen, D; Urban, N
Purpose This study examines nonpregnant women's beliefs about whether or not they can influence their future birth outcomes with respect to the baby's health and factors associated with internal locus of control for birth outcomes. Perceived internal control of birth outcomes could be a predisposing factor for use of preconception care, which is recommended for all women of childbearing age by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall hypothesis is that internal control of birth outcomes is a function of prior pregnancy experiences, current health status and stress levels, access to health care, and sociodemographics. Methods Data are from the Central Pennsylvania Women's Health Study random digit dial telephone survey of 2,002 women ages 18?45; the analytic sample is 614 nonpregnant women with current reproductive capacity who reported that they are considering a future pregnancy. Internal control of birth outcomes is measured using 1) a 4-item Internal Control of Birth Outcomes Scale, 2) a single-item measure of Preconceptional Control, and 3) a score reflecting high internal control on both of these measures. Findings In multiple logistic regression analyses, internal control of birth outcomes is positively associated with older age (35?45 vs. 18?34 years), higher education (some college or more), marital status (currently married or living with a partner), and higher self-rated physical health status on the SF-12v2 (but not mental health status or psychosocial stress). Previous adverse pregnancy outcomes and current access to health care have no association with internal control for birth outcomes. Conclusion Variables associated with internal control of birth outcomes among women contemplating a future pregnancy are primarily sociodemographic and physical health related. Educational and social marketing efforts to increase women's use of preconception care may be particularly important for women who are likely to have lower internal control, including younger, less educated, unmarried, and less healthy women.
Weisman, Carol S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Chase, Gary A.; Misra, Dawn P.; Chuang, Cynthia H.; Parrott, Roxanne; Dyer, Anne-Marie
Four relatively independent emotion-regulation constructs (suppression of negative affect, restraint, repression, and emotional self-efficacy) were tested as outcomes in a randomized trial of supportive-expressive group therapy for women with metastatic breast cancer. Results indicate that report of suppression of negative affect decreased and restraint of aggressive, inconsiderate, impulsive, and irresponsible behavior increased in the treatment group as compared with controls over 1 year in the group. Groups did not differ over time on repression or emotional self-efficacy. This study provides evidence that emotion-focused therapy can help women with advanced breast cancer to become more expressive without becoming more hostile. Even though these aspects of emotion-regulation appear trait-like within the control group, significant change was observed with treatment. PMID:12182275
Giese-Davis, Janine; Koopman, Cheryl; Butler, Lisa D; Classen, Catherine; Cordova, Matthew; Fobair, Pat; Benson, Jane; Kraemer, Helena C; Spiegel, David
Discusses attempts of study groups of women in mental health professions that was instrumental in developing thearetical formulations concerning feminist therapy. From experiences both in the group and with clients, concludes that the profession as a whole must increase its responsiveness to concerns of women and issues of feminist therapy.…
Radov, Carol G.; And Others
Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's…
Meena, M. S.; Jain, Dilip; Meena, H. R.
Background Women of reproductive age are a group of particular concern as diabetes may affect their pregnancy outcome as well as long-term morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the clinical profiles and glycemic control of reproductive and non-reproductive age women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in primary care settings, and to determine the associated factors of poor glycemic control in the reproductive age group women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using cases reported by public primary care clinics to the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry from 1st January to 31st December 2009. All Malaysian women aged 18 years old and above and diagnosed with T2D for at least 1 year were included in the analysis. The target for glycemic control (HbA1c < 6.5%) is in accordance to the recommended national guidelines. Both univariate and multivariate approaches of logistic regression were applied to determine whether reproductive age women have an association with poor glycemic control. Results Data from a total of 30,427 women were analyzed and 21.8% (6,622) were of reproductive age. There were 12.5% of reproductive age women and 18.0% of non-reproductive age women that achieved glycemic control. Reproductive age group women were associated with poorer glycemic control (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.8). The risk factors associated with poor glycemic control in the reproductive age women were being of Malay and Indian race, longer duration of diabetes, patients on anti-diabetic agents, and those who had not achieved the target total cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion Women with T2D have poor glycemic control, but being of reproductive age was associated with even poorer control. Health care providers need to pay more attention to this group of patients especially for those with risk factors. More aggressive therapeutic strategies to improve their cardiometabolic control and pregnancy outcome are warranted.
To examine whether a cognitive-behavioral group program among pregnant women with elevated levels of anxiety or depression may reduce anxious and depressive symptoms and has a positive impact on risk factors for anxiety disorders and depression. A total of 753 participants were recruited. After completion of the clinical standardized interview, 160 participants were randomized to an intervention group or a control condition. Psychometric assessments took place at T1 (preintervention), T2 (antenatal follow-up), and T3 (3 months postpartum). Analyses included women who took part in all 3 assessments (intervention group, N = 21; control group, N = 53). The subjective program evaluation by the participants was highly positive, but with the exception of a short-term effect on the quality of an intimate partnership (F1/67 = 4.056; P < .05], intervention effects on anxiety or depressive symptoms were not found. However, there was an intervention effect 3 months postpartum for participants with high depressive symptoms at T1 (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ?10) (F1/69 = 5.410; P < .05). The results argue against a general efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program for pregnant women with rather low levels of anxiety and depression. For women with higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy, a cognitive-behavioral group program may have a positive impact on the course of depressive symptoms during the postpartum period. PMID:25062520
Bittner, Antje; Peukert, Judith; Zimmermann, Cornelia; Junge-Hoffmeister, Juliane; Parker, Lisa S; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Weidner, Kerstin
Obesity is a problem for African-American women across all socioeconomic strata. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight is 48.5% among African-American women compared with 21% among white women. An exploratory field was designed to examine selected psychosocial factors that influence the weight-control behavior of middle-income African-American women. A triangulation methodology was used in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. First, semistructured interviews were held with 36 African-American women between the ages of 25 and 75. Second, a Global Stress Scale was administered to measure perceived stress. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a positive correlation between body weight and stress in that women who were more overweight were experiencing more stress. Ethnographic analysis of the data showed that more than 50% of the women thought that stress negatively affected their weight-control behavior. Additionally, occupational stressors related to racism, sexism, and workload were major stressors for this group of women. Recognition of factors that influence weight-control health practices will enable health professionals to assist African-American women to manage their weight.
Walcott-McQuigg, J. A.
This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…
Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.
Based on studies of literature and the freshman admission data from 1978 to 2005 in Peking University, the research reveals how female student enrollments grew from nil to a considerable size, and how the exclusion of women college admission was overcome to achieve gender balance. However, the paper argues that this progress is limited in that…
Liu, Yunshan; Wang, Zhiming
Objectives Thyroid antibody positivity during pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes including miscarriage and preterm delivery. The aim of the study is to evaluate the obstetric outcome in pregnant women with recurrent miscarriage and their response to levothyroxine (l-T4) therapy. Study design and methods All pregnant and non-pregnant women between 21 and 35 years of age with a history of two or more consecutive miscarriages were included in the study. A third group comprising 100 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage were taken as healthy controls. Thyroid autoimmunity, prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and maternal and foetal complications were analysed in all the groups with appropriate statistical methods. Results The mean age of the patients included in the study was 27.0±3.1 years. Of 100 pregnant patients with previous recurrent miscarriage, thyroid autoimmunity (thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb+) >34?U/ml) was found in 31% of the cases. The incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism was higher in TPOAb+ group than in TPOAb? group (52 vs 16%; P=0.0002). There was no difference in the prevalence of miscarriage or obstetric outcomes between recurrent miscarriage and healthy pregnant women group irrespective of TPO status. Conclusions The prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity was higher in pregnant women with a history of recurrent abortion compared with healthy pregnant control population. Following l-T4 treatment, there was no difference in prevalence of miscarriage between hypothyroid and euthyroid individuals in TPOAb+ women.
Lata, Kusum; Dutta, Pinaki; Sridhar, Subbiah; Rohilla, Minakshi; Srinivasan, Anand; Prashad, G R V; Shah, Viral N; Bhansali, Anil
Results. Overall, the initial high blood pressure and obesity ratio in the intervention and control group were 20.0% and 31.7%, respectively. After 6 months of the intervention program, the number of women within the optimal weight range significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (p=0.009). After the intervention program, the number of women with normal weight and
Ahmet Nesimi Kisioglu; Banu Aslan; Mustafa Ozturk; Mualla Aykut
Four relatively independent emotion-regulation constructs (suppression of negative affect, restraint, repression, and emotional self-efficacy) were tested as outcomes in a randomized trial of supportive-expressive group therapy for women with metastatic breast cancer. Results indicate that report of suppression of negative affect decreased and restraint of aggressive, inconsiderate, impulsive, and irresponsible behavior increased in the treatment group as compared with controls
Janine Giese-Davis; Cheryl Koopman; Lisa D. Butler; Catherine Classen; Matthew Cordova; Pat Fobair; Jane Benson; Helena C. Kraemer; David Spiegel
The document presents partial recommendations of a Pennsylvania State University Study Group on the Status of Women at the University. Recommendations concern: special populations, sexual harassment in the workplace, sexual violence against women, women's athletics, and health services for women students. Among specific recommendations are the…
Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.
Objective. The purpose of this study is to identify menstruation characteristics of the women and the effects of menorrhagia on women's quality of life. Methods. The study was designed as a descriptive, case-control one. Results. Of the women in the case group, 10.9% stated that their menstrual bleeding was severe and very severe before complaints while 73.2% described bleeding as severe or very severe after complaints. Among those who complained about menorrhagia, 46.7% pointed that they used hygienic products that are more protective than regular sanitary pads. Women also stated that their clothes, bed linens, and furniture got dirty parallel to the severity of the bleeding. In all subscales of SF-36 scale, quality of life of the women in the menorrhagia group was significantly lower than the ones in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Menorrhagia has negative effects on women's quality of life. Therefore, quality of life of the women consulting the clinics with menorrhagia complaint should be investigated and effective approaches should be designed.
Gokyildiz, Sule; Aslan, Ergul; Beji, Nezihe Kizilkaya; Mecdi, Meltem
\\u000a There is widespread recognition of the need for innovation to improve the quality of care for childbearing women and to reduce\\u000a the long-standing racial\\/ethnic disparities in pregnancy outcomes (Carroli, Rooney, & Villar, 2001; Hughes & Runyan, 1995;\\u000a Institute of Medicine, 2003; Lu & Halfon, 2003; Misra, Grason & Weisman, 2000). This integrated review will examine two promising\\u000a innovations for childbearing
Susan C. Vonderheid; Rieko Kishi; Kathleen F. Norr; Carrie Klima
The results of this prospective open clinical trial (N = 76) indicate that a cognitive-behavioral group program for women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) affects sexuality, pain control, vaginal muscle control, and vestibular pain and that these changes may mediate changes in pain during intercourse. Improvements in sexual functioning and vestibular pain during treatment seem to be particularly important factors in determining short and longer term treatment outcome. These findings are consistent with a cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of VVS. PMID:16809249
ter Kuile, Moniek M; Weijenborg, Philomeen Th M
Research on the benefits of social support groups has been inconclusive. One reason is that individual differences in intervention responses have rarely been examined. The authors determined the extent to which individual difference variables moderated the effects of an information-based educational group and an emotion-focused peer discussion group on the mental and physical functioning of women with breast cancer (n = 230). The authors administered the SF-36 (S.E. Ware, K.K. Snow, M. Kosinski, & B. Gandek, 1993), a multidimensional quality of life instrument, pre- and postintervention. Educational groups showed greater benefits on the physical functioning of women who started the study with more difficulties compared with less difficulties (e.g., lacked support or fewer personal resources). Peer discussion groups were helpful for women who lacked support from their partners or physicians but harmful for women who had high levels of support. Implications of these results for clinical interventions are discussed. PMID:10762094
Helgeson, V S; Cohen, S; Schulz, R; Yasko, J
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a
Della A Forster; Angela Denning; Gemma Wills; Melissa Bolger; Elizabeth McCarthy
Results are presented from a study on a microcredit program with self-help groups implemented for widowed and abandoned women in Tamil Nadu shortly after the Indian Ocean Tsunami. Data were collected from 109 participants measuring the women's investment patterns, loan amounts, demographics, and overall well-being (psychological, economic, communal, and familial). Results indicate that loan amounts and investment patterns were not
Karen Kayser; Margaret Lombe; Chrisann Newransky; Gloria Tower; Paul Mike Raj
Twenty-two female psychiatric outpatients with experiences of childhood sexual abuse took part in a two-year group therapy. All completed therapy. At the end of therapy the women’s psychiatric symptoms were reduced and their social interaction and adjustment were improved. They evaluated relationships to their children, partners and friends to be improved.
G Lundqvist; A Öjehagen
Background: Despite a recent surge in tobacco advertising and the recent advertising ban (pending enforcement at the time of this study), there are few studies describing current cigarette marketing in India. This study sought to assess cigarette companies' marketing strategies in Mumbai, India. Methods: A two week field study was conducted in Mumbai in September 2003, observing, documenting, and collecting cigarette advertising on billboards, storefronts and at point of sale along two major thoroughfares, and performing a content analysis of news, film industry, and women's magazines and three newspapers. Results: Cigarette advertising was ubiquitous in the environment, present in news and in film magazines, but not in women's magazines or the newspapers. The four major advertising campaigns all associated smoking with aspiration; the premium brands targeting the higher socioeconomic status market utilised tangible images of westernisation and affluence whereas the "bingo" (low priced) segment advertisements invited smokers to belong to a league of their own and "rise to the taste" using intangible images. Women were not depicted smoking, but were present in cigarette advertisements—for example, a woman almost always accompanied a man in "the man with the smooth edge" Four Square campaign. Advertisements and product placements at low heights and next to candies at point of sale were easily accessible by children. In view of the iminent enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertisements, cigarette companies are increasing advertising for the existing brand images, launching brand extensions, and brand stretching. Conclusion: Cigarette companies have developed sophisticated campaigns targeting men, women, and children in different socioeconomic groups. Many of these strategies circumvent the Indian tobacco advertising ban. Understanding these marketing strategies is critical to mimimise the exploitation of loopholes in tobacco control legislation.
Bansal, R; John, S; Ling, P
OBJECTIVE: To identify social, behavioral and epidemiologic factors associated with HIV infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected black women residing in North Carolina. DESIGN: A case-control study conducted in August 2004 in North Carolina. METHODS: Cases were 18-40-year-old women with HIV infections diagnosed from 2003-2004. Controls were 18-40-yearold, HIV-negative heterosexually active women recruited from HIV testing sites. Five focus group discussions were also conducted with women not participating in the case-control study. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses of 31 cases and 101 controls showed that HIV-positive women were more likely to receive public assistance [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1, 26.0], to report a history of genital herpes infection (aOR 10.6; 95% CI 2.4, 47.2), and were less likely to have discussed a variety of sexual and behavioral issues relevant to risk of HIV infection with their male partners (aOR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.8). Focus group participants indicated that financial and social demands created competing challenges for making HIV prevention a priority. CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate communication between black women and their sexual partners may create barriers to sexual and behavioral risk reduction. A multidimensional approach that addresses both biological factors such as herpes infection and socioeconomic factors may be needed to reduce HIV transmission in this population.
Forna, Fatu M.; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; Adimora, Adaora A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Leone, Peter; Brooks, John T.; Marks, Gary; Greenberg, Alan
Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Results Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p?0.001), desire (p?0.001), arousal (p?=?0.037), lubrication (p?0.001), satisfaction (p?0.001) and pain (p?=?0.041) domains of FSFI. Frequency of side effects was similar between the two groups. Conclusions Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted.
There has never been published a randomised controlled trial of group debriefing. In this study we employed an analogue study with students to conduct the first such trial. Sixty-four participants were shown a stressful video of paramedics attending to injured and dead victims of a road traffic accident. Half the participants were subsequently debriefed and half were provided with tea
Grant J. Devilly; Rachid Annab
Objective: The effectiveness of a psychoeducational group intervention for HIV\\/AIDS-infected and affected women was examined at a large southeastern county jail facility. Method: A quasi- experimental pretest-posttest design was used to examine depression, anxiety, and trauma symp- toms of women inmates. Results: A multivariate analysis of covariance yielded significant differ- ences between the experimental and comparison groups. Subsequent analysis of
Elizabeth C. Pomeroy; Risa Kiam; Eileen M. Abel
We sought to determine whether women with in situ or invasive squamous cell vulvar cancer were more likely than other women to have had a previous or concurrent tumour at other anogenital sites. One hundred and fifty-eight women with vulvar cancer were identified who were first diagnosed during 1980-1985, were ages 18-79 years at that time, and were residents of one of three counties in western Washington. Two control groups were selected: (1) from records of hospital pathology departments, a sample of 113 women with certain benign conditions of the vulva; (2) through random digit dialing, a sample of 212 women from the general population of these counties. Information on a history of other cancers, and on sexual, reproductive, medical, and demographic characteristics was collected from cases and controls in at-home interviews. Cases were more likely to report a history of other anogenital cancers than were controls, with relative risks of 3.5-29.8, depending on the type of case group and type of control. These associations were not explained by case-control differences in demographic characteristics or frequency of cervical screening. On the other hand, prior or concurrent non-anogenital cancers were equally common in cases and controls. These results support the hypothesis that the different anogenital cancers have at least one aetiology in common.
Sherman, K. J.; Daling, J. R.; Chu, J.; McKnight, B.; Weiss, N. S.
Married couples with a female agoraphobic spouse (n = 22) were compared with demographically similar community control couples (n = 21) on self-report and observational measures of marital interaction. Consistent with hypotheses, husbands of agoraphobic women were more critical of their wives than were control husbands, and clinical couples were less likely to engage in positive problem solution than control
Dianne L. Chambless; James A. Fauerbach; Frank J. Floyd; Kimberly A. Wilson; Anna L. Remen; Babette Renneberg
SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to gather data on the efficacy of a newly developed psychosocial group intervention for cancer patients, called mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT). One hundred and eleven women with a variety of cancer diagnoses were paired by age and randomized to either an eight-week MBAT intervention group or a wait-list control group. Ninety-three participants (84%)
Daniel A. Monti; Caroline Peterson; Elisabeth J. Shakin Kunkel; Walter W. Hauck; Edward Pequignot; Lora Rhodes; George C. Brainard
In the context of the African HIV epidemic, support groups are not simply spaces for discussions of social and health well-being; neither are they institutions functioning solely to cultivate self-responsible and economically empowered patients. HIV-positive women in northern Nigeria have appropriated a support group to facilitate their marriage arrangements. In this group, women negotiate the threats of stigma and the promises of respectable marriage through what I call the management of ambiguity surrounding their HIV status. I further argue that the practice of support group matchmaking reveals the local political economic dynamics that shape social and illness trajectories in resource-poor settings.
Rhine, Kathryn A.
Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…
Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) on glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in Type 1 diabetic pregnant women. We retrospectively evaluated 42 subjects, 20 treated with CSII and 22 with multiple dose insulin injections (MDI). The two groups were comparable for age, pre-pregnancy BMI, and primiparous rate, whereas women in
Laura Volpe; Francesca Pancani; Michele Aragona; Cristina Lencioni; Lorella Battini; Alessandra Ghio; Veronica Resi; Alessandra Bertolotto; Stefano Del Prato; Graziano Di Cianni
Safety and acceptability of vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride in HIV infected pregnant women in west Africa: ANRS 049b phase II randomized, double blinded placebo controlled trial. DITRAME Study Group
OBJECTIVES: To study the tolerance and acceptability in Africa of a perinatal intervention to prevent vertical HIV transmission using benzalkonium chloride disinfection. DESIGN: A randomized, double blinded phase II trial. SETTING: Prenatal care units in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) and Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). PATIENTS: Women accepting testing and counselling who were seropositive for HIV-1 and under 37 weeks of pregnancy were
P. Msellati; N. Meda; V. Leroy; R. Likikouet; P. Van de Perre; M. Cartoux; D. Bonard; A. Ouangre; P. Combe; L. Gautier-Charpentier; F. Sylla-Koko; R. Lassalle; M. Dosso; C. Welffens-Ekra; F. Dabis; L. Mandelbrot
International students underuse counseling services, which are grounded in Western cultural values. The authors describe a support group for Asian international students that they launched at a large midwestern university to help students feel at ease with American university life, address homesickness, language problems, and academic and social…
Carr, Joetta L.; Koyama, Miki; Thiagarajan, Monica
Details implementation of the Family Group Decision Making Project in Canadian Newfoundland and Labrador among residents from Inuit and European backgrounds. Notes how the program offered solutions to problems of fostering cultural autonomy, measuring family violence, unifying families and protecting family members, and integrating child welfare…
Pennell, Joan; Burford, Gale
Purpose We examined estradiol and testosterone effects on thermoregulation in women with and without Polycystic Ovary syndrome (PCOS). We hypothesized that core temperature (Tc) threshold for sweating during exercise is delayed in women with PCOS and that testosterone delays the Tc set point for sweating during exercise. Methods For 16 d, we suppressed estrogens, progesterone, and testosterone with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHant) in seven women with and seven women without PCOS (control); we added 17?-estradiol (0.2 mg·d-1, two patches) on days 4–16 (E2) and testosterone (2.5 mg·d-1, orally) on days 13–16 (E2 + T). Under each hormone condition, subjects cycled in a temperature of 35°C at 60% of age-predicted HRmax for 40 min. Results Tc sweating threshold was lower in women in the PCOS group compared with those in the control during GnRHant (37.21°C ± 0.51°C vs 37.70°C ± 0.12°C, P < 0.05); neither E2 nor E2 + T influenced the thermoregulatory responses in PCOS. E2 decreased Tc sweating threshold in control (37.06°C ± 0.69°C, P < 0.05), but E2 + T attenuated this response (37.53°C ± 0.19°C). Peak sweating rate was greater in women in the PCOS group compared with those in the control group during GnRHant (1.06 ± 0.47 vs 0.47 ± 0.11 mg·cm-2·min-1) and E2 + T (0.85 ± 0.41 vs 0.44 ± 0.10 mg·cm-2·min-1, P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, total sweat losses were greater in the PCOS group during GnRHant (0.614 ± 0.189 vs 0.419 ± 0.098 L) and during E2 + T (0.696 ± 0.281 vs 0.434 ± 0.164 L, P < 0.05) but not during E2 (0.639 ± 0.231 and 0.505 ± 0.214 L for PCOS and control groups, respectively, P = 0.09). Conclusions Thermoregulation was adequate in women with PCOS; however, the women with PCOS achieved thermoregulation at the expense of producing higher sweat volumes.
STACHENFELD, NINA S.; YECKEL, CATHERINE WEIKART; TAYLOR, HUGH S.
Women, the fair sex, are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. Violence against women and girls continues to be a global epidemic. It is present in every country, cutting across boundaries of culture, class, education, income, ethnicity and age. A growing body of research studies indicates that 20% to 50% (varying from country to country) of women have experienced domestic violence. A multilayered strategy that addresses the structural causes of violence against women is needed. Strategies and interventions attempting to address violence against women should be guided by 5 underlying principles: Prevention, protection, early intervention, rebuilding the lives of victims/survivors and accountability. When planning interventions, there are a variety of stakeholders who should be borne in mind. Key areas for intervention include encouraging women empowerment; advocacy and awareness raising; education for building a culture of nonviolence; encouraging active participation of women in political system; resource development; direct service provision to victims, survivors and perpetrators; networking and community mobilization; direct intervention to help victims/survivors rebuild their lives; legal reform; monitoring interventions and measures; early identification of ‘at risk’ families, communities, groups and individuals; and data collection and analysis.
Kumari, Sapna; Priyamvada, Richa; Chaudhury, S.; Singh, A. R.; Verma, A. N.; Prakash, J.
A small survey was conducted in the Vancouver area by the authors to determine some of the current beliefs and attitudes of Chinese women toward birth control and sexuality. 10 Chinese women aged from 16-72 were interviewed. Traditional beliefs in filial piety and in the concepts of Yin (negative, female force) and Yang (positive, male force) were subscribed to by the eldest women who also perceived a lack of fairness in the double standard permitting male promiscuity while prohibiting female sexual freedom. The elder women also felt that the balance of Yin and Yang would promote sexual satisfaction and good health (homosexuality represented an imbalance and was therefore unhealthy). Only 1 woman had received sex education in the home since most sex-related topics were considered taboo. The Canadian born women had been educated in school regarding sex and felt that this experience made them more responsible in sexual matters. Strict rules about behavior during menstruation were adhered to by the eldest women: no hair-brushing, eating of hot foods, or sexual intercourse; they also viewed masturbation as acceptable in women since their Yin is a renewable resource. Masturbation in men was frowned upon since it would lead to a depletion of Yang and possibly cause infertility. The Canadian born women viewed masturbation as a normal sexual act. Contraception was seen as negative by the 1st generation women whereas the younger women valued family planning as an improvement in thier lives. Coitus before marriage was viewed as acceptable and during marriage and pregnancy as enjoyable by the younger women; the elders felt that premarital intercourse resulted in a loss of prestige whereas marital coitus was seen as a duty and intercourse during and after pregnancy as dangerous for the unborn child and the mother. The ease with which these women dealt with the conflict of adhering to their culture while assimilating into a new environment was influenced by age, language ability, education, length of time spent in Canada and generational status. It is possible that due to the sensitive nature of the questions and limited interview time these women may not have fully disclosed their feelings. Nurses must understand and be sensitive to cultural differences in attitudes and force themselves to see each area of concern from the client's viewpoint. In dealing with Chinese women a female nurse, preferably one who speaks Chinese, is more accepted. PMID:6916612
Ellis, D; Ho, M S
Background There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a public tertiary maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Secondary aims were to explore why women took the herbal medicine, where they received advice, what form the supplements took and if they perceived the supplements to be helpful. Methods Consecutive pregnant women were approached in the antenatal clinic and the birth centre at around 36–38 weeks gestation. A questionnaire was developed and self-administered in English, as well as being translated into the four most common languages of women attending the hospital: Cantonese, Vietnamese, Turkish and Arabic. Back translation into English was undertaken by different professional translators to verify accuracy of both words and concepts. Data collected included demographic information, model of pregnancy care and herbal supplement use. Descriptive statistics were used initially, with stratified and regression analysis to compare sub-groups. Results Of 705 eligible women, 588 (83%) agreed to participate. Of these, 88 (15%) completed the questionnaire in a language other than English. Thirty-six percent of women took at least one herbal supplement during the current pregnancy. The most common supplements taken were raspberry leaf (14%), ginger (12%) and chamomile (11%). Women were more likely to take herbal supplements if they were older, tertiary educated, English speaking, non-smokers and primiparous. Conclusion Use of herbal supplements in pregnancy is likely to be relatively high and it is important to ascertain what supplements (if any) women are taking. Pregnancy care providers should be aware of the common herbal supplements used by women, and of the evidence regarding potential benefits or harm.
Forster, Della A; Denning, Angela; Wills, Gemma; Bolger, Melissa; McCarthy, Elizabeth
Reviews research indicating that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. States that Supportive-Expressive group therapy has been effective in assisting patients in reducing anxiety related to death and dying, strengthening interpersonal relationships, and improving the quality of…
Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Spiegel, David
This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is presented.…
Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.
This paper describes a group program which is part of the therapeutic management of out-patients with chronic pain at the multidisciplinary Pain Clinic in Hamilton, Ontario (McMaster Division, Chedoke-McMaster Hospital). The programme seeks to assist chronic pain sufferers in developing more adaptive coping styles. Groups of 12--14 patients meet for 9 weeks, 3 h/week, under the co-leadership of a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist with backgrounds in psychology and psychiatry. Seventy-five patients with diverse aetiologies of chronic pain have completed these "pain control classes". Outcome was assessed on the basis of several parameters. Results indicate a considerable reduction in depression, pain perception and analgesic intake. Conversely, employment figures increased from 20 to 48% after completion of the program. 21% were considered failures. Significant variables differentiating successes from failures were sex, marital status, work incentive, employment and absence of litigation or Workmen's Compensation claims. PMID:7232014
Herman, E; Baptiste, S
Infertility is a distressing health condition that has diverse effects on couples' lives. One of the most affected aspects of life in infertile women is sexual function, which is a key factor in physical and marital health. The goal of this study was to evaluate sexual function according to the type of infertility in comparison with controls. In this study, 191 women with primary infertility and 129 with secondary infertility along with 87 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. They were asked to fill a valid and reliable FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index). Age, partner age and duration of marriage were significantly different between the primary and secondary infertility groups. The score of each FSFI domain was significantly higher in the control group, and the only significant difference between primary and secondary infertility groups was in the desire domain. Multiple linear regression analysis between the total FSFI score as a dependent variable and age, partner age, Body Mass Index and marriage duration as independent variables showed that age is a dependent predictor of FSFI in the primary group. We found significant negative correlation between total FSFI score and age, partner age and marriage duration (r1=-0.21 and P<0.001, r2=-0.14 and P=0.01, r3=-0.19 and P<0.001). Sexual dysfunction is high in all infertile women, and women with secondary infertility suffer more from impaired sexual function compared with those with primary infertility. PMID:24430276
Davari Tanha, F; Mohseni, M; Ghajarzadeh, M
Although the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) was a potential instrument for cross cultural research of midlife women, little information is available on its reliability and validity among multi-ethnic groups of midlife women. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the KPAS in estimating physical activity among 341 diverse ethnic women. Internal consistency was adequate for all ethnic groups except N-H African Americans. The construct validity was identified through group comparisons and factor analysis. In group comparisons, physical activity differences among diverse ethnic groups were similar to results of previous studies using the KPAS. Eight factors were extracted among all ethnic groups except N-H Asian Americans. In the convergent validity test, N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans showed particular patterns. Overall, the KPAS was a reliable instrument and was reasonably accurate in assessing physical activities for any multi-ethnic groups of midlife women. However, cultural sensitivity among N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans need to be further examined.
Lee, Bokim; Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik
Two studies address the role of hormonal shift across menstrual cycle in female dehumanization of other women. In Study 1, normally ovulating women (NOW) and women who use hormonal contraceptives (HCW) are compared in terms of how much they dehumanize other women and two other control targets (men and elderly people). In NOW, the level of dehumanization of other women, but not of men and elderly people, increases as the conception risk is enhanced. HCW do not show this pattern of results. In Study 2, we investigate the level of dehumanization of other women and of intra-sexual competition. Findings concerning dehumanization replicate those of Study 1. Intra-sexual competition increases with the rise of conception risk only in NOW. In addition, dehumanization is significantly associated with intra-sexual competition in NOW but not in HCW. Together, these studies demonstrate that dehumanization of women is elicited by menstrual cycle-related processes and associated with women's mate-attraction goals. PMID:23928396
Piccoli, Valentina; Foroni, Francesco; Carnaghi, Andrea
Few interventions have succeeded in reducing psychosocial risk among pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine whether an integrated group prenatal care intervention already shown to improve perinatal and sexual risk outcomes can also improve psychosocial outcomes compared to standard individual care. This randomised controlled trial included pregnant women ages 14-25 from two public hospitals (N = 1047) who were randomly assigned to standard individual care, group prenatal care or integrated group prenatal care intervention (CenteringPregnancy Plus, CP+). Timing and content of visits followed obstetrical guidelines, from 18-week gestation through birth. Each 2-h group prenatal care session included physical assessment, education/skills building and support via facilitated discussion. Using intention-to-treat models, there were no significant differences in psychosocial function; yet, women in the top tertile of psychosocial stress at study entry did benefit from integrated group care. High-stress women randomly assigned to CP+ reported significantly increased self-esteem, decreased stress and social conflict in the third trimester of pregnancy; social conflict and depression were significantly lower 1-year postpartum (all p-values < 0.02). CP+ improved psychosocial outcomes for high-stress women. This 'bundled' intervention has promise for improving psychosocial outcomes, especially for young pregnant women who are traditionally more vulnerable and underserved. PMID:21318932
Ickovics, Jeannette R; Reed, Elizabeth; Magriples, Urania; Westdahl, Claire; Schindler Rising, Sharon; Kershaw, Trace S
Few interventions have succeeded in reducing psychosocial risk among pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine whether an integrated group prenatal care intervention already shown to improve perinatal and sexual risk outcomes can also improve psychosocial outcomes compared to standard individual care. This randomised controlled trial included pregnant women ages 14–25 from two public hospitals (N = 1047) who were randomly assigned to standard individual care, group prenatal care or integrated group prenatal care intervention (CenteringPregnancy Plus, CP+). Timing and content of visits followed obstetrical guidelines, from 18-week gestation through birth. Each 2-h group prenatal care session included physical assessment, education/skills building and support via facilitated discussion. Using intention-to-treat models, there were no significant differences in psychosocial function; yet, women in the top tertile of psychosocial stress at study entry did benefit from integrated group care. High-stress women randomly assigned to CP+ reported significantly increased self-esteem, decreased stress and social conflict in the third trimester of pregnancy; social conflict and depression were significantly lower 1-year postpartum (all p-values <0.02). CP+ improved psychosocial outcomes for high-stress women. This ‘bundled’ intervention has promise for improving psychosocial outcomes, especially for young pregnant women who are traditionally more vulnerable and underserved.
Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Magriples, Urania; Westdahl, Claire; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Kershaw, Trace S.
The aim of this study was to evaluate a manualized cognitive behavioral group intervention for early-stage breast cancer patients. Sixty-nine women were recruited at an Irish specialist oncology hospital and assigned to a 6-week cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) program or an educational control group. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6-month follow-up. Groups × Time (2 × 3)
Aidan McKiernan; Shawn Steggles; Suzanne Guerin; Alan Carr
At the University of Ouagadougou, the largest university in Burkina Faso, the percentage of female student enrollment in the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit was 5.1% (for all the levels) from 2006 to 2009-this rate was 2.3% for physics. For the same period, 22 women out of 455 students (4.8%) were enrolled in PhD (all the fields of the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit) and three women out of 180 students (1.7%) registered in physics PhD. During the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2008, the Burkina Faso Working Group proposed some strategies to attract more women to physics and all the sciences. Some actions were initiated at the University of Ouagadougou as well as in secondary schools. These actions and the feedback of female students are presented.
Kafando, Pétronille; Zerbo, Issa
The aim of this qualitative study was to describe, from the perspective of women with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), their experiences of noise as a threat to health and their having to live with a hearing disability, i.e. behaviours, thoughts and emotions in auditory demanding situations. Ten women, patients with NIHL at the Department of Audiology, Borás' Hospital in Sweden, were selected to form a heterogeneous sample. A taped in-depth interview, lasting from 45 minutes to 1 hour, was conducted with each woman. The verbatim transcribed interviews were consecutively analysed using a method influenced by the tradition of grounded theory. Four categories emerged in the process of analysis. These categories were labelled: lack of awareness, ambivalence, controlling and avoiding coping strategies and stigmatization. The category 'lack of awareness' concerned the women's perceptions of the risks of noise on hearing, the lack of efforts on the part of the women to apply for financial compensation for their NIHL, the lack of an awareness of individual's right to have healthy work-place and to receive professional help for hearing impairment. Also lacking was the concept that hearing impaired individuals have the right to participate in the community on similar conditions as non-hearing impaired people. This lack of awareness was identified as a core category relating to the other categories: ambivalence, controlling and avoiding coping strategies and stigmatization. The women's expressions indicated ambivalence concerning the cause of the hearing disability and, also, how to manage the consequences of it: the women in the study seemed to alternate between feelings of hopelessness/resignation and a state of acceptance of the hearing disability. Furthermore, the women alternated between blaming themselves and blaming others for the cause of the hearing loss, indicating a change between internal and external locus of control. Also, the women alternated between controlling and avoiding strategies in coping with demanding auditory situations. The coping strategy chosen by the women in a specific situation intended to prevent or minimize stigmatization, i.e. 'to pass as normal' and thereby to maintain a positive self-image of normality. Despite this, the women often perceived negative and stigmatizing attitudes from others, which reinforced their feelings of ambivalence in how to manage the situation. The hypothesis based on the present pilot study, that women with NIHL are more likely to pass themselves off as normal hearing and therefore might be less likely to be reported in studies of NIHL than men, needs to be further tested in a larger sample. PMID:9035790
Hallberg, L R; Jansson, G
This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459
Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok; Lee, Myeong Soo
Fifty women who were sexually abused as children were interviewed regarding their perceptions of helpful and hindering counseling behaviors. The critical incident technique was the methodology used. One major category that emerged from the data was Approach to Power and Control. This category comprised eight subcategories: (1) flexibility with…
Koehn, Corinne V.
...regarding the controlled group qualification rules under Sec. 1.1563-1 was published...additions read as follows: Sec. 1.1563-1 Definition of controlled group of corporations and...excluded member of such group. See Sec....
Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of ``acceptable'' appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of ``accruing capital.'' Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.
This pilot study was an evaluation of an 8-week exposure-based therapy group targeting sexual trauma in incarcerated women, an underserved population with high rates of trauma exposure. Preliminary findings from 14 female prisoners showed significant decreases in depressive and anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. Of the women who were above the screening cutoff for possible posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 13), depression (n = 12), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 12) at pretreatment, approximately 60% had recovered, meaning they had symptom reductions that placed them below the cutoff at posttreatment (n = 8 for PTSD; n = 8 for depression, and n = 9 for GAD). In addition, 85% of participants reported a clinically significant reduction in depressive symptoms and 50% in GAD symptoms. The findings show promise for successful group treatment of sexual violence sequelae in incarcerated women. PMID:24797176
Karlsson, Marie E; Bridges, Ana J; Bell, Jessica; Petretic, Patricia
BACKGROUND: The primary aim of treatment of a patient who has developed metastatic disease is palliation. The objectives of the current study are to describe and quantify the clinical management of women with metastatic breast cancer from the diagnosis of metastatic disease until death and to analyze differences between age groups. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical files of
Klaartje Manders; Lonneke V van de Poll-Franse; Geert-Jan Creemers; Gerard Vreugdenhil; Maurice JC van der Sangen; Grard AP Nieuwenhuijzen; Rudi MH Roumen; Adri C Voogd
Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…
Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.
This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences. Results indicate that members commonly experienced stress from language barriers, cultural
Suhyun Suh; Myoung-Suk Lee
The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg…
Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David
Presents finding from an investigation of two group therapy modalities involving 93 women with dependent children and limited education and income levels. An overview of intervention activities that participants found beneficial is presented. Programs were found to help participants develop a sense of community, reduce stress, improve…
Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.
To overcome barriers that prevent women with breast cancer from attending support groups, innovative formats and modes of delivery both need to be considered. The present study was part of an interdisciplinary program of research in which researchers from counseling psychology, psycho-oncology, nursing, computer science, and fine arts have explored art making as an innovative format and telehealth as a
Kate Collie; Joan L. Bottorff; Bonita C. Long; Cristina Conati
Objective: The main goal of this study was to assess differences in the vaginal flora of pregnant women and provide a detailed evaluation of vaginal swabs for the presence of group B streptococcus (GBS) and other organisms in three teaching hospitals in Shiraz, southwest of Iran. Subjects and Methods: In a cross-sectional study from April 2006 to March 2007, 310
Parvin Hassanzadeh; Mohammad Motamedifar; Maral Namdari Gharaghani
Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and…
Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.
Summary Background Maternal and neonatal mortality rates remain high in many low-income and middle-income countries. Different approaches for the improvement of birth outcomes have been used in community-based interventions, with heterogeneous effects on survival. We assessed the effects of women’s groups practising participatory learning and action, compared with usual care, on birth outcomes in low-resource settings. Methods We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials undertaken in Bangladesh, India, Malawi, and Nepal in which the effects of women’s groups practising participatory learning and action were assessed to identify population-level predictors of effect on maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, and stillbirths. We also reviewed the cost-effectiveness of the women’s group intervention and estimated its potential effect at scale in Countdown countries. Findings Seven trials (119 428 births) met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses of all trials showed that exposure to women’s groups was associated with a 37% reduction in maternal mortality (odds ratio 0·63, 95% CI 0·32–0·94), a 23% reduction in neonatal mortality (0·77, 0·65–0·90), and a 9% non-significant reduction in stillbirths (0·91, 0·79–1·03), with high heterogeneity for maternal (I2=58·8%, p=0·024) and neonatal results (I2=64·7%, p=0·009). In the meta-regression analyses, the proportion of pregnant women in groups was linearly associated with reduction in both maternal and neonatal mortality (p=0·026 and p=0·011, respectively). A subgroup analysis of the four studies in which at least 30% of pregnant women participated in groups showed a 55% reduction in maternal mortality (0·45, 0·17–0·73) and a 33% reduction in neonatal mortality (0·67, 0·59–0·74). The intervention was cost effective by WHO standards and could save an estimated 283 000 newborn infants and 41 100 mothers per year if implemented in rural areas of 74 Countdown countries. Interpretation With the participation of at least a third of pregnant women and adequate population coverage, women’s groups practising participatory learning and action are a cost-effective strategy to improve maternal and neonatal survival in low-resource settings. Funding Wellcome Trust, Ammalife, and National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for Birmingham and the Black Country programme.
Prost, Audrey; Colbourn, Tim; Seward, Nadine; Azad, Kishwar; Coomarasamy, Arri; Copas, Andrew; Houweling, Tanja A J; Fottrell, Edward; Kuddus, Abdul; Lewycka, Sonia; MacArthur, Christine; Manandhar, Dharma; Morrison, Joanna; Mwansambo, Charles; Nair, Nirmala; Nambiar, Bejoy; Osrin, David; Pagel, Christina; Phiri, Tambosi; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Rosato, Mikey; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Saville, Naomi; More, Neena Shah; Shrestha, Bhim; Tripathy, Prasanta; Wilson, Amie; Costello, Anthony
Purpose – This study seeks to explore what young women want from their school-based sex education. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Qualitative methods were used to explore the perspectives of two groups of young women from Uganda and Scotland. Findings – Of particular importance to all the young women were: a diverse sex education curriculum appropriate to the ages of the students, being
Background: Neuropsychiatric abnormalities are among the most common manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). They have been proposed to be associated with impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF). Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR) is a hemodynamic parameter effective in the autoregulation of CBF. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare the VMR of women with stable SLE and normal women. Materials and Methods: According to the study criteria 60 women in each group entered the study. VMR was evaluated with Transcranial Doppler (TCD) at rest and after one minute of breath holding. Results: There was no significant difference in the mean of age between two groups (31.76 ± 7.50 years in the SLE group versus 32.43 ± 4.55 years in the control group, P value: 0.64). The mean duration of SLE in the case group was 5.40 ± 3.60 years. The means of the Breath-Holding Index (BHI) in the SLE and control groups were 0.842 ± 0.72% and 0.815 ± 0.26%, respectively, which was not significantly different (P value: 0.82). Conclusion: This study indicates that the VMR of women with stable SLE is not significantly different from the age- and sex-matched normal population. However, further investigations on patients with longer SLE duration and more neuropsychological abnormality rates are suggested.
Khorvash, Fariborz; Shirani, Elham; Askari, Gholam Reza; Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Sayedbonakdar, Zahra; Fatemi, Alimohammad
Purpose Underutilization of cancer screening has been found especially to affect socially marginalized groups. We investigated sexual orientation group patterns in breast and colorectal cancer screening adherence. Methods Data on breast and colorectal cancer screening, sexual orientation, and sociodemographics were gathered prospectively from 1989 through 2005 from 85,759 U.S. women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Publicly available data on state-level health care quality and sexual orientation-related legal protections were also gathered. Multivariable models were used to estimate sexual orientation-group differences in breast and colorectal cancer screening, controlling for sociodemographics and state-level health care quality and legal protections for sexual minorities. Results Receipt of a mammogram in the past two years was common though not universal and differed only slightly by sexual orientation: heterosexual 84%; bisexual 79%; lesbian 82%. Fewer than half of eligible women had ever received a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy, and rates did not differ by sexual orientation: heterosexual 39%; bisexual 39%; lesbian 42%. In fully adjusted models, state-level health care quality score, though not state-level legal protections for sexual minorities, was positively associated with likelihood of being screened for all women regardless of sexual orientation. Conclusions Concerns have been raised that unequal health care access for sexual orientation minorities may adversely affect cancer screening. We found small disparities in mammography and none in colorectal screening, though adherence to colorectal screening recommendations was uniformly very low. Interventions are needed to increase screening in women of all sexual orientation groups, particularly in areas with poor health care policies.
Austin, S. Bryn; Pazaris, Mathew J.; Nichols, Lauren P.; Bowen, Deborah; Wei, Esther K.; Spiegelman, Donna
Levels of depression and aspects of social support were examined in groups of chronic schizophrenic (n=21), depressed (n=26) and parasuicide patients (n=26) and in a group of medical controls (n=25). Depression was equally severe in the parasuicide and depressed groups and low in the schizophrenic and control groups. The psychiatric groups reported lower perceived levels of social support than did
J. Neeleman; M. J. Power
The authors of this study evaluated a structured 10-session psychosocial support group intervention for newly HIV-diagnosed pregnant South African women. Participants were expected to display increases in HIV disclosure, self-esteem, active coping and positive social support, and decreases in depression, avoidant coping, and negative social support. Three hundred sixty-one pregnant HIV-infected women were recruited from four antenatal clinics in Tshwane townships from April 2005 to September 2006. Using a quasi-experimental design, assessments were conducted at baseline and two and eight months post-intervention. A series of random effects regression analyses were conducted, with the three assessment points treated as a random effect of time. At both follow-ups, the rate of disclosure in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the comparison group (p < 0.001). Compared to the comparison group at the first follow-up, the intervention group displayed higher levels of active coping (t = 2.68, p < 0.05) and lower levels of avoidant coping (t = ?2.02, p < 0.05), and those who attended at least half of the intervention sessions exhibited improved self-esteem (t = 2.11, p < 0.05). Group interventions tailored for newly HIV positive pregnant women, implemented in resource-limited settings, may accelerate the process of adjusting to one's HIV status, but may not have sustainable benefits over time.
Mundell, Jonathan P.; Visser, Maretha J.; Makin, Jennifer D.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Forsyth, Brian W. C.; Jeffery, Bridget; Sikkema, Kathleen J.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a public health problem in Mexico and diet therapy is the main form of treatment. Self-management abilities are required to control the disease. Five women with GDM were studied to assess GDM risk perception and experiences related with self-management practices. Sociodemographic data were obtained and in-depth interviews were conducted and subsequently analyzed using Atlas ti V.5 software. The results revealed that women were conscious regarding the role of diet and physical activity in improving GDM control, and about the perinatal risks associated with the disease. Adherence to diet recommendations was partial, but gradual and positive lifestyle changes were observed. Emotionally, perception about having GDM was a key factor with respect to adhering to the diet. In conclusion, the medical and dietary treatment influences the cultural food behavior of women with GDM. Health professionals should consider sociocultural determinants when designing and implementing treatment strategies. PMID:24897466
Chávez-Courtois, Mayra; Graham, Chelsea; Romero-Pérez, Irma; Sánchez-Miranda, Georgina; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Perichart-Perera, Otilia
Background Refugee women have a high risk of coronary heart disease with low physical activity as one possible mediator. Furthermore, cultural and environmental barriers to increasing physical activity have been demonstrated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of an approximate 6-month primary health care- and community-based exercise intervention versus an individual written prescription for exercise on objectively assessed cardiorespiratory fitness in low-active refugee women. Methods A controlled clinical trial, named "Support for Increased Physical Activity", was executed among 243 refugee women recruited between November 2006 and April 2008 from two deprived geographic areas in southern Stockholm, Sweden. One geographic area provided the intervention group and the other area the control group. The control group was on a higher activity level at both baseline and follow-up, which was taken into consideration in the analysis by applying statistical models that accounted for this. Relative aerobic capacity and fitness level were assessed as the two main outcome measures. Results The intervention group increased their relative aerobic capacity and the percentage with an acceptable fitness level (relative aerobic capacity > 23 O2ml·kg·min-1) to a greater extent than the control group between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.020). Conclusions A combined primary health-care and community-based exercise programme (involving non-profit organizations) can be an effective strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among low-active refugee women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00747942
Objective To compare the effectiveness of touch screen system with information leaflet for providing women with information on prenatal tests. Design Randomised controlled trial; participants allocated to intervention group (given access to touch screen and leaflet information) or control group (leaflet information only). Setting Antenatal clinic in university teaching hospital. Subjects 875 women booking antenatal care. Interventions All participants received a leaflet providing information on prenatal tests. Women in the intervention arm also had access to touch screen information system in antenatal clinic. Main outcome measures Women's informed decision making on prenatal testing as measured by their uptake of and understanding of the purpose of specific tests; their satisfaction with information provided; and their levels of anxiety. Results All women in the trial had a good baseline knowledge of prenatal tests. Women in the intervention group did not show any greater understanding of the purpose of the tests than control women. However, uptake of detailed anomaly scans was significantly higher in intervention group than the control group (94% (351/375) v 87% (310/358), P=0.0014). Levels of anxiety among nulliparous women in intervention group declined significantly over time (P<0.001). Conclusions The touch screen seemed to convey no benefit over well prepared leaflets in improving understanding of prenatal tests among the pregnant women. It did, however, seem to reduce levels of anxiety and may be most effective for providing information to selected women who have a relevant adverse history or abnormal results from tests in their current pregnancy. Key messagesThroughout the NHS, efforts are being made to evaluate traditional methods of conveying information to patients, such as leaflets, and to develop and assess new approachesThis study compared the effectiveness of a touch screen system with a well designed leaflet at providing women with information on prenatal testsThe touch screen conferred no additional benefits over the leaflet when applied to an unselected population of pregnant womenNulliparous women showed reduced anxiety levels after access to the touch screen, but further research is needed on the measurement of anxiety during pregnancy
Graham, Wendy; Smith, Pat; Kamal, A; Fitzmaurice, A; Smith, N; Hamilton, N
In the present pilot study, we evaluated the effect of maternal adiposity on the plasma concentration of adipocytokines in pregnant women and their newborns. Twenty patients with term gestations without labour were initially selected by pregestational BMI and then classified into two study groups (n 10 each), according to their median value of adiposity (total body fat). Concentrations of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, leptin and adiponectin in plasma of maternal peripheral blood and fetal cord blood were measured and correlated to maternal adiposity. Maternal adiposity showed a significant negative correlation with fetal adiponectin (r - 0·587, P = 0·01) and IL-6 (r - 0·466, P = 0·05), a significant positive correlation with maternal leptin (r 0·527, P = 0·02) and no correlation with TNF-? or IL-1?. Adiponectin was higher in fetal plasma than in maternal plasma (P = 0·043), but significantly lower in newborns from women with high adiposity than in newborns from women with low adiposity (P = 0·040). Our results suggest that fetuses from obese women may be less able to control inflammation, due to lower circulating anti-inflammatory adipocytokines, which could limit their optimal development or even increase the risk of abortion or preterm labour. PMID:20650016
Vega-Sanchez, Rodrigo; Barajas-Vega, Hector A; Rozada, Guadalupe; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Beltran-Montoya, Jorge; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe
This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n = 28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3 ± 8.9 years; body mass index [BMI] 40.4 ± 8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g., from children or people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795
Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. We determined the distribution of serotypes and surface protein encoding genes of GBS strains from pregnant and non-pregnant women in Egypt. Vaginal swabs from 364 women were screened by culture and 100 (27.4%) yielded GBS. Serotype V was the most predominant (33%), followed by serotypes II (17%), III (15%), Ia (14%), VI (12%), Ib (8%) and IV (1%). The most common surface protein genes were epsilon (27%), alp3 (26%), bca (18%), rib (16%) and alp2 (10%). Two isolates were negative for surface protein genes. The distribution of serotypes and surface proteins was similar to reports from other parts of the world but the relatively high frequency of serotype VI was a notable feature of the strains from women in Egypt. PMID:23561305
Shabayek, S; Abdalla, S; Abouzeid, A Mh
Abstract Circulating complement protein C3 (C3) levels have been associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in women with systemic lupus erythematosus, but have yet to be evaluated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to determine whether C3 levels were elevated in women with PCOS compared to controls and to quantify the association of C3 with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and CAC and if PCOS modified this association. This cross-sectional analysis included 132 women with PCOS and 155 controls, 35-62 years old, from the third visit of a case-control study. CAC was measured during the study visit, and circulating C3 was measured in stored sera. The presence of CAC and CAC categories (Agatston score 0, 1-9.9 and ?10) were used for logistic and ordinal regression analysis, respectively. C3 levels were not significantly different between women with PCOS and controls. Among all women, C3 was associated with the presence of CAC and increasing CAC groups after adjusting for age, PCOS status and insulin or body mass index (BMI), all p?0.05. In addition, C3 was associated with the presence of CAC after adjusting for age, PCOS status, BMI, insulin and African American race, p?=?0.049. PCOS status did not modify these associations. In conclusion, circulating C3 levels may prove beneficial in identifying women at risk of CVD in women with PCOS and the general population. PMID:24592986
Snyder, Michelle L; Shields, Kelly J; Korytkowski, Mary T; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Talbott, Evelyn O
Twenty-four hour noninvasive, automatic and ambulatory control of blood pressure (BP) was carried out on 11 normotensive pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy with a Del Mar Avionics Model 1978 Pressurometer III System at 7.5 min intervals during 24 h. The patients kept a detailed record of their activities during those 24 h. BP increased from 9 AM to a peak between 7 and 10 PM. Mean (+/- SD) waking and sleeping values were 110.56 +/- 6.68 mm Hg and 96.5 +/- 10.01 mm Hg, respectively, for systolic BP, and 71.41 +/- 5.35 mm Hg and 62.82 +/- 5.47 mm Hg, respectively, for diastolic BP. There was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP between sleeping hours and waking hours. We believe that 24-h control of BP behavior in normotensive pregnant women allows us to adequately diagnose hypertensive disease in pregnancy. PMID:2610998
Margulies, M; Zin, C; Margulies, N D; Voto, L S
Background: The poor utilisation of the Misgav-Ladach (ML) caesarean section method in our environment despite its proven advantage has been attributed to several factors including its non-evaluation. A well designed and conducted trial is needed to provide evidence to convince clinician of its advantage over Pfannenstiel based methods. Aim: To evaluate the outcome of ML based caesarean section among Nigerian women. Subjects and Methods: Randomised controlled open label study of 323 women undergoing primary caesarean section in Lagos Nigeria. The women were randomised to either ML method or Pfannenstiel based (PB) caesarean section technique using computer generated random numbers. Results: The mean duration of surgery (P < 0.001), time to first bowel motion (P = 0.01) and ambulation (P < 0.001) were significantly shorter in the ML group compared to PB group. Postoperative anaemia (P < 0.01), analgesic needs (P = 0.02), extra suture use, estimated blood loss (P < 0.01) and post-operative complications (P = 0.001) were significantly lower in the ML group compared to PB group. Though the mean hospital stay was shorter (5.8 days) in the ML group as against 6.0 days, the difference was not significant statistically (P = 0.17). Of the fetal outcome measures compared, it was only in the fetal extraction time that there was significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.001). The mean fetal extraction time was 162 sec in ML group compared to 273 sec in the PB group. Conclusions: This study confirmed the already established benefit of ML techniques in Nigerian women, as it relates to the postoperative outcomes, duration of surgery, and fetal extraction time. The technique is recommended to clinicians as its superior maternal and fetal outcome and cost saving advantage makes it appropriate for use in poor resource setting.
Ezechi, OC; Ezeobi, PM; Gab-Okafor, CV; Edet, A; Nwokoro, CA; Akinlade, A
The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African…
Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela
...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department...DoD contractors, that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on 1...
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Establishes a theoretical foundation for control groups; defines four types of control groups applicable to HPT (human performance technology) program evaluation and measurement; explores their validity; and presents scenarios for an electronic learning program to demonstrate the applicability of the control group methods for HPT program…
A qualitative nonexperimental thematic analysis was conducted at a hospital-based midwifery practice to explore the views of participants in group prenatal care and its impact on pregnancy, birth, and postnatal care. Ten women and three support people, recruited through purposive sampling, shared their feedback on the program. The findings conveyed three broad themes: program experience, midwife relationship, and support. Women enjoyed the opportunity for in-depth learning, and peer-group support led to normalizing of pregnancy concerns. Having support people as participants also helped during pregnancy, birth, and child care. The findings showed the enhanced opportunity for education, learning, and interpersonal support provided by CenteringPregnancy to expectant mothers had a positive impact on their pregnancy experiences.
Risisky, Deb; Asghar, Syed Masood; Chaffee, Madeline; DeGennaro, Nancy
A qualitative nonexperimental thematic analysis was conducted at a hospital-based midwifery practice to explore the views of participants in group prenatal care and its impact on pregnancy, birth, and postnatal care. Ten women and three support people, recruited through purposive sampling, shared their feedback on the program. The findings conveyed three broad themes: program experience, midwife relationship, and support. Women enjoyed the opportunity for in-depth learning, and peer-group support led to normalizing of pregnancy concerns. Having support people as participants also helped during pregnancy, birth, and child care. The findings showed the enhanced opportunity for education, learning, and interpersonal support provided by CenteringPregnancy to expectant mothers had a positive impact on their pregnancy experiences. PMID:24868125
Risisky, Deb; Asghar, Syed Masood; Chaffee, Madeline; DeGennaro, Nancy
Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research.
Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne
The purpose of the present study was to develop the later life attachment literature by providing data contrasting patterns\\u000a of attachment among 616 older men and women (aged 50 to 70) from seven ethnic groups in the United States: African Americans,\\u000a English-speaking Caribbeans, Haitians, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, Eastern Europeans, and European Americans. A multivariate\\u000a analysis of the variance with ethnicity,
Katherine L. Fiori; Nathan S. Consedine; Carol Magai
We randomly assigned 65 women who had been sexually abused by a father, stepfather, or other close relative to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: a 10-week interpersonal transaction (IT) group, a 10-week process group, or a wait list condition. Subjects were evaluated at pretreatment, posttreatment, and (if assigned to a group) a 6-month follow-up on measures of social adjustment, depression, fearfulness, and general distress. Results suggested that both the IT and process group formats were more effective than the wait list condition in reducing depression and in alleviating distress; changes were maintained at follow-up. Subjects in the process group format exhibited improvement in social adjustment, whereas subjects in the wait list condition actually deteriorated. PMID:2768606
Alexander, P C; Neimeyer, R A; Follette, V M; Moore, M K; Harter, S
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of age on dynamic muscle attributes of the knee extensors and flexors in postmenopausal women. Young healthy women (3rd decade, n = 15; 4th decade, n = 5) and older healthy women (6th decade, n = 9; 7th decade, n = 6) were tested at six angular velocities from 60 degrees.s-1 to 400 degrees.s-1. The 3rd and 4th decade groups produced greater extensor and flexor values for strength related variables at all angular velocities (peak torque, angle specific torque, work, power) than both the 6th and 7th decade groups (P < 0.05). However, relative changes in these variables, with increments in angular velocity, were equivalent among the groups. Analysis of the flexor: extensor ratios for these variables demonstrated a differential loss in flexor function with increased age, perhaps indicative of type II motor unit loss or muscle fibre atrophy. It is suggested that such changes may be present even within 4th decade subjects. PMID:8472701
Stanley, S N; Taylor, N A
Background There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. Objective To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. Design A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. Results The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat – from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy – from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p=0.02) and in Yakutsk (p=0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p<0.03) in Native women living in Yakutsk compared with the intake of Native women living in rural settlements and small towns. Conclusions The dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit.
Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav
Objective To investigate asymptomatic vagino?rectal carriage of group B streptococcus (GBS) in pregnant women. Methods Women in the final trimester of pregnancy were recruited. A single vagino?rectal swab was taken, with consent, for culture of GBS. Two microbiological methods for isolation of GBS from vagino?ractal swabs were compared. The distribution of capsular serotypes of the GBS identified was determined. Epidemiological data for a subset (n?=?167) of the pregnant women participating were examined. Results 21.3% were colonised vagino?rectally with GBS. Risk factors for neonatal GBS disease (maternal fever, prolonged rupture of membranes, and preterm delivery) were present in 34 of 167 women (20.4%), and the presence of these factors correlated poorly with GBS carriage. Capsular serotypes III (26.4%), IA (25.8%), V (18.9%), and IB (15.7%) were prevalent in the GBS isolates. Selective broth culture of vagino?rectal swabs was superior to selective plate culture, but the combination of both methods was associated with increased detection of GBS (7.5%). An algorithm for the identification of GBS from vagino?rectal swabs was developed. Conclusions GBS carriage is prevalent in pregnant women in Oxfordshire, UK. The poor correlation between risk factors and GBS carriage requires further investigation in larger groups, given that the identification of these surrogate markers is recommended to guide administration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis by the Royal College of Obstetricians of the UK. A selective broth culture detected more GBS carriers than a selective plate culture.
Jones, N; Oliver, K; Jones, Y; Haines, A; Crook, D
Objective To investigate the association between migraine and ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke in young women. Design Hospital based case-control study. Setting Five European centres participating in the World Health Organisation Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease and Steroid Hormone Contraception. Subjects 291 women aged 20-44 years with ischaemic, haemorrhagic, or unclassified arterial stroke compared with 736 age and hospital matched controls. Intervention Questionnaire. Main outcome measure Self reported history of headaches. Results Adjusted odds ratios associated with a personal history of migraine were 1.78 (95% confidence intervals, 1.14 to 2.77), 3.54 (1.30 to 9.61), and 1.10 (0.63 to 1.94) for all stroke, ischaemic stroke, and haemorrhagic stroke respectively. Odds ratios for ischaemic stroke were similar for classical migraine (with aura) (3.81, 1.26 to 11.5) and simple migraine (without aura) (2.97, 0.66 to 13.5). A family history of migraine, irrespective of personal history, was also associated with increased odds ratios, not only for ischaemic stroke but also haemorrhagic stroke. In migrainous women, coexistent use of oral contraceptives or a history of high blood pressure or smoking had greater than multiplicative effects on the odds ratios for ischaemic stroke associated with migraine alone. Change in the frequency or type of migraine on using oral contraceptives did not predict subsequent stroke. Between 20% and 40% of strokes in women with migraine seemed to develop directly from a migraine attack. Conclusions Migraine in women of childbearing age significantly increases the risk of ischaemic but not haemorrhagic stroke. The coexistence of oral contraceptive use, high blood pressure, or smoking seems to exert a greater than multiplicative effect on the risk of ischaemic stroke associated with migraine. Key messagesA personal history of migraine was associated with increased risk of ischaemic but not haemorrhagic strokeCoexistence of risk factors—use of oral contraceptives, high blood pressure, or smoking had more than multiplicative effects on odds ratios for ischaemic stroke associated with migraine aloneA family history of migraine, irrespective of a personal migraine history, was associated with increased risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokeUp to 40% of strokes in migrainous women develop directly out of a migraine attack—so called migrainous strokesA change in type or frequency of migraine with use of oral contraceptives did not predict subsequent stroke
Chang, C L; Donaghy, Michael; Poulter, Neil
Background Preconception and pregnancy dietary intakes can influence the health of future generations. In this study we compared the food intakes of reproductive-aged women by pregnancy status, to current Australian recommendations. Methods Data are from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, younger cohort aged 25-30 years in 2003, with self-reported status as pregnant (n = 606), trying to conceive (n = 454), given birth in the last 12 months (n = 829) or other (n = 5597). Diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire. Food group servings and nutrient intakes were compared to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) and Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs). Results No women met all AGHE food group recommendations. Highest adherence rates [mean (95% CI) servings/day] were for meat [85%, 1.9(1.8-1.9)], fruit [44%, 2.1(2.1-2.2)] and dairy [35%, 1.8(1.8-1.9)], with < 14% meeting remaining recommendations. Women who achieved NRVs (folate, iron, calcium, zinc, fibre) for pregnancy, breastfeeding and adult life stages were 1.5%, 3.3% and 13.7%, respectively. Compared to AGHE, women consumed more servings of fruit (4.9 vs 4.0;P = 0.034) and dairy (3.4 vs 2.0;P = 0.006) to achieve pregnancy NRVs; more dairy (2.9 vs 2.0;P = 0.001), less fruit (3.9 vs 5.0;P < .001) and vegetables (3.4 vs 7.0;P < .001) to achieve breastfeeding NRVs; more fruit (3.6 vs 3.0;P < .001), dairy (2.5 vs 2.0;P < .001), meat (1.8 vs 1.5;P = 0.015), less vegetables (3.6 vs 5.0;P < .001) to achieve adult NRVs. Conclusions The AGHE does not align with contemporary diets of Australian women or enable them to meet all NRVs. Current tools to guide food consumption by women during pregnancy require revision.
Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed.
Bhattathiry, Malini M.; Ethirajan, Narayanan
The objective of the present study was to examine the psychological impact of a group-oriented approach to disease management and health behaviour in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Seventeen overweight PCOS women were randomised in a crossover design of eight weeks high-intensity aerobic exercise followed by eight weeks of group counselling (n=8) or vice versa (n=9). Interpersonal communication, emotional and relational aspects were observed and analysed throughout the period focusing on changes in health behaviour. The most salient findings showed supportive relationships expressed as group cohesion, exchange of narratives of illness and of disorder-specific aspects. Individual relationships between the participants were important for changes in behaviour, especially those generating feedback from the other participants and reducing social isolation. The results were most encouraging in the group that had initial counselling sessions before the physical intervention. It can be concluded that group counselling sessions focusing on supportive relationships followed by high-intensity aerobic training have beneficial effects on wellbeing, health and exercise behaviour. PMID:24498697
Roessler, Kirsten K; Glintborg, Dorte; Ravn, Pernille; Birkebaek, Camilla; Andersen, Marianne
Integrating community-based participatory research (CBPR) into traditional study designs can enhance outcomes in studies with disadvantaged groups. Little is known, however, about study participants' experiences with these approaches, the underlying processes involved in creating more positive outcomes, and whether undesirable effects on study outcomes occur simultaneously. We conducted focus group interviews with 31 disadvantaged women who participated in a CBPR-driven randomized controlled trial (RCT) both to explore their study experiences and to obtain their interpretations of select study findings. Using dimensional analysis, we found the tailored health questionnaire, treatment by study staff members, and RCT participants' understandings of and responses to randomization were salient to what women described as transformative experiences that occurred over the course of the RCT. These findings have implications for understanding how CBPR and non-CBPR aspects of interventions and study designs have the potential to affect both process and endpoint study outcomes. PMID:23567297
Kneipp, Shawn M; Lutz, Barbara J; Levonian, Catherine; Cook, Christa; Hamilton, Jill B; Roberson, Dawne
Older individuals have impaired balance control, particularly those that are frail and/or have sensory deprivations. Obese individuals show faster body sway during upright stance than normal weight individuals, suggesting that they also have difficulty controlling balance even if they do not have the same sensory issues as the older people. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine if obesity is associated to a decreased balance control in older women. Postural sway of normal weight (n = 15, age = 70.8 ± 5.5 years; BMI = 22.2 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (n = 15, age = 71.7 ± 4.3 years; BMI = 27.3 ± 1.3 kg/m(2)), and obese (n = 15, age = 71.1 ± 4.3 years; BMI = 33.1 ± 3.4 kg/m(2)) women was measured with a force platform for normal quiet stance lasting for 30 s in opened and closed eyes conditions. The obese group oscillated at a faster speed than the normal weight group (vision 0.99 ± 0.29 cm/s vs. 0.70 ± 0.16 cm/s, p < 0.01; no vision 1.43 ± 0.50 cm/s vs. 0.87 ± 0.23 cm/s, p < 0.01). The obese group exhibited greater range in both axes without vision compared to the normal weight group (p < 0.05). When observing sway density parameters, the obese group also spent less time in stability zones (2 mm radius area in which the center of pressure is relatively stable), and the distance between these stability zones are greater than the normal weight group in both visual conditions (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Obesity clearly affects postural control in older women. Our results suggest that obesity has a negative impact on the capacity of older woman to adequately use proprioceptive information for posture control. As postural instability or balance control deficits are identified as a risk factor for falling, our results also suggest that obesity in older women could be considered as another potential contributing factor for falling. PMID:22318311
Dutil, Maxime; Handrigan, Grant A; Corbeil, Philippe; Cantin, Vincent; Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand; Hue, Olivier
In the last years, a potential link between endometriosis and celiac disease has been hypothesized since these disorders share some similarities, specifically concerning a potential role of oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunological dysfunctions. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease among Italian women with endometriosis with respect to general population. Consecutive women with a laparoscopic and histological confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis were enrolled; female nurses of our institution, without a known history of endometriosis, were enrolled as controls. IgA endomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies measurement and serum total IgA dosage were performed in both groups. An upper digestive endoscopy with an intestinal biopsy was performed in case of antibodies positivity. Presence of infertility, miscarriage, coexistence of other autoimmune diseases, and family history of autoimmune diseases was also investigated in all subjects. Celiac disease was diagnosed in 5 of 223 women with endometriosis and in 2 of 246 controls (2.2% versus 0.8%; P = 0.265). Patients with endometriosis showed a largely higher rate of infertility compared to control group (27.4% versus 2.4%; P < 0.001). Our results confirm that also in Italian population an increased prevalence of celiac disease among patients with endometriosis is found, although this trend does not reach the statistical significance.
Campo, Sebastiano; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Gallo, Antonella; Campo, Vincenzo; Palombini, Guglielmo; Santoliquido, Angelo; Gasbarrini, Giovanni
Previous studies have shown that weight is inversely associated with premenopausal breast cancer and positively associated with postmenopausal disease. Height has been shown to be positively correlated with breast cancer risk, but the association was not conclusive for premenopausal women. These previous studies were conducted primarily in Western countries, where height is not limited by nutritional status during childhood. The authors assessed the association between breast cancer and anthropometric measures in the Nigerian Breast Cancer Study (Ibadan, Nigeria). Between 1998 and 2009, 1,233 invasive breast cancer cases and 1,101 controls were recruited. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for the highest quartile group of height relative to the lowest was 2.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.51, 2.72; P-trend < 0.001), with an odds ratio of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.32) for each 5-cm increase, with no difference by menopausal status. Comparing women with a body mass index in the lowest quartile group, the adjusted odds ratio for women in the highest quartile category was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.94; P-trend = 0.009) for premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Influence of height on breast cancer risk was quite strong in this cohort of indigenous Africans, which suggests that energy intake during childhood may be important in breast cancer development.
Ogundiran, Temidayo O.; Huo, Dezheng; Adenipekun, Adeniyi; Campbell, Oladapo; Oyesegun, Rasaaq; Akang, Effiong; Adebamowo, Clement; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.
Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888
Objective The physiology of menopausal hot flashes is not well understood. The autonomic nervous system may play a role in hot flashes, but the current understanding is limited. We previously demonstrated in the laboratory that decreases in high frequency heart rate variability, an index of cardiac vagal control, occur during hot flashes relative to preceding and following periods. In the present study, we tested whether we would observe a similar phenomenon in the ambulatory setting. We additionally considered respiratory rate in these associations. Methods 21 peri- and postmenopausal women ages 40–60 reporting daily hot flashes were monitored both for physiologic and reported hot flashes and heart rate variability over a 24-hour period as they went about their daily lives. Heart rate variability estimates were derived using the band-limited variance method. The interval during the hot flash was compared to two non-flash periods prior to and following the hot flash via mixed effects models. Results Heart rate variability significantly decreased during hot flashes relative to periods preceding (b=0.31, SE=0.03 p<0.0001) and following (b=0.30, SE=0.03, p<0.0001) physiologic hot flashes (covariates: age, race, education, menopausal status, physical activity, body mass index, anxiety). Findings were comparable considering self-reported hot flashes. Findings persisted controlling for respiratory rate. Conclusions Significant decreases in cardiac vagal control occurred during hot flashes assessed during women’s daily lives. These findings extend our work in the laboratory to the ambulatory setting, further shedding light on the physiology of hot flashes and underscoring a potential role of parasympathetic function in hot flashes.
Thurston, Rebecca C.; Christie, Israel C.; Matthews, Karen A.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has proved helpful for a number of health-related conditions but there is relatively little published literature about its use with fertility problems. The aim of this paper is to describe a pilot group programme adopted by a Clinical Health Psychology department, and to present findings from the routine outcomes data gathered by the service, evaluating its effectiveness. Data from nine women with fertility problems that took part in the programme were analysed. They completed measures of wellbeing and psychological distress before and after the treatment. The results showed clinically significant improvements in participants' wellbeing scores and psychological distress. It was a limitation of the study that the impact of concurrent treatments could not be assessed and so could also have contributed to this outcome in half of the cases. Nevertheless, these results suggest that MBCT may be a helpful treatment for women presenting with fertility-related distress. PMID:23815205
Sherratt, K A L; Lunn, S
Background At least some forms of breast cancer are increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness, where an emphasis is placed on meeting the various ongoing needs of people living with cancer, their families and other members of their social support networks. This commentary outlines some approaches to the evaluation of cancer-related support groups, with a particular emphasis on those designed to provide long-distance support, via the internet, for women with breast cancer. Discussion The literature on evaluations of community-based cancer support groups indicates that they offer a number of benefits, and that it is more reasonable to expect an impact of such interventions on psychosocial functioning and/or health-related quality of life than on survival. The literature on both face-to-face and online social support groups suggests that they offer many advantages, although evaluation of the latter delivery mechanism presents some ethical issues that need to be addressed. Many popular online support groups are peer-moderated, rather than professionally-moderated. In an evaluation of online support groups, different models of the role of the "navigator" need to be taken into account. Some conceptual models are outlined for the evaluation of the "navigator role" in meeting the informational, decisional and educational needs of women with breast cancer. The Breast-Cancer Mailing List, an example of an unmoderated internet-based peer-support group, is considered within the context of a Shared or Tacit Model of the navigator role. Conclusion Application of the concept of a "navigator role" to support groups in general, and to unmoderated online ones in particular, has received little or no attention in the research literature. The navigator role should be taken into account in research on this increasingly important aspect of cancer communication.
Till, James E
Background The number of routine antenatal visits provided to low risk nulliparous women has been reduced in the UK, acknowledging this change in care may result in women being less satisfied with their care and having poorer psychosocial outcomes. The primary aim of the study was to investigate whether the provision of proactive telephone support intervention (TSI) with and without uterine artery Doppler screening (UADS) would reduce the total number of antenatal visits required. A secondary aim was to investigate whether the interventions affected psychological outcomes. Methods A three-arm randomised controlled trial involving 840 low risk nulliparous women was conducted at a large maternity unit in North East England. All women received antenatal care in line with current UK guidance. Women in the TSI group (T) received calls from a midwife at 28, 33 and 36 weeks and women in the telephone and Doppler group (T?+?D) received the TSI and additional UADS at 20 weeks’ gestation. The main outcome measure was the total number of scheduled and unscheduled antenatal visits received after 20 weeks’ gestation. Results The median number of unscheduled (n?=?2.0), scheduled visits (n?=?7.0) and mean number of total visits (n?=?8.8) were similar in the three groups. The majority (67%) of additional antenatal visits were made to a Maternity Assessment Unit because of commonly occurring pregnancy complications. Additional TSI+/–UADS was not associated with differences in clinical outcomes, levels of anxiety, social support or satisfaction with care. There were challenges to the successful delivery of the telephone support intervention; 59% of women were contacted at 29 and 33 weeks gestation reducing to 52% of women at 37 weeks. Conclusions Provision of additional telephone support (with or without UADS) in low risk nulliparous women did not reduce the number of unscheduled antenatal visits or reduce anxiety. This study provides a useful insight into the reasons why this client group attend for unscheduled visits. Trial registration ISRCTN62354584
Background Among adults in the United States, asthma prevalence is disproportionately high among African American women; this group also experiences the highest levels of asthma-linked mortality and asthma-related health care utilization. Factors linked to biological sex (e.g., hormonal fluctuations), gender roles (e.g., exposure to certain triggers) and race (e.g., inadequate access to care) all contribute to the excess asthma burden in this group, and also shape the context within which African American women manage their condition. No prior interventions for improving asthma self-management have specifically targeted this vulnerable group of asthma patients. The current study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a culturally- and gender-relevant asthma-management intervention among African American women. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be used to compare a five-session asthma-management intervention with usual care. This intervention is delivered over the telephone by a trained health educator. Intervention content is informed by the principles of self-regulation for disease management, and all program activities and materials are designed to be responsive to the specific needs of African American women. We will recruit 420 female participants who self-identify as African American, and who have seen a clinician for persistent asthma in the last year. Half of these will receive the intervention. The primary outcomes, upon which the target sample size is based, are number of asthma-related emergency department visits and overnight hospitalizations in the last 12 months. We will also assess the effect of the intervention on asthma symptoms and asthma-related quality of life. Data will be collected via telephone survey and medical record review at baseline, and 12 and 24 months from baseline. Discussion We seek to decrease asthma-related health care utilization and improve asthma-related quality of life in African American women with asthma, by offering them a culturally- and gender-relevant program to enhance asthma management. The results of this study will provide important information about the feasibility and value of this program in helping to address persistent racial and gender disparities in asthma outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01117805
This project details the design of a Multiple Sclerosis support group for women in the Inner?City of Buffalo. The author describes her plans to use her creative studies background, facilitation and leadership skills to impart knowledge to others like herself (women with MS), in hopes of increasing the quality of life they are currently experiencing by bringing them into contact
This article describes the use of writing and poetry in a group of women parenting sexually abused children. Sponsored by the Orange County Department of Social Services in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, the ongoing class, led by a child therapist and Orange County's parenting social worker, consisted of between six and ten women parenting sexually abused children. Social workers observed
Nancy Tilly; Joanne Caye
Background The 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) changed mammography guidelines to recommend routine biennial screening starting at age 50. This study describes women’s awareness of, attitudes toward, and intention to comply with these new guidelines. Methods Women ages 40–50 years old were recruited from the Boston area to participate in focus groups (k?=?8; n?=?77). Groups were segmented by race/ethnicity (Caucasian?=?39%; African American?=?35%; Latina?=?26%), audio-taped, and transcribed. Thematic content analysis was used. Results Participants were largely unaware of the revised guidelines and suspicious that it was a cost-savings measure by insurers and/or providers. Most did not intend to comply with the change, viewing screening as obligatory. Few felt prepared to participate in shared decision-making or advocate for their preferences with respect to screening. Conclusions Communication about the rationale for mammography guideline changes has left many women unconvinced about potential disadvantages or limitations of screening. Since further guideline changes are likely to occur with advances in technology and science, it is important to help women become informed consumers of health information and active participants in shared decision-making with providers. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of the USPSTF change on women’s screening behaviors and on breast cancer outcomes.
In this dissertation we study the control of nonholonomic systems defined by invariant vector fields on matrix Lie groups. We make use of canonical constructions of coordinates and other mathematical tools provided by the Lie group setting. An approximate...
H. K. Struemper
...controlled group relationship after both corporations become nonmembers...consolidated group. (ii) Different taxable years. If S and B have different taxable years, the taxable...to any member, immediately after the transfer, under...
Background: Few studies have examined predictors of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels among residents in homes sprayed with DDT for malaria control with the aim of identifying exposure-reduction strategies. Methods: The present analysis included 381 women enrolled in the Study of Women and Babies (SOWB) during 2010–2011, from eight South African villages in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) occurred in half of the villages. Questionnaires regarding various demographic and medical factors were administered and blood samples were obtained. We classified the women into three exposure groups by type of residence: unsprayed village (n = 175), IRS village in household with a low likelihood of DDT use (non-DDT IRS household, n = 106), IRS village in household with a high likelihood of DDT use (DDT IRS household, n = 100). We used multivariable models of natural log-transformed DDT plasma levels (in micrograms per liter) and DDE (in micrograms per liter) to identify predictors for each group. Results: Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in unsprayed villages were 0.3 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.1–0.9] and 1.7 (IQR: 0.7–5.5), respectively. Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in DDT IRS households were 2.6 (IQR: 1.1–6.6) and 8.5 (IQR: 4.7–18.0), respectively. In unsprayed villages, women with water piped to the yard, rather than a public tap, had 73% lower DDT (95% CI: –83, –57%) and 61% lower DDE (95% CI: –74, –40%) levels. In DDT IRS households, women who reported taking more than six actions to prepare their home before IRS (e.g., covering water and food) had 40% lower DDT levels (95% CI: –63, –0.3%) than women who took fewer than four actions. Conclusion: The predictors of DDT and DDE plasma levels identified in the present study may inform interventions aimed at decreasing exposure. Among households where DDT is likely to be used for IRS, education regarding home preparations may provide an interventional target. Citation: Whitworth KW, Bornman RM, Archer JI, Kudumu MO, Travlos GS, Wilson RE, Longnecker MP. 2014. Predictors of plasma DDT and DDE concentrations among women exposed to indoor residual spraying for malaria control in the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB). Environ Health Perspect 122:545–552;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307025
Bornman, Riana M.S.; Archer, Janet I.; Kudumu, Mwenda O.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Wilson, Ralph E.; Longnecker, Matthew P.
This study is a randomised controlled trial comparing outcomes from an 8-week Interpersonal Psychotherapy group (IPT-G) for\\u000a postnatal depression with ‘treatment as usual’ (TAU), conducted in a routine community setting in the Australian Capital Territory\\u000a (ACT). Eligible women were recruited and randomly assigned to either IPT-G or TAU conditions. This study compared outcomes\\u000a on such variables as depressive symptoms, marital
Rhiannon Mulcahy; Rebecca E. Reay; Ross B. Wilkinson; Cathy Owen
Objective: We examined the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on adiposity outcomes that may be involved in the association between physical activity and breast cancer risk. Design: This study was a two-centre, two-armed, randomized controlled trial. The 1-year-long exercise intervention included 45?min of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise five times per week, with at least three of the sessions being facility based. The control group was asked not to change their activity and both groups were asked not to change their diet. Subjects: A total of 320 postmenopausal, sedentary, normal weight-to-obese women aged 50–74 years who were cancer-free, nondiabetic and nonhormone replacement therapy users were included in this study. Measurements: Anthropometric measurements of height, weight and waist and hip circumferences; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of total body fat; and computerized tomography measurements of abdominal adiposity were carried out. Results: Women in the exercise group exercised a mean of 3.6 days (s.d.=1.3) per week and 178.5?min (s.d.=76.1) per week. Changes in all measures of adiposity favored exercisers relative to controls (P<0.001). The mean difference between groups was: ?1.8?kg for body weight; ?2.0?kg for total body fat; ?14.9?cm2 for intra-abdominal fat area; and ?24.1?cm2 for subcutaneous abdominal fat area. A linear trend of greater body fat loss with increasing volume of exercise was also observed. Conclusion: A 1-year aerobic exercise program consistent with current public health guidelines resulted in reduced adiposity levels in previously sedentary postmenopausal women at higher risk of breast cancer.
Friedenreich, C M; Woolcott, C G; McTiernan, A; Terry, T; Brant, R; Ballard-Barbash, R; Irwin, M L; Jones, C A; Boyd, N F; Yaffe, M J; Campbell, K L; McNeely, M L; Karvinen, K H; Courneya, K S
Objectives To explore beliefs of Chinese American, immigrant women related to breast cancer and mammography. Design Qualitative description with semi-structured focus groups. Setting Metropolitan Portland, Oregon. Participants Thirty eight foreign-born Chinese women, age 40 and older, in five focus groups. Methods Focus group discussions in Chinese were audio taped, transcribed, and translated into English. Using a process of directed content analysis, group transcripts were coded for themes based on the discussion guide. Results Three main themes emerged from the analysis: knowledge and beliefs; support, communication, and educational needs; and access to care. Subthemes included beliefs such as barriers and facilitators to screening and perceptions about personal breast cancer risk. Several women were profoundly affected by the negative breast cancer-related experiences of relatives and friends. Some common myths remain about causes and treatment of breast cancer. Conclusions Although Chinese American immigrant women share beliefs with other minority women in the United States, some culturally-related barriers such as alienation due to cultural reasons for not sharing diagnosis with anyone and beliefs about the efficacy of Eastern versus Western medicine may affect adherence to screening and treatment. Facilitators included being told to get the test and getting screened for the sake of the family, while erroneous information about the cause of breast cancer such as diet and stress remained. Primary care providers such as advanced practice nurses should take into account culturally driven motivations and barriers to mammography adherence among Chinese American immigrant women. Provider-client interactions should involve more discussion about women’s breast cancer risks and screening harms and benefits. Such awareness could open a dialogue around breast cancer that is culturally sensitive and non-threatening to the patient. Information may need to be tailored to women individually or targeted to sub-ethnic groups rather than using generic messages for all Asian immigrant women.
Lee-Lin, Frances; Menon, Usha; Nail, Lillian; Lutz, Kristin F.
OBJECTIVES: The muscles of the pelvic floor closest to the vaginal opening are subject to the greatest degree of stretch during vaginal childbirth. We aim to define normative quantitative EMG (QEMG) parameters for the pubovisceralis (PV) muscle in nulliparous women, and compare them to the external anal sphincter (EAS). METHODS: In 31 asymptomatic nulliparous women, concentric Needle EMG of the PV and the EAS was performed. Multi-motor unit action potential (Multi-MUAP) and interference pattern (IP) algorithms were utilized to obtain QEMG parameters. We used paired t-tests to compare PV and EAS parameters. RESULTS: The motor units for the PV were of greater duration (p < 0.002) and had more turns (p = 0.03) than the paired motor units in the EAS. The EAS demonstrated more turns/second (p = 0.02), greater activity (p = 0.01), and more short segments (p = 0.009) than the PV. CONCLUSIONS: The PV has longer and more complex motor units than the EAS. This knowledge continues to improve our ability to detect neuropathic changes in this vulnerable muscle area following childbirth or in women with pelvic floor dysfunction. In addition, the PV muscle group appears less responsive to requests for increased neuromuscular activity than the EAS. This needs to be further evaluated, as it may be associated with understanding which portion of the muscle functionally shortens to maintain the closure of the levator hiatus. PMID:21113313
Gregory, W Thomas; Worstell, Teresa; Clark, Amanda L; Lou, Jau-Shin
Objectives The muscles of the pelvic floor closest to the vaginal opening are subject to the greatest degree of stretch during vaginal childbirth. We aim to define normative quantitative EMG (QEMG) parameters for the pubovisceralis (PV) muscle in nulliparous women, and compare them to the external anal sphincter (EAS). Methods In 31 asymptomatic nulliparous women, concentric Needle EMG of the PV and the EAS was performed. Multi-motor unit action potential (Multi-MUAP) and interference pattern (IP) algorithms were utilized to obtain QEMG parameters. We used paired t-tests to compare PV and EAS parameters. Results The motor units for the PV were of greater duration (p < 0.002) and had more turns (p = 0.03) than the paired motor units in the EAS. The EAS demonstrated more turns/second (p = 0.02), greater activity (p = 0.01), and more short segments (p = 0.009) than the PV. Conclusions The PV has longer and more complex motor units than the EAS. This knowledge continues to improve our ability to detect neuropathic changes in this vulnerable muscle area following childbirth or in women with pelvic floor dysfunction. In addition, the PV muscle group appears less responsive to requests for increased neuromuscular activity than the EAS. This needs to be further evaluated, as it may be associated with understanding which portion of the muscle functionally shortens to maintain the closure of the levator hiatus.
Gregory, W. Thomas; Worstell, Teresa; Clark, Amanda L.; Lou, Jau-Shin
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) on glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in Type 1 diabetic pregnant women. We retrospectively evaluated 42 subjects, 20 treated with CSII and 22 with multiple dose insulin injections (MDI). The two groups were comparable for age, pre-pregnancy BMI, and primiparous rate, whereas women in the CSII group showed a tendency toward a longer diabetes duration (p = 0.06). Pre-pregnancy diabetic retinopathy and/or nephropathy were present in nine women of CSII and three of MDI. In all women metabolic control improved during pregnancy, without differences between the two groups and at the end of gestation HbA1c was 6.3 +/- 0.6 in CSII and 6.1 +/- 1.1% in MDI. Moreover, there were no differences in weight gain, whereas insulin requirement resulted significantly (p = 0.009) lower in CSII than in MDI. We recorded only one severe hypoglycaemic episode in both groups. No cases of deteriorations of the chronic diabetic complications were observed. The delivery occurred at 36.4 +/- 2.2 weeks; birth weight, the rate of large for gestational age, and the parameters of foetal morbidity were similar in both groups. In conclusions, CSII and MDI are both effective in improving maternal glucose control and have both similar pregnancy outcomes. PMID:19728190
Volpe, Laura; Pancani, Francesca; Aragona, Michele; Lencioni, Cristina; Battini, Lorella; Ghio, Alessandra; Resi, Veronica; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Del Prato, Stefano; Di Cianni, Graziano
Aim This paper is a report of a conceptual analysis of women-controlled safe sex. Background Women bear disproportionate burdens from sexually-related health compromising outcomes. Imbalanced societal gender and power positions contribute to high morbidities. The expression, women-controlled safe sex, aims to empower women to gain control of their sexual lives. Few researchers focus on contextualized socio-cultural definitions of sexual safety among women. Data Sources The sample included scientific literature from Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Sociological Abstracts. Papers were published 2000–2010. Review Methods Critical analyses of literature about women-controlled safe sex were performed using Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis methods. The search focused on social and cultural influences on sexual practices aimed at increasing women’s control over their sexual safety. Results The analysis uncovered five attributes of women-controlled safe sex: technology; access to choices; women at-risk; “condom migration” panic; and communication. Three antecedents included: male partner influence; body awareness; and self-efficacy. Consequences were categorized as positive or negative. Nine surrogate terms included: empowerment; gender power; female-controlled sexual barrier method; microbicides; diaphragm; sexual negotiation and communication; female condom; women-initiated disease transmission prevention; and spermicides. Finally, a consensus definition was identified: a socio- culturally influenced multilevel process for initiating sexual safety by women deemed at-risk for sexually-related dangers, usually sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV/AIDS. Conclusion This concept analysis described current significance, uses, and applications of women-controlled safe sex in the scientific literature. The authors clarified its limited nature and conclude that additional conceptual refinement in nursing is necessary to influence women’s health.
Alexander, Kamila A.; Coleman, Christopher L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Jemott, Loretta S.
In a retrospective study, data from the Guéra Leprosy and Disability Control Project in Chad, covering the years from 1992 to 1996, were analysed in order to determine whether there was any indication that the quality of care provided to female leprosy sufferers is inferior to the care provided for male patients. Data from a total of 741 patient registered for MDT, of whom 351 were newly diagnosed cases, are presented and discussed. The data indicate that women have access to diagnosis and treatment and health education. They do not present for treatment later than men, disability rates are lower and they have slightly higher treatment completion rates. Both women and men benefit from footwear and loan programs. More women than men are involved in patient self-help groups. The study shows that in this part of central Chad, there is no evidence of disadvantage for women with leprosy in either diagnosis, treatment or follow-up, but more qualitative data is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:9805882
Nigerian women comprise the fastest growing group of persons with AIDS in Africa. Antiretroviral therapy has transformed the course of HIV/AIDS to a treatable, chronic illness worldwide. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a group intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) to promote adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and use of risk reduction behaviors (RRB) among HIV-infected women in Nigeria. Recruited participants (n=60) were randomly assigned to the motivational group or the health promotion program (HPP) control group. The 6 month follow-up results indicate that, compared to the control group, MI participants reported significantly higher levels of adherence to ART, higher knowledge of HIV, higher use of condoms/protection during sexual encounters and decision-making not to have sex when no protection was available. The MI participants also had fewer mean number of sexual partners. MI in group format shows promise in promoting adherence to ART and use of RRB in HIV-infected Nigerian women. PMID:23437496
Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Essien, James E; Ekong, Ernest; Higgins, Melinda; Teplinskiy, Ilya; Adewuyi, Modupe Falilatu
This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramón Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4%) > levofloxacin (93.5%) > ciprofloxacin (64.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7%) was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 ?g/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women.
Quiroga, M.; Pegels, E.; Oviedo, P.; Pereyra, E.; Vergara, M.
The effects of anthropometric characteristics on hip bone strength in postmenopausal women are not completely elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of anthropometric characteristics on geometric indices of hip bone strength using the hip structure analysis (HSA) program in a group of Lebanese postmenopausal women. This study included 109 postmenopausal women (aged 64--84yr). Age and years since menopause were recorded. Body composition and bone mineral density were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). To evaluate hip bone strength, DXA scans were analyzed at the femoral neck (FN), the intertrochanteric (IT), and the femoral shaft (FS) by the HSA program. Cross-sectional area (CSA), an index of axial compression strength, section modulus (Z), an index of bending strength, and buckling ratio (BR), an estimate of cortical stability in buckling, were measured from bone mass profiles. Using univariate analysis, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), lean mass, and fat mass were positively correlated to CSA and Z of the FN, IT, and FS. Weight, BMI, fat mass, and fat mass percentage were negatively correlated to BR of the FN, IT, and FS. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that lean mass was a stronger determinant of FN CSA, FN Z, IT Z, and FS Z than fat mass, whereas fat mass was a stronger determinant of IT CSA, FS CSA, IT BR, and FS BR than lean mass. This study suggests that, in postmenopausal women, fat mass is a strong predictor of hip axial compression strength and cortical stability in buckling, and lean mass is a strong predictor of hip bending strength. PMID:22364926
El Hage, Rawad; Baddoura, Rafic
Eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of screening mammography have been conducted involving women aged 40-49 at entry. Current data are now available from these trials at 10.5 to 18 years of follow-up (average follow-up time: 12.7 years). Meta-analysis has been performed using a Mantel-Haenszel estimator method to combine current follow-up data from the eight RCTs of mammography that included women aged 40-49 at entry, including new follow-up data presented at the NIH Consensus Development Conference held January 21-23, 1997. Combining the most recent follow-up data on women aged 40-49 at entry into all eight RCTs yields a statistically significant 18% mortality reduction among women invited to screening mammography (relative risk: 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.95). Combining all current follow-up data on women aged 40-49 at entry into the five Swedish RCTs yields a statistically significantly 29% mortality reduction among women invited to screening (relative risk: 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.89). Meta-analysis including the most recent follow-up data from all eight RCTs involving women aged 40-49 at entry demonstrates for the first time a statistically significant mortality reduction due to regular screening mammography in women of this age group. PMID:9709282
Hendrick, R E; Smith, R A; Rutledge, J H; Smart, C R
The aim of this study was to determine whether women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are more likely than those with dysthymia to manifest contradictory Hostile-Helpless (HH) states of mind. A reliable rater blind to diagnosis evaluated features of such mental representations in transcripts of Adult Attachment Interviews from 12 women with BPD and 11 women with dysthymia of similar socioeconomic status (SES), all awaiting psychotherapy. In keeping with three hierarchical (non-independent) a priori predictions regarding the mental representations of women with BPD, the results were that (a) all those with BPD, compared with half the group with dysthymia, displayed HH states of mind; (b) those with BPD manifested a significantly higher frequency of globally devaluing representations; and (c) they exhibited a strong trend toward identifying with the devalued hostile caregiver (58% BPD vs. 18% dysthymic). In addition, significantly more BPD than dysthymic patients made reference to controlling behavior towards attachment figures in childhood. These findings offer fresh insights into the nature of BPD and extend previous evidence concerning affected individuals’ patterns of thinking and feeling about childhood attachment figures.
LYONS-RUTH, KARLEN; MELNICK, SHARON; PATRICK, MATTHEW; HOBSON, R. PETER
Compares free text versus controlled vocabulary searching for information relating to women's issues on the ERIC laserdisk database from Dialog. Topics discussed include terminology and women's studies; Boolean operators; and adequacy of the ERIC thesaurus for searching relevant topics including women's social roles, antiabortion movement, teenage…
Nicholls, Paul; Holtmann, Susanne
Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…
Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey
Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of…
Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.
Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. Methods and design The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44–50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25–29.9 kg/m2) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n?=?28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n?=?26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). Discussion The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether a relatively low intensity, health professional led intervention will achieve better weight control in pre-menopausal women than a self-directed intervention. The results will add to the scant body of literature on obesity prevention methods at an under-researched high-risk life stage, and inform the development of population-based interventions. Trial registration ACTRN12611000064909
We examined whether pregnant women with a normal glucose tolerance test (OGTT) by New Zealand (NZ) criteria, but elevated HbA1c are a clinically important group with gestational diabetes (GDM). Eighty women with a normal OGTT and HbA1c > 40 mmol/mol, compared with others with GDM, had a significantly higher BMI and were more likely Pacific. Pharmacotherapy was prescribed in 77.5%. Post-partum OGTT and HbA1c were abnormal in 9/43(20.9%) and 27/42(64.3%), respectively. In 1090 women being screened for GDM by OGTT, most women with GDM had an HbA1c ? 40 mmol/mol. In the 22.1% of women with an HbA1c > 40 mmol/mol, the OGTT was normal in 61.8%. For centres using HbA1c to screen for underlying prediabetes/diabetes, these data show that a result >40 mmol/mol identifies women who are likely to require pharmacotherapy. An OGTT is still recommended to diagnose GDM, but these data raise questions about a possible role for HbA1c in high risk women with a nondiagnostic OGTT. PMID:24359339
Rowan, Janet A; Budden, Astrid; Sadler, Lynn C
Despite empirical findings on women's varied and often extensive participation in smallholder agriculture in Latin America, their participation continues to be largely invisible. In this article, I argue that the intransigency of farming women's invisibility reflects, in part, a discursive construction of farmers as men. Through a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods, including interviews with one hundred women in Calakmul, Mexico, I demonstrate the material implications of gendered farmer identities for women's control of resources, including land and conservation and development project resources. In particular, I relate the activities of one women's agricultural community-based organization and the members' collective adoption of transgressive identities as farmers. For these women, the process of becoming farmers resulted in increased access to and control over resources. This empirical case study illustrates the possibility of women's collective action to challenge and transform women's continued local invisibility as agricultural actors in rural Latin American spaces. PMID:22069807
In order to study stability control methods for a deep gate group under complex stresses, we conducted field investigations and analyses of reasons for damage in the Xuzhou mining district. Three reasons are proposed: deep high stress, improper roadway layout and support technology. The stability control countermeasures of the gate group consist of an intensive design technology and responding bolt-mesh-anchor
Zhi-biao GUO; Ping-ye GUO; Mao-hong HUANG; Yin-gen LIU
This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…
World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.
...computed by treating the loss group or the loss subgroup as a single...of a corporation is a public group, and the facts set forth the...the corporations during the testing period. Example 1. Controlled group with respect to a...
Popularity of the vast range of emotive and control groups in America today cannot be explained simply by the reputed success of psychoanalysis and groups derived from it and other psychological theories. In their ideal type, these proliferating groups relate to the utopian tradition in Western civilization, functioning as do all utopias. Utopias compensate for felt difficulties-in this case the
Ruth Harriet Jacobs
Background The risk of inadequate nutrition such as trace elements and vitamin deficiencies is considerable in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to compare trace elements (Zinc, Copper and Magnesium) concentration in nail, urine and serum among osteoporotic postmenopausal women with control group in Iran. Methods Forty eight postmenopausal women aged 36–60 years, were recruited, consisting 30 osteoporotic patients and 18 healthy controls. Blood, nail and urine concentration of Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma -Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) method. Their Bone Mineral Density was measured by Dual X-ray Absorption (DEXA) method. Results The urine level of trace elements had significant difference between osteoporotic groups and controls (p?0.001). Moreover Mg level significantly differed in serum between two groups (p?0.04). There was no statistically significant difference in trace minerals in nail beyond groups. Conclusion Our findings indicate that Urine Zn level could be considerable an appropriate marker for bone absorption, usage of Zn supplements in postmenopausal women may result a beneficial reduction in osteoporotic risk.
Objectives: To compare isokinetic peak torque in the symptomatic and asymptomatic limbs of women with lateral epicondyle or forearm pain due to cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs), and to compare peak torque in women with CTDs to peak torque in healthy women.Design: Case control comparison.Setting: Private occupational rehabilitation clinic and a sports science tertiary education center.Subjects: Women with CTDs involving one
Paul J. Friedman
Background The issue of osteoporosis-induced fractures has attracted the world’s attention. Postmenopausal women are particularly at risk for this type of fracture. The nonmedicinal intervention for postmenopausal women is mainly exercise. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise. There have been some studies investigating the effect of WBV on osteoporosis; however, the intervention models and results are different. This study mainly investigated the effect of high-frequency and high-magnitude WBV on the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Methods This study randomized 28 postmenopausal women into either the WBV group or the control group for a 6-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of high-frequency (30 Hz) and high-magnitude (3.2 g) WBV in a natural full-standing posture for 5 minutes, three times per week, at a sports center. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the lumbar BMD of the two groups before and after the intervention. Results Six months later, the BMD of the WBV group had significantly increased by 2.032% (P=0.047), while that of the control group had decreased by 0.046% (P=0.188). The comparison between the two groups showed that the BMD of the WBV group had increased significantly (P=0.016). Conclusion This study found that 6 months of high-frequency and high-magnitude WBV yielded significant benefits to the BMD of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women, and could therefore be provided as an alternative exercise.
Lai, Chung-Liang; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Chen, Chung-Nan; Liao, Wan-Chun; Wang, Chun-Hou; Lee, Meng-Chih; Hsu, Pi-Shan
In Old China, working women had no rights in such matters as politics, economy, culture, society, and family life. Women were governed by the Chinese feudal society tradition. When "new" China was founded in 1949, working women made up the 7.5 percent of the total work force. By 1983, the number of working women had increased to 36.5 percent. In…
Slimmer, Virginia M.; Kejing, Dai
This book compiles testimonies of the struggles, everyday life, and accomplishments of Indian women from Central and South America. Following an introduction to the increasing role of Indian women in international forums and indigenous organizations, the words of individual women describe the problems that affect them and their determination to…
Alderete, Wara, Ed.; And Others
Three hundred pregnant women and 300 women of reproductive age (controls) were selected from regions with a dietary iodine excess to evaluate thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions. Fasting morning urine and venous blood samples were collected. Urinary iodine concentration, serum free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) levels were determined. Iodine levels were excessive in 83.7% of pregnant women and 80.7% of the control women. The former showed lower rates of total thyroid disease and subclinical hypothyroidism than the latter (21.7% vs 29.7%, P < 0.05; 19.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.05). The FT3 level, FT4 level, and TGAb positive rate of pregnant women were lower than that in the controls (P < 0.05). Thus, both excessive iodine intake and pregnancy can influence the thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions of women. PMID:23858522
Du, Quxiao; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Li
Background Maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes are worse in families from black and ethnic minority groups and disadvantaged backgrounds. There is little evidence on whether lay support improves maternal and infant outcomes among women with complex social needs within a disadvantaged multi-ethnic population in the United Kingdom (UK). Method/Design The aim of this study is to evaluate a lay Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW) service for nulliparous women identified as having social risk within a maternity service that is systematically assessing social risks alongside the usual obstetric and medical risks. The study design is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in nulliparous women assessed as having social risk comparing standard maternity care with the addition of referral to the POW support service. The POWs work alongside community midwifery teams and offer individualised support to women to encourage engagement with services (health and social care) from randomisation (before 28 weeks gestation) until 6 weeks after birth. The primary outcomes have been chosen on the basis that they are linked to maternal and infant health. The two primary outcomes are engagement with antenatal care, assessed by the number of antenatal visits; and maternal depression, assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 8-12 weeks after birth. Secondary outcomes include maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, routine child health assessments, including immunisation uptake and breastfeeding at 6 weeks. Other psychological outcomes (self efficacy) and mother-to-infant bonding will also be collected using validated tools. A sample size of 1316 will provide 90% power (at the 5% significance level) to detect increased engagement with antenatal services of 1.5 visits and a reduction of 1.5 in the average EPDS score for women with two or more social risk factors, with power in excess of this for women with any social risk factor. Analysis will be by intention to treat. Qualitative research will explore the POWs' daily work in context. This will complement the findings of the RCT through a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data on the process of the intervention, and identify other contextual factors that affect the implementation of the intervention. Discussion The trial will provide high quality evidence as to whether or not lay support (POW) offered to women identified with social risk factors improves engagement with maternity services and reduces numbers of women with depression. MREC number 10/H1207/23 Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN35027323
The lifetime risk of acquiring HIV infection in many rural as well as urban areas of southern Africa is currently as high as two-in-three. For women, much of this risk still accrues rapidly at young ages despite high levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Thus, programmes that are more participatory and address underlying structural and community-level factors appear to be essential. We use cross-sectional data from a large-scale, population-based survey in rural eastern Zimbabwe to describe the relationships between membership of different forms of community group and young women's chances of avoiding HIV. Our results show that participation in local community groups is often positively associated with successful avoidance of HIV, which, in turn, is positively associated with psychosocial determinants of safer behaviour. However, whether or not these relationships hold depends on a range of factors that include how well the group functions, the purpose of the group, and the education level of the individual participant. We identify factors that may influence the social capital value of community groups in relation to HIV prevention at the individual, group, and community levels. Young women with secondary education participate disproportionately in well-functioning community groups and are more likely to avoid HIV when they do participate. Longitudinal studies are needed: (i) to establish whether community group membership supports the development of safer lifestyles or merely has greater appeal to individuals already predisposed towards such lifestyles, and (ii) to pinpoint directions of causality between hypothesised mediating factors. In-depth research is needed on the specific qualities of community groups that enhance their contribution to HIV control. However, our findings suggest that promotion of and organisational development and training among community groups could well be an effective HIV control strategy. PMID:15047071
Gregson, Simon; Terceira, Nicola; Mushati, Phyllis; Nyamukapa, Constance; Campbell, Catherine
We tested group interventions for women with a Turkish migration background living in Austria and suffering from recurrent depression. N = 66 participants were randomized to: (1) Self-Help Groups (SHG), (2) Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) Groups, and (3) a Wait-List (WL) Control condition. Neither SHG nor CBT were superior to WL. On an individual basis, about one third of the participants showed significant improvements with respect to symptoms of depression. Younger women, women with a longer duration of stay in Austria and those who had encountered a higher number of traumatic experiences, showed increased improvement of depressive symptoms. The results suggest that individual treatment by ethnic, female psychotherapists should be preferred to group interventions.
Renner, Walter; Berry, John W.
Background The Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention (ALPHA) Trial examined the influence of aerobic exercise on biologic factors that are associated with breast cancer risk. Mammographic density, a secondary outcome, is reported here. Methods The ALPHA Trial was a parallel group randomized controlled trial conducted between May 2003 and July 2007. Postmenopausal, sedentary women aged 50 to 74 years (n = 320) were evenly randomized to aerobic exercise (45 minutes, 5 days per week) or control (usual lifestyle) for one year. Dense fibroglandular tissue and nondense fatty tissue were measured from mammograms at baseline and one year using computer-assisted thresholding software for area measurements and a new technique that relies on the calibration of mammography units with a tissue-equivalent phantom for volumetric measurements. Results Nondense volume decreased in the exercise group relative to the control group (difference between groups = ?38.5 cm3; 95% confidence interval = ?61.6 to 15.4; P = 0.001). Changes in total body fat accounted for this decrease. Changes in dense area and dense volume, measures that have previously been associated with breast cancer risk, were not significantly different between the groups (P ? 0.36). Conclusions To achieve changes in mammographic measures may require more exercise or a study population with higher baseline levels of sex hormones or a wider range of mammographic density. The data from this study, however, suggest that the protective effect of exercise on breast cancer risk may operate through a mechanism other than mammographic density.
Woolcott, Christy G.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Boyd, Norman F.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Terry, Tim; McTiernan, Anne; Brant, Rollin; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Irwin, Melinda L.; Jones, Charlotte A.; Brar, Sony; Campbell, Kristin L.; McNeely, Margaret L.; Karvinen, Kristina H.; Friedenreich, Christine M.
Improvements in women's cancer-screening behaviours can lead to a reduction in the incidence of breast and cervical cancer. This paper considers the utility of three social psychological models as predictors of such behaviours. Almost 400 women throughout Northern Ireland completed a questionnaire designed to measure the extent of their cancer-screening behaviour, their health beliefs about cancer, their health locus of control and their emotional control. It was found that several components of the health belief model and of locus of control were predictors of the behaviours. The most important predictor of breast self-examination was confidence in how to practise BSE while the most important predictor of attendance for cervical smears was lack of fear of the consequences of the investigation. The findings are discussed with reference to attempts to promote these practices. PMID:8467279
Murray, M; McMillan, C
The final report of the Pennsylvania State University Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women describes activities and presents recommendations concerned with the broad areas of leadership share, structure and quality of University worklife, and structure and quality of the academic environment. Recommendations address the following specific…
Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.
In this randomized controlled trial, we examined the effects of a 3-month therapeutic lifestyle modification (TLM) intervention on knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behaviors related to bone health in postmenopausal women in rural Korea. Forty-one women ages 45 or older were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n?=?21) or control (n?=?20) group. The intervention group completed a 12-week, 24-session TLM program of individualized health monitoring, group health education, exercise, and calcium-vitamin D supplementation. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant increases in knowledge and self-efficacy and improvement in diet and exercise after 12 weeks, providing evidence that a comprehensive TLM program can be effective in improving health behaviors to maintain bone health in women at high risk of osteoporosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24976566
Oh, Eui Geum; Yoo, Jae Yong; Lee, Jung Eun; Hyun, Sa Saeng; Ko, Il Sun; Chu, Sang Hui
OBJECTIVE Pregnancy in type 1 diabetes requires excellent glycemic control. Most pregnant type 1 diabetic women achieve normoglycemia; however, there is scarce data on their postdelivery characteristics. We aimed to examine postpregnancy glycemic control and weight changes in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We identified and followed (median 20 months) 254 women with singleton pregnancies receiving postdelivery medical care at a single institution. RESULTS Study subjects were 28.3 ± 4.7 years of age (mean ± SD), with a diabetes duration of 12.0 ± 7.7 years. Mean A1C before conception was 6.9 ± 1.4%, and preconception weight and BMI were 64.4 ± 10.0 kg and 23.9 ± 3.3 kg/m2, respectively. Mean A1C decreased during pregnancy, reaching 5.7 ± 0.8% in the third trimester. We observed a mean weight gain of 14.4 ± 6.5 kg during pregnancy. Within 6 months after delivery, A1C increased by 0.8% (P < 0.0001) compared with the last trimester, and body weight and BMI were 4.4 kg and 2.5 kg/m2 higher (P < 0.0001) compared with the preconception baseline. A1C further deteriorated by 0.8% until the end of follow-up. For women in the “pregnancy planning” program (n = 117), A1C >12 months after delivery was worse compared with before conception (7.1 vs. 6.5%, P = 0.0018), whereas in women with unplanned pregnancies, it was similar to the pregestational levels (7.3 vs.7.4%, P = 0.59). Weight and BMI in the entire study group did not return to prepregnancy levels and were 2.5 kg (P = 0.0079) and 0.9 kg/m2 higher (P = 0.0058). CONCLUSIONS In this clinical observation, type 1 diabetic women showed postpregnancy deterioration in glycemic control and were unable to return to prepregnancy weight. Type 1 diabetic women seem to require special attention after delivery to meet therapeutic targets.
Cyganek, Katarzyna; Hebda-Szydlo, Alicja; Skupien, Jan; Janas, Izabela; Walczyk, Joanna; Lipowska, Anna; Borys, Sebastian; Malecki, Maciej T.
Objective Metabolic disturbances are well-recognized clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been widely used as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CIMT in women with PCOS has been investigated in many studies, but there has been only one report in the Korean population. The aim of the present study was to compare the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in young untreated Korean women with PCOS and age-matched controls, specifically by measuring their CIMT. Methods CIMT was measured by one radiologist in 56 PCOS patients and 56 controls. To compare the CIMT according to PCOS phenotypes, women with PCOS were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of hyperandrogenism. Results Although PCOS patients were more obese and had higher blood pressure and insulin resistance index than the age-matched controls, the CIMT was not different between the two groups (0.49 ± 0.09 mm in PCOS patients vs. 0.50 ± 0.11 mm in controls, respectively, p = 0.562). When the CIMT in the control group was compared with hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic PCOS groups, also no significant differences were found. Conclusion Despite the significant differences in some vascular risk factors between women with PCOS and controls, PCOS patients did not have a significantly higher CIMT (even in the hyperandrogenic subgroups). Although our study did not show the increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in PCOS patients, the role of CIMT continues to be investigated considering the importance of screening and monitoring CVD risk factors in women with PCOS.
Kim, Jin Ju; Kang, Jin Hwa; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Chae, Soo Jin; Kim, Sun Mie; Ku, Seung Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu; Moon, Shin Yong
Since its introduction in Sweden in 1994, emergency contraception has become a welcome addition to the campaign against unwanted pregnancy. In addition to an unplanned pregnancy, unprotected sexual intercourse may also involve the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The aim of this study was to assess the short- and long-term risk of unintended pregnancy and to determine the frequency of chlamydia infections in women receiving emergency contraception. Between September 1998 and February 1999 young women aged 15-25 years had the opportunity to obtain emergency contraception (Yuzpe method) at a youth clinic in the city of Orebro where the opening hours were extended to include Saturdays and Sundays. A follow-up visit 3 weeks after treatment, which included contraceptive counseling, was offered to all participants. At both visits, a pregnancy test and a chlamydia test were performed, and the women completed a questionnaire. After the initial visit, the young women where monitored for new pregnancies during the following 12 months. One pregnancy occurred in the 134 young women who received emergency contraception during the study period. None of the women had a positive chlamydia test. Of those requesting emergency contraception, 54% did so because no contraception was used, 32% because of a ruptured condom, 11% because of missed oral contraceptives (OC), and 5% had mixed reasons. At long-term follow-up 1 year after the initial visit, 10 of the 134 young women had experienced an unplanned pregnancy that terminated in legal abortion in 9 women. All these women had either started and terminated OC or had never commenced the prescribed OC. Young women who request emergency contraception are, despite a planned follow-up with contraceptive counseling, a high risk group for new unintended pregnancies. In Sweden they do not seem to be a high risk group for STD. PMID:11535209
Falk, G; Falk, L; Hanson, U; Milsom, I
Thoughts about group-based privileges or disadvantages were expected to have different consequences for personal and group well-being, depending on whether the individual is a member of a high- or low-status group. To test this hypothesis, women and men were randomly assigned to consider the ways that their gender group membership has resulted in either beneficial or detrimental outcomes in their lives. For men, thinking about their gender group's privileges resulted in lower scores on the group-related well-being measures compared to women, and thinking about their group's disadvantages resulted in higher personal self-esteem scores in men compared to women. It is suggested that among high-status group members, thinking about privilege can evoke guilt and taint one's group image, whereas thinking about disadvantage can augment personal internal attributions for the positive outcomes received. Discussion focuses on the implications that the operation of two types of mechanisms--group-based emotions and the undermining or augmenting of attributions--has for the responses of high- and low-status group members when their groups are portrayed as exerting either negative or positive effects on their lives. PMID:9639862
Branscombe, N R
States have a duty under international human rights law to protect people's health. Nonetheless, while some health-related policies and laws protect basic human rights, others violate fundamental rights when they criminalize, prohibit, and restrict access to necessary health services. For example, laws and regulations related to protection of life from conception, contraception, actions of pregnant women, and abortion can harm women and place women and health care providers in jeopardy of legal penalization. Given the adverse consequences of punitive and restrictive laws related to pregnancy, advocates, civil society groups, human rights groups, and government institutions must work together to promote, protect, and fulfill women's fundamental reproductive rights. PMID:25006084
Uberoi, Diya; de Bruyn, Maria
Research conducted over the past decade has shown that community-based interventions can improve the survival and health of mothers and newborns in low- and middle-income countries. Interventions engaging women's groups in participatory learning and action meetings and other group activities, for example, have led to substantial increases in neonatal survival in high-mortality settings. Participatory interventions with women's groups work by providing a forum for communities to develop a common understanding of maternal and neonatal problems, as well as locally acceptable and sustainable strategies to address these. Potential partners for scaling up interventions with women's groups include government community health workers and volunteers, as well as organizations working with self-help groups. It is important to tailor scale-up efforts to local contexts, while retaining fidelity to the intervention, by ensuring that the mobilization of women's groups complements other local programs (e.g. home visits), and by providing capacity building for participatory learning and action methods across a range of nongovernmental organizations and government stakeholders. Research into scale-up mechanisms and effectiveness is needed to inform further implementation, and prospective surveillance of maternal and neonatal mortality in key scale-up sites can provide valuable data for measuring impact and for advocacy. There is a need for further research into the role of participatory interventions with women's groups to improve the quality of health services, health, and nutrition beyond the perinatal period, as well as the role of groups in influencing non-health issues, such as women's decision-making power. PMID:22883914
Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Costello, Anthony; Prost, Audrey
One goal of the US$700 million Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial was to determine whether post-menopausal women who adopted what was regarded as a 'heart healthy' low-fat diet, high in vegetables, fruits and grains, reduced their risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The trial substantially favoured the outcome in the intervention group, who also received an intensive nutritional and behaviour education programme not offered to the control group. These studies neatly disprove the diet-heart hypothesis since adoption of 'heart healthy' eating not only failed to influence future cardiac events in the healthy but it increased such events in the unhealthy and worsened diabetic control in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24148164
Noakes, Timothy David
Despite emerging awareness that maladaptive perceptions regarding weight control techniques may be important in the development of women's disturbed eating behaviors, no research has examined perceptions of weight control techniques as a function of women's placement on the eating disorder continuum. Study examines perceptions of the effectiveness…
Tylka, Tracy L.; Subich, Linda Mezydlo
Since neurovascular control is altered in obese subjects, we hypoth- esized that weight loss by diet (D) or diet plus exercise training (D + ET) would improve neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women. In a study with a dietary reduction of 600 kcal\\/day with or without exercise training for 4 months, 53 obese women were subdivided in D
A. C. Tonacio; I. C. Trombetta; M. U. P. B. Rondon; L. T. Batalha; F. H. S. Kuniyoshi; M. C. Laterza; P. H. Suzuki; M. M. G. Gowdak; A. C. P. Barretto; A. Halpern; S. M. F. Villares; C. E. Negrão
Myths, stereotypes, and controlling images are embedded in the cultural textbook of cinema. Women are disempowered and marginalized by these images, and it is important to explore the existence and prevalence of these images in order to examine their effects on women's development. A review of the literature concerning controlling images and the…
Hammer, Tonya R.
Objective To outline the lessons learned about the use of focus groups for the multi-site, multi-ethnic longitudinal Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). Focus groups were designed to identify potential cultural differences in the incidence of symptoms and the meaning of transmenopause among women of diverse cultures, and to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies. Design Inductive and deductive focus groups for a multi-ethnic study. Setting Seven community research sites across the United States conducted focus groups with six ethnic populations: African American, Chinese American, Japanese American, Mexican American, non-Hispanic white, and Puerto Rican. Patients or Participants Community women from each ethnic group of color. Interventions A set of four/five focus groups in each ethnic group as the formative stage of the deductive, quantitative SWAN survey. Main Outcome Measures Identification of methodological advantages and challenges to the successful implementation of formative focus groups in a multi-ethnic, multi-site population-based epidemiologic study. Results We provide recommendations from our lessons learned to improve the use of focus groups in future studies with multi-ethnic populations. Conclusions Mixed methods using inductive and deductive approaches require the scientific integrity of both research paradigms. Adequate resources and time must be budgeted as essential parts of the overall strategy from the outset of study. Inductive cross-cultural researchers should be key team members, beginning with inception through each subsequent design phase to increase the scientific validity, generalizability, and comparability of the results across diverse ethnic groups, to assure the relevance, validity and applicability of the findings to the multicultural population of focus.
Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Adler, Shelley R.; Mouton, Charles P.; Ory, Marcia; Underwood, Lynne G.
The outcome of a 12-week interpersonal process group therapy for women with postraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse with and without borderline personality disorder (BPD) was assessed by comparing three naturally occurring treatment conditions: groups that did not have any members with borderline personality disorder (BPD-) (n = 18), groups in which at least one member carried the diagnosis (BPD+)(n = 16), and a 12-week waitlist (WL) (n = 15). PTSD, anger, depression, and other symptoms were significantly reduced in the BPD- groups. However, the BPD+ and WL conditions did not show any pre- to posttreatment improvements. Furthermore, the BPD+ condition showed a significant worsening on measures of anger. Analyses within the BPD+ condition indicated that women with and without the diagnosis experienced equal posttreatment increases in anger problems. These latter results suggest the presence of an anger "contagion" effect. That is, women without BPD did well in the BPD- groups but showed increased anger similar to the BPD+ women when treated in groups with them. Implications for client-treatment matching considerations in PTSD group therapy are discussed. PMID:11447786
Cloitre, M; Koenen, K C
Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products.
Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas
Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043
Freeman, Matthew C; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas
Beyond the individual independent unmanned autonomous vehicle (UAV), cooperative control of multiple UAVs has started to receive significant attention from industry, academia and the military. For the sake of UAV cooperation, proper wireless communication is imperative, but incurs several problems. Among them, spatially secure group communication (SSGC), which must maximize spatial UAV group size while minimizing the communication boundary of
Seong-Woo Kim; Seung-Woo Seo
Includes "Fighting for Equality on All Fronts" (Fromont); "Three Questions for Mrs. Lucille Caron"; "Women Shoulder the Burden of Cambodia's Economy" (Roess); and "Renewing Their Relationship with the Land" (Mehra-Kerpelman). (SK)
Fromont, Michel; And Others
Heart disease is the leading cause of illness, disability, and death among women in Canada. Myocardial infarction (MI) accounts for almost half of these deaths yearly. The purpose of this study was to understand younger women's experience of recovery from MI. A purposive sample consisting of six younger women diagnosed with MI participated in …
Bowers, Michele J.; Buchanan, Marla J.
Little is known about the benefits of support groups to prevent gender-based violence in Hispanics. The article describes\\u000a a Houston area community-based organization that assists immigrant Hispanic women exposed to gender-based violence and\\/or\\u000a abuse. Internal documents, participant observation, and in-depth interviews were used to examine the support group. Thirty\\u000a interviews were conducted with support group participants. Interviews were analyzed to
Daisy Y. Morales-Campos; Myriam Casillas; Sheryl A. McCurdy
Objective: Data from the Southampton Women's Survey have established that women of lower educational attainment have poorer quality diets than those of higher educational attainment. This relationship is strong and graded such that for every increase in level of educational qualification, there is an increase in the likelihood that a woman will have a better quality diet. It is not
Mary Barker; Wendy Lawrence; Sarah Crozier; Siân Robinson; Janis Baird; Barrie Margetts; Cyrus Cooper
We compared symptom patterns, severity of illness, and comorbidity in individuals with eating disorders with and without impulse control disorders (ICD), and documented the temporal pattern of illness onset. Lifetime ICD were present in 16.6% of 709 women with a history of eating disorders. The most common syndromes were compulsive buying disorder and kleptomania. ICD occurred more in individuals with binge eating subtypes, and were associated with significantly greater use of laxatives, diuretics, appetite suppressants and fasting, and with greater body image disturbance, higher harm avoidance, neuroticism, cognitive impulsivity, and lower self-directedness. In addition, individuals with ICD were more likely to have obsessive-compulsive disorder, any anxiety disorder, specific phobia, depression, cluster B personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and to use psychoactive substances. Among those with ICD, 62% reported the ICD predated the eating disorder and 45% reported the onset of both disorders within the same 3-year window. The presence of a lifetime ICD appears to be limited to eating disorders marked by binge eating and to be associated with worse eating-related psychopathology, more pathological personality traits, and more frequent comorbid Axis I and II conditions. Untreated ICD may complicate recovery from eating disorders. PMID:17961717
Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Pinheiro, Andréa Poyastro; Thornton, Laura M; Berrettini, Wade H; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M
Background Universal interventions to prevent postnatal mental disorders in women have had limited success, perhaps because they were insufficiently theorised, not gender-informed and overlooked relevant risk factors. This study aimed to determine whether an innovative brief psycho-educational program for mothers, fathers and first newborns, which addressed salient learning needs about infant behaviour management and adjustment tasks in the intimate partner relationship, prevented postpartum mental health problems in primiparous women. Methods A before and after controlled study was conducted in primary care in seven local government areas in Victoria, Australia. English-speaking couples with one-week old infants were invited consecutively to participate by the maternal and child health nurse at the universal first home visit. Two groups were recruited and followed sequentially: both completed telephone interviews at four weeks and six months postpartum and received standard health care. Intervention group participants were also invited to attend a half-day program with up to five couples and one month old infants, facilitated by trained, supervised nurses. The main outcome was any Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) diagnosis of Depression or Anxiety or Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Anxiety, or Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood in the first six months postpartum. Factors associated with the outcome were established by logistic regression controlling for potential confounders and analysis was by intention to treat. Results In total 399/646 (62%) women were recruited; 210 received only standard care and 189 were also offered the intervention; 364 (91%) were retained at follow up six months postpartum. In women without a psychiatric history (232/364; 64%), 36/125 (29%) were diagnosed with Depression or Anxiety or Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Anxiety, or Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood in the control group, compared with 16/107 (15%) in the intervention group. In those without a psychiatric history, the adjusted odds ratio for diagnosis of a common postpartum mental disorder was 0.43 (95% CI 0.21, 0.89) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusions A universal, brief psycho-educational group program for English-speaking first time parents and babies in primary care reduces de novo postpartum mental disorders in women. A universal approach supplemented by an additional program may improve effectiveness for women with a psychiatric history. Trial registration ACTRN 12605000567628.
Background Cervical cancer is due to infection with specific high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Although the incidence of genital HPV infection in various population groups is high, most of these regress without intervention. Investigating genetic host factors and cellular immune responses, particularly cytokines, could help to understand the association between genital HPV infection and carcinogenesis. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) cytokine plays an important role in all stages of cervical cancer and has the ability to induce the regression of human tumors. Therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the allelic distribution of -308 TNF-? gene polymorphism in South African women with cervical cancer compared to control women. Methods Included in our study were women with histologically proven cancer of the cervix (n = 244) and hospital-based controls (n = 228). All patients and controls were from mixed race and black population groups in South Africa. The detection of a bi-allelic -308 (A/G) polymorphism in the promoter region of TNF-? was investigated using the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) technique. The distributions of the allelic frequencies were stratified in both patients and controls into two South African ethnic population groups. Results In this study we observed no association between the distribution of -308 TNF-? polymorphism and the risk of developing cervical cancer even after combining the data from the two ethnic populations (X2 = 2.26). In addition, using the chi-squared test we found no significant association between the known risk factors for cervical cancer and the allele distribution of -308 TNF-?. However, the frequency of the rare high-producing allele -308A of TNF-? was significantly lower in the South African population when compared to Caucasians and Chinese population groups. Conclusion We demonstrated no association between -308 TNF-? polymorphism and the risk of cervical cancer among two South African ethnic population groups. However, as the distribution of the -308A TNF-? was notably different between the control groups of South Africa and other population groups this result suggests that ethnic disparity may influence the levels of TNF-? produced.
Govan, Vandana A; Constant, Debbie; Hoffman, Margaret; Williamson, Anna-Lise
This is a randomized controlled trial of 511 eligible women treated for diabetes, hypertension, infertility, or osteoporosis on an outpatient basis to test the hypothesis that those randomized to a brief intervention (BI) will drink less than those in the control condition 12 months later. A secondary goal was to identify the characteristics associated with changes in drinking outcome. All 511 completed the initial alcohol assessment, and 96% completed the 12-month follow-up interview. Those receiving the BI also had 3- and 6-month interviews. Four outcomes were assessed: (a) mean drinks per drinking day, (b) percent drinking days, (c) binge episodes defined as four or more drinks per occasion, and (d) weeks of drinking exceeding the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism sensible drinking limits. Overall, there were no differences in drinking outcome by treatment group. Characteristics associated with changes in drinking, however, were identified to provide possible direction for future investigation. PMID:21489738
Chang, Grace; Fisher, Naomi D L; Hornstein, Mark D; Jones, Jennifer A; Hauke, Sarah H; Niamkey, Nina; Briegleb, Christina; Orav, Endel John
Randomized controlled trial of 511 eligible women treated for diabetes, hypertension, infertility, or osteoporosis on an out-patient basis to test the hypothesis that those randomized to a brief intervention (BI) will drink less than those in the control condition 12 months later. A secondary goal was to identify the characteristics associated with changes in drinking outcome. All 511 completed the initial Alcohol Assessment and 96% completed the 12-month follow up interview. Those receiving the BI also had 3 and 6 month interviews. Four outcomes were assessed: 1) mean drinks per drinking day, 2) percent drinking days, 3) binge episodes defined as 4 or more drinks per occasion, and 4) weeks of drinking exceeding NIAAA sensible drinking limits. Overall, there were no differences in drinking outcome by treatment group. Characteristics associated with changes in drinking, however, were identified to provide possible direction for future investigation.
Chang, Grace; Fisher, Naomi D. L.; Hornstein, Mark D.; Jones, Jennifer A.; Hauke, Sarah H.; Niamkey, Nina; Briegleb, Christina; Orav, Endel John
The idea that diet can affect mood and behavior in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by altering blood glucose levels has become popular in recent years. This paper describes an online survey (N=462) of 24 women with PCOS, 299 healthy control women, 47 women who possibly had undiagnosed PCOS, and 92 men. The groups were compared for symptoms of mood and behavioral symptoms typical of reactive (postprandial) hypoglycemia. The outcome measures were two questionnaires that measure states associated with hypoglycemia: the Hypoglycemia Symptom Checklist-7 (HSC-7), which measures behavioral symptoms and the Mood Adjective Checklist (MACL), which measures emotional states. Controlling for age and body mass index (BMI) using between-groups analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), the women with PCOS scored significantly higher than the other three groups (p<0.001) on the outcome measures. These differences remained statistically significant in a subset of twelve women with PCOS compared to twelve healthy control women closely matched for age, BMI, and eating behavior. The findings are suggestive of hypoglycemia-related mood and behavioral problems in PCOS. Future research should test whether blood glucose levels correlate with these symptoms in PCOS, and whether a low glycemic index ('low-GI') diet improves the symptoms. PMID:21421016
Barry, John A; Bouloux, Pierre; Hardiman, Paul J
The objective of this study was to understand the meaning of hysterectomy according to a group of Chilean men, partners of women who have undergone the procedure (MPWH). This qualitative study was performed with in-depth interviews. A total of 15 men, partners of women who have undergone hysterectomy, were interviewed between May and September of 2010, under the approval of the Ethics Committees. Data analysis was performed using the phenomenological perspective proposed by Giorgi, and content analysis was performed according to Krippendorff. The Crestwell criteria were used to evaluate the trustworthiness of the analysis and guarantee descriptive validity. Five dimensions emerged, which represented unique aspects of hysterectomy according to the men: symptoms, comments, the attributions of the uterus, concerns and changes in sexuality. It is essential to educate MPWH in terms of the support required by women undergoing hysterectomy. Therefore they should be included in the care plan designed for women undergoing hysterectomy. PMID:23380775
Gutiérrez, Alejandra Araya; Soto, María-Teresa Urrutia; Suazo, Daniel Jara; Solovera, Sergio Silva; Salas, María Jesús Lira; Espinoza, Claudia Flores
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of paid employment on health related quality of life among women with fibromyalgia compared to a group of women who were otherwise healthy. Participants were recruited from 118 rheumatology practices randomly sampled from the membership of the American College of Rheumatology. Three hundred and sixty-five patients were referred to the
Susan Reisine; Judith Fifield; Stephen Walsh; Deborah Dauser
The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian women's perceptions, behaviors, and beliefs related to breast cancer screening, breast cancer, and follow up care. A qualitative descriptive inquiry with both individual and focus group interviews was conducted in Tehran with 31 Farsi-speaking women, age 35 to 65 years of age. A constant comparison…
Thomas, Eileen; Escandon, Socorro; Lamyian, Minoor; Ahmadi, Fazlolah; Setoode, Sam Mohammad; Golkho, Shokoofe
This research project used semi-structured in-depth interviews to ask women with learning disabilities about the experience of being prescribed contraception. It also asked general practitioners about their prescribing practices through a postal survey. A service user group was involved at different stages of the project. Most of the women…
Objectives The Sami people constitute an ethnic minority in northern Norway. The objectives of this study were to compare municipalities with a majority of Sami in the population and a control group with regard to socioeconomic factors and health outcome. Methods Original data from Statistics Norway and Directorate of health on socioeconomic factors (education, unemployment, disability, poverty) and health outcomes [total mortality, cancer specific mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) specific mortality] were imported from the “Health Atlas” at the Northern Norway Regional Health Authority (NNRHA) trust. The 8 municipalities in the administration area of the Sami language law (Sami-majority group – 18,868 inhabitants) was compared with a control group consisting of 11 municipalities where the Sami constitute a small minority in the population (18,931 inhabitants). Most data were from 2005 and 2008. Results There was no significant difference in socioeconomic factors. Overall, cancer- and CVD-specific mortality rates were similar in both groups. The life expectancy was significantly longer among women in the Sami-majority area (81.3 vs. 79.5 years, p=0.035) and males (74.5 vs. 72.0 years, p=0.037). Conclusion Socioeconomic factors and cause-specific mortality rate were similar in the Sami-majority group and the control group. Residents of both sexes in Sami-majority areas enjoyed longer life expectancy.
Norum, Jan; Nieder, Carsten
Abstract Background: Written asthma action plans are an important part of asthma management, but cannot be used for illiterate people. Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness of a pictorial asthma action plan on asthma control, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and asthma morbidity in a population of illiterate women with asthma. Methods: Forty illiterate women with moderate-severe persistent asthma were assigned alternatively to receive either asthma education alone (control group) or asthma education and a pictorial asthma action plan (study group). Asthma control was assessed using the asthma control test (ACT), HRQoL was assessed using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and the frequency of non-scheduled hospital or emergency visits was monitored. Results: Thirty-four patients completed the study. The ACT and SGRQ scores of both groups improved at every follow-up time point compared with baseline (p?0.001). The ACT scores at 1 month (22.44 versus 20.75, p?=?0.034) and 2 months (23.28 versus 21.81, p?=?0.010) were higher in the study group than in the control group, but this was not maintained at 6 months (24.00 versus 23.25, p?=?0.069). The SGRQ scores at 6 months were better in the study group (18.12) than in the control group (23.96, p?=?0.033). No hospital admissions were recorded for either group. Conclusion: Education provides a significant improvement in asthma control and HRQoL while managing illiterate asthma patients, additionally the pictorial asthma action plan can be a helpful tool for self-medication. PMID:24200510
Pur Ozyigit, Leyla; Ozcelik, Bahar; Ozcan Ciloglu, Seda; Erkan, Feyza
Background Few large and rigorous evaluations of participatory interventions systematically describe their context and implementation, or attempt to explain the mechanisms behind their impact. This study reports process evaluation data from the Ekjut cluster-randomised controlled trial of a participatory learning and action cycle with women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in Jharkhand and Orissa, eastern India (2005-2008). The study demonstrated a 45% reduction in neonatal mortality in the last two years of the intervention, largely driven by improvements in safe practices for home deliveries. Methods A participatory learning and action cycle with 244 women's groups was implemented in 18 intervention clusters covering an estimated population of 114 141. We describe the context, content, and implementation of this intervention, identify potential mechanisms behind its impact, and report challenges experienced in the field. Methods included a review of intervention documents, qualitative structured discussions with group members and non-group members, meeting observations, as well as descriptive statistical analysis of data on meeting attendance, activities, and characteristics of group attendees. Results Six broad, interrelated factors influenced the intervention's impact: (1) acceptability; (2) a participatory approach to the development of knowledge, skills and 'critical consciousness'; (3) community involvement beyond the groups; (4) a focus on marginalized communities; (5) the active recruitment of newly pregnant women into groups; (6) high population coverage. We hypothesize that these factors were responsible for the increase in safe delivery and care practices that led to the reduction in neonatal mortality demonstrated in the Ekjut trial. Conclusions Participatory interventions with community groups can influence maternal and child health outcomes if key intervention characteristics are preserved and tailored to local contexts. Scaling-up such interventions requires (1) a detailed understanding of the way in which context affects the acceptability and delivery of the intervention; (2) planned but flexible replication of key content and implementation features; (3) strong support for participatory methods from implementing agencies.
Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been found to suffer from fertility problems and mood dysfunction. To control for any effect of fertility problems, the present study compared mood dysfunction in women with PCOS to non-PCOS women with fertility problems. Seventy-six women with PCOS and 49 subfertile controls reported their anxiety, depression and aggression levels, and the relationship between mood and testosterone (T) was assessed. Controlling for age and BMI using MANCOVA, women with PCOS were significantly more neurotic (had difficulty coping with stress) than controls, had more anger symptoms, were significantly more likely to withhold feelings of anger and had more quality of life problems related to the symptoms of their condition (acne, hirsutism, menstrual problems and emotions). In a subgroup of 30 women matched on age, BMI and ethnicity, it was found that women with PCOS were significantly more anxious and depressed than controls. T was not generally correlated with mood states. This is the first study to identify problems with neuroticism and withholding anger in women with PCOS. These mood problems appear to be mainly attributable to PCOS symptoms, though other factors, such as hypoglycaemia, cannot be ruled out. PMID:21473679
Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Saxby, Brian K; Kuczmierczyk, Andrew
Background Vitamin K has been widely promoted as a supplement for decreasing bone loss in postmenopausal women, but the long-term benefits and potential harms are unknown. This study was conducted to determine whether daily high-dose vitamin K1 supplementation safely reduces bone loss, bone turnover, and fractures. Methods and Findings This single-center study was designed as a 2-y randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, extended for earlier participants for up to an additional 2 y because of interest in long-term safety and fractures. A total of 440 postmenopausal women with osteopenia were randomized to either 5 mg of vitamin K1 or placebo daily. Primary outcomes were changes in BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip at 2 y. Secondary outcomes included changes in BMD at other sites and other time points, bone turnover markers, height, fractures, adverse effects, and health-related quality of life. This study has a power of 90% to detect 3% differences in BMD between the two groups. The women in this study were vitamin D replete, with a mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 77 nmol/l at baseline. Over 2 y, BMD decreased by ?1.28% and ?1.22% (p = 0.84) (difference of ?0.06%; 95% confidence interval [CI] ?0.67% to 0.54%) at the lumbar spine and ?0.69% and ?0.88% (p = 0.51) (difference of 0.19%; 95% CI ?0.37% to 0.75%) at the total hip in the vitamin K and placebo groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in changes in BMD at any site between the two groups over the 2- to 4-y period. Daily vitamin K1 supplementation increased serum vitamin K1 levels by 10-fold, and decreased the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin and total osteocalcin levels (bone formation marker). However, C-telopeptide levels (bone resorption marker) were not significantly different between the two groups. Fewer women in the vitamin K group had clinical fractures (nine versus 20, p = 0.04) and fewer had cancers (three versus 12, p = 0.02). Vitamin K supplements were well-tolerated over the 4-y period. There were no significant differences in adverse effects or health-related quality of life between the two groups. The study was not powered to examine fractures or cancers, and their numbers were small. Conclusions Daily 5 mg of vitamin K1 supplementation for 2 to 4 y does not protect against age-related decline in BMD, but may protect against fractures and cancers in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. More studies are needed to further examine the effect of vitamin K on fractures and cancers. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (#NCT00150969) and Current Controlled Trials (#ISRCTN61708241)
Cheung, Angela M; Tile, Lianne; Lee, Yuna; Tomlinson, George; Hawker, Gillian; Scher, Judy; Hu, Hanxian; Vieth, Reinhold; Thompson, Lilian; Jamal, Sophie; Josse, Robert
OBJECTIVES:This prospective, randomized controlled trial explored the feasibility and efficacy of a group program of mindfulness training, a cognitive-behavioral technique, for women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The technique involves training in intentionally attending to present-moment experience and non-judgmental awareness of body sensations and emotions.METHODS:Seventy-five female IBS patients were randomly assigned to eight weekly and one half-day intensive sessions of
Susan A Gaylord; Olafur S Palsson; Eric L Garland; Keturah R Faurot; Rebecca S Coble; J Douglas Mann; William Frey; Karyn Leniek; William E Whitehead
Objective Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be effective in weight reduction. This study explores whether individual, 8-session CBT can promote weight loss in midlife women. Methods Anthropometric (weight, abdominal perimeter, and body mass index calculation), psychological (health-related and sexual quality of life, stress, anxiety, and depression), and behavioral measures (binge eating disorder and restrained, external, and emotional eating) were assessed at baseline (T1), posttreatment (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3), for a total of 21 women at baseline; the CBT group (n = 11) and the control group (n = 10; waiting list) were compared. Results Statistically significant effects that were dependent on the intervention were observed on weight (F = 4.402; P = 0.035; ?p2 = 0.404; ? = 0.652) and body mass index (F = 3.804; P = 0.050; ?p2 = 0.369; ? = 0.585); furthermore, marginally significant effects were observed on external eating (F = 2.844; P = 0.095; ?p2 = 0.304; ? = 0.461). At follow-up, women in the CBT group presented with lower weight, abdominal perimeter, body mass index, and external eating; higher health-related quality-of-life and restrained eating were also observed in this group. Most differences identified were at a marginally significant level. Moreover, at follow-up, none of the participants of the CBT group met the criteria for binge eating disorder, whereas the number of women with binge eating disorder in the control group remained the same through all three assessments. Conclusion An effective, though small, weight loss was achieved. Changes in quality of life were also observed. Moreover, changes in external eating behavior were successful.
Pimenta, Filipa; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, Joao; Ramos, Catarina
Background Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV). The nurse-family partnership (NFP) is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes. Evidence regarding the effect of nurse home visiting on IPV is inconsistent. This study aims to study the effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch NFP, on IPV. Methods A random sample of 460 eligible disadvantaged women <26 years, with no previous live births, was randomized. Women in the control group (C; n=223) received usual care; women in the intervention group (I; n=237) received usual care plus nurse home visits periodically during pregnancy and until the child’s second birthday. Results At 32 weeks of pregnancy, women in the intervention group self-reported significantly less IPV victimization than women in the control group in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 56% vs. I: 39%), physical assault level 1 (C: 58% vs. I: 40%) and level 2 (C: 31% vs. I: 20%), and level 1 sexual coercion (C: 16% vs. I: 8%). Furthermore, women in the intervention group reported significantly less IPV perpetration in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 60% vs. I: 46%), level 1 physical assault (C: 65% vs. I: 52%), and level 1 injury (C: 27% vs. I: 17%). At 24 months after birth, IPV victimization was significantly lower in the intervention group for level 1 physical assault (C: 44% vs. I: 26%), and IPV perpetration was significantly lower for level 1 sexual assault (C: 18% vs. I: 3%). Multilevel analyses showed a significant improvement in IPV victimization and perpetration among women in the intervention group at 24 months after birth. Conclusion VoorZorg, compared with the usual care, is effective in reducing IPV during pregnancy and in the two years after birth among young high-risk women. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR854 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=854
Mejdoubi, Jamila; van den Heijkant, Silvia C. C. M.; van Leerdam, Frank J. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Crijnen, Alfons A. M.
Abstract The aim of this randomised prospective study was to investigate the impact of preoperative gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) compared with a control group with myomectomy. A total of 36 women (n = 36, group 1) with fibroids were randomised to receive either two monthly doses (n = 18/36, group 1a) or three monthly doses of goserelin (n = 18/36, group 1b) prior to myomectomy. The 32 women who received no treatment (group 2) comprised the controls. All patients had similar demographic features. There were no significant differences among the three groups with respect to: (1) mean intraoperative blood loss; (2) preoperative and postoperative blood transfusion or (3) length of hospital stay. The only advantage of administering GnRHa prior to myomectomy for symptomatic fibroids in our population was a higher haemoglobin level prior to surgery among the women who received three doses of the drug. PMID:24678813
Bassaw, B; Mohammed, N; Jaggat, A; Singh-Bhola, M; Ramkissoon, A; Singh, P; Jones, K; Maharaj, S; Ramsewak, S
Background Belief in divine control is often assumed to be fatalistic. However, the assumption has rarely been investigated in racial/ethnic minorities. Objectives This study aims to examine the association between belief in divine control and coping and how the association was moderated by ethnicity/acculturation in a multi-ethnic sample of breast cancer patients. Methods Latina, African American, and non-Hispanic White older women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (N=257) from a population-based survey completed the scale of Belief in Divine Control and the Brief COPE. Results Belief in divine control was positively related to approach coping (i.e., positive reframing, active coping, and planning) in all ethnic groups. Belief in divine control was positively related to acceptance and negatively related to avoidance coping (i.e., denial and behavioral disengagement) among low-acculturated Latinas. Conclusions Negative presumptions about fatalistic implications of belief in divine control should be critically reappraised, especially when such skepticism is applied to racial/ethnic minority patients.
Umezawa, Yoshiko; You, Jin; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Leake, Barbara; Maly, Rose C.
This study examined the effects of three types of group consciousness among African American women ("ethnic," "feminist," and "womanist") on prejudice attributions and appraised personal significance ("centrality") of a negative intergroup event. African American female college students (N = 123) imagined themselves in an audiotaped scenario in…
King, Kimberly R.
This article describes the Trauma Recovery and Empowerment Model (TREM), a manualized group intervention designed for women trauma survivors with severe mental disorders, and discusses key issues in its conceptualization and implementation. TREM recognizes the complexity of long-term adaptation to trauma and addresses a range of difficulties common among survivors of sexual and physical abuse. Focusing primarily on the development
Roger D. Fallot; Maxine Harris
Three focus groups examined stress and conflict among 30 older African American women in Boston. Stress stemmed from worries about functional disability, accessing transportation, conflicts with family and peers, and grandchildren's lack of respect. Participants tended to use avoidant strategies to deal with stress and conflict. A training program…
Weitzman, Patricia Flynn; Dunigan, Robert; Hawkins, Robert L.; Weitzman, Eben A.; Levkoff, Sue E.
In July 1988, 14 Florida scholars traveled to India on a 6-week followup of a 1976 project on the status of women in India. Headquartered in Madras (India), the group also studied in 12 other locations. A pre-departure orientation program included lectures on health and related issues, a discussion of life in an Indian village, films, and slides…
Recent work suggests that ?-adrenergic vasodilation offsets ?-adrenergic vasoconstriction in young women, but this effect is lost after menopause. Given these age-related vascular changes, we tested the hypothesis that older women would exhibit a greater change in vascular conductance following baroreflex perturbation compared with young women. In 10 young (21 ± 1 yr) and 10 older (62 ± 2 yr) women, mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO; Modelflow), total vascular conductance (TVC), and leg vascular conductance (LVC, duplex-Doppler ultrasound) were continuously measured in response to 5-s pulses of neck suction (NS; -60 Torr) and neck pressure (NP; +40 Torr) to simulate carotid hypertension and hypotension, respectively. Following NS, decreases in MAP were similar between groups; however, MAP peak response latency was slower in older women (P < 0.05). Moreover, at the time of peak MAP, increases in LVC (young, -11.5 ± 3.9%LVC vs. older, +19.1 ± 7.0%LVC; P < 0.05) and TVC were greater in older women, whereas young women exhibited larger decreases in HR and CO (young, -10 ± 3% CO vs. older, +0.8 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05). Following NP, increases in MAP were blunted (young, +14 ± 1 mmHg vs. older, +8 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.05) in older women, whereas MAP response latencies were similar. Interestingly, decreases in LVC and TVC were similar between groups, but HR and CO (young, +7.0 ± 2% CO vs. older, -4.0 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05) responses were attenuated in older women. These findings suggest that older women have greater reliance on vascular conductance to modulate MAP via carotid baroreflex, whereas young women rely more on cardiac responsiveness. Furthermore, older women demonstrate a blunted ability to increase MAP to hypotensive stimuli. PMID:24682393
Credeur, Daniel P; Holwerda, Seth W; Boyle, Leryn J; Vianna, Lauro C; Jensen, Areum K; Fadel, Paul J
Objective: This study examined the outcome of a body image and disordered eating intervention for midlife women. The intervention was specifically designed to address risk factors that are pertinent in midlife. Method: Participants were 61 women aged 30 to 60 years (M = 43.92, SD = 8.22) randomly assigned to intervention (n = 32) or (delayed treatment) control (n =
Siân A. McLean; Susan J. Paxton; Eleanor H. Wertheim
BACKGROUND: Mother's diet during pregnancy is important, since plant lignans and their metabolites, converted by the intestinal microflora to enterolignans, are proposed to possess multiple health benefits. Aim of our study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention affects lignan concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. METHODS: A controlled dietary intervention trial including 105 first-time pregnant women was conducted
Riitta Luoto; Elham Kharazmi; Niina M Saarinen; Annika I Smeds; Sari Mäkelä; Mahdi Fallah; Jani Raitanen; Leena Hilakivi-Clarke
Background The Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) Randomized Controlled Trial evaluated the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on chronic disease incidence, with breast cancer and colorectal cancer as primary outcomes. The trial protocol also listed ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer as outcomes that may be favorably affected by the intervention. Methods A total of 48835 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned during 1993–1998 to a DM intervention (n = 19541) or comparison (usual diet; n = 29294) group and followed up for an average of 8.1 years. The intervention goal was to reduce total fat intake to 20% of energy and to increase consumption of vegetables, fruits, and grains. Cancer outcomes were verified by pathology report review. We used weighted log-rank tests to compare incidence of invasive cancers of the ovary and endometrium, total invasive cancer, and invasive cancers at other sites between the groups. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Ovarian cancer risk was lower in the intervention than in the comparison group (P = .03). Although the overall ovarian cancer hazard ratio (HR) was not statistically significantly less than 1.0, the hazard ratio decreased with increasing intervention duration (Ptrend = .01). For the first 4 years, the risk for ovarian cancer was similar in the intervention and control groups (0.52 cases per 1000 person-years in the intervention group versus 0.45 per 1000 person-years in the comparison group; HR = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 1.84); over the next 4.1 years, the risk was lower in the intervention group (0.38 cases per 1000 person-years in the intervention group versus 0.64 per 1000 person-years in the comparison group; HR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.96). Risk of cancer of the endometrium did not differ between the groups (P = .18). The estimated risk of total invasive cancer was slightly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.01; P = .10). Conclusions A low-fat dietary pattern may reduce the incidence of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women.
Prentice, Ross L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Caan, Bette; Hubbell, F. Allan; Anderson, Garnet L.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Pettinger, Mary; Lane, Dorothy S.; Lessin, Lawrence; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Singh, Baljinder; Khandekar, Janardan; Shikany, James M.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Chlebowski, Rowan T.
The aim of this study was to explore how various factors influenced women's decisions regarding place of confinement in Luanda, Angola. Ten focus group discussions were conducted with pregnant and nonpregnant women residing in suburban areas of Luanda and the data were analyzed using the grounded theory technique. Four patterns of action of the main theme, “the molding of women's
Karen Odberg Pettersson; Kyllike Christensson; Engracia da Gloria Gomes de Freitas; Eva Johansson
The purpose was to investigate if women with high pre-procedural anxiety reported higher degree of relaxation and comfort if listening to music during coronary angiographic procedures. A prospective randomized controlled trial was used included 68 patients undergoing coronary angiography and/or PCI. The women were allocated to receive calming music and standard care or standard care only. Relaxation, environmental sound and discomfort associated with lying still were assessed. There was significantly more positive impression of the sound environment and less discomfort associated with lying still in women listening to music in comparison to women who received only standard care. No effect in relaxation was found. PMID:21095634
Background: During the menopausal period, sexual desire may decrease. Therefore, restoring the sexual desire may help to improve sexual functioning in this group of women. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: In this triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 80 healthy female volunteers attending three healthcare centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) were enrolled. The instrument of this study had two main parts. The first part covered the personal characteristics of the volunteers and the second part used the Sabbatsberg Sexual Rating Scale (SSRS) to subjectively evaluate sexual desire before and after intervention. The participants received GBE at a dose of 120-240 mg (n = 40) or received placebo (n = 40) daily for 30 days. The results were analyzed using Mann–Whitney test. All analyses were performed using SPSS software. Results: The sexual desire was significantly improved in the GBE group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.02). Conclusions: In this study, we found that GBE had a positive effect on sexual desire of menopausal women; thus, these findings support the positive effect of GBE on the sexual function of menopausal women.
Pebdani, Mina Amiri; Taavoni, Simin; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Haghani, Hamid
Objective?To evaluate the effect of mode and amount of fluid hydration during labor. Study Design?The authors conducted a randomized controlled trial of uncomplicated nulliparous women in spontaneous labor at 36 weeks or more gestational age. Women were randomized to receive lactated Ringer solution with 5% dextrose at (1) 125 mL/h intravenously with limited oral intake, (2) 250 mL/h intravenously with limited oral intake, or (3) 25 mL/h intravenously with ad libitum oral intake of clear liquids. Results were analyzed by intent-to-treat analysis. Results?A total of 311 out of 324 women were available for analysis. Groups 1 (n?=?105), 2 (n?=?105), and 3 (n?=?101) above did not differ significantly for mean labor duration (11.6?±?5.9, 11.4?±?5.5, and 11.5?±?5.9 hours, respectively; p?=?0.998), proportion of women in labor?>?12 hours (all groups 41%; p?=?0.998), proportion receiving oxytocin augmentation (59, 60, and 57%, respectively; p?=?0.923), or proportion delivered by cesarean (22, 17, and 17%, respectively; p?=?0.309). Indications for cesarean were similar between groups. No cases of pulmonary edema, maternal aspiration, or perinatal mortality occurred. Conclusion?Although apparently safe, neither increased intravenous hydration nor oral hydration during labor improves labor performance. PMID:23884718
Edwards, Rodney K; Reed, Christine A; Villano, Kathryn S; Holmes, Jennifer L; Tong, Suhong; Davies, Jill K
This paper attempts to fill the gap in the field of communication concerning African American women. It postulates that the African American woman's unique experience with both racism and sexism influences specific types of communication when she is called upon to communicate solely with other African American women. It builds upon the…
Dorsey, Laura Kathleen
African American (AA) women's preference for a larger body size and underestimation of their body weight may affect the relationship between their body weight and weight-related quality of life (QOL). We wanted to examine the relationship between weight-related QOL and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of overweight AA women. Thirty-three…
Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks; Thomas, Dana-Marie; Ard, Jamy D.
Background: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the most important cause of morbidity and mortality among newborns especially in developing countries. It has been shown that the screening approach rather than the identification of maternal clinical risk factors for early-onset neonatal GBS disease is more effective in preventing early-onset GBS neonatal disease. The objective of this study was to detect GBS among clinical samples of women using PCR and standard microbiological culture. Methods: Samples were taken from 375 women at 28–38 weeks of gestation during six month from January 15 till June 15, 2011 from a hospital in Tehran, Iran. Samples were tested by standard culture using Todd–Hewitt broth, blood agar and by PCR targeting the cfb gene. Results: Among the 375 women, 35 (9.3%) were identified as carriers of group B streptococci on the basis of the results of the cultures of specimens, compared to 42 (11.2 %) on the basis of PCR assay. Conclusion: We found that GBS can be detected rapidly and reliably by a PCR assay in vaginal secretions from women at the time of delivery. This study also showed that the rate of incidence of GBS is high in Iranian women.
Bakhtiari, R; Dallal, MM Soltan; Mehrabadi, JF; Heidarzadeh, S; Pourmand, MR
Background There is growing evidence from Australia and overseas that the care provided in hospital in the early postnatal period is less than ideal for both women and care providers. Many health services face increasing pressure on hospital beds and have limited physical space available to care for mothers and their babies. We aimed to gain a more in-depth understanding of women's views, expectations and experiences of early postnatal care. Methods We conducted focus groups in rural and metropolitan Victoria, Australia in 2006. Fifty-two people participated in eight focus groups and four interviews. Participants included eight pregnant women, of whom seven were pregnant with their first baby; 42 women who were in the postpartum period (some up to twelve months after the birth of their baby); and two partners. All participants were fluent in English. Focus group guides were developed specifically for the study and explored participants' experiences and/or expectations of early postnatal care in hospital and at home, with an emphasis on length of hospital stay, professional and social support, continuity of care, and rest. Discussions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic network was constructed to describe and connect categories with emerging basic, organizing, and global themes. Results Global themes that emerged were: anxiety and/or fear; and the transition to motherhood and parenting. The needs of first time mothers were considered to be different to the needs of women who had already experienced motherhood. The women in this study were generally concerned about the safety of their new baby, and lacked confidence in themselves as new mothers regarding their ability to care for their baby. There was a consistent view that the physical presence and availability of professional support helped alleviate these concerns, and this was especially the case for women having a first baby. Conclusion Women have anxieties and fears around early parenting and their changing role, and may consider that the physical availability of professional care providers will help during this time. Care providers should be cognisant of these potential issues. It is crucial that women's concerns and needs be considered when service delivery changes are planned. If anxiety around new parenting is a predominant view then care providers need to recognise this and ensure care is individualised to address each woman's/families particular concerns.
Forster, Della A; McLachlan, Helen L; Rayner, Jo; Yelland, Jane; Gold, Lisa; Rayner, Sharon
The frequent attendance of women suffering from anxiety and depression is a common problem in general practice and the problems are often externalized through the women's children. A small controlled study was carried out in a general practice surgery to see whether demand for medical attention by mothers of pre-school children would decrease after they attended a discussion group. Twenty women who fulfilled the study criteria of more than double the national average consultation rate for their age group and of having at least one pre-school child, were sequentially allocated to a treatment or control group. The group therapy was held over two terms of 10 sessions, each of 90 minutes, and was led by a psychologist and a general practitioner. Consultation rates (including surgery visits, house calls and prescription requests) were recorded for five consecutive six-month periods before and after the intervention. At follow-up six months after the end of the treatment a significant reduction in consultation rate had been achieved and maintained by the treated group compared with the controls (P<0.01). This study shows the value of attending to the cause of frequent consultation as well as to the complaints presented.
Benson, Pauline; Turk, Theresa
The problem of achieving a specified formation among a group of mobile autonomous agents by distributed control is studied. If convergence to a point is feasible, then more general formations are achievable too, so the focus is on convergence to a point (the agreement problem). Three formation strategies are studied and convergence is proved under certain conditions. Also, motivated by
Zhiyun Lin; Mireille Broucke; Bruce Francis
The working group on beam quality, diagnostics, and control at the 12th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. The generation of bright charged-particle beams (in particular electron and positron beams), along with state-of-the-art beam diagnostics and synchronization were discussed.
Lewellen, John; /Argonne; Piot, Philippe; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab
Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)
Children Today, 1987
Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…
Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating chronic condition in the United States and worldwide. Particularly in women, depressive symptoms are often accompanied by high levels of stress and ruminations, or repetitive self-critical negative thinking. There is a research and clinical imperative to evaluate complementary therapies that are acceptable and feasible for women with depression and that target specific aspects of depression in women, such as ruminations. To begin to address this need, we conducted a randomized, controlled, mixed-methods community-based study comparing an 8-week yoga intervention with an attention-control activity in 27 women with MDD. After controlling for baseline stress, there was a decrease in depression over time in both the yoga group and the attention-control group, with the yoga group having a unique trend in decreased ruminations. Participants in the yoga group reported experiencing increased connectedness and gaining a coping strategy through yoga. The findings provide support for future large scale research to explore the effects of yoga for depressed women and the unique role of yoga in decreasing rumination.
Kinser, Patricia Anne; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Whaley, Diane; Hauenstein, Emily; Taylor, Ann Gill
This experiment examined the effect of communication control on the telecommunications of four subject problem solving groups, and on the emergence of leaders within the groups. Sixteen four-subject teams solved four realistic problems, one on each of four days, by communicating over a closed-circuit television system with an added audio capacity. Teams were assigned to communication systems which either did or did not have centrally controlled switching so that only one person could talk at a time, and to systems in which either (1) one subject was appointed to perform some of the experimenter's tasks or (2) no group member was so designated. Four degrees of control over communication thus ranged from no control (communication was not centrally switched, no appointed helper) to absolute control (appointed helper who switched the communication). The subject who switched the communication and/or helped the experimenter was chosen at random by the experimenter prior to the start of the first experimental session and remained the same throughout the remaining sessions. Teams were paid a bonus of up to $2.60 for each problem solution. The size of a team's bonus depended on how well the team solved each problem as determined by comparing their solutions with criterion solutions. Dependent measures include the time to solution, a measure of the quality of solution based on the size of the bonus, measures of verbal communication, and questionnaire responses.
Pagerey, P. D.
Dairy products provide Ca and protein which may facilitate appetite control. Conversely, weight loss is known to increase the motivation to eat. This randomised controlled trial verified the influence of milk supplementation on appetite markers during weight loss. Low Ca consumer women participated in a 6-month energy-restricted programme (-2508 kJ/d or -600 kcal/d) and received either a milk supplementation (1000 mg Ca/d) or an isoenergetic placebo (n 13 and 12, respectively). Fasting appetite sensations were assessed by visual analogue scales. Anthropometric parameters and fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and cortisol were measured as well. Both groups showed a significant weight loss (P < 0·0001). In the milk-supplemented group, a time x treatment interaction effect showed that weight loss with milk supplementation induced a smaller increase in desire to eat and hunger (P < 0·05). Unlike the placebo group, the milk-supplemented group showed a lower than predicted decrease in fullness (-17·1 v. -8·8; -2·7 v. 3·3 mm, P < 0·05, measured v. predicted values, respectively). Even after adjustment for fat mass loss, changes in ghrelin concentration predicted those in desire to eat (r 0·56, P < 0·01), hunger (r 0·45, P < 0·05) and fullness (r -0·40, P < 0·05). However, the study did not show a between-group difference in the change in ghrelin concentration in response to the intervention. These results show that milk supplementation attenuates the orexigenic effect of body weight loss. PMID:21205360
Gilbert, Jo-Anne; Joanisse, Denis R; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Miegueu, Pierre; Cianflone, Katherine; Alméras, Natalie; Tremblay, Angelo
CONTEXT: Despite decades of use and considerable research, the role of estrogen alone in preventing chronic diseases in postmenopausal women remains uncertain.\\u000aOBJECTIVE: To assess the effects on major disease incidence rates of the most commonly used postmenopausal hormone therapy in the United States.\\u000aDESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled disease prevention trial (the estrogen-alone component of the
Garnet L. Anderson; Marian C. Limacher; Annlouise R. Assaf; Tamsen Bassford; Shirley A. A. Beresford; Henry R. Black; Denise E. Bonds; Robert L. Brunner; Robert G. Brzyski; Bette Caan; Rowan T. Chlebowski; David Curb; Margery Gass; Jennifer Hays; Gerardo Heiss; Susan L. Hendrix; Barbara V. Howard; Judith Hsia; F. Allan Hubbell; Rebecca D. Jackson; Karen C. Johnson; Howard Judd; Jane Morley Kotchen; Lewis H. Kuller; Andrea Z. LaCroix; Robert D. Langer; Norman L. Lasser; Cora E. Lewis; JoAnn E. Manson; Karen L. Margolis; Judith K. Ockene; Mary Jo OSullivan; Lawrence Phillips; Ross L. Prentice; Cheryl Ritenbaugh; John Robbins; Jacques E. Rossouw; Gloria E. Sarto; Marcia L. Stefanick; Linda Van Horn; Jean Wactawski-Wende; Robert B. Wallace; Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller
C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker of cardiovascular risk, is often elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The magnitude and consistency of this elevation have not been previously characterized in premenopausal women with MDD. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess plasma CRP levels, body composition, endocrine and metabolic parameters, and depressive status in premenopausal women with MDD (n = 77) and controls (n = 41), aged 21 to 45. Women were enrolled in a 12-month, controlled study of bone turnover, the P.O.W.E.R. (Premenopausal, Osteoporosis, Women, Alendronate, Depression) Study. Blood samples were taken at Baseline, Month 6, and Month 12. Most subjects with MDD were in clinical remission. These women tended to have consistently higher CRP levels than controls over 12 months (p = 0.077). BMI was positively related to log[CRP] in women with MDD only. Nine women with MDD had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l, a value associated with a very high cardiovascular risk. This subset was obese and had significantly higher triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR than the rest of women with MDD. The variations in CRP levels over time were high (intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variations of ?30–50% and ?70–140%, respectively). No control had CRP levels greater than 10 mg/l. Depression was associated with increased plasma CRP in women with MDD. The clinical significance of abnormal plasma CRP for cardiovascular risk needs to be assessed in large prospective studies of women with depression.
Cizza, G.; Eskandari, F.; Coyle, M.; Krishnamurthy, P.; Wright, E. C.; Mistry, S.; Csako, G.
Objective To determine the odds ratio and population attributable fraction associated with food and environmental risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Design Case›control study. Setting Six large European cities. Participants Pregnant women with acute infection (cases) detected by seroconversion or positive for anti›Toxoplasma gondii IgM were compared with pregnant women seronegative for toxoplasma (controls). Main outcome measures Odds ratios
R E Gilbert; W Buffolano; J Zufferey; E Petersen; P A Jenum; W Foulon; A E Semprini
Integrating Group Counseling, Cell Phone Messaging, and Participant-Generated Songs and Dramas into a Microcredit Program Increases Nigerian Women's Adherence to International Breastfeeding Recommendations.
In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ?6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely given that >150 million women, many of childbearing age, are involved in microfinance globally. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01352351. PMID:24812071
Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E
The goals of this study are: (1) to examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the intermediate outcome variables of knowledge of breast cancer and risk factors, breast cancer beliefs, cancer attitudes, and coping skills in women at increas...
K. M. Kash
The bulletin reports the results of a survey of 137 women living in the northwestern portion of the Navajo Reservation. The analysis covers fertility histories, patterns of contraceptive use, educational levels, residence patterns, and modes of communicat...
S. J. Kunitz
Objective We sought to comparatively assess cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) in women with confirmed microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD) cases and reference control women. Background Women with signs or symptoms of myocardial ischemia in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) frequently have MCD which carries an adverse prognosis. Diagnosis involves invasive coronary reactivity testing (CRT). Adenosine CMRI is a non-invasive test that may be useful for the detection of MCD. Methods Fifty-three women with MCD confirmed by CRT and 12 age- and estrogen-use matched reference controls underwent adenosine CMRI. CMRI was assessed for MPRI, calculated using the ratio of myocardial blood flow at hyperemia/rest for the whole myocardium and separately for the 16 segments as defined by the American Heart Association. Statistical analysis was performed using repeated measures ANOVA models. Results Compared to reference controls, MCD cases had lower MPRI values globally and in subendocardial and subepicardial regions (1.63±0.39 vs. 1.98±0.38, P=0.007, 1.51±0.35 vs. 1.84±0.34, P=0.0045, 1.68±0.38 vs. 2.04±0.41, P=0.005, respectively). A perfusion gradient across the myocardium with lower MPRI in the subendocardium compared to the subepicardium was observed for both groups. Conclusions Women with MCD have lower MPRI measured by perfusion CMRI compared to reference controls. CMRI may be a useful diagnostic modality for MCD. Prospective validation of a diagnostic threshold for MPRI in patients with MCD is needed.
Thomson, Louise E. J.; Goykhman, Pavel; Agarwal, Megha; Mehta, Puja K.; Sedlak, Tara; Li, Ning; Gill, Edward; Samuels, Bruce; Azabal, Babak; Kar, Saibal; Kothawade, Kamlesh; Minissian, Margo; Slomka, Piotr; Berman, Daniel S.; Bairey Merz, C. Noel
Several dimensions of impulse control (i.e., delay of gratification, reflectivity, and motor control) were related to intelligence, mental status, and adjustment among 91 institutionalized aged women. The findings suggest that impulse control in its various forms has a consistent and significant relationship with indices of adaptation. (Author)
Kahana, Boaz; Kahana, Eva
A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.
Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.
In recent years, population control programs in the rural areas has encountered resistance. Women have been getting married and having children at younger ages. More high parity birth occurred and family planning has been out of control among the migrant population. In analyzing the causes of these phenomena, besides the external impact, factors associated with women themselves are contributing factors. 1st, the low level of education of women, especially of rural women have restricted their opportunities for employment and their ability to choose their lives. Women's only choice was to be dependent on their husband sand families. Having children was the symbol of their value. Improving women's level of education, and improving their ability to live independently would be an important means to reduce their motivation for having children. Women with higher educations were in a better position to put their energy into their work and careers. Urban women, with higher educations, mostly do not want to have too many children. The fact that fertility is negatively associated with education has indicated this point. The 1981 census data showed that women were mostly employed in the primary sector. The proportion of women employed in the tertiary sector was small. Even though the employment rate among women was high, they were mostly placed in simple, labor-intensive jobs that did not require much education. Working was only a means to make a living rather than because of their interest. Family and children were still the center of their attention, and the traditional culture of having a large family was still strong in their beliefs. Even among the highly educated females, prejudice against women's ability and prevalent perceptions of the sex role have prevented them from bringing their potential into full play. The greater share of their attention had to be given to the family. It is concluded that, womens education and employment have affected their fertility behavior. Increasing women's education and their scope of life will have a positive effect of fertility. Improvement in women's status and economic standing will turn them to actively limiting their own fertility. PMID:12317520
Background In order to give informed consent for mammography screening, women need to be told the relevant facts; however, screening information often remains vague because of the worry that detailed information might deter women from participating in recommended screening programs. Since September 2010, German women aged 50 to 69 invited for mammography screening have received a new, comprehensive information brochure that frankly discusses the potential benefit and harm of mammography screening. In contrast, the brochure that was in use before September 2010 contained little relevant information. The aim of this study is to compare the impact of the two different brochures on the intention of women to undergo mammography screening, and to broaden our understanding of the effect that factual information has on the women’s decision-making. Methods This is a controlled questionnaire study comparing knowledge, views and hypothetical preferences of women aged 48–49 years after receiving the old versus the new information brochure. German GP’s in the region of North Rhine-Westfalia will be asked by mail and telephone to participate in the study. Eligible women will be recruited via their general practitioners (GPs) and randomized to groups A ('new brochure’) and B ('old brochure’), with an intended recruitment of 173 participants per group. The study is powered to detect a 15% higher or lower intention to undergo mammography screening in women informed by the new brochure. Discussion This study will contribute to our understanding of the decision-making of women invited to mammography screening. From both ethical and public health perspectives, it is important to know whether frank, factual information leads to a change in the intention of women to participate in a recommended breast cancer screening program. Trial registration DRKS00004271
Physical exercise is often recommended as a therapeutic tool to combat pre- and postmenopausal loss of bone density. However, the relationship between training dosage (intensity, duration, frequency) and the effect on bone density still is undergoing discussion. Furthermore, the exercise quantification programs are often described so inadequately that they are neither quantitatively nor qualitatively reproducible. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether a clearly defined training of muscle strength, under defined safety aspects, performed only twice weekly, can counteract bone density loss in women with postmenopausal osteopenia. Data from 16 women in the training group (age, 63.6 +/- 6.2 yr) and 15 women in the control group (age, 67.4 +/-9.7 yr), of comparable height and weight, were evaluated. Strength training was performed for 6 mo as continually adapted strength training, providing an intensity of about 70% of each test person's one repetition maximum. Bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae 2 to 4 and the femoral neck was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Maximum performance in watts and parameters of hemodynamics were controlled with a bicycle ergometer test to maximal effort. In addition, metabolic data were assessed. In the lumbar spine and femoral neck, the training group showed no significant changes, whereas the control group demonstrated a significant loss of bone mineral density, especially in the femoral neck (P<0.05). The strength increase was highly significant in all exercised muscle groups, rising to about 70% above the pretraining status (P<0.001). Heart rate and blood pressure data indicated a slight economization, metabolism was not significantly influenced. Based on these findings, we conclude that continually adapted strength training is an effective, safe, reproducible, and adaptable method of therapeutic strength training, following only two exercise sessions per week. PMID:8645434
Hartard, M; Haber, P; Ilieva, D; Preisinger, E; Seidl, G; Huber, J
BACKGROUND: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) has well recognised adverse health implications for the mother and her newborn that are both short and long term. Obesity is a significant risk factor for developing GDM and the prevalence of obesity is increasing globally. It is a matter of public health importance that clinicians have evidence based strategies to inform practice and currently there is insufficient evidence regarding the impact of dietary and lifestyle interventions on improving maternal and newborn outcomes. The primary aim of this study is to measure the impact of a telephone based intervention that promotes positive lifestyle modifications on the incidence of GDM. Secondary aims include: the impact on gestational weight gain; large for gestational age babies; differences in blood glucose levels taken at the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and selected factors relating to self-efficacy and psychological wellbeing.Method/design: A randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted involving pregnant women who are overweight (BMI >25 to 29.9 k/gm2) or obese (BMI >30kgm/2), less than 14 weeks gestation and recruited from the Barwon South West region of Victoria, Australia. From recruitment until birth, women in the intervention group will receive a program informed by the Theory of Self-efficacy and employing Motivational Interviewing. Brief ( less than 5 minute) phone contact will alternate with a text message/email and will involve goal setting, behaviour change reinforcement with weekly weighing and charting, and the provision of health information. Those in the control group will receive usual care. Data for primary and secondary outcomes will be collected from medical record review and a questionnaire at 36 weeks gestation. DISCUSSION: Evidence based strategies that reduce the incidence of GDM are a priority for contemporary maternity care. Changing health behaviours is a complex undertaking and trialling a composite intervention that can be adopted in various primary health settings is required so women can be accessed as early in pregnancy as possible. Using a sound theoretical base to inform such an intervention will add depth to our understanding of this approach and to the interpretation of results, contributing to the evidence base for practice and policy.Trial registration: This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12613000125729. PMID:23497264
Nagle, Cate; Skouteris, Helen; Morris, Heather; Nankervis, Alison; Rasmussen, Bodil; Mayall, Peter; Kennedy, Richard L
Background Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) has well recognised adverse health implications for the mother and her newborn that are both short and long term. Obesity is a significant risk factor for developing GDM and the prevalence of obesity is increasing globally. It is a matter of public health importance that clinicians have evidence based strategies to inform practice and currently there is insufficient evidence regarding the impact of dietary and lifestyle interventions on improving maternal and newborn outcomes. The primary aim of this study is to measure the impact of a telephone based intervention that promotes positive lifestyle modifications on the incidence of GDM. Secondary aims include: the impact on gestational weight gain; large for gestational age babies; differences in blood glucose levels taken at the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and selected factors relating to self-efficacy and psychological wellbeing. Method/design A randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted involving pregnant women who are overweight (BMI >25 to 29.9 k/gm2) or obese (BMI >30?kgm/2), less than 14 weeks gestation and recruited from the Barwon South West region of Victoria, Australia. From recruitment until birth, women in the intervention group will receive a program informed by the Theory of Self-efficacy and employing Motivational Interviewing. Brief ( less than 5 minute) phone contact will alternate with a text message/email and will involve goal setting, behaviour change reinforcement with weekly weighing and charting, and the provision of health information. Those in the control group will receive usual care. Data for primary and secondary outcomes will be collected from medical record review and a questionnaire at 36 weeks gestation. Discussion Evidence based strategies that reduce the incidence of GDM are a priority for contemporary maternity care. Changing health behaviours is a complex undertaking and trialling a composite intervention that can be adopted in various primary health settings is required so women can be accessed as early in pregnancy as possible. Using a sound theoretical base to inform such an intervention will add depth to our understanding of this approach and to the interpretation of results, contributing to the evidence base for practice and policy. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12613000125729
A distributed technology will be presented enabling a remote operator to manage arbitrary sized groups of stationary or mobile sensors (or robots), behaving altogether as an integral and global-goal-driven unit. The group is tasked in a Distributed Scenario Language (DSL) collectively executed by communicating interpreters embedded in individual sensors and integrated with their functionalities. Compact and created on the fly, DSL scenarios can be remotely injected into any sensor, subsequently self-replicating, self-modifying, and self-spreading in a virus mode throughout the whole group, tasking individual units and setting needed operational infrastructures among them. The approach can remotely control dynamic and open systems of different natures and comprehend complex phenomena unavailable to individual sensors.
In evidence-based medicine, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the preferred method for evaluating the efficacy of interventions. In regard to acupuncture RCTs, the most difficult issues are the design of the control group and implementation of the principle of "double-blinding." We compared the advantages and limitations associated with different control group designs in acupuncture RCTs, to assist researchers in this field. PMID:22829860
Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Yu-Che; Chen, Yi-Hung
Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common problem in older women that is associated with pain and disabilities. Although yoga is recommended as an exercise intervention to manage arthritis, there is limited evidence documenting its effectiveness, with little known about its long term benefits. This study’s aims were to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of a Hatha yoga exercise program in managing OA-related symptoms in older women with knee OA. Methods Eligible participants (N?=?36; mean age 72 years) were randomly assigned to 8-week yoga program involving group and home-based sessions or wait-list control. The yoga intervention program was developed by a group of yoga experts (N?=?5). The primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total score that measures knee OA pain, stiffness, and function at 8 weeks. The secondary outcomes, physical function of the lower extremities, body mass index (BMI), quality of sleep (QOS), and quality of life (QOL), were measured using weight, height, the short physical performance battery (SPPB), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Cantril Self-Anchoring Ladder, and the SF12v2 Health Survey. Data were collected at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. Results The recruitment target was met, with study retention at 95%. Based on ANCOVAs, participants in the treatment group exhibited significantly greater improvement in WOMAC pain (adjusted means [SE]) (8.3 [.67], 5.8 [.67]; p?=?.01), stiffness (4.7 [.28], 3.4 [.28]; p?=?.002) and SPPB (repeated chair stands) (2.0 [.23], 2.8 [.23]; p?=?.03) at 8 weeks. Significant treatment and time effects were seen in WOMAC pain (7.0 [.46], 5.4 [.54]; p?=?.03), function (24.5 [1.8], 19.9 [1.6]; p?=?.01) and total scores (35.4 [2.3], 28.6 [2.1]; p?=?.01) from 4 to 20 weeks. Sleep disturbance was improved but the PSQI total score declined significantly at 20 weeks. Changes in BMI and QOL were not significant. No yoga related adverse events were observed. Conclusions A weekly yoga program with home practice is feasible, acceptable, and safe for older women with knee OA, and shows therapeutic benefits. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01832155
We report control of the density of isolated, single functional groups in homogeneously mixed trichloroalkyl silanes on various silica surfaces. The functional groups are covalently bound to a silane derived from the Rink resin. This Rink-silane is reactive to any nucleophile. Control over the density of functional groups is achieved by diluting the immersion solution containing the Rink-silane with an inert silane, octadecyltrichlorsilane. The isolated nature of the functional groups is confirmed by the stochastic blinking of fluorescent single boron-dipyrromethane dyes imaged in total internal reflection geometry. The robust character of silane monolayers allows facile covalent binding and cleavage of molecular species from silica surfaces as well as general synthetic transformations to be conducted. This is shown by the covalent attachment and then cleavage of a naphthalene chromophore. This low-cost and scalable platform has great potential for use in sensing, molecular electronics, semiconductor processing, and the investigation of fundamental processes in catalysis and the kinetics of molecular association. PMID:24856635
Dagg, Alexander P; Huang, Zhiyuan; Marks, Monica A; Zhou, Dapeng; Chawla, Megha; Tang, Ming L
Objective To investigate adverse pregnancy outcomes in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with obese-PCOS and control groups. Methods Women with PCOS who underwent assisted reproductive technology (ART) from August, 2003 to December, 2007, were considered. A total of 336 women with PCOS were included in the study group and 1,003 infertile women who had tubal factor as an indication for ART were collected as controls. They were divided into four groups: a non-obese PCOS group, obese-PCOS group, non-obese tubal factor group, and obese tubal factor group, with obesity defined by a body mass index over 25 kg/m2, and reviewed focusing on the basal characteristics, ART outcomes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Results There was no difference among the groups' the clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate. Regarding adverse pregnancy outcomes, the miscarriage rate, multiple pregnancy rate, and prevalence of preterm delivery and pregnancy induced hypertension were not different among the four groups. The incidence of small for gestational age infant was higher in the PCOS groups than the tubal factor groups (p<0.02). On the other hand, the morbidity of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was not high in the non-obese PCOS group but was in the obese groups. And in the obese PCOS group, the newborns were heavier than in the other groups (p<0.02). Conclusion Non-obese PCOS presents many differences compared with obese PCOS, not only in the IVF-parameters but also in the morbidity of adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially in GDM and fetal macrosomia.
Han, Ae Ra; Cha, Sun Wha; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jin Yeong; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Inn Soo
This article examines the use of a quilting workshop as a strategy for helping older African American women address the consequences of their homeless experience. In this examination, four studies are addressed: the original, the re-analysis, the interviews, and the quilting intervention. The relationship of quilting to group work and social support is described, and the use of quilting in the Telling My Story homeless research project is demonstrated. The researchers used the lay definition of quilting that implies the general meaning of attaching many disparate and unique pieces of material together into a whole. The researchers also describe the relevance of the group work method inherent in the quilting workshop in helping women successfully transition out of homelessness and progress in their recovery from its consequences. PMID:19921762
Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois Jean
Background The vaginal microbiome plays an important role in urogenital health. Quantitative real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assays for the most prevalent vaginal Lactobacillus species and bacterial vaginosis species G. vaginalis and A. vaginae exist, but qPCR information regarding variation over time is still very limited. We set up qPCR assays for a selection of seven species and defined the temporal variation over three menstrual cycles in a healthy Caucasian population with a normal Nugent score. We also explored differences in qPCR data between these healthy women and an ‘at risk’ clinic population of Caucasian, African and Asian women with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV), as defined by the Nugent score. Results Temporal stability of the Lactobacillus species counts was high with L. crispatus counts of 108 copies/mL and L. vaginalis counts of 106 copies/mL. We identified 2 types of ‘normal flora’ and one ‘BV type flora’ with latent class analysis on the combined data of all women. The first group was particularly common in women with a normal Nugent score and was characterized by a high frequency of L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii, and L. vaginalis and a correspondingly low frequency of L. gasseri and A. vaginae. The second group was characterized by the predominance of L. gasseri and L. vaginalis and was found most commonly in healthy Caucasian women. The third group was commonest in women with a high Nugent score but was also seen in a subset of African and Asian women with a low Nugent score and was characterized by the absence of Lactobacillus species (except for L. iners) but the presence of G. vaginalis and A. vaginae. Conclusions We have shown that the quantification of specific bacteria by qPCR contributes to a better description of the non-BV vaginal microbiome, but we also demonstrated that differences in populations such as risk and ethnicity also have to be taken into account. We believe that our selection of indicator organisms represents a feasible strategy for the assessment of the vaginal microbiome and could be useful for monitoring the microbiome in safety trials of vaginal products.
... does the bladder work? Parts of the bladder control system. The bladder is a balloon-shaped organ that ... ready to release it. Parts of the bladder control system. Several body systems must work together to control ...
Modern historical research of women and nursing has largely neglected the role of religious groups, particularly in the American frontier. The image of women at the end of the 19th century was one of submission to male authority and confinement to the domestic sphere. However, in the pluralistic West, a variety of organized religious women built and administered hospitals, initiated professional nursing, and provided effective health care services. This article compares cases of Catholic nuns and Mormon women as exemplars in a conceptual context of religious devotion, gender roles, and autonomy among women's religious organizations at the dawn of the 20th century. PMID:10961263
Marshall, E S; Wall, B M
A study of knowledge, attitudes and practice was carried out in the Rukungiri district of Uganda, in order to investigate the involvement of women in community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), for the control of onchocerciasis. The data analysed came from interviews with 260 adult women (one from each of 260 randomly-selected households in 20 onchocerciasis-endemic communities), community informants, and participatory evaluation meetings (PEM) in eight communities. The women who had been treated with ivermectin in 1999 generally had more knowledge of the benefits of taking ivermectin, were more likely to have attended the relevant health-education sessions and were more involved in community decisions on the method of ivermectin distribution than the women who had not received ivermectin in that year. There were fewer female community-directed health workers (CDHW) than male CDHW in the communities investigated. The reasons for not attending health-education sessions, not participating in community meetings concerning the CDTI, and the reluctance of some women to serve as CDHW were investigated. The most common reasons given were domestic chores, a reluctance to express their views in meetings outside their own kinship group, suspicions that other women might take advantage of them, and a lack of interest. Most of the women interviewed (as well as other community members) felt that there were relatively few women CDHW. The women attributed this to a lack of interaction and trust amongst themselves, which resulted in more men than women being selected as CDHW. The rest of the community members were not against women working as CDHW. It is recommended that communities be encouraged to select women to serve as CDHW in the CDTI, and that the performances of male and female CDHW be compared. PMID:11487370
Katabarwa, M N; Habomugisha, P; Ndyomugyenyi, R; Agunyo, S
Women with histories of incarceration show high levels of risk for HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial with women at risk for HIV who had recent criminal justice system involvement (n=530) evaluated two interventions based on Motivational Interviewing to reduce either HIV risk or HIV and IPV risk. Baseline and 3, 6, and 9-month follow-up assessments measured unprotected intercourse, needle sharing, and IPV. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the intervention groups had significant decreases in unprotected intercourse and needle sharing, and significantly greater reductions in the odds and incidence rates of unprotected intercourse compared to the control group. No significant differences were found in changes in IPV over time between the HIV and IPV group and the control group. Motivational Interviewing-based HIV prevention interventions delivered by county health department staff appear helpful in reducing HIV risk behavior for this population.
Weir, Brian W.; O'Brien, Kerth; Bard, Ronda S.; Casciato, Carol J.; Maher, Julie E.; Dent, Clyde W.; Dougherty, John A.; Stark, Michael J.
While international guidelines are currently being drawn up about HIV and infant feeding practices, and national and regional guidelines are under discussion in South Africa, there have been remarkably few studies that have sought to elicit HIV-positive mothers' experiences of breastfeeding and of paediatric infection. There is an urgent need to document this 'grass roots' knowledge in different sites, and for this data to be used to inform policy development, and for advocacy and counselling purposes. This qualitative investigation reports on the experiences and decisions taken around breastfeeding by a peer support group of 13 HIV-positive mothers meeting at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. In this study, the particular focus of information-giving and decision-making as to breast or formula feed is concerned with the impact on individual HIV-positive women and their babies. The most significant finding is that at no stage during their pregnancy were any of these mothers given information about the risks of HIV transmission through breastmilk. The study data were elicited in an in-depth group discussion, and individual women were invited to re-enact their stories in a follow-up discussion for clarification purposes. The women also discussed how they dealt with problems surrounding confidentiality in cases where few have been able to disclose their status to the extended family. There have been renewed calls for further investment in counsellors, with an enhanced role for community activists as peer educators. While there are severe resource constraints and low morale among many overworked nurses, one of the general problems in hospital settings remains the vertical health paradigm. This does not accommodate women's experiences, preferences, social networks and lay knowledge, and inhibits many women from becoming full participants in decisions affecting their own and their family's health. PMID:10731232
Seidel, G; Sewpaul, V; Dano, B
BACKGROUND: More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. METHODS: The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. DISCUSSION: The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance education program that can be adopted by universities, to assess whether aspects of the program need to be strengthened, and also to indicate how long the effects of the program last and at which point in time refresher sessions may be necessary.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01338428. PMID:23702221
Senn, Charlene Y; Eliasziw, Misha; Barata, Paula C; Thurston, Wilfreda E; Newby-Clark, Ian R; Radtke, H Lorraine; Hobden, Karen L
The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study. As a result, the ingestion of less oxidized ?-3 supplements reduced circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as opposed to the highly oxidized omega-3 capsules, which had a negative effect on cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the level of oxidation of the supplements is a key factor in controlling circulating lipid profile. Therefore, manufacturers must pay attention to the quality of the prime product prior to encapsulation. PMID:23863036
García-Hernández, V M; Gallar, M; Sánchez-Soriano, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; García-García, E
Context Concerns for the risks of hormone therapy have resulted in its decline and a demand for non-hormonal treatments with demonstrated efficacy for hot flashes. Objective Determine the efficacy and tolerability of 10–20 mg/day escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in alleviating the frequency, severity and bother of menopausal hot flashes. Design, Setting and Patients Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial for 8 weeks in a sample stratified by race (African American n=95; white n=102) and conducted at 4 MsFlash network sites between July 2009 and June 2010. Of 205 women randomized, 194 (95%) completed week 8 (intervention endpoint), and 183 completed post-treatment follow-up. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were the frequency and severity of hot flashes assessed by prospective daily diaries. Secondary outcomes were hot flash "bother" recorded on daily diaries and clinical improvement (hot flash frequency >=50% decrease from baseline). Results Hot flash frequency was 9.78/day (SD 5.60) at baseline. At week 8, reduction in hot flash frequency was greater in the escitalopram group versus placebo (?4.60, SD 4.28 and ?3.20, SD 4.76, respectively, P=0.004). Fifty-five percent of the escitalopram group (versus 36% of the placebo group) reported >=50% decreases in hot flash frequency (P=0.009). Differences in decreases in the severity and bother of hot flashes were significant (P=0.003 and P=0.013, respectively), paralleling the decreases in hot flash frequency. Three weeks after treatment ended, hot flash frequency increased in the escitalopram group to the level of the placebo group, which remained stable in the follow-up interval (P=0.020). Overall discontinuation due to side effects was 4% (7 drug, 2 placebo). Conclusion Escitalopram 10–20 mg/day provides non-hormonal off-label treatment for menopausal hot flashes that is effective and well-tolerated in healthy women.
Freeman, Ellen W.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Caan, Bette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Carpenter, Janet S.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Larson, Joseph C.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Reed, Susan; Newton, Katherine M.; Sherman, Sheryl; Sammel, Mary D.; La Croix, Andrea Z.
Yalom and Leszcz (2005) indicated that interpersonal learning is a key therapeutic factor in group psychotherapy. In this study, we conceptualized interpersonal learning as the convergence over time between an individual's and the group's perception of the individual's cohesion to the group. First, we developed parallel measures of: (a) an individual's self-rated cohesion to the group (Cohesion Questionnaire-Individual Version [CQ-I]), and (b) the group's rating of the individual's cohesion to the group (CQ-G) based on the original Cohesion Questionnaire (CQ; Piper, Marache, Lacroix, Richardsen, & Jones, 1983). Second, we used these parallel scales to assess differences between an individual's self-rating and the mean of the group's ratings of the individual's cohesion to the group. Women with binge eating disorder (N = 102) received Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Participants were assigned to homogeneously composed groups of either high or low attachment anxiety. Outcomes were measured pre- and post-treatment, and the CQ-I and CQ-G were administered every fourth group session. We found significant convergence over time between the CQ-I and mean CQ-G scale scores in both attachment anxiety conditions. Participants with higher attachment anxiety had lower individual self-ratings of cohesion and had greater discrepancies between the CQ-I and CG-G compared with those with lower attachment anxiety. There was a significant relationship between greater convergence in cohesion ratings and improved self-esteem at post-treatment. More accurate self-perceptions through feedback from group members may be a key factor in facilitating increased self-esteem in group therapy. Group therapists may facilitate such interpersonal learning, especially for those higher in attachment anxiety, by noting discrepancies and then encouraging convergence between an individual and the group in their perceptions of cohesion to the group. PMID:23398038
Gallagher, Meagan E; Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Maxwell, Hilary; Bissada, Hany
Presents a study of Lithuanian refugees involving 24 women and spanning 16 years, from the original study done in 1957 in Chicago, to the follow-up study of 14 of the same respondents done in 1973-74. Describes their process of acculturation in different life areas, their attitudes, and their associations. (Executive Office of the AABS, 231 Miller…
Cernius, Vytautas J.
The first and perhaps the most critical Millennium Development Goals of all is to make a pivotal difference in reducing the extreme poverty and hunger by half within 2015. Around the globe, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) seeks to promote various approaches to reduce human poverty by emphasizing the importance of social inclusion and equity, human rights and women's
V. P. Sriraman
Views of a selection committee's decision to promote a woman over a man on the basis of affirmative action were studied in a random sample of Australians (118 men and 111 women). The relations between perceptions of workplace gender discrimination, feelings of collective responsibility and guilt for discrimination, and judgments of entitlement to…
Boeckmann, Robert J.; Feather, N. T.
Introduction. Despite their widespread prevalence, there are no existing evidence-based psychological treatments for women with sexual desire and arousal disorder. Mindfulness, the practice of relaxed wakefulness, is an ancient eastern practice with roots in Buddhist meditation which has been found to be an effective component of psycho- logical treatments for numerous psychiatric and medical illnesses. In recent years, mindfulness has
Lori A. Brotto; Rosemary Basson; Mijal Luria
Objectives. To evaluate the association between physical exercise supervised in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Method. Randomized controlled trial, which included 116 pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, considered risk of preeclampsia development. They were divided into two groups: study group that performed physical exercise with a stationary bicycle once a week, for 30 minutes; the intensity was controlled (heart rate 20% above resting values), under professional supervision and a control group that was not engaged in any physical exercise. The data was retrieved from medical charts. Significance level assumed was 5%. Results. Women from study group performed 9.24 ± 7.03 of physical exercise sessions. There were no differences between groups comparing type of delivery and maternal outcomes, including maternal morbidity and hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal outcomes, including birth weight, adequacy of weight to gestational age, prematurity, Apgar scale at first and fifth minutes, hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal morbidity. Conclusions. Physical exercise using a stationary bicycle in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, once a week, under professional supervision, did not interfere in the delivery method and did not produce maternal and neonatal risks of the occurrence of morbidity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01395342. PMID:23997960
Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Burgos, Camila Schneider Gannuny; do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Ferreira, Néville Oliveira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto E Silva, João Luiz
Objectives. To evaluate the association between physical exercise supervised in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Method. Randomized controlled trial, which included 116 pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, considered risk of preeclampsia development. They were divided into two groups: study group that performed physical exercise with a stationary bicycle once a week, for 30 minutes; the intensity was controlled (heart rate 20% above resting values), under professional supervision and a control group that was not engaged in any physical exercise. The data was retrieved from medical charts. Significance level assumed was 5%. Results. Women from study group performed 9.24 ± 7.03 of physical exercise sessions. There were no differences between groups comparing type of delivery and maternal outcomes, including maternal morbidity and hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal outcomes, including birth weight, adequacy of weight to gestational age, prematurity, Apgar scale at first and fifth minutes, hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal morbidity. Conclusions. Physical exercise using a stationary bicycle in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, once a week, under professional supervision, did not interfere in the delivery method and did not produce maternal and neonatal risks of the occurrence of morbidity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01395342.
Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Burgos, Camila Schneider Gannuny; do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Ferreira, Neville Oliveira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto e Silva, Joao Luiz
Forty-five female outpatients sexually abused in childhood were offered a two-year-long trauma-focused group therapy. Questionnaires were given before and after treatment concerning social interaction (ISSI), social adjustment (SAS-SR), perceived family climate (Family Climate Test, Questions of Family Members). Both the level of social interaction and social adjustment were significantly improved after treatment. There were no significant changes in family climate
Gunilla Lundqvist; Kjell Hansson; Carl Göran Svedin
Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET). Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P?=?0.05, 80% power). Discussion There remains a need for further research to add significant new knowledge to defining the exact role of certain acupuncture protocols in the management of infertility requiring IVF from a clinical and cost-effectiveness perspective. Clinical Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12611000226909
Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has been uneven. Inequalities in child health are large and effective interventions rarely reach the most in need. Little is known about how to reduce these inequalities. We describe and explain the equity impact of a women’s group intervention in India that strongly reduced the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) in a cluster-randomised trial. We conducted secondary analyses of the trial data, obtained through prospective surveillance of a population of 228 186. The intervention effects were estimated separately, through random effects logistic regression, for the most and less socio-economically marginalised groups. Among the most marginalised, the NMR was 59% lower in intervention than in control clusters in years 2 and 3 (70%, year 3); among the less marginalised, the NMR was 36% lower (35%, year 3). The intervention effect was stronger among the most than among the less marginalised (P-value for difference = 0.028, years 2-3; P-value for difference = 0.009, year 3). The stronger effect was concentrated in winter, particularly for early NMR. There was no effect on the use of health-care services in either group, and improvements in home care were comparable. Participatory community interventions can substantially reduce socio-economic inequalities in neonatal mortality and contribute to an equitable achievement of the unfinished MDG agenda.
Houweling, Tanja AJ; Tripathy, Prasanta; Nair, Nirmala; Rath, Shibanand; Rath, Suchitra; Gope, Rajkumar; Sinha, Rajesh; Looman, Caspar W; Costello, Anthony; Prost, Audrey
Human placentae from well-controlled diabetic women were collected after 37 weeks of gestation and divided into three groups according to the duration and severity of diabetes mellitus established by White classification criteria. A fourth group of subjects served as matched controls. Various morphometric variables not estimated hitherto (including the star volumes of villous 'domains' and intervillous 'pores' and trophoblast surface denudation) were assessed stereologically. The aims were to test whether or not (1) control values of these structural quantities are preserved in well-controlled diabetes mellitus, and (2) differences occurred between alternative diabetic groups. Placental specimens were obtained by systematic random sampling procedures and paraffin sections were cut at random positions and orientations. Volume densities of peripheral (terminal+intermediate) villi and intervillous spaces were estimated by test point counting and multiplied by placental volumes in order to convert them into absolute volumes. Volume estimates were also obtained for trophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast nuclei and intervillous fibrin-type fibrinoid. Villous surface areas were estimated by intersection counting and the star volumes of villi and intervillous pores were obtained by measuring the lengths of point-sampled intercepts. Calculations were also made of the theoretical numbers of villous domains and intervillous pores and of the numbers of syncytiotrophoblast nuclei. No significant differences were detected between control and diabetic placentae, or between White classes, for any of the estimated quantities. It is concluded that normal values are preserved by good glycaemic control regardless of diabetic grouping. PMID:9699957
Mayhew, T M; Sisley, I
Background The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increased tremendously among menopausal women, and there is an increasing demand for alternative therapies for managing factors like dyslipidemia that contribute to CVD development. Methods In this study, Nigella sativa was evaluated for its hypolipidemic effects among menopausal women. In a randomised trial, hyperlipidemic menopausal women were assigned to treatment (n?=?19) or placebo groups (n?=?18), and given N. sativa or placebo for two months after their informed consents were sought. At baseline, blood samples were taken and at one month intervals thereafter until one month after the end of the study. Results The results showed that N. sativa significantly improved lipid profiles of menopausal women (decreased total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride, and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol) more than the placebo treatment over 2 months of intervention. One month after cessation of treatment, the lipid profiles in the N. sativa-treated group tended to change towards the pretreatment levels. Conclusions N. sativa is thought to have multiple mechanisms of action and is cost-effective. Therefore, it could be used by menopausal women to remedy hypercholesterolemia, with likely more benefits than with single pharmacological agents that may cause side effects. The use of N. sativa as an alternative therapy for hypercholesterolemia could have profound impact on the management of CVD among menopausal women especially in countries where it is readily available.
Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…
Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel
In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…
Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte
The Effects of Physical Activity and Physical Activity plus Diet Interventions on Body Weight in Overweight or Obese Women who are Pregnant or in Postpartum: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Objective To review the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) and PA plus diet interventions in managing weight among overweight or obese (OW/OB) pregnant or postpartum women. Methods Four databases were searched for randomized controlled studies published between January 2000 and December 2011 that reported weight change outcomes of PA interventions in OW/OB pregnant or postpartum women. PA alone as well as PA plus diet interventions were included. Results Of 681 abstracts identified, 11 were included (7 trials with pregnant women and 4 trials with postpartum women). Overall, we found that PA interventions were effective for OW/OB pregnant as well as postpartum women. On average, pregnant women in the intervention groups gained 0.91 kg less (95% CI: ?1.76, ?0.06) compared to those in the usual care groups. Postpartum women in the intervention groups significantly lost more body weight (?1.22 kg; 95% CI: ?1.89, ?0.56) than those in the control groups. In the subgroup analyses by PA intervention types, supervised PA plus diet interventions were the most effective. Conclusions PA plus diet interventions may require more than advice; supervised PA programs or personalized prescription/goals are needed to prevent excessive weight gain for OW/OB pregnant women and excessive weight retention for OW/OB postpartum women.
Choi, JiWon; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lee, Ji Hyeon
Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Se intake or status has been linked to the occurrence of pre-eclampsia by our own work and that of others. We hypothesised that a small increase in the Se intake of UK pregnant women of inadequate Se status would protect against the risk of pre-eclampsia, as assessed by biomarkers of pre-eclampsia. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial, we randomised 230 primiparous pregnant women to Se (60 ?g/d, as Se-enriched yeast) or placebo treatment from 12 to 14 weeks of gestation until delivery. Whole-blood Se concentration was measured at baseline and 35 weeks, and plasma selenoprotein P (SEPP1) concentration at 35 weeks. The primary outcome measure of the present study was serum soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1), an anti-angiogenic factor linked with the risk of pre-eclampsia. Other serum/plasma components related to the risk of pre-eclampsia were also measured. Between 12 and 35 weeks, whole-blood Se concentration increased significantly in the Se-treated group but decreased significantly in the placebo group. At 35 weeks, significantly higher concentrations of whole-blood Se and plasma SEPP1 were observed in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group. In line with our hypothesis, the concentration of sFlt-1 was significantly lower at 35 weeks in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group in participants in the lowest quartile of Se status at baseline (P= 0·039). None of the secondary outcome measures was significantly affected by treatment. The present finding that Se supplementation has the potential to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women of low Se status needs to be validated in an adequately powered trial. PMID:24708917
Rayman, Margaret P; Searle, Elizabeth; Kelly, Lynne; Johnsen, Sigurd; Bodman-Smith, Katherine; Bath, Sarah C; Mao, Jinyuan; Redman, Christopher W G
Current literature on cognitive functioning in pregnancy and postpartum is mixed, with most research showing deficits in memory and attention during pregnancy or no difference between pregnant participants and controls with little emphasis on the postpartum period. In the current study, we used a longitudinal controlled design and 42 primarily not depressed participants to compare pregnant women in the third trimester and approximately three months postpartum with matched controls over the same time period on neuropsychological domains including memory, attention, learning, visuospatial, and executive functioning. We also evaluated the role of mood and quality of life as potential moderators of cognitive functioning in pregnancy/postpartum. Results indicated no differences between controls and pregnant/postpartum women on neuropsychological measures at any time points. Self-reported memory difficulties, however, were higher in the pregnant/postpartum women. Pregnant and postpartum women had worse self-reported mood and quality of life than controls. Mood and quality of life slightly moderated specific measures of attention and verbal fluency; however, neither mood nor quality of life moderated overall neuropsychological functioning in either group. Number of previous pregnancies had no effect on the study findings. Results suggest differences in subjective memory complaints, but no differences in objective neuropsychological test results between controls and pregnant/postpartum women who are primarily not diagnosed with depression. PMID:24820853
Logan, Dustin M; Hill, Kyle R; Jones, Rochelle; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Larson, Michael J
This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system.
Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee
Aim To determine the effects of hyoscine-N-butyl bromide (HBB) rectal suppository on labor progress in primigravid women. Methods A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out on 130 primigravid women admitted for spontaneous labor. The women were recruited based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomized into the experimental (n?=?65) and control group (n?=?65). In the beginning of the active phase of labor, 20 mg of HBB rectal suppository was administered to the experimental group, while a placebo suppository was administered to the control group. Cervical dilatation and duration of active phase and second stage of labor were recorded. Results The rate of cervical dilatation was 2.6 cm/h in the experimental and 1.5 cm/h in the control group (P?0.001). The active phase and the second stage of labor were significantly shorter in the experimental group (P?=?0.001 and P?0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the fetal heart rate, maternal pulse rate, blood pressure, and the APGAR score 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Conclusion Use of HBB rectal suppository in the active management of labor can shorten both the active phase and second stage of labor without significant side-effects. Registration No IRCT138804282204N1.
Makvandi, Somayeh; Tadayon, Mitra; Abbaspour, Mohammadreza
A case-control study exploring the role of smoking and outdoor air pollution in the causation of lung cancer, by histologic type, in nonsmoking women, was undertaken in Athens between 1987 and 1989. One hundred one women with lung cancer and 89 comparison women with fractures or other orthopedic conditions, all permanent residents of Greater Athens, were included in the study.
Klea Katsouyanni; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Anna Kalandidi; Periklis Tomos; Elio Riboli
HIV-infected women need support to deal with their diagnosis as well as with the stigma attached to HIV. As part of their practical training, Master's-level psychology students negotiated with the staff of four clinics in townships in Tshwane, South Africa, to establish support groups for HIV+ women and offered to assist them in facilitating the groups. This study aimed to understand why the implementation of groups was successful in one clinic and not other clinics. The student reports on their experiences and interaction with clinic staff and clients were used as sources of data. Using qualitative data analysis, different dynamics and factors that could affect project implementation were identified in each clinic. The socio-ecological and systems theories were used to understand implementation processes and obstacles in implementation. The metaphor of building a bridge over a gorge was used to describe the different phases in and obstacles to the implementation of the intervention. Valuable lessons were learnt, resulting in the development of guiding principles for the implementation of support groups in community settings. PMID:18709209
Visser, Maretha J; Mundell, Jonathan P
BACKGROUND AND AIMS. Microscopic colitis (MC), predominantly affecting women, is associated with thyroid disorders, although purely defined of which type, or compared with controls. Its association with subclinical thyroid disorders, and related increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, has never been examined. The aim was to examine the prevalence of autoantibodies and subclinical and clinical thyroid dysfunction in female patients with MC compared with controls. METHODS. Women younger than 73 years old with biopsy-verified MC from the Department of Gastroenterology in Skåne, during 2002-2010, were invited. Out of 240 identified, 133 were finally included. A questionnaire about medical history was completed and blood samples were collected. Serum was analyzed for free thyroxin and triiodothyronine, thyroid-stimulating hormone and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies. A population-based group of 737 women served as controls. RESULT. The prevalence of thyroid disorders in patients was higher compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) = 2.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.78-4.99], but the prevalence of subclinical disorders was not different (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.48-2.85). Anti-TPO antibodies were present in 10.6% of MC patients and 18.6% of controls. Twenty-five MC patients had hypothyroidism: 15 with Hashimoto's hypothyroidism, 6 with completed treatment of thyrotoxicosis and 4 with completed surgery after nontoxic goiter. CONCLUSION. Thyroid disorders, autoimmune hypothyroidism being most frequent, are more prevalent in patients with MC than in controls, whereas the prevalence of subclinical thyroid disorders in MC patients does not differ significantly from controls. PMID:24164462
J Gustafsson, Rita; Roth, Bodil; Lantz, Mikael; Hallengren, Bengt; Manjer, Jonas; Ohlsson, Bodil
Background Impaired hand function is common in patients with arthritis and it affects performance of daily activities; thus, hand exercises are recommended. There is little information on the extent to which the disease affects activation of the flexor and extensor muscles during these hand-dexterity tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation during such tasks in subjects with arthritis and in a healthy reference group. Methods Muscle activation was measured in m. extensor digitorium communis (EDC) and in m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR) with surface electromyography (EMG) in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n?=?20), hand osteoarthritis (HOA, n?=?16) and in a healthy reference group (n?=?20) during the performance of four daily activity tasks and four hand exercises. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was measured to enable intermuscular comparisons, and muscle activation is presented as %MVIC. Results The arthritis group used a higher %MVIC than the reference group in both FCR and EDC when cutting with a pair of scissors, pulling up a zipper and—for the EDC—also when writing with a pen and using a key (p?0.02). The exercise “rolling dough with flat hands” required the lowest %MVIC and may be less effective in improving muscle strength. Conclusions Women with arthritis tend to use higher levels of muscle activation in daily tasks than healthy women, and wrist extensors and flexors appear to be equally affected. It is important that hand training programs reflect real-life situations and focus also on extensor strength.
Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.
Jeffries, Sherryl A. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Calgary Health Region Chronic Pain Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Robinson, John W. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Program in Clinical Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Craighead, Peter S. [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Keats, Melanie R. [Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)
The current study examined healthy weight control practices among a sample of college women enrolled at an urban university (N=715; age=19.87±1.16; 77.2% Caucasian; 13.4% African American, 7.2% Asian, 2.2% other races). Participants completed measures as part of an on-line study about health habits, behaviors, and attitudes. Items from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire were selected and evaluated with exploratory factor analysis to create a healthy weight control practices scale. Results revealed that college women, regardless of weight status, used a comparable number (four of eight) of practices. Examination of racial differences between Caucasian and African American women revealed that normal weight African American women used significantly fewer strategies than Caucasian women. Of note, greater use of healthy weight control practices was associated with higher cognitive restraint, drive for thinness, minutes of physical activity, and more frequent use of compensatory strategies. Higher scores on measures of binge and disinhibited eating, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and depressive symptoms were associated with greater use of healthy weight control practices by underweight/normal weight but not by overweight/obese college women. Results suggest that among a sample of college females, a combination of healthy and potentially unhealthy weight control practices occurs. Implications of the findings suggest the need for effective weight management and eating disorder prevention programs for this critical developmental life stage. Such programs should be designed to help students learn how to appropriately use healthy weight control practices, as motivations for use may vary by weight status. PMID:23086250
Hayes, S; Napolitano, M A
This is the story of the remarkable psychologist John E. Coover, who, in the early 1900s, was the first to advocate the comparison of experimental and control groups as a methodological necessity. Moreover, the author raises the issue of why control groups were launched about a century ago, and why psychology was comparatively early in codifying group comparison as a methodological routine. In dealing with these questions, the author discusses the relations between turn-of-the-century science and society as well as between psychophysical research and educational experimentation. Furthermore, the mystery is solved of how Coover's rightful place in the received history of experimental controls could be taken by precisely the authors whom he criticized for the lack of controls. PMID:10717980
Background: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on women diagnosed with conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and fibromyalgia (FM). Methods: The intervention group underwent a 10-week MBSR program. Symptoms Checklist Inventory (SCL-90R) was used as outcome measure and was administered before the start of the program (pre-), immediately upon completion (post-) and at three-month follow-up. Women on the wait list to receive treatment at the Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre were used as control subjects for the study. Results: A total of 50 participants in the intervention group and 26 in the wait-list controls group were recruited for this study. Global scores in the intervention group reached statistical significance pre-post (<0.0001) and at pre-follow-up (<0.0001) while the global scores in the control group remained the same. Five of nine and eight of nine subscales of the SCL-90R showed improvement of statistical significance in MBSR group following treatment and at three-month follow-up. Conclusions: The study showed the importance of complementary interventions such as MBSR techniques in the reduction of psychological distress in women with chronic conditions.
Sampalli, Tara; Berlasso, Elizabeth; Fox, Roy; Petter, Mark
BACKGROUND Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder. However, PCOS has a strong resemblance to the metabolic syndrome, including preponderance of visceral fat deposition. The aim of this study is to compare fat distribution between lean women with PCOS and controls matched for body composition but with regular menstrual cycles and proven fertility. METHODS In this prospective cross-sectional study in a fertility outpatient clinic, 10 Caucasian women with PCOS and 10 controls, all with a BMI between 19 and 25 kg/m(2), were included. Fasting glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), hormonal levels and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) variables were assessed and fat content and ovarian volume determinations were obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multiple axial cross-sections were calculated. RESULTS The age of the PCOS and control groups were [mean (SD)] 28.2 years (2.6) versus 33.7 years (2.3) P < 0.0001, respectively, and both groups were matched for BMI: 21.6 kg/m(2) (1.1) versus 21.8 kg/m(2) (2.1) (ns), fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-insulin resistance (IR) levels and BIA parameters. PCOS cases had higher ovarian volumes and less visceral fat compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS Lean women with PCOS have higher MRI-determined ovarian volumes and less visceral fat content when compared with control women. PMID:21406446
Dolfing, Jacoba G; Stassen, Chrit M; van Haard, Paul M M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Schweitzer, Dave H
Summary Background Hot flushes and night sweats (HFNS) affect 65–85% of women after breast cancer treatment; they are distressing, causing sleep problems and decreased quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy is often either undesirable or contraindicated. Safe, effective non-hormonal treatments are needed. We investigated whether cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can help breast cancer survivors to effectively manage HFNS. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, we recruited women from breast clinics in London, UK, who had problematic HFNS (minimum ten problematic episodes a week) after breast-cancer treatment. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either usual care or usual care plus group CBT (1:1). Randomisation was done in blocks of 12–20 participants, stratifying by age (younger than 50 years, 50 years or older), and was done with a computer-generated sequence. The trial statistician and researchers collecting outcome measures were masked to group allocation. Group CBT comprised one 90 min session a week for 6 weeks, and included psycho-education, paced breathing, and cognitive and behavioural strategies to manage HFNS. Assessments were done at baseline, 9 weeks, and 26 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome was the adjusted mean difference in HFNS problem rating (1–10) between CBT and usual care groups at 9 weeks after randomisation. Analysis of the primary endpoint was done by modified intention to treat. The trial is registered, ISRCTN13771934, and was closed March 15, 2011. Findings Between May 5, 2009, and Aug 27, 2010, 96 women were randomly allocated to group CBT (n=47) or usual care (n=49). Group CBT significantly reduced HFNS problem rating at 9 weeks after randomisation compared with usual care (mean difference ?1·67, 95% CI ?2·43 to ?0·91; p<0·0001) and improvements were maintained at 26 weeks (mean difference ?1·76, ?2·54 to ?0·99; p<0·0001). We recorded no CBT-related adverse events. Interpretation Group CBT seems to be a safe and effective treatment for women who have problematic HFNS after breast cancer treatment with additional benefits to mood, sleep, and quality of life. The treatment could be incorporated into breast cancer survivorship programmes and delivered by trained breast cancer nurses. Funding Cancer Research UK.
Mann, Eleanor; Smith, Melanie J; Hellier, Jennifer; Balabanovic, Janet A; Hamed, Hisham; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Hunter, Myra S
Background: Measurement of bone mineral density by dual x-ray absorptiometry combined with clinical risk factors is currently the gold standard in diagnosing osteoporosis. Advanced imaging has shown that older patients with fragility fractures have poor bone microarchitecture, often independent of low bone mineral density. We hypothesized that premenopausal women with a fracture of the distal end of the radius have similar bone mineral density but altered bone microarchitecture compared with control subjects without a fracture. Methods: Forty premenopausal women with a recent distal radial fracture were prospectively recruited and matched with eighty control subjects without a fracture. Primary outcome variables included trabecular and cortical microarchitecture at the distal end of the radius and tibia by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone mineral density at the wrist, hip, and lumbar spine was also measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Results: The fracture and control groups did not differ with regard to age, race, or body mass index. Bone mineral density was similar at the femoral neck, lumbar spine, and distal one-third of the radius, but tended to be lower in the fracture group at the hip and ultradistal part of the radius (p = 0.06). Trabecular microarchitecture was deteriorated in the fracture group compared with the control group at both the distal end of the radius and distal end of the tibia. At the distal end of the radius, the fracture group had lower total density and lower trabecular density, number, and thickness compared with the control group (–6% to –14%; p < 0.05 for all). At the distal end of the tibia, total density, trabecular density, trabecular thickness, and cortical thickness were lower in the fracture group than in the control group (–7% to –14%; p < 0.01). Conditional logistic regression showed that trabecular density, thickness, separation, and distribution of trabecular separation remained significantly associated with fracture after adjustment for age and ultradistal radial bone mineral density (adjusted odds ratios [OR]: 2.01 to 2.98; p < 0.05). At the tibia, total density, trabecular density, thickness, cortical area, and cortical thickness remained significantly associated with fracture after adjustment for age and femoral neck bone mineral density (adjusted OR:1.62 to 2.40; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Despite similar bone mineral density values by dual x-ray absorptiometry, premenopausal women with a distal radial fracture have significantly poorer bone microarchitecture at the distal end of the radius and tibia compared with control subjects without a fracture. Early identification of women with poor bone health offers opportunities for interventions aimed at preventing further deterioration and reducing fracture risk. Level of Evidence: Diagnostic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Rozental, Tamara D.; Deschamps, Laura N.; Taylor, Alexander; Earp, Brandon; Zurakowski, David; Day, Charles S.; Bouxsein, Mary L.
In May 1993, representatives of anti-censorship feminists convened at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York to overturn the myths that censorship is good for women, that women want censorship, and that those who support censorship speak for women. Participants at the convention discussed four major themes: the current panic over…
National Coalition Against Censorship, New York, NY.
Urgent need exists for improved psychological services among HIV-infected women in post-genocide Rwanda. Psychological problems associated with trauma and sexual violence (i.e., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) place women at increased risk for sexual risk behaviour, low health-seeking behaviour, delay of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and reduced ART adherence. We explored experiences of HIV-infected Rwandan women attending psychosocial support groups and their narratives about how participation affected their mental health and HIV treatment. Focus group discussions examined participants' reasons for support group attendance, perceived psychological benefit of support groups, influence on ART adherence, and other influences on health behaviors and attitudes. Rwandan women (aged 18-65) were randomly selected from 10 health clinic-facilitated support groups for HIV-infected trauma survivors in Kigali. Results identified positive psychological and physical changes as well as behaviour changes in relationships with men, which participants attributed to support group attendance. Data showed significant improvement in mental health, ART adherence and HIV serostatus disclosure resulting from group attendance. Participants acknowledged limitations of support groups with respect to addressing poverty and hunger. Implementing psychosocial support groups may leverage clinical outcomes and rejuvenate the well-being of HIV-infected women with interpersonal trauma and/or PTSD and depressive symptoms, particularly those from post-conflict countries. PMID:22812728
Walstrom, Paige; Operario, Don; Zlotnick, Caron; Mutimura, Eugene; Benekigeri, Chantal; Cohen, Mardge H
High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners) in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample) reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19%) reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8%) reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and sexual behaviors.
Griffin, Kenneth W.; Scheier, Lawrence M.; Acevedo, Bianca; Grenard, Jerry L.; Botvin, Gilbert J.
Stress is the result of demand placed on the body by either positive or negative events. Locus of Control (LOC) refers to personal perception of the cause of events and reinforcement within the environment. Previous literature has indicated that low LOC scores are positively related to low stress scores. This study applied these concepts to female…
Markus, Colleen; Seal, Justine
O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM GRUPO DE GESTANTES COM A UTILIZAÇÃO DA ABORDAGEM CORPORAL THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GROUP OF PREGNANT WOMEN USING THE BODY APPROACH EL DESARROLLO DE UN GRUPO DE MUJERES EMBARAZADAS CON LA UTILIZACIÓN DEL ABORDAJE CORPORAL
The aim of this research was to identify the emotional and body discomfort expressed by the participants of a group of pregnant women and to describe the body approach resources utilized to relieve the discomforts. An action research strategy was carried out, with a group of pregnant women composed of eight women and four companions. The group was carried out
Luciana Magnoni Reberte; Luiza Akiko; Komura Hoga; Reberte LM; Hoga LAK
Background We implemented a controlled randomized trial that compared two interventions -provision of written resource navigation information (enhanced usual care (EUC)) versus written information plus patient navigation (TPN) aimed at improving adjuvant treatment adherence and follow-up among 487 low-income, predominantly Latinas with breast or gynecologic cancer. Methods Women are randomized to either TPN or EUC. We assess chemotherapy, radiation and hormone therapy and follow-up over 12 months. Breast and gynecologic patients are analyzed separately. Results Overall adherence rates were (87-94%) and there were no significant differences between TPN and EUC groups. Among women with breast cancer, 90% of EUC and 88% of TPN patients completed chemotherapy (14% EUC-26% TPN had delayed completion), 2% EUC-4% TPN failed to complete, and 8% EUC-7% TPN refused, chemotherapy. Radiation treatment adherence was similar between groups –90% completed (40% EUC-42% TPN delayed completion); in both groups, 2% failed completion and 8% refused radiation. Among gynecologic patients, 87% EUC-94% TPN completed chemotherapy (41% EUC-31% TPN with delays), 7% EUC-6% TPN failed completion and 6% EUC refused chemotherapy; 87% EUC-84% TPN completed radiation (51% EUC-42% TPN with delays), 5% EUC-8% TPN failed completion and 8% EUC-5% TPN refused radiation. Conclusions Treatment adherence across randomized groups was notably higher than reported in previous studies, suggesting that active telephone patient navigation or written resource informational materials may facilitate adherence among low-income, predominantly Hispanic women. Adherence may have also been facilitated by federal-state Breast and Cervical Cancer treatment funding.
Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Xie, Bin; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances R.; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Muderspach, Laila; Russell, Christy; Palinkas, Lawrence A.
Background: The true benefit of iron supplementation for nonanemic menstruating women with fatigue is unknown. We studied the effect of oral iron therapy on fatigue and quality of life, as well as on hemoglobin, ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor levels, in nonanemic iron-deficient women with unexplained fatigue. Methods: We performed a multicentre, parallel, randomized controlled, closed-label, observer-blinded trial. We recruited from the practices of 44 primary care physicians in France from March to July 2006. We randomly assigned 198 women aged 18–53 years who complained of fatigue and who had a ferritin level of less than 50 ug/L and hemoglobin greater than 12.0 g/dL to receive either oral ferrous sulfate (80 mg of elemental iron daily; n = 102) or placebo (n = 96) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was fatigue as measured on the Current and Past Psychological Scale. Biological markers were measured at 6 and 12 weeks. Results: The mean score on the Current and Past Psychological Scale for fatigue decreased by 47.7% in the iron group and by 28.8% in the placebo group (difference –18.9%, 95% CI ?34.5 to ?3.2; p = 0.02), but there were no significant effects on quality of life (p = 0.2), depression (p = 0.97) or anxiety (p = 0.5). Compared with placebo, iron supplementation increased hemoglobin (0.32 g/dL; p = 0.002) and ferritin (11.4 ?g/L; p < 0.001) and decreased soluble transferrin receptor (?0.54 mg/L; p < 0.001) at 12 weeks. Interpretation: Iron supplementation should be considered for women with unexplained fatigue who have ferritin levels below 50 ?g/L. We suggest assessing the efficiency using blood markers after six weeks of treatment. Trial registration no. EudraCT 2006–000478–56.
Vaucher, Paul; Druais, Pierre-Louis; Waldvogel, Sophie; Favrat, Bernard
Objective Abdominal adiposity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of GH in abdominally obese women on body composition and cardiovascular risk markers. Materials and Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 79 obese premenopausal women received GH vs. placebo for six months. Primary endpoints were: 1) total abdominal (TAT) fat by CT (body composition) and 2) high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (cardiovascular risk marker). Body composition was assessed by CT, DXA and proton MR spectroscopy. Serum cardiovascular risk markers, carotid intima-media thickness and endothelial function were measured. Results Mean 6-month GH dose was 1.7±0.1 mg/day, resulting in a mean IGF-1 SDS increase from ?1.7±0.08 to ?0.1±0.3 in the GH group. GH administration decreased TAT and hsCRP compared with placebo. In addition, it increased thigh muscle mass and lean body mass, and decreased subcutaneous abdominal and trunk fat, tPA, apoB, and apoB/LDL compared with placebo. Visceral adipose tissue decreased and IMCL increased within the GH group. Six-month change in IGF-1 levels was negatively associated with 6-month decrease in TAT and VAT. One subject had a 2-hour glucose >200 mg/mL at 3 months; four subjects, three of whom were randomized to GH, had 2-hour glucose levels >200 mg/mL at study end. Conclusion GH administration in abdominally obese premenopausal women exerts beneficial effects on body composition and cardiovascular risk markers, but is associated with a decrease in glucose tolerance in a minority of women.
Bredella, Miriam A.; Lin, Eleanor; Brick, Danielle J.; Gerweck, Anu V.; Harrington, Lindsey M.; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J.; Hemphill, Linda C.; Wu, Zida; Rifai, Nader; Utz, Andrea L.; Miller, Karen K.
Investigated the dimensionality of the locus of control (LOC) construct in 174 inmates at a state prison for women. Factor analyses showed the presence of one factor, the internal-external dimension. The dimensionality of LOC was unrelated to length of imprisonment. Homogeneity of sex, race, and socioeconomic status influenced results. (JAC)
BACKGROUND: Adding clomiphene citrate (CC) to FSH for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) decreases FSH dose required for optimum stimulation. However, because of its anti-estrogenic effects, CC may be associated with lower pregnancy rates offsetting the FSH-dose reduction benefit. Previously, we reported the success of aromatase inhibition in inducing ovulation without antiestrogenic effects. METHODS: A prospective pilot study that included women
M. F. M. Mitwally; R. F. Casper
A sample of community women was surveyed to determine exercise habits, weight control methods, and perceived barriers to sustaining and initiating exercise and weight management programs. Lack of time was reported to be the most significant factor limiting exercise, while lack of willpower and time constraints were the most frequently reported obstacles to weight management. Suggestions to aid adherence to
Cheryl A. Johnson; Sheila A. Corrigan; Patricia M. Dubbert; Sandra E. Gramling
Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether there are overall differences in help-seeking, in specific weight control behaviors used, and in predictors of seeking professional help for weight loss between African American and Caucasian women. Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Participants were recruited from community sources in Philadelphia. Participants: One hundred twenty female participants were studied. Of
Rachel A Annunziato; Janet N Lee; Michael R Lowe
GH therapy has been applied to patients with Turner syndrome for over a decade, but small sample size, delayed initiation of therapy into adolescent age and comparison with historical control subjects limit the usefulness of these studies for appraisal of the effect of GH on final adult height. We report 49 young women with Turner syndrome who completed a clinical
Ze' ev Hochberg; Zvi Zadik
Rates of iron deficiency are high amongst healthy young women. Cognitive impairment occurs secondary to iron deficiency in infants and children, but evaluation of the impact on cognition among young women is inconsistent. The aim was to determine the suitability of the IntegNeuro test battery for assessing cognitive function in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient young women. A pilot double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted in iron-deficient (serum ferritin ? 20 ?g/L and haemoglobin > 120 g/L) and iron-sufficient young women (18-35 years). Cognitive function and haematological markers of iron status were measured at baseline and follow-up. Iron-deficient participants (n = 24) were randomised to receive placebo, 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron daily supplements for 16 weeks. A control group of iron-sufficient participants (n = 8) was allocated to placebo. Change scores for Impulsivity and Attention were significantly greater in plasma ferritin improvers than in non-improvers (p = 0.004, p = 0.026). IntegNeuro was easy to administer and acceptable to young women. Based on the differences in Memory and Attention scores between iron-deficient participants on iron treatment and those on placebo, it was decided that between 26 and 84 participants would be required in each iron treatment group for an adequately powered extension of this pilot RCT. PMID:24959952
Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J
Rates of iron deficiency are high amongst healthy young women. Cognitive impairment occurs secondary to iron deficiency in infants and children, but evaluation of the impact on cognition among young women is inconsistent. The aim was to determine the suitability of the IntegNeuro test battery for assessing cognitive function in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient young women. A pilot double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted in iron-deficient (serum ferritin ? 20 ?g/L and haemoglobin > 120 g/L) and iron-sufficient young women (18–35 years). Cognitive function and haematological markers of iron status were measured at baseline and follow-up. Iron-deficient participants (n = 24) were randomised to receive placebo, 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron daily supplements for 16 weeks. A control group of iron-sufficient participants (n = 8) was allocated to placebo. Change scores for Impulsivity and Attention were significantly greater in plasma ferritin improvers than in non-improvers (p = 0.004, p = 0.026). IntegNeuro was easy to administer and acceptable to young women. Based on the differences in Memory and Attention scores between iron-deficient participants on iron treatment and those on placebo, it was decided that between 26 and 84 participants would be required in each iron treatment group for an adequately powered extension of this pilot RCT.
Leonard, Alecia J.; Chalmers, Kerry A.; Collins, Clare E.; Patterson, Amanda J.
This study reports the results of a worksite weight loss program which allowed female hospital and nursing home employees to enroll in a worksite weight loss program as individuals or as part of a group. After 8 weeks, employees (irrespective of group versus individual participation) lost an average of 6.2 lb and 1.5% body fat. The initial weight, body fat, and body
Andrea Rigsby; Daniel M. Gropper; Sareen S. Gropper
Objectives To quantify risk factors for and the prevalence of early onset group B streptococcal sepsis in neonates in a geographically defined population. Design Cases were collected prospectively for two years from April 1998 and compared with four controls each, matched for time and place of delivery. Setting The former Northern health region of the United Kingdom. Participants Infants infected with group B streptococcus in the first week of life. Results The prevalence of early onset group B streptococcal sepsis was 0.57 per 1000 live births. Premature infants comprised 38% of all cases and 83% of the deaths. Prematurity (odds ratio 10.4, 95% confidence interval 3.9 to 27.6), rupture of the membranes more than 18 hours before delivery (25.8, 10.2 to 64.8), rupture of the membranes before the onset of labour (11.1, 4.8 to 25.9), and intrapartum fever (10.0, 2.4 to 40.8) were significant risk factors for infection. Had the interim recommendations on best practice issued by the Group B Streptococcus Working Group of the Public Health Laboratory Service been uniformly applied to the fetuses alive at the onset of labour, 29 of 37 (78%) might have been given antibiotic prophylaxis during labour. At least 23 of these 29 (79%) could have had antibiotics for four hours or more before delivery. To achieve this, 16% of all women would have been given antibiotics during labour. Conclusions Early onset group B streptococcal sepsis remains an important problem in the United Kingdom. Prevention based on risk factors might reduce the prevalence at the cost of treating many women with risk factors. Using rupture of the membranes before the onset of labour as a risk factor might be expected to improve the success of guidelines for prophylaxis. What is already known on this topicGroup B streptococcal infection is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis in the United Kingdom and an important, yet potentially preventable, cause of deathThe prevalence of early onset group B streptococcal sepsis in the United Kingdom is not well definedData from the United States and Australia show that the prevalence may be reduced drastically by using selective antibiotic prophylaxis during labourWhat this study addsOdds ratios for established risk factors, calculated for a British population, might aid the development of prophylactic guidelinesRupture of the membranes before the onset of labour should be considered as an important risk factor and might identify potential cases at an earlier stageCurrent prophylactic guidelines might prevent or ameliorate three quarters of all cases of infection at the cost of giving antibiotics to 16% of all women in labour
Oddie, Sam; Embleton, Nicholas D
Aims Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of both methadone and buprenorphine when used with opioid dependent men transitioning from prison to the community, but no studies have been conducted with women in the criminal justice (CJ) system. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of buprenorphine for relapse prevention among opioid dependent women in the CJ system transitioning back to the community. Methods 36 women under CJ supervision were recruited from an inpatient drug treatment facility that treats CJ individuals returning back to the community. Nine were enrolled in an open label buprenorphine arm then 27 were randomized to buprenorphine (n=15) or placebo (n=12; double-blind). All women completed baseline measures and started study medication prior to release. Participants were followed weekly, provided urine drug screens (UDS), received study medication for 12 weeks, and returned for a 3 month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses were performed for all time points through end-of-treatment (EOT). Results The majority of participants were Caucasian (88.9%), young (M±SD=31.8±8.4 years), divorced/separated (59.2%) women with at least a high school/GED education (M±SD =12±1.7 years). GEE analyses showed that buprenorphine was efficacious in maintaining abstinence across time compared to placebo. At End of Treatment, 92% of placebo and 33% of active medication participants were positive for opiates on urine drug screen (Chi-Square = 10.9, df=1; p<0.001). However, by the three month follow-up point, no differences were found between the two groups, with 83% of participants at follow-up positive for opiates. Conclusions Women in the CJ system who received buprenorphine prior to release from a treatment facility had fewer opiate positive UDS through the 12-weeks of treatment compared to women receiving placebo. Initiating buprenorphine in a controlled environment prior to release appears to be a viable strategy to reduce opiate use when transitioning back to the community.
Cropsey, Karen L.; Lane, Peter S.; Hale, Galen J.; Jackson, Dorothy O.; Clark, C. Brendan; Ingersoll, Karen S.; Islam, M. Aminul; Stitzer, Maxine L.
Background There is a need for evidence on the most effective and cost-effective approaches for promoting healthy eating among groups that do not meet dietary recommendations for good health, such as those with low incomes or experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. This paper describes the ShopSmart 4 Health study, a randomised controlled trial conducted by Deakin University, Coles Supermarkets and the Heart Foundation, to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a skill-building intervention for promoting increased purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables amongst women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods/design ShopSmart 4 Health employed a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18–60 years, holding a Coles store loyalty card, who shopped at Coles stores within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and met low-income eligibility criteria were invited to participate. Consenting women completed a baseline survey assessing food shopping and eating habits and food-related behaviours and attitudes. On receipt of their completed survey, women were randomised to either a skill-building intervention or a wait-list control condition. Intervention effects will be evaluated via self-completion surveys and using supermarket transaction sales data, collected at pre- and post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Process evaluation will be undertaken to identify perceived value and effects of intervention components. Discussion This study will provide data to address the currently limited evidence base regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skill-building intervention strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, a target group at high risk of poor diets. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN48771770
The risk factors for lung cancer in lifetime nonsmoking women were investigated in a hospital-based case-control study in the urban area of Shenyang, China, between April 1992 and May 1994. One-hundred thirty-five newly-diagnosed lung cancer cases and an equal number of controls, matched for age and sex, were enrolled and interviewed by trained personnel who administered a standardized questionnaire. The
Tian-jue Wang; Bao-sen Zhou; Jin-pu Shi
We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women’s intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.
Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Background Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and presence of polycystic ovaries on pelvic scanning. Insulin resistance is significantly associated with the long-term risks of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Berberine has effects on insulin resistance but its use in women with PCOS has not been fully investigated. In this paper, we present a research design evaluating the effects of berberine on insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Methods/design This is a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind trial. A total of 120 patients will be enrolled in this study and will be randomized into two groups. Berberine or placebo will be taken orally for 12 weeks. The primary outcome is the whole body insulin action assessed with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Discussion We postulate that women with PCOS will have improved insulin resistance following berberine administration. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01138930.
Summary Background Results of several trials of antioxidant use during pregnancy have not shown a reduction in pre-eclampsia, but the effect in women with diabetes is unknown. We aimed to assess whether supplementation with vitamins C and E reduced incidence of pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes. Methods We enrolled women from 25 UK antenatal metabolic clinics in a multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Eligibility criteria were type 1 diabetes preceding pregnancy, presentation between 8 weeks' and 22 weeks' gestation, singleton pregnancy, and age 16 years or older. Women were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive 1000 mg vitamin C and 400 IU vitamin E (?-tocopherol) or matched placebo daily until delivery. The randomisation sequence was stratified by centre with balanced blocks of eight patients. All trial personnel and participants were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was pre-eclampsia, which we defined as gestational hypertension with proteinuria. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. This study is registered, ISRCTN27214045. Findings Between April, 2003, and June, 2008, 762 women were randomly allocated to treatment groups (379 vitamin supplementation, 383 placebo). The primary endpoint was assessed for 375 women allocated to receive vitamins, and 374 allocated to placebo. Rates of pre-eclampsia did not differ between vitamin (15%, n=57) and placebo (19%, 70) groups (risk ratio 0·81, 95% CI 0·59–1·12). No adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes were reported. Interpretation Supplementation with vitamins C and E did not reduce risk of pre-eclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes. However, the possibility that vitamin supplementation might be beneficial in women with a low antioxidant status at baseline needs further testing. Funding The Wellcome Trust.
McCance, David R; Holmes, Valerie A; Maresh, Michael JA; Patterson, Christopher C; Walker, James D; Pearson, Donald WM; Young, Ian S
Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is generally considered a stressful and painful procedure; we aimed to evaluate whether a single education and counseling intervention could reduce women's distress and pain after undergoing HSG for infertility. Patients were randomized into control group (n = 108) and intervention group (n = 109). All patients filled the following questionnaires before and after HSG: Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Z-SAS), Zung self-rating depression scale (Z-SDS), and an ad hoc questionnaire designed to evaluate HSG procedure knowledge. Pain was scored using a visual analog scale. The intervention consisted in a 45-minute individualised session 48 h before HSG. We observed a reduction of anxiety and depression scores in the intervention arm compared to the control group. After controlling for potential confounding variables, intervention was an independent predictor of the difference of Z-SAS score before and after HSG. This is the first randomised controlled trial to assess the potential effectiveness of a single education and counseling intervention to lower anxiety in a diagnostic setting. PMID:24574902
La Fianza, Alfredo; Dellafiore, Caterina; Travaini, Daniele; Broglia, Davide; Gambini, Francesca; Scudeller, Luigia; Tinelli, Carmine; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Brondino, Natascia
Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area. PMID:24080893
Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María
Reserch efforts in the Pest Control Section, BARC, a continuator of insect sterilization and pest control section of the erstwhile Biology and Agriculture Division, were continued to develop integrated management practices for the control of important ins...
Background Unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important and costly public health problems in the United States resulting from unprotected sexual intercourse. Risk factors for unplanned pregnancies and STIs (poverty, low educational attainment, homelessness, substance abuse, lack of health insurance, history of an abusive environment, and practice of commercial sex work) are especially high among women with a history of incarceration. Project CARE (Contraceptive Awareness and Reproductive Education) is designed to evaluate an innovative intervention, Motivational Interviewing with Computer Assistance (MICA), aimed at enhancing contraceptive initiation and maintenance among incarcerated women who do not want a pregnancy within the next year and who are anticipated to be released back to the community. This study aims to: (1) increase the initiation of highly effective contraceptives while incarcerated; (2) increase the continuation of highly effective contraceptive use at 3, 6, 9, and 12?months after release; and (3) decrease unsafe sexual activity. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial will recruit 400 women from the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI DOC) women’s jail at risk for an unplanned pregnancy (that is, sexually active with men and not planning/wanting to become pregnant in the next year). They will be randomized to two interventions: a control group who receive two educational videos (on contraception, STIs, and pre-conception counseling) or a treatment group who receive two sessions of personalized MICA. MICA is based on the principles of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and on Motivational Interviewing (MI), an empirically supported counseling technique designed to enhance readiness to change targeted behaviors. Women will be followed at 3, 6, 9, and 12?months post release and assessed for STIs, pregnancy, and reported condom use. Discussion Results from this study are expected to enhance our understanding of the efficacy of MICA to enhance contraceptive initiation and maintenance and reduce sexual risk-taking behaviors among incarcerated women who have re-entered the community. Trial registration NCT01132950
Background One of the main priorities of Dutch organisations providing shelter services is to develop evidence-based interventions in the care for abused women and homeless people. To date, most of these organisations have not used specific intervention models and the interventions which have been implemented rarely have an empirical and theoretical foundation. The present studies aim to examine the effectiveness of critical time intervention (CTI) for abused women and homeless people. Methods In two multi-centre randomised controlled trials we investigate whether CTI, a time-limited (nine month) outreach intervention, is more effective than care-as-usual for abused women and homeless people making the transition from shelter facilities to supported or independent housing. Participants were recruited in 19 women’s shelter facilities and 22 homeless shelter facilities across The Netherlands and randomly allocated to the intervention group (CTI) or the control group (care-as-usual). They were interviewed four times in nine months: once before leaving the shelter, and then at three, six and nine months after leaving the shelter. Quality of life (primary outcome for abused women) and recurrent loss of housing (primary outcome for homeless people) as well as secondary outcomes (e.g. care needs, self-esteem, loneliness, social support, substance use, psychological distress and service use) were assessed during the interviews. In addition, the model integrity of CTI was investigated during the data collection period. Discussion Based on international research CTI is expected to be an appropriate intervention for clients making the transition from institutional to community living. If CTI proves to be effective for abused women and homeless people, shelter services could include this case management model in their professional standards and improve the (quality of) services for clients. Trial registration NTR3463 and NTR3425
Although both domestic U.S. and international statistics on population demographics within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields indicate overall gains and more even representation among various groups, caution must be taken to interpret these gains as suggesting blanket improvement in underrepresentation issues. When…
Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Wyer, Mary; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Schneider, Jennifer
This 12-week, double-masked, double-dummy, randomized, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and safety of an estradiol matrix transdermal delivery system (Alora) in two strengths (50-microgram/d estradiol and 100-microgram/d estradiol) with placebo in postmenopausal women who were experiencing at least 60 moderate-to-severe hot flushes per week. In 273 postmenopausal women, the reduction in the frequency of moderate-to-severe hot flushes was significantly better than placebo within 2 weeks of initiating therapy in the 100-microgram/d group and within 3 weeks of initiating therapy in the 50-microgram/d group. The reduction in hot flushes for both active treatment groups remained significantly different from placebo throughout the 12-week trial. Improvement in vaginal cytology profile (maturation index) was observed in both active treatment groups. Serum estradiol concentrations were elevated to early-to mid-follicular levels, in proportion to dose, and the estradiol/estrone ratio remained within the expected premenopausal range. The incidence of estrogen-related side effects was modest but greater in the active treatment groups than in the placebo group: Breast pain was reported in 4.5% of the patients in the 50-microgram/d group, 5.3% of patients in the 100-microgram/d group, and none of the patients in the placebo group. Breakthrough bleeding occurred in 3.4% of women in the 50-microgram/d group, 20.2% of women in the 100-microgram/d group, and 4.4% of women in the placebo group. Only 3 (1.1%) patients terminated treatment because of skin reactions. This study demonstrates that this estradiol matrix transdermal delivery system is effective in the treatment of menopausal symptoms, while providing the skin tolerability desired by patients. PMID:9001826
Good, W R; John, V A; Ramirez, M; Higgins, J E
In this study we addressed the subjective benefits of activity interventions that were designed to improve cognitive fitness in old age. Two hundred and fifty-nine women (aged 70-93 years) were randomized to participate in an exercise or a computer course or a control condition for 6 months. Subjective ratings of the perceived change of cognitive and physical fitness components were captured before, during, after the intervention interval, and at a 10-month follow-up. Positive and negative affect levels and objective cognitive fitness parameters served as possible covariates. Multilevel modeling revealed that the computer group rated memory and concentration as having improved at 4 months and again at 6 months. The exercise group, in contrast, perceived physical capacities as maintained or improved. The characteristics of the activity experience seem to determine the perceived fitness changes. We conclude that actual learning experiences improve one's self-concept of abilities. PMID:21557117
Klusmann, Verena; Evers, Andrea; Schwarzer, Ralf; Heuser, Isabella
The study aimed at detecting apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) together with determining expression of NF-kappaB (p105/p50) and Bax in varicose vein walls. Women (n = 35) undergoing the excision of varicose veins were divided into 3 groups: younger than 35 years (I), 36–50 years (II), and older than 50 years (III). Apoptosis was determined by the TUNEL method, NF-kappaB and Bax expression by immunohistochemistry. The percentage of apoptotic ECs and SMCs in the layers of varicose vein wall increased in groups II and III. NF-kappaB expression had the lowest level in Group II with particularly low level in the media. Contrariwise, Bax expression levels in Group II were increased. The study revealed that in varicose veins ECs and SMCs apoptosis increased with advancing age. If increase in apoptosis during earlier stages of varicosities is probably regulated by intrinsic pathway, then in older patients other signaling pathways may be involved.
Simovart, Helle Evi; Arend, Andres; Lieberg, Juri; Aunapuu, Marina
Lethal and sublethal genetical factors, including Rh factor, represent endogenous risk factors of the pregnancy outcome. These factors are most frequently inherited in recessive way and they often lead to the negative outcome of pregnancies. They represent pregnancy (a prirori) risk of various degrees. Inheritance of Rh system blood groups is linked to chromosome 1 and it could be explained by two alternative theories; molecular Rh system genetics has not yet been completely explained. The first formal-genetic theory postulates three closely linked gene sites (loci C, D and E) while the second theory has a monogenic character (one locus with several allele genes). Data on 755 pregnancies, which were (for various reasons) estimated as increased risk pregnancies, were registered at Gynaecology Clinic, Clinical Centre of University of Sarajevo, during the period from 1989 to 1992. These data were collected from pregnant women who, according to the certain indications from their familiar and personal anamnesis, demanded genetic consultations. The result of investigation of the basic Rh system phenotype distribution shows no statistically significant difference between monitored pregnant women. This result is assumed as valid for both pregnant women and their partners. The same result is suggesting that the observed increased risk pregnancy samples do not significantly differ from the previously studied population samples. Therefore, it has been concluded that Rh factor is not closely related to the increased risk of individual pregnancy outcomes, that is, it does not have relevant influence on the observed reproduction parameters. This result is very interesting and deserves particular medical attention and further evaluation in the future, particularly considering known immunological phenomena resulting from relations between reproduction partners belonging to the basic Rh system phenotypes. PMID:16212567
Redzi?, Amira; Begi?, Fatima
Background The prenatal care visit structure has changed little over the past century despite the rapid evolution of technology including Internet and mobile phones. Little is known about how pregnant women engage with technologies and the interface between these tools and medical care, especially for women of lower socioeconomic status. Objective We sought to understand how women use technology during pregnancy through a qualitative study with women enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. Methods We recruited pregnant women ages 18 and older who owned a smartphone, at a WIC clinic in central Pennsylvania. The focus group guide included questions about women’s current pregnancy, their sources of information, and whether they used technology for pregnancy-related information. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed. Three members of the research team independently analyzed each transcript, using a thematic analysis approach. Themes related to the topics discussed were identified, for which there was full agreement. Results Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 17 women. Three major themes emerged as follows. First, the prenatal visit structure is not patient-centered, with the first visit perceived as occurring too late and with too few visits early in pregnancy when women have the most questions for their prenatal care providers. Unfortunately, the educational materials women received during prenatal care were viewed as unhelpful. Second, women turn to technology (eg, Google, smartphone applications) to fill their knowledge gaps. Turning to technology was viewed to be a generational approach. Finally, women reported that technology, although frequently used, has limitations. Conclusions The results of this qualitative research suggest that the current prenatal care visit structure is not patient-centered in that it does not allow women to seek advice when they want it most. A generational shift seems to have occurred, resulting in pregnant women in our study turning to the Internet and smartphones to fill this gap, which requires significant skills to navigate for useful information. Future steps may include developing interventions to help health care providers assist patients early in pregnancy to seek the information they want and to become better consumers of Internet-based pregnancy resources.
Chuang, Cynthia H; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Blubaugh, Ian; Pauli, Jaimey; Feher, Alyssa; Reddy, Madhu
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and external genital warts. The purpose of this study is to document the genotype distribution of HPV in females aged between 18 and 34 who self-referred to an STI clinic with visible external genital warts (EGW). Scrapings were taken from visible external genital warts (EGW). These scrapings were analysed by PCR for the presence of HPV DNA. Positive samples were then genotyped by means of a commercially available assay (LiPA). A comparison of genotyping results determined by the LiPA assay and direct amplicon DNA sequencing was also performed. Results Ninety-two patients out of 105 samples (88%) had detectable levels of HPV DNA. The majority of individuals with EGW (66%) showed the presence of two or more genotypes. The most common HPV genotypes present in the study population were HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-33 and HPV-53. Potential effects of vaccination on HPV molecular epidemiology indicate that 40% of the patients could have been protected from the high risk genotypes HPV-16 and HPV-18. Conclusion This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of external genital warts in women aged between 18 and 34 from Ireland based on results from a LiPA assay. The study shows that most individuals are infected with multiple genotypes including those with high oncogenic potential and that the newly available HPV vaccines could have a significant impact on prevalence of the most common HPV genotypes in this study population.
Menton, John F; Cremin, Suzanne M; Canier, Lydie; Horgan, Mary; Fanning, Liam J
Context Since drug-involved women are among the fastest growing groups with AIDS, sexual risk reduction intervention for them is a public health imperative. Objective Test effectiveness of HIV/STD safer sex skills building (SSB) groups for women in community drug treatment. Design Randomized trial of SSB versus standard HIV/STD Education (HE); assessments at baseline, 3- and 6- months Participants Women recruited from 12 methadone or psychosocial treatment programs in NIDA’s Clinical Trials Network. 515 women with ? one unprotected vaginal or anal sex occasion (USO) with a male partner in the past 6 months were randomized. Interventions In SSB, five 90-minute groups used problem-solving and skills rehearsal to increase HIV/STD risk awareness, condom use and partner negotiation skills. In HE, one 60-minute group covered HIV/STD disease, testing, treatment, and prevention information. Main Outcome Number of USOs at follow up. Results A significant difference in mean USOs was obtained between SSB and HE over time (F=67.2, p<.0001). At 3 months, significant decrements were observed in both conditions. At 6 months SSB maintained the decrease, HE returned to baseline (p<.0377). Women in SSB had 29% fewer USOs than those in HE. Conclusions Skills building interventions can produce ongoing sexual risk reduction in women in community drug treatment.
Tross, Susan; Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Cohen, Lisa R.; Calsyn, Donald; Pavlicova, Martina; Miele, Gloria; Hu, Mei-Chen; Haynes, Louise; Nugent, Nancy; Gan, Weijin; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Mandler, Raul; McLaughlin, Paul; El-Bassel, Nabila; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Nunes, Edward V.
Background:Decision aids may improve informed consent in clinical trial recruitment, but have not been evaluated in this context. This study investigated whether decision aids (DAs) can reduce decisional difficulties among women considering participation in the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II (IBIS-II) trial.Methods:The IBIS-II trial investigated breast cancer prevention with anastrazole in two cohorts: women with increased risk (Prevention), and women treated for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom participants were randomised to receive a DA (DA group) or standard trial consent materials (control group). Questionnaires were completed after deciding about participation in IBIS-II (post decision) and 3 months later (follow-up).Results:Data from 112 Prevention and 34 DCIS participants were analysed post decision (73 DA; 73 control); 95 Prevention and 24 DCIS participants were analysed at follow-up (58 DA; 61 control). There was no effect on the primary outcome of decisional conflict. The DCIS-DA group had higher knowledge post decision, and the Prevention-DA group had lower decisional regret at follow-up.Conclusions:This was the first study to evaluate a DA in the clinical trial setting. The results suggest DAs can potentially increase knowledge and reduce decisional regret about clinical trial participation. PMID:24892447
Juraskova, I; Butow, P; Bonner, C; Bell, M L; Smith, A B; Seccombe, M; Boyle, F; Reaby, L; Cuzick, J; Forbes, J F
Background Non-didactically delivered curriculum based group psychoeducation has been shown to be more effective than both group support\\u000a in a specialist mood disorder centre in Spain (with effects lasting up to five years), and treatment as usual in Australia.\\u000a It is unclear whether the specific content and form of group psychoeducation is effective or the chance to meet and work collaboratively
Richard K Morriss; Fiona Lobban; Steven Jones; Lisa Riste; Sarah Peters; Christopher Roberts; Linda Davies; Debbie Mayes
The physiologic consequences of using white rice or mixed rice were evaluated in overweight Korean women (body mass index > or = 25 kg/m(2)) over a period of 6 weeks. Forty women between 20 and 35 years of age were randomly divided into 2 groups who consumed 1 of 2 low-energy meal replacements containing either white rice (WR group) or mixture of brown rice and black rice (BRBL group). The subjects were not allowed to have any food other than the low-energy meal replacement 3 times a day and snacks provided by the researcher. The changes in anthropometric indices and blood parameters such as lipid levels and antioxidant activities were measured every 3 weeks during the dietary intervention. The subjects showed a significant reduction in weight, body mass index, and body fat (%) during the experimental period, with the BRBL group exhibiting levels of all 3 parameters significantly lower than those of the WR group (P < .05). The levels of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols decreased gradually and significantly after intervention in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly elevated in the BRBL group but not in the WR group. Superoxide dismutase activity was not affected by dietary intervention, but glutathione peroxidase activity in the BRBL group was higher than in the WR group, and the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance was lower in the BRBL group compared to the WR group. In conclusion, meal replacement with mixed rice was superior to replacement with white rice in weight control, improving antioxidant enzyme activity, and as such, should be recommended for diet therapy in obese women. PMID:19083390
Kim, Jung Yun; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Da Hee; Kim, Sook He; Lee, Sang Sun
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a result of complex gene-environment interactions, and several risk factors have been identified, including age, family history, diet, sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Statistical models that combine known risk factors for T2D can partly identify individuals at high risk of developing the disease. However, these studies have so far indicated that human genetics contributes little to the models, whereas socio-demographic and environmental factors have greater influence. Recent evidence suggests the importance of the gut microbiota as an environmental factor, and an altered gut microbiota has been linked to metabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here we use shotgun sequencing to characterize the faecal metagenome of 145 European women with normal, impaired or diabetic glucose control. We observe compositional and functional alterations in the metagenomes of women with T2D, and develop a mathematical model based on metagenomic profiles that identified T2D with high accuracy. We applied this model to women with impaired glucose tolerance, and show that it can identify women who have a diabetes-like metabolism. Furthermore, glucose control and medication were unlikely to have major confounding effects. We also applied our model to a recently described Chinese cohort and show that the discriminant metagenomic markers for T2D differ between the European and Chinese cohorts. Therefore, metagenomic predictive tools for T2D should be specific for the age and geographical location of the populations studied. PMID:23719380
Karlsson, Fredrik H; Tremaroli, Valentina; Nookaew, Intawat; Bergström, Göran; Behre, Carl Johan; Fagerberg, Björn; Nielsen, Jens; Bäckhed, Fredrik
As tamoxifen stimulates ovarian steroidogenesis in premenopausal women, induces ovulation and increases the incidence of benign ovarian cysts, there has been concern that it might also increase ovarian cancer risk in women treated premenopausally. In a national case–control study in Britain, treatment histories were collected for 158 cases of ovarian cancer after breast cancer diagnosed at ages under 55 years and 464 controls who had breast cancer at these ages without subsequent ovarian cancer. Risk of ovarian cancer was not raised for women overall who had taken tamoxifen (odds ratio (OR)=0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6–1.3) or for those treated when premenopausal (OR=1.0, 95% CI 0.6–1.6) or perimenopausal (OR=0.7, 95% CI 0.2–2.4). There was also no relation of risk to daily dose, duration or cumulative dose of tamoxifen, or time since last use. There was, however, a significantly raised risk in relation to non-hormonal chemotherapy. The results suggest that tamoxifen treatment of premenopausal or perimenopausal women does not materially affect ovarian cancer risk, but that non-hormonal chemotherapy might increase risk.
Swerdlow, A J; Jones, M E
There is a positive correlation between the range of future time perspective, a time estimation task, and a motor impulse control task in delinquent Israeli boys. Motor impulse control is not related for controls, nor is there a significant difference between groups on this variable. There is no relationship between intelligence and future time perspective or impulse control.
A. W. Siegman
Context: Current osteoporosis medications increase bone mineral density (BMD) modestly and reduce, but do not eliminate, fracture risk. Attempts to improve efficacy by administering anabolic agents and bisphosphonates concomitantly have been unsuccessful. Conversely, 12 months of concomitant denosumab and teriparatide therapy increases BMD more than either drug alone. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 24 months of combined denosumab and teriparatide will increase hip and spine BMD more than either individual agent. Design: Preplanned continuation of the Denosumab and Teriparatide Administration (DATA) randomized controlled trial in which postmenopausal osteoporotic women received teriparatide (20 ?g daily), denosumab (60 mg every 6 months), or both medications for 24 months. Participants: Participants were 94 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Outcome Measures: Lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and distal radius BMD and serum markers of bone turnover were measured. Results: At 24 months, lumbar spine BMD increased more in the combination group (12.9 ± 5.0%) than in either the teriparatide (9.5 ± 5.9%, P = .01) or denosumab (8.3 ± 3.4%, P = .008) groups. Femoral neck BMD also increased more in the combination group (6.8 ± 3.6%) than in either the teriparatide (2.8 ± 3.9%, P = .003) or denosumab (4.1 ± 3.8%, P = .008) groups. Similarly, total hip BMD increased more in the combination group (6.3 ± 2.6%) than in the teriparatide (2.0 ± 3.0%) or denosumab (3.2 ± 2.5%) groups (P < .001 for both). Although spine and hip BMD continued to increase in the second year in all groups, these year 2 increases did not differ among groups. Serum C-telopeptide and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen were equally suppressed in the denosumab and combination groups, whereas osteocalcin decreased more in the denosumab group than in the combination group, a difference that persisted, but lessened, in the second year of therapy. Conclusions: Two years of concomitant teriparatide and denosumab therapy increases BMD more than therapy with either medication alone and more than has been reported with any current therapy. The combination of these agents may prove to be an important treatment option in patients at high risk of fracture. PMID:24517156
Leder, Benjamin Z; Tsai, Joy N; Uihlein, Alexander V; Burnett-Bowie, Sherri-Ann M; Zhu, Yuli; Foley, Katelyn; Lee, Hang; Neer, Robert M
Context Current osteoporosis medications increase bone mineral density (BMD) modestly and reduce, but do not eliminate, fracture risk. Attempts to improve efficacy by administering anabolic agents and bisphosphonates concomitantly have been unsuccessful. Conversely, 12 months of concomitant denosumab and teriparatide therapy increases BMD more than either drug alone. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether 24 months of combined denosumab and teriparatide will increase hip and spine BMD more than either individual agent. Design Preplanned continuation of the Denosumab and Teriparatide Administration (DATA) randomized controlled trial in which postmenopausal osteoporotic women received teriparatide (20 ?g daily), denosumab (60 mg every 6 months), or both medications for 24 months. Participants Participants were 94 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Outcome Measures Lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and distal radius BMD and serum markers of bone turnover were measured. Results At 24 months, lumbar spine BMD increased more in the combination group (12.9 ± 5.0%) than in either the teriparatide (9.5 ± 5.9%, P = .01) or denosumab (8.3 ± 3.4%, P = .008) groups. Femoral neck BMD also increased more in the combination group (6.8 ± 3.6%) than in