Sample records for women control group

  1. Impact of a Participatory Intervention with Women’s Groups on Psychological Distress among Mothers in Rural Bangladesh: Secondary Analysis of a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Kelly; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Tasmin; Aumon, Bedowra Haq; Hossen, Mohammed Munir; Beard, James; Costello, Anthony; Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Prost, Audrey; Fottrell, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs) are a major cause of disability among women and disproportionately affect lower income countries. Interventions to address PCMDs are urgently needed in these settings, and group-based and peer-led approaches are potential strategies to increase access to mental health interventions. Participatory women’s health groups led by local women previously reduced postpartum psychological distress in eastern India. We assessed the effect of a similar intervention on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. Method We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 18 clusters and an estimated population of 532,996. Nine clusters received an intervention comprising monthly meetings during which women’s groups worked through a participatory learning and action cycle to develop strategies for improving women’s and children’s health. There was one group for every 309 individuals in the population, 810 groups in total. Mothers in nine control clusters had access to usual perinatal care. Postpartum psychological distress was measured with the 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) between six and 52 weeks after delivery, during the months of January to April, in 2010 and 2011. Results We analysed outcomes for 6275 mothers. Although the cluster mean SRQ-20 score was lower in the intervention arm (mean 5.2, standard deviation 1.8) compared to control (5.3, 1.2), the difference was not significant (? 1.44, 95% CI 0.28, 3.08). Conclusions Despite promising results in India, participatory women’s groups focused on women’s and children’s health had no significant effect on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. PMID:25329470

  2. Benefits of supervised group exercise programme for women being treated for early stage breast cancer: pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nanette Mutrie; Anna M Campbell; Fiona Whyte; Alex McConnachie; Carol Emslie; Laura Lee; Nora Kearney; Andrew Walker; Diana Ritchie

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine functional and psychological benefits of a 12 week supervised group exercise programme during treatment for early stage breast cancer, with six month follow-up.Design Pragmatic randomised controlled prospective open trial.Setting Three National Health Service oncology clinics in Scotland and community exercise facilities.Participants 203 women entered the study; 177 completed the six month follow-up. Interventions Supervised 12 week group

  3. Psychosocial risk factors which may differentiate between women with Functional Voice Disorder, Organic Voice Disorder and a Control group.

    PubMed

    Baker, Janet; Ben-Tovim, David; Butcher, Andrew; Esterman, Adrian; McLaughlin, Kristin

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to explore psychosocial factors contributing to the development of functional voice disorders (FVD) and those differentiating between organic voice disorders (OVD) and a non-voice-disordered control group. A case-control study was undertaken of 194 women aged 18-80 years diagnosed with FVD (n = 73), OVD (n = 55), and controls (n = 66). FVD women were allocated into psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) (n = 37) and muscle tension voice disorder (MTVD) (n = 36) for sub-group analysis. Dependent variables included biographical and voice assessment data, the number and severity of life events and difficulties and conflict over speaking out (COSO) situations derived from the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS), and psychological traits including emotional expressiveness scales. Four psychosocial components differentiated between the FVD and control group accounting for 84.9% of the variance: severe events, moderate events, severe COSO, and mild COSO difficulties. Severe events, severe and mild COSO difficulties differentiated between FVD and OVD groups, accounting for 80.5% of the variance. Moderate events differentiated between PVD and MTVD sub-groups, accounting for 58.9% of the variance. Psychological traits did not differentiate between groups. Stressful life events and COSO situations best differentiated FVD from OVD and control groups. More refined aetiological studies are needed to differentiate between PVD and MTVD. PMID:23075157

  4. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  5. Effectiveness of Healthy Relationships Video-Group—A Videoconferencing Group Intervention for Women Living with HIV: Preliminary Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Ayesha; Lynn, Vickie; Glueckauf, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Expanded access to efficacious interventions is needed for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLH) in the United States. Availability of “prevention with (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV)] positives” interventions in rural/remote and low HIV prevalence areas remains limited, leaving WLH in these communities few options for receiving effective behavioral interventions such as Healthy Relationships (HR). Offering such programs via videoconferencing groups (VGs) may expand access. This analysis tests the effectiveness of HR-VG (versus wait-list control) for reducing sexual risk behavior among WLH and explores intervention satisfaction. Subjects and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial unprotected vaginal/anal sex occasions over the prior 3 months reported at the 6-month follow-up were compared across randomization groups through zero-inflated Poisson regression modeling, controlling for unprotected sex at baseline. Seventy-one WLH were randomized and completed the baseline assessment (n=36 intervention and n=35 control); 59 (83% in each group) had follow-up data. Results: Among those who engaged in unprotected sex at 6-month follow-up, intervention participants had approximately seven fewer unprotected occasions than control participants (95% confidence interval 5.43–7.43). Intervention participants reported high levels of satisfaction with HR-VG; 84% reported being “very satisfied” overall. Conclusions: This study found promising evidence for effective dissemination of HIV risk reduction interventions via VGs. Important next steps will be to determine whether VGs are effective with other subpopulations of people living with HIV (i.e., men and non-English speakers) and to assess cost-effectiveness. Possibilities for using VGs to expand access to other psychosocial and behavioral interventions and reduce stigma are discussed. PMID:24237482

  6. Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…

  7. Women in Mixed Groups: Some Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamola, Claire

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the research dealing with women in leadership roles within groups of both sexes. Some research indicates a reluctance of women to assume leadership roles. Other findings indicate women are more likely to be strong leaders when the task solution is given. (LPG)

  8. BREAST CANCER GROUP WOMEN'S HEALTH INTERDISCIPLINARY

    E-print Network

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    BREAST CANCER GROUP May 2009 WOMEN'S HEALTH INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH CENTER [WHIRC] #12;2 Table of Contents Page Introduction to the Women's Health Interdisciplinary Research Center (WHIRC) 3 Overview Cancer Prevention 27 Aging and Breast Cancer 30 Slone Epidemiology Center Black Women's Health Study

  9. Women and Anger: A Structured Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juntunen, Cindy L.; Cohen, B. Beth; Wolszon, Linda R.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the process of planning and implementing a women and anger group, including the theoretical framework, goals, and planning and implementation of the group. Presents a facilitator's manual for therapists, with suggestions for prescreening interviews, ground rules, identifying anger, assertiveness, values clarification, barriers to change,…

  10. Conflicted Membership: Women in Fathers’ Rights Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyn Elise Crowley

    2009-01-01

    Women who participate in mixed-gender, antifeminist movements are not a homogeneous group of actors who face no identity-based conflicts when they mobilize for these causes. Using 23 in-depth interviews with women involved in the American fathers' rights movement—which has as its goal the reformation of child support and child custody laws in ways that are more favorable to men and

  11. A Qualitative Assessment of Weight Control among Rural Kansas Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Andrea C.; Befort, Christie; Banitt, Angela; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore weight control beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and practices among rural Kansas women, and to characterize the relationship of these women with their primary-care providers around weight control. Design: Qualitative research using focus groups. Setting: Three separate communities of rural Kansas. Participants: Six focus groups

  12. NIH Working Group on Women in Biomedical Careers

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    NIH Working Group on Women in Biomedical Careers Interim Summary of Working Group Considerations the careers of women researchers and promoting professional women who have chosen careers in biomedical research. The proposed conference

  13. OUTCOMES FROM A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF A GROUP INTERVENTION FOR HIV POSITIVE MEN AND WOMEN COPING WITH AIDS-RELATED LOSS AND BEREAVEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KATHLEEN J. SIKKEMA; NATHAN B. HANSEN; ARLENE KOCHMAN; DAVID C. TATE; WAYNE DIFRANCEISCO

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race\\/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention or to an individual therapy on

  14. The group dynamics of women's self-defense training.

    PubMed

    Brecklin, Leanne R; Middendorf, Rena K

    2014-03-01

    The current study examines the role of group interaction in a women's self-defense class. Study methods included individual interviews with women who had completed a college-based women-only self-defense course as well as supplemental observation of group behavior during a mock "attack" simulation class. The unique relationship that develops among women's self-defense classmates seems to improve overall learning and performance due to the group collaboration and vicarious experiences. Results demonstrated that women's self-defense courses offer participants a beneficial and supportive group atmosphere. PMID:24626767

  15. Women's groups hold up the introduction of Norplant in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bank, A

    1994-01-01

    Women's groups met in Managua, Nicaragua on International Women's Day to discuss new reproductive technologies and population policies, with an emphasis on reproductive rights. This event postponed introduction of Norplant by the Minister of Health (MINSA), fulfilling the prediction of Carme Clavel of Servicios Integrales para la Mujer, one of the event's organizers, who stated that MINSA would be unable to introduce Norplant quietly. Three days later, Carlos Jarquin, director of Salud Integral at MINSA, denied the alleged approval. However, this was disputed by Maria Hamlin, director of the Centro de Informacion y Servicios de Asesoria en la Salud (CISAS) and one of the event's organizers, who said the procedure had been under consideration for testing since the year before with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Population Council. Ana Maria Pizarro, director of Si Mujer, suggested that tests focused on overcoming resistance and acceptance of irregularities in menstrual bleeding. It was suggested at the meeting that Norplant should be studied at alternative women's centers with their full participation and from the user's perspective. Ana Maria Pizarro insisted that the wishes and needs of the user be met. Ana Quiros from CISAS stated that women must have control of the method used. Maria Hamlin was optimistic about future cooperation among the groups and their impact on Nicaraguan population and health policies. PMID:12318717

  16. Counseling Groups for African American Women: A Focus on Spirituality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…

  17. Women's groups and individual entrepreneurs: a Ugandan case study.

    PubMed

    Pickering, H; Kajura, E; Katongole, G; Whitworth, J

    1996-10-01

    This study is based on interviews conducted among 8 women's income-generating groups and 12 individual women entrepreneurs in 15 villages in Masaka district, Uganda. The Baganda are the main tribe in the study villages. The study evaluates the economic achievement, objectives, and social characteristics of the groups. Groups ranged in size from 9-20 members. All had functioned for 3-5 years. A regular membership fee was paid through the sale of agricultural produce. Groups met at least every 2 weeks. This study revealed that the individual goals were to increase individual wealth, while the stated group goals were to invest in the community. Members considered the groups as useful in providing an easy way to raise capital. Most members considered financial status as a criterion for group membership. Elderly women tended to join social and handicraft groups. The women's group members tended to be friends before the establishment of the group and tended to be currently married to men residing in the area. Of the 12 women entrepreneurs, only 5 were currently married. All 12 women entrepreneurs had considerable initiative. The 12 women and the women's group members derived income from two or more sources: agricultural projects, animal husbandry, craft production, alcohol production and sale, or other activities. Study findings indicate that decisions were often delayed or avoided in order to preserve social cohesion. In a market-oriented enterprise, quick response time is needed and the bureaucratic dynamics would hinder some agricultural ventures. The poorest women experienced barriers to group membership. Women entrepreneurs were more successful than group women. PMID:12347716

  18. Characteristics of Midlife Women Recruited Through Internet Communities/Groups

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-ok

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics of a specific online population, midlife women recruited through Internet communities (ICs) or groups, and to provide future direction for Internet research among midlife women. Using a feminist perspective, the study focused on ethnic variations in the characteristics of the midlife women. A total of 192 midlife women were recruited through ICs. The Internet survey included questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health/illness status. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that midlife women recruited through ICs tended to be Caucasian, young, married, and affluent. The findings also indicated significant ethnic differences in sociodemographic characteristics. The findings suggest that researchers need to consider that midlife women recruited from ICs tend to be a specific group of midlife women. PMID:18091620

  19. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  20. From the inside Out: Group Work with Women of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.

    2014-01-01

    This article will present two models for conducting group work with Women of Color (WOC): the SisterCircle Approach and the Group Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of group work that can assist group workers to conduct individual and group-level…

  1. The Effect of Support Group Method on Quality of Life in Post-menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yazdkhasti, M; Keshavarz, M; Khoei, ES Merghaati; Hosseini, AF; ESmaeilzadeh, S; Pebdani, M Amiri; Jafarzadeh, H

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life in post-menopausal women and menopausal symptoms are closely related concepts. Influence health education policy in order to promote health and adopt a menopause lifestyle requires alternative strategies, including health training programs with community – based interventions. The current study aims to survey the effects of support groups on quality of life of post-menopausal women. Methods: A blind field trial (2010) was conducted at Saadatmandii Clinical Center (Robat Karim, Iran). 110 women were selected randomly divided into test and control groups (consisting of 55 ones). Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL) was used for evaluation of life quality before and three months after intervention; there was no intervention in the control group. Data were analyzed by using SPSS/16. Qualitative variables were analyzed using chi-square tests and quantitative variables were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon test, paired T-test and independent t-test. Results: There was significant difference between vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, sexual aspects and life quality of this group pf women (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the quality of life of women in control group. Conclusion: According to the results method of support group can lead to improved quality of life for post-menopausal ones and it can be appropriate healthcare policy to promote health and improve life quality of this group of women. PMID:23304680

  2. The vaginal bacterial communities of Japanese women resemble those of women in other racial groups.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Hansmann, Melanie A; Davis, Catherine C; Suzuki, Haruo; Brown, Celeste J; Schütte, Ursel; Pierson, Jacob D; Forney, Larry J

    2010-03-01

    To determine whether different racial groups shared common types of vaginal microbiota, we characterized the composition and structure of vaginal bacterial communities in asymptomatic and apparently healthy Japanese women in Tokyo, Japan, and compared them with those of White and Black women from North America. The composition of vaginal communities was compared based on community profiles of terminal restriction fragments of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences of the numerically dominant bacterial populations. The types of vaginal communities found in Japanese women were similar to those of Black and White women. As with White and Black women, most vaginal communities were dominated by lactobacilli, and only four species of Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus gasseri) were commonly found. Communities dominated by multiple species of lactobacilli were common in Japanese and White women, but rare in Black women. The incidence, in Japanese women, of vaginal communities with several non-Lactobacillus species at moderately high frequencies was intermediate between Black women and White women. The limited number of community types found among women in different ethnic groups suggests that host genetic factors, including the innate and adaptive immune systems, may be more important in determining the species composition of vaginal bacterial communities than are cultural and behavioral differences. PMID:19912342

  3. The Effects of 16 Hour Long Marathon Groups on the Ways that Female Drug Users Perceive Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of three 16-hour-long unstructured marathon groups composed of female illicit drug users in a woman's prison (N=78), using evaluative adjective pairs of the semantic differential concept Women. Marathon groups rated women as more successful and more pleasurable than did controls. (JAC)

  4. Not Far Enough: Women vs. Smoking. A Workshop for Women's Group and Women's Health Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Highlights from a series of papers on the role of smoking in women's disease and death, women's smoking behavior, and the role of the tobacco industry are included in this document. Conference participants included public health and women's organizations. Brief summaries of the papers introduce the document. An outline of network strategies…

  5. Hope Medical Group for Women v. Edwards.

    PubMed

    1998-09-11

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit invalidated a Louisiana law which restricted Medicaid reimbursement for abortion to instances where the pregnancy threatened the life of the mother. Although the revised 1994 Hyde Amendment permitted federal Medicaid funding for the abortion of pregnancies resulting from rape or incest, the Fifth Circuit held that the Hyde Amendment did not require states to fund these procedures. Instead, the court relied on the purposes of Medicaid to provide health-sustaining medical care and held that Louisiana's statute impermissibly restricted a women's right to abortion where medically necessary. Louisiana was enjoined from enforcing the law to the extent it restricted Medicaid reimbursement for the medically necessary abortion of pregnancies resulting from rape or incest. The court held that the state's interest in normal childbirth is not sufficient to sustain the abortion funding restriction. PMID:11648424

  6. Blood levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor in women with bipolar disorder and healthy control women

    PubMed Central

    Kenna, Heather A.; Reynolds-May, Margaret; Stepanenko, Aleksandra; Ketter, Terence A.; Hallmayer, Joachim; Rasgon, Natalie L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, with early data suggesting that blood levels may vary by severity of mood symptoms. BDNF polymorphism, val66met, has also been implicated in mood disorders. Methods Euthymic women with bipolar disorder (BD) (n=47) and healthy control women (n=26), ages 18–45, were clinically rated using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and sampled for plasma BDNF concentration, with a subset undergoing genetic analysis for the val66met. Results BD and control groups did not differ on any demographic variables, nor in plasma BDNF levels or val66met polymorphism. Plasma BDNF concentration did not differ by val66met or BD subtype, nor was it correlated with age or illness duration. Within women with BD, lower plasma BDNF concentrations were significantly associated with higher MADRS scores, even after controlling for psychotropic medication use and illness duration. Limitations The sample was relatively small and exclusive to women, with further research needed to investigate the links between BDNF markers and mood symptom severity in both men and women. Conclusions The study provides a gender-specific investigation of plasma BDNF levels and mood, and the results add further evidence of a significant interplay between BDNF markers and psychiatric symptomatology. Further, this association did not appear to be confounded by use of psychotropic medication. Studies with larger samples of both genders are needed to further delineate this relationship. PMID:24398043

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N?=?12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed. PMID:23423547

  8. A Group-Based Yoga Therapy Intervention for Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Alison J.; Jenny, Hillary E.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Schembri, Michael; Subak, Leslee L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention for middle-aged and older women with urinary incontinence. Methods We conducted a pilot randomized trial of ambulatory women aged 40 years and older with stress, urgency, or mixed-type incontinence. Women were randomized to a 6-week yoga therapy program (N=10) consisting of twice weekly group classes and once weekly home practice or a waitlist control group (N=9). All participants also received written pamphlets about standard behavioral self-management strategies for incontinence. Changes in incontinence were assessed by 7-day voiding diaries. Results Mean (±SD) age was 61.4 (±8.2) years, and mean baseline frequency of incontinence was 2.5 (±1.3) episodes/day. After 6 weeks, total incontinence frequency decreased by 66% (1.8 [±0.9] fewer episodes/day) in the yoga therapy versus 13% (0.3 [±1.7] fewer episodes/day) in the control group (P=0.049). Participants in the yoga therapy group also reported an average 85% decrease in stress incontinence frequency (0.7 [±0.8] fewer episodes/day) compared to a 25% increase in controls (0.2 [± 1.1] more episodes/day) (P=0.039). No significant differences in reduction in urgency incontinence were detected between the yoga therapy versus control groups (1.0 [±1.0] versus 0.5 [±0.5] fewer episodes/day, P=0.20). All women starting the yoga therapy program completed at least 90% of group classes and practice sessions. Two participants in each group reported adverse events unrelated to the intervention. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention to improve urinary incontinence in women. PMID:24763156

  9. Length of Group Treatment and Changes in Women with Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Hotelling, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Examined effects of 4-month or 9-month multidimensional therapy group on bulimic women. Results suggest that participants altered behaviors, attitudes, feelings, and thoughts related to bingeing, purging, and physical appearance and developed more adaptive life skills. Decreases in bingeing and purging were maintained after treatment; no…

  10. Traditional Healing Methods with First Nations Women in Group Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbron, Carrie L.; Guttman, Mary Alice Julius

    2000-01-01

    Utilizes a traditional aboriginal healing ceremony, called the healing circle, in a counseling group comprised of First Nations and non-aboriginal women survivors of child sexual abuse. Examines ceremony and aboriginal beliefs for their impact on the counseling process. Results indicate that the ceremony and beliefs established a spiritual…

  11. Psychological Factors Among Elderly Women With Suicidal Intentions or Attempts to Suicide: A Controlled Comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalind Lau; Carol A. Morse; Stephen Macfarlane

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure a range of psychological factors identified as important in the literature (resilience, psychological distress, feelings of hopelessness, personal and interpersonal control) among community-dwelling elderly women (N = 31) who had suicidal intentions or attempted suicide. The target group was matched to a control group on age within 5 years. The target group

  12. Attitudes and approaches to vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a focus group qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The impact of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy and women's coping strategies were evaluated through international focus groups. Methods Three-hour focus groups of three to five postmenopausal women who had symptoms of vaginal atrophy but had not sought treatment were conducted in Canada, Sweden, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Participants were asked about their experience with menopause and vaginal atrophy, including use of non-prescription treatments and their interactions with health-care providers. Women were classified as one of five personality types, based on their interaction with the world (individualism or belonging) and strategies for coping with stress (control or liberation). Results Vaginal atrophy was not recognized as a medical condition by focus group participants, and women had not used treatments for vaginal atrophy apart from non-prescription lubricants. Women who had discussed vaginal atrophy symptoms with their doctor felt their concerns were dismissed as a normal part of aging, and they did not receive counseling about treatment options such as low-dose estrogen therapy. Those whose coping strategy involved dominance, combatting, or individualism were more likely to seek treatment than those whose strategy involved submission, acceptance, or belonging. Women who used control to cope with menopausal changes were more likely to respond to information validated by perceived experts than were those who used a strategy of release. Conclusions Women's reactions to their vaginal atrophy varied according to personality. Use of a personality-based approach to patient counseling may encourage patients to discuss vaginal atrophy with their health-care provider and seek treatment. PMID:24083795

  13. Screening pregnant women for group B streptococcal colonization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Madani; G. K. Harding; M. Helewa; M. J. Alfa

    1998-01-01

    Summary  The recovery rates of group B streptococcus (GBS) from anorectal swabs (RS) and vaginal swabs (VS) that were enriched were\\u000a compared to the routine method to determine the optimal procedure. Separate RS and VS were collected from women attending\\u000a antenatal clinics. RS and VS were placed in 2 ml enrichment and selective broth. Swabs were inoculated onto colistin\\/nalidixic\\u000a acid agar

  14. Self Control in Peer Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Battaglini; Roland Bénabou; Jean Tirole

    2002-01-01

    People with a self-control problem often seek relief through social interactions rather than binding commitments. Thus, in self-help groups like Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous etc, members are said to achieve better personal outcomes by mainly sharing their experiences. In other settings, however, peer influences can severely aggravate individual tendencies towards immediate gratification, as is often the case with interactions among

  15. Association for Faculty Women ~ AFW ~ AFW is a broadly inclusive group that promotes successful and satisfying careers for faculty women,

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    and satisfying careers for faculty women, whether you are tenured, tenure track, clinical track, adjunct, or hold, by providing A means to network with other women faculty who share similar interests and concerns CareerAssociation for Faculty Women ~ AFW ~ AFW is a broadly inclusive group that promotes successful

  16. Creating and Sustaining a Military Women's Health Research Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication. PMID:26101911

  17. Back massage intervention for relieving lower back pain in puerperal women: A randomized control trial study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiu-Jung; Ko, Yi-Li

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a back massage (BM) intervention in relieving lower back pain (LBP) in post-partum women.This is a randomized controlled trial study. Sixty normal spontaneous delivery women (response rate: 96.7%), who gave birth at our hospital, participated in this study from February to May of 2012. We randomly assigned 30 women to the experimental group and 30 women to the control group. During the 1 month post-partum period, the women in the experimental group received a BM for 5 consecutive days, whereas the women in the control group received routine care only. The LBP score was assessed according to a pain visual analog scale. After 5 days of intervention, the experimental group (n?=?30) experienced significantly less LBP than did the control group (n?=?30) (2.97?±?1.71 vs. 4.43?±?1.77, t?=?3.26, P?=?0.002). BM therapy can effectively reduce LBP during the first post-partum month. Additional studies are required to confirm the effects of BM therapy during extended post-partum periods. PMID:26125572

  18. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Schenker; V. H. Eisenberg

    1997-01-01

    There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to

  19. Group Cognitive—Behavioral Therapy and Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Nonpurging Bulimic Individual A Controlled Comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise E. Wilfley; Christy F. Telch; Elise M. Rossiter; John A. Schneider; LuAnn Sifford; Susan D. Raeburn

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of group cognitive—behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating. Fifty-six women with nonpurging bulimia were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: CBT, IPT, or a wait-list control (WL). Treatment was administered in small groups that met for 16 weekly sessions. At posttreatment, both group CBT and group IPT treatment conditions

  20. UN Women Executive Director's Global Civil Society Advisory Group: Terms of Reference Introduction

    E-print Network

    1 UN Women Executive Director's Global Civil Society Advisory Group: Terms of Reference Introduction The UN Women Executive Director's Global Civil Society Advisory Group will be a consultative forum, established by Michelle Bachelet, the Executive Director of UN Women, as a platform for regular dialogue

  1. Online Support Groups for Women with Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Feasibility Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruvanee P. Vilhauer; Martha K. McClintock; Alicia K. Matthews

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the feasibility and acceptability of an online peer support group intervention for women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Feasibility, participation rates, participant satisfaction, and preliminary outcomes are examined from a 1999 to 2000 study of online peer support groups for women with MBC. Thirty women with MBC were randomly assigned to either an immediate online support condition

  2. Evaluation of a Grief Group for Women in Residential Substance Abuse Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Fry McComish; Rivka Greenberg; Jennifer Kent-Bryant; Heather L. Chruscial; Joel Ager; Florice Hines; Scott B. Ransom

    1999-01-01

    Most women in substance abuse treatment have experienced significant losses. This preliminary study examined the effectiveness of a therapy group addressing grief and loss among women enrolled in a gender-specific residential substance abuse treatment program. The intervention group consisted of 24 grief group participants and the comparison group consisted of 31 nonparticipants. Qualitative analysis revealed a pattern: participants identified traumatic

  3. Matching with Multiple Control Groups with Adjustment for Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Rubin, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    When estimating causal effects from observational data, it is desirable to approximate a randomized experiment as closely as possible. This goal can often be achieved by choosing a subsample from the original control group that matches the treatment group on the distribution of the observed covariates. However, sometimes the original control group

  4. The Effect of Acupressure on Sleep Quality in Menopausal Women: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Abedian, Zahra; Eskandari, Leila; Abdi, Hamid; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the common problems in menopausal women is sleep disorder. Traditional Chinese acupressure is a noninvasive and safe technique. Menopausal women can easily learn the technique and a self-care method to manage their sleep disorder. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure on sleep quality of postmenopausal women in Mashhad during 2009. Methods This double blind, randomized clinical trial was performed on 120 qualified menopausal women at the age of 41-65 years. Their sleep quality was measured according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Participants were randomly assigned to an acupressure group (n=37), a sham acupressure group (n=36) and a control group (n=32) by two time randomized method (systematic and simple randomized). These interventions were carried out for four consecutive weeks. The participants in the acupressure and sham acupressure groups learned to carry out the acupressure technique as a self-care at home with simultaneous massage techniques that were to be performed 2 hours before sleep, whereas only conversation was used in the control group. The data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 17. Results The results indicated significant differences in total PSQI scores among the three groups (P<0.001). Tukey’s test revealed that there were significant differences between the acupressure group and the control group (P<0.001), the acupressure group and sham acupressure group (P<0.001), and the sham acupressure and the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion Acupressure can be used as a complementary treatment to relieve sleep disorders in menopausal women; and is offered as an efficient method to manage sleep quality. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013100614910N1. PMID:26170519

  5. Predictors of plasma concentrations of DDE and PCBs in a group of U.S. women.

    PubMed Central

    Laden, F; Neas, L M; Spiegelman, D; Hankinson, S E; Willett, W C; Ireland, K; Wolff, M S; Hunter, D J

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated predictors of plasma concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a group of 240 women, controls from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study. We considered personal attributes such as age, serum cholesterol, region of residence, adiposity, lactation, and dietary intake. DDE levels increased 0.17 ppb/year of age (p = 0.0003), and PCBs increased 0.08 ppb (p = 0.0001). DDE and PCBs increased 0.20 (p = 0.02) and 0.13 ppb (p = 0.001), respectively, per 10 mg/dl serum cholesterol. Women living in the western United States had higher levels of DDE (mean = 11.0 ppb; p = 0.003), and women in the Northeast and Midwest had higher levels of PCBs (mean = 5.6 ppb; p = 0.0002) as compared to women from other parts of the country (mean DDE = 6.3; mean PCBs = 4. 5 ppb). Levels of DDE could not be predicted from consumption of meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and grains. There was a positive association between fish consumption and PCB concentrations among women in the Northeast and Midwest. Using data from the cases in the nested case-control study to assess the predictive ability of the models, we confirmed that the most reliable predictors of DDE were age and serum cholesterol, and the most important predictors of PCBs were age, serum cholesterol, and residence in the Midwest or Northeast. The null results for the majority of the food variables suggest that specific dietary factors, other than fish, are not currently a substantial contributor to human exposure to DDE and PCBs. PMID:9872720

  6. The Use of the Courts by Women's Groups to Obtain Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Karen

    This study examines how women's groups have made use of litigation strategy to gain favorable policy decisions from the U.S. Supreme Court. The litigation strategies associated with four groups are discussed in the major portion of the report. These groups are: (1) the National Women's Suffrage Association (NWSA), active from 1869 to 1875; (2) the…

  7. Promoting women's human rights: A qualitative analysis of midwives' perceptions about virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Monica; Eriksson, Carola

    2015-06-01

    Objectives To explore midwives' perceptions regarding virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions', and how these practices can be debated from a gender perspective. Methods An international group of 266 midwives answered an open-ended question in a Web survey. The great majority came from the Western world, among them, the majority were from Europe. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Three themes emerged: misogynistic practices that cement the gender order, which revealed how the respondents viewed virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions'; raising public awareness and combatting practices that demean women, which were suggested as strategies by which to combat these practices; and promoting agency in women and providing culturally sensitive care, which were considered to improve health care encounters. Conclusions Virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions' are elements of patriarchy, whereby violence and control are employed to subordinate women. To counter these practices, macro and micro-level activities are needed to expand women's human rights in the private and the public spheres. Political activism, international debates, collaboration between sectors such as health care and law-makers may lead to increased gender equality. A women-centred approach whereby women are empowered with agency will make women more capable of combatting virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'. Chinese Abstract ??? 266???? ????????. ??????????. PMID:25472698

  8. "Nice Girl": Social Control of Women through a Value Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Greer Litton

    1977-01-01

    Social control of women through the normative constructs has the virtue of subtlety. It gives the appearance of nonrestriction and noncontrol, thus reducing the potential for resistance. The "nice girl" construct keeps women out of men's way, while ostensibly keeping them out of harm's way. (Author/GC)

  9. Bilateral deficits in fine motor control ability and manual dexterity in women with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres, Marta; Martínez-Piédrola, Rosa M; Cigarán-Méndez, Margarita; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate fine motor control ability and manual dexterity women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) without symptoms in the upper extremity compared to healthy women. Subtests of the Purdue Pegboard Test (one-hand, bilateral and assembly) and of the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test (writing, turning cards, picking up small, light and large heavy objects, simulated feeding and stacking checkers) were evaluated bilaterally in 20 women with FMS (aged 35-55 years) without symptoms in the upper limb and 20 age- and hand dominance-matched healthy women. Differences between sides and groups were analysed with several analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA revealed significant differences between groups (P < 0.001) and sides (P = 0.007) for one-hand pin placement subtest: women with FMS showed bilateral worse scores than controls. Patients also exhibited significantly lower scores in bilateral pin placement and assembly subtests when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). The ANOVA also revealed significant differences between groups for writing, turning over cards, picking up small objects, stacking checkers, picking up large light objects and picking up large heavy objects (all, P < 0.001): women with FMS needed more time for these subtests than healthy women with both hands. No difference for simulated feeding was found between groups. Our findings revealed bilateral deficits in fine motor control ability and manual dexterity in patients with FMS without symptoms in the upper extremity. These deficits are not related to the clinical features of the symptoms supporting an underlying central mechanism of altered motor control. PMID:23354668

  10. The Influence of Social Status on Token Women Leaders' Expectations About Leading Male-Dominated Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore W. McDonald; Loren L. Toussaint; Jennifer A. Schweiger

    2004-01-01

    Prior research has shown that women report mostly negative expectations about being a gender-token in male-dominated work groups. We speculate that this is partially caused by the socially ascribed status devaluation of women. In this study we investigated the degree to which elevated social status may lessen negative expectations of gender-token women assigned to leadership positions. Sixty-three undergraduate women participated

  11. Comparison of NNA Agar Culture and Selective Broth Culture for Detection of Group B Streptococcal Colonization in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. MICHAEL DUNNE; CAROL A. HOLLAND-STALEY

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of a selective broth culture for the improved detection of genital tract or anorectal carriage of group B streptococci (GBS) in pregnant women. In order to verify this recommendation in our laboratory, we compared the sensitivity of Todd-Hewitt medium with gentamicin and nalidixic acid (SBM) with our current

  12. Empowering women with chronic, physical disabilities:a pedagogical/experiential group model.

    PubMed

    Vail, Svetlana; Xenakis, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Past research on group work in the hospital setting has focused on traditional psycho-educational support group models. This article describes an effective group model developed in the Initiative for Women with Disabilities, a hospital-based outpatient program for women with chronic physical illnesses or conditions. The group model integrates concepts of humanistic and self-psychology with pedagogical methods and experiential learning. A Women's Writing group and Women's Assertiveness group each with 10 sessions were designed and conducted according to this model. The group leader presented as a pedagogue and self-object that created a group experience that affirms humanistic values and fosters self-growth, socialization, and interpersonal change. The results of a self-administered survey suggest that the participants responded favorably to the format, structure and content of the groups, skills learned, and the identification of past and present issues. PMID:18032157

  13. A randomized, controlled trial of mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) for women with cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Monti; Caroline Peterson; Elisabeth J. Shakin Kunkel; Walter W. Hauck; Edward Pequignot; Lora Rhodes; George C. Brainard

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to gather data on the efficacy of a newly developed psychosocial group intervention for cancer patients, called mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT). One hundred and eleven women with a variety of cancer diagnoses were paired by age and randomized to either an eight-week MBAT intervention group or a wait-list control group. Ninety-three participants (84%)

  14. Pregnancy Results Good for Women with Controlled Lupus

    MedlinePLUS

    Pregnancy Results Good for Women With Controlled Lupus: Study But blacks, Hispanics face greater odds of complications than whites, though reasons why are unclear To use the sharing features on this ...

  15. Colonization Rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in Pregnant Women Using GBS Agar Medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farnaz Fatemi; Leili Chamani-Tabriz; Parviz Pakzad; Hodjat Zeraati; Hodjatollah Rabbani; Soheila Asgari

    Group B streptococci (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae are members of the normal flora of the female genital tract. GBS normally colonizes the vagina in many women asymptomatically. During labor this organism may infect the newborn, leading to neonatal sepsis and meningitis. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of group B streptococcus in pregnant women by a rapid and easy

  16. Centering as a Model for Group Visits Among Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Maria T.; Abercrombie, Priscilla D.; Duncan, Larissa G.

    2012-01-01

    Providing comprehensive care for chronic pelvic pain is impeded by time and resource constraints of the standard healthcare visit. To provide patient education, psychosocial support, and healthcare assessment, we developed group visits for women with chronic pelvic pain using an evidence-based, holistic nursing approach. In this article, we describe the structure of group visits, the process of conducting Centering group visits focused on empowerment, and the content of a holistic curriculum for women with chronic pelvic pain. PMID:22862426

  17. Changes in coagulation and fibrinolytic indices in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yong; Yan, Ling; Chuai, Yun-Hai; Liu, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yi; Li, Min; Wang, Ai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment always attain a low cumulative pregnancy rate disaccording with the satisfactory number of oocytes. Objective. We aim to evaluate the status of coagulation and fibrinolytic system in PCOS patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) process. Method. Of the 97 women, 30 patients with PCOS composed the study group; 67 women of child-bearing age with normal endocrine function composed the control group. All participants underwent GnRH agonist standard long protocol, and plasma HCY, FVIII, FX, and D-dimer levels as well as hormone parameters were measured at day of full downregulation, hCG priming, and embryos transfer. Results. On day of full downregulation, FX levels were significantly higher in PCOS group (P < 0.01). On hCG priming day, FX and estrogen levels in PCOS group were higher than in the control group and FVIII levels were significantly lower on day of embryos transfer whereas FX and E2 levels were significantly higher in PCOS group. Conclusion. Hypercoagulable state during peri-implantation phase would probably lead to poor microcirculation of endometrium and be one of the most important disadvantages of successful implantation and subsequent clinical pregnancy. PMID:25374601

  18. Changes in Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Indices in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Undergoing Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yong; Yan, Ling; Chuai, Yun-Hai; Liu, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yi; Li, Min; Wang, Ai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment always attain a low cumulative pregnancy rate disaccording with the satisfactory number of oocytes. Objective. We aim to evaluate the status of coagulation and fibrinolytic system in PCOS patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) process. Method. Of the 97 women, 30 patients with PCOS composed the study group; 67 women of child-bearing age with normal endocrine function composed the control group. All participants underwent GnRH agonist standard long protocol, and plasma HCY, FVIII, FX, and D-dimer levels as well as hormone parameters were measured at day of full downregulation, hCG priming, and embryos transfer. Results. On day of full downregulation, FX levels were significantly higher in PCOS group (P < 0.01). On hCG priming day, FX and estrogen levels in PCOS group were higher than in the control group and FVIII levels were significantly lower on day of embryos transfer whereas FX and E2 levels were significantly higher in PCOS group. Conclusion. Hypercoagulable state during peri-implantation phase would probably lead to poor microcirculation of endometrium and be one of the most important disadvantages of successful implantation and subsequent clinical pregnancy. PMID:25374601

  19. Relationship between air pollution and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nahidi, F; Gholami, R; Rashidi, Y; Majd, H Alavi

    2014-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal death and disability worldwide. Its incidence in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 5%-12%. Air pollution has been reported to be one of the causative factors, and this case-control study determined its effect on pre-eclampsia in 195 pregnant women (65 with pre-eclampsia and 130 without) admitted to hospitals in Tehran. Women were divided into high and low exposure groups according to the mean density of exposure to pollutants during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant relationship between exposure to air pollutants including CO, particulate matter, SO2, NO2 and O3 and pre-eclampsia. The combined effect was also not significant. Air pollution is one of the problems of modern society and its avoidance is almost impossible for pregnant women. This study should reduce concern about pregnant women living in polluted cities. PMID:24995762

  20. Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, R; John, S; Ling, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Despite a recent surge in tobacco advertising and the recent advertising ban (pending enforcement at the time of this study), there are few studies describing current cigarette marketing in India. This study sought to assess cigarette companies' marketing strategies in Mumbai, India. Methods: A two week field study was conducted in Mumbai in September 2003, observing, documenting, and collecting cigarette advertising on billboards, storefronts and at point of sale along two major thoroughfares, and performing a content analysis of news, film industry, and women's magazines and three newspapers. Results: Cigarette advertising was ubiquitous in the environment, present in news and in film magazines, but not in women's magazines or the newspapers. The four major advertising campaigns all associated smoking with aspiration; the premium brands targeting the higher socioeconomic status market utilised tangible images of westernisation and affluence whereas the "bingo" (low priced) segment advertisements invited smokers to belong to a league of their own and "rise to the taste" using intangible images. Women were not depicted smoking, but were present in cigarette advertisements—for example, a woman almost always accompanied a man in "the man with the smooth edge" Four Square campaign. Advertisements and product placements at low heights and next to candies at point of sale were easily accessible by children. In view of the iminent enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertisements, cigarette companies are increasing advertising for the existing brand images, launching brand extensions, and brand stretching. Conclusion: Cigarette companies have developed sophisticated campaigns targeting men, women, and children in different socioeconomic groups. Many of these strategies circumvent the Indian tobacco advertising ban. Understanding these marketing strategies is critical to mimimise the exploitation of loopholes in tobacco control legislation. PMID:15923471

  1. An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

  2. Honoring the Ways of American Indian Women: A Group Therapy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.; Robbins, Rockey; Vaughn, Karen; Youngbull, Natalie; Burks, Derek; Willmon-Haque, Sadie; Schuetz, Suzan; Brandes, Joyce A.; Nael, Andrea Zainab Omidy

    2010-01-01

    A culturally grounded group intervention for a typically underserved population of urban American Indian women is described. The intervention is designed to increase interpersonal connection, improve inter-tribal acceptance and trust, and enhance psychological well being of marginalized urban American Indian women. Topics used to structure the…

  3. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high?risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L; Murray, Pamela J; Chang, Chung?Chou H; Comer, Diane M; Ness, Roberta B

    2007-01-01

    Objective Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Aim To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high?risk sample of young women. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, 403 young women (mean age 18.9?years, 70% black) with a recent STD or with STD?related risk factors were enrolled. Participants were recruited from clinics and high?prevalence neighbourhoods and then randomly assigned to receive either a home testing kit or an invitation to attend a medical clinic for testing at 6, 12 and 18?months after enrollment. Over 80% of women were followed for 2?years. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT 00177437. Results Of 197 women in the intervention group, 140 (71%) returned at least one home test and 25 of 249 (10%) home tests were positive. Women who received home screening tests completed significantly more STD tests overall (1.94 vs 1.41 tests per woman?year, p<0.001) and more STD tests in the absence of symptoms (1.18 vs 0.75 tests per woman?year, p<0.001). More women in the intervention group completed at least one test when asymptomatic (162 (82.2%) vs 117 (61.3%), p<0.001). The intervention was most effective among women recruited outside medical clinics. There was no significant difference in the overall rate of STDs detected. Conclusions Home screening significantly increased the utilisation of chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing in this sample of high?risk young women, and thus represents a feasible strategy to facilitate STD testing in young women. PMID:17301105

  4. Substance abuse and mental health disparities: comparisons across sexual identity groups in a national sample of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tonda; Szalacha, Laura A; McNair, Ruth

    2010-08-01

    A growing body of research amply documents health disparities related to substance abuse among sexual minority women. However, relatively little research has examined risk factors or predictors of substance use in this population and even less has explored differences among sexual minority subgroups. Using data from 8850 women aged 25-30 years in the 2003 survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health Survey (ALSWH) we compared rates of substance use (alcohol, marijuana and other illicit drugs) and potential predictors (e.g., depression, anxiety, perceived stress, lower levels of social support) across four sexual identity groups-exclusively heterosexual, mainly heterosexual, bisexual and lesbian. Using statistical weighting of the sample and controlling for demographic characteristics we fitted logistic regression models to estimate adjusted odds ratios for substance use. Compared with exclusively heterosexual women sexual minority women reported significantly higher levels of substance use-but there was notable variation among the three sexual minority subgroups. Women who identified as mainly heterosexual were significantly more likely than exclusively heterosexual women to report at-risk drinking and those who identified as bisexual were more likely to report marijuana use. Mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were also more likely to report binge drinking. Findings implicate stress as an important predictor of substance use and emphasize the need for research that more systematically examines the relationships between minority stress and substance use in sexual minority women. Findings of variations in risk across sexual minority subgroups suggest prevention and intervention strategies aimed at reducing health disparities should be targeted toward specific sexual minority subgroups. PMID:20579794

  5. Job Satisfaction Differences Among Women of Different Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Philip

    1972-01-01

    Two studies compare the job satisfaction of black, white, and Spanish-surname female production and clerical employees. In both studies, black women were more dissatisfied than white. Spanish-surname employees (in the first study) were generally more satisfied than blacks but less satisfied than whites. (Author)

  6. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

  7. Obstetric outcomes for nulliparous women who received routine individualized treatment for severe fear of childbirth - a retrospective case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To study pregnancy and delivery outcomes in nulliparous women with severe FOC (fear of childbirth), all of whom had received routine treatment for their FOC and to make comparisons with a healthy reference group of nulliparous women. To study the possible relationship between the number of FOC-treatment sessions and the delivery method. Methods All nulliparous women with a diagnose FOC who received routine treatment for FOC (n?=?181) and a reference group of nulliparous women without FOC (n?=?431) at a university and a county hospital in the south east region of Sweden were analysed. Data from antenatal and delivery medical records were used to study outcome. Results The majority of women with severe FOC had a vaginal delivery. The incidence of elective CS was greater in the index group than in the reference group (p?women with a planned CS in the index group was 35 (19.4%) and in the control group 14 (3.2%). Thus, on average five women per year received an elective CS during the study years due to severe FOC. The women in the index group who wished to have a CS were similar to the other women in the index group with reference to age, BMI, chronic disease but had been in in-patient care more often during their pregnancy than those who did not ask for CS (p?=?0.009). Conclusion In this study of women treated for severe FOC, the majority gave birth vaginally and no relationship was found between number of treatment sessions and mode of childbirth. PMID:24694283

  8. Women's evaluation of abuse and violence care in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial (weave)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intimate partner abuse (IPA) is a major public health problem with serious implications for the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of women, particularly women of child-bearing age. It is a common, hidden problem in general practice and has been under-researched in this setting. Opportunities for early intervention and support in primary care need to be investigated given the frequency of contact women have with general practice. Despite the high prevalence and health consequences of abuse, there is insufficient evidence for screening in primary care settings. Furthermore, there is little rigorous evidence to guide general practitioners (GPs) in responding to women identified as experiencing partner abuse. This paper describes the design of a trial of a general practice-based intervention consisting of screening for fear of partner with feedback to GPs, training for GPs, brief counselling for women and minimal practice organisational change. It examines the effect on women's quality of life, mental health and safety behaviours. Methods/Design weave is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Approximately 500 women (16-50 years) seen by the GP in the previous year are mailed a short lifestyle survey containing an item to screen for IPA. Women who indicate that they were afraid of a partner/ex-partner in the last year and provide contact details are invited to participate. Once baseline data are collected, GPs are randomly assigned to either a group involving healthy relationship and responding to IPA training plus inviting women for up to 6 sessions of counselling or to a group involving basic education and usual care for women. Outcomes will be evaluated by postal survey at 6 and 12 months following delivery of the intervention. There will be an economic evaluation, and process evaluation involving interviews with women and GPs, to inform understanding about implementation and outcomes. Discussion The weave trial responds to an urgent need for more evidence on what can be achieved in primary care with regard to responding to women who experience IPA. It will provide important knowledge about the effectiveness of a brief method of screening, professional IPA training program and brief counselling for women. Trail Registration [ACTRN12608000032358] PMID:20044929

  9. The Relationship between Objectified Body Consciousness and Wellness in a Group of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Stacey L.; Myers, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Objectified body consciousness theory provides a framework for understanding young women's negative body experiences and their impact on well-being. This study examined the impact of body surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs, the 3 components of objectified body consciousness, on wellness in college women. Data indicated a…

  10. Role of women in prevention and control of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ram, E P; Singh, A C

    1991-04-01

    Women in India and AIDS prevention and control are discussed in terms of vulnerability, victimization, required knowledge, reproductive impact, care and prevention after birth, and the demands of the prevailing situation. A WHO world estimate is that 3 million women of childbearing age are infected with HIV out of 8-10 million. Indian women are vulnerable because of their reduced status and lack of power in private and marital life. Also, pregnant women receive blood transfusions, which may be inadequately screened, for anemia. The use of oral contraceptives with estrogen reduces immunity. The use of IUDs may cause inflammation or injury which provides a point of entry for HIV into the bloodstream. Prostitution is an outlet for lack of money, education, and skills, and places women at risk. The transmission from men to women is higher than the reverse. Every women should know their risks and modes of transmission. Women need to know that the risk of fetal infection from an HIV-positive mother is 20-40%, and that the risk is highest if HIV infection occurs or AIDS symptoms occur during pregnancy. Infant mortality from HIV may occur within the 1st several years. The following needs to be understood about reproduction and HIV: the risk of infection is very high when impregnated by an HIV male partner, and if children are desired, artificial insemination should be the preferred method. The reverse holds true, because penetrative sex without a condom allows transmission of the virus. The best option is for avoidance of childbearing if a partner has HIV. Abortion should be provided. Women need to develop the skills in language and confidence to negotiate safer sex, should be particular about choosing a loyal partner, and protect themselves by urging male condom use. The mode of transmission to babies is not from cuddling or handling. Breast feeding carries a meager risk of transmission, and should be continued if HIV infection occurs; the baby should be immunized. All health workers should receive training in order to provide support and care to mother and child in a private and confidential manner. Traditional healers have a role in providing advice on AIDS and condoms, spiritual support, and in changing behavior. Peer counseling is an important strategy for teenagers. There is a great need from society,husbands, and family to change the views of women and sex and to support women. Testing and screening of pregnant women in whom HIV infection is suspected is recommended. PMID:1852651

  11. Expressing positive emotions within online support groups by women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeong Yeob; Shaw, Bret R; Hawkins, Robert P; Pingree, Suzanne; McTavish, Fiona; Gustafson, David H

    2008-11-01

    Based upon Fredrickson's Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions, this study examined the role of expressing positive emotions in online support groups for women with breast cancer. Underserved women with breast cancer in rural Wisconsin and Detroit, Michigan were recruited from 2001 to 2003, and they were given access to online support groups. Both pretest and four-month posttest surveys were conducted with a sample of 231 women. Messages from 96 active participants were analyzed using a computerized text analysis program. Psychological benefits that occurred following the expression of positive emotions were greater among those who expressed more negative emotions. PMID:18987072

  12. Group Prenatal Care and Doula Care for Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan C. Vonderheid; Rieko Kishi; Kathleen F. Norr; Carrie Klima

    \\u000a There is widespread recognition of the need for innovation to improve the quality of care for ­childbearing women and to reduce\\u000a the long-standing racial\\/ethnic disparities in pregnancy outcomes (Carroli, Rooney, & Villar, 2001; Hughes & Runyan, 1995;\\u000a Institute of Medicine, 2003; Lu & Halfon, 2003; Misra, Grason & Weisman, 2000). This integrated review will examine two promising\\u000a innovations for childbearing

  13. Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

  14. The Women in Science (WiSci) Project Stage 1 interim report: academic staff survey and focus groups

    E-print Network

    Du, Jie

    The Women in Science (WiSci) Project Stage 1 interim report: academic staff survey and focus groups The WiSci project The Women in Science (WiSci) project was initiated by Professor David Day, Dean to encourage more women in the sciences into senior academic roles to support more women in achieving

  15. Cognitive control network connectivity in adolescent women with and without a parental history of depression

    PubMed Central

    Clasen, Peter C.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Mumford, Jeanette A.; Schnyer, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent women with a parental history of depression are at high risk for the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cognitive theories suggest this vulnerability involves deficits in cognitive control over emotional information. Among adolescent women with and without a parental history of depression, we examined differences in connectivity using resting state functional connectivity analysis within a network associated with cognitive control over emotional information. Methods Twenty-four depression-naïve adolescent women underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). They were assigned to high-risk (n = 11) and low-risk (n = 13) groups based their parents’ depression history. Seed based functional connectivity analysis was used to examine group differences in connectivity within a network associated with cognitive control. Results High-risk adolescents had lower levels of connectivity between a right inferior prefrontal region and other critical nodes of the attention control network, including right middle frontal gyrus and right supramarginal gyrus. Further, greater severity of the parents’ worst episode of depression was associated with altered cognitive control network connectivity in their adolescent daughters. Conclusions Depressed parents may transmit depression vulnerability to their adolescent daughters via alterations in functional connectivity within neural circuits that underlie cognitive control of emotional information. PMID:24270043

  16. Women's status and family planning: results from a focus group survey.

    PubMed

    Gu, B; Xie, Z

    1994-02-01

    Focus group discussions were conducted in China's Pingluo County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Sihui County, Guangdong Province among reproductive age women with only daughters, mothers-in-law, unmarried women aged 23 years and older, and women business persons and cadres. The topic of discussion was the status of women, gender differences in employment, education, marriage, family life, childbearing, and elderly care in counties that have above average fertility rates. There were also several groups of men, mixed gender groups with husbands working away from home, local family planning workers, and rural intellectuals. The findings showed that there is more access to education for girls and a higher employment rate for young women. Daughters receive education to the highest level affordable. Enrollments are equal for boys and girls. Women's employment is not challenged by husbands, and work is available in a variety of locations. Business ownership and operation is encouraged. By middle age, women generally do not work in enterprises, but at home or on contracted farmland. Equal rights within the family are generally accepted. Husbands turn over their salary to wives for family expenses. Girls receive the same care after birth as boys. Women's status is improving. Improvements in social status have also involved sacrifices. Women complained that the workload on the farm has increased with adult males away working in cities. Women bear the burden of family planning, including in some cases side effects from oral pills and recovery from sterilizations. One women remarked that there were burdens in bearing children, taking oral pills, having IUD insertions, and having induced abortions; men should bear 50% of the responsibility. The burden of women without sons is harder, and women may also feel inferior as the last in their family line. One family with 6 daughters accepted the fine of RMB 7000 yuan for having another child, which turned out to be a son. One commented that even a stupid son is better than a daughter. Many with only daughters have not tried for a son because the fine was too expensive. Support in old age was a reason for desiring sons. There were positive opinions expressed about family planning. Economic gains for women were considered important in raising women's status. PMID:12318705

  17. Brief education to increase uptake of influenza vaccine among pregnant women: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnant women are the highest priority group for annual influenza vaccination. Studies have shown unacceptably low uptake of both seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccination among pregnant women. This paper will describe the study protocol and methodology of a randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in improving the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine among pregnant women in Hong Kong. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted with pregnant women in at least the second trimester of pregnancy from four publicly funded hospital antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. Participants will be randomly assigned to either one of the two treatment groups: standard care (control) or standard care plus brief education (intervention). Pregnant women in the standard care group will receive the usual antenatal care with an educational pamphlet developed by the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection and those in the intervention group will be provided with usual care plus a brief ten-minute education intervention. Content of the education session will cover four core components recommended in the research literature. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants who have received influenza vaccine during their pregnancy. A total of 184 pregnant women (92 per group) will be required to give an 80% power to detect a treatment effect of 15%. Discussion Most intervention studies aimed at improving influenza vaccination rates in pregnant women have targeted obstetric-care providers and the results of the two patient-oriented RCT interventions are conflicting. The high priority for vaccination given to pregnant women and the low influenza vaccination rate among pregnant women worldwide strongly indicates a need for interventions to improve uptake. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry at www.clinicaltrials.gov(NCT01772901). PMID:24423245

  18. A complex intervention to improve pregnancy outcome in obese women; the UPBEAT randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread recognition that obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, there is no intervention proven to reduce the risk of these complications. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess in obese pregnant women, whether a complex behavioural intervention, based on changing diet (to foods with a lower glycemic index) and physical activity, will reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and delivery of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. A secondary aim is to determine whether the intervention lowers the long term risk of obesity in the offspring. Methods/Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing a behavioural intervention designed to improve glycemic control with standard antenatal care in obese pregnant women. Inclusion criteria; women with a BMI ?30 kg/m2 and a singleton pregnancy between 15+0 weeks and 18+6 weeks’ gestation. Exclusion criteria; pre-defined, pre-existing diseases and multiple pregnancy. Randomisation is on-line by a computer generated programme and is minimised by BMI category, maternal age, ethnicity, parity and centre. Intervention; this is delivered by a health trainer over 8 sessions. Based on control theory, with elements of social cognitive theory, the intervention is designed to improve maternal glycemic control. Women randomised to the control arm receive standard antenatal care until delivery according to local guidelines. All women have a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 27+0- 28+6 weeks’ gestation. Primary outcome; Maternal: diagnosis of GDM, according to the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria. Neonatal; infant LGA defined as >90th customised birth weight centile. Sample size; 1546 women to provide 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the incidence of GDM and a 30% reduction in infants large for gestational age. Discussion All aspects of this protocol have been evaluated in a pilot randomised controlled trial, with subsequent optimisation of the intervention. The findings of this trial will inform whether lifestyle mediated improvement of glycemic control in obese pregnant women can minimise the risk of pregnancy complications. Trial registration Current controlled trials; ISRCTN89971375. PMID:24533897

  19. Predictors of health promotion lifestyle among three ethnic groups of elderly rural women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, H H

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of health promotion lifestyle (HPL) and examine the similarities and differences among three ethnic groups of elderly rural women in Taiwan. Pender's Health Promotion Model was used as the conceptual framework of this study. A convenience sample of 599 elderly rural women was recruited from three rural areas: Kao-Shu, San-Di-Men, and Ma-Chia. Ho-Lo, Hakka, and aboriginal people are the three main ethnic groups in these areas. Of the 599 elderly women, 391 completed all of the interview questions. Subjects ranged from 65 to 91 years old. All instruments used in this study have been evaluated for their content validity. The interrater reliability and alpha coefficient reliability of all instruments were greater than 0.70. A survey-interview method was used to collect data. Findings showed that the predictors of HPL have differences and similarities among elderly rural women from different ethnicities. In the group of elderly Ho-Lo women, age, education, living arrangements, and perceived barriers to health promotion lifestyle (PBaHPL) were significant predictors and they explained 41.9% of total variance in HPL. In the group of elderly Hakka women, education, number of chronic health problems, PBaHPL, and perceived benefits of health promotion lifestyle (PBeHPL) were significant predictors in explaining 53.9% of total variance in HPL. Finally, in the group of elderly aboriginal women, living arrangements, PBaHPL, and PBeHPL were significant predictors in explaining 70.0% of total variance in HPL. Community nurses can use their understanding of different ethnic groups to assess, identify, and use effective health promotion interventions for elderly rural women. PMID:10528502

  20. Integrating Group Counseling, Cell Phone Messaging, and Participant-Generated Songs and Dramas into a Microcredit Program Increases Nigerian Women’s Adherence to International Breastfeeding Recommendations123

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L.; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5–7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ?6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely given that >150 million women, many of childbearing age, are involved in microfinance globally. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01352351. PMID:24812071

  1. Enhancing Women's Lives: The Role of Support Groups among Breast Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Spiegel, David

    1999-01-01

    Reviews research indicating that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. States that Supportive-Expressive group therapy has been effective in assisting patients in reducing anxiety related to death and dying, strengthening interpersonal relationships, and improving the quality of…

  2. A group approach to psychosocial issues faced by HIV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Chung, J Y; Magraw, M M

    1992-09-01

    Women now constitute the fastest-growing population of persons with AIDS in the U.S. The psychosocial problems of women with AIDS and HIV infection are underrecognized, and economic, personal, and social resources to meet their needs are often inadequate. The authors describe development of a group for HIV-infected women and discuss issues raised by group members. HIV-infected women often feel isolated and experience stigma and shame. Their roles as caregivers and as wives and mothers are often changed or lost, and they experience anxiety and confusion about options for sexual activity. They sometimes fear transmitting HIV to family members through non-sexual contact. Physicians may discount their symptoms and may need to be educated about gynecological problems associated with HIV. Other issues involve coping with being both ill and a mother, disclosing information to children about the illness, and loss of reproductive choice. PMID:1427696

  3. A Mothers' Discussion Group in a Women's Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daehlin, Diane; Hynes, Jane

    1974-01-01

    Mothers in prison awaiting release face special problems of readjusting to their families and to life in the general community. A discussion group program in a Minnesota prison indicates ways in which social workers can help these mothers. (Author)

  4. Effects of risedronate 5 mg\\/d on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in late-postmenopausal women with osteopenia: A multinational, 24-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase III trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matti J. Välimäiki; Jordi Farrerons-Minguella; Johan Halse; Heikki Kröger; Marilyn Maroni; Henk Mulder; Manuel Muñoz-Torres; Maria Sääf; Erik Snorre Øfjord

    2007-01-01

    Background: Randomized clinical trials have shown that risedronate reduces the risk for both ver- tebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (bone mineral density [BMD] T-score, <-2.5). If left untreated, osteopenia (T-score, between -1 and -2.5) may progress to osteo- porosis. Risedronate sodium, a pyridinyl bisphospho- nate, is an antiresorptive drug approved by the US Food and Drug

  5. A Band of Sisters: The Impact of Long-Term Small Group Participation--Forty Years in a Women's Prayer and Bible Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Kevin E.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a women's prayer and Bible study group that has met for over forty years. The report focuses on factors contributing to the group's longevity and vitality over time, how it changed over the years, and its impact on the lives of the women who participated in it. It also addresses how this long-term group

  6. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  7. CULTURE, SOCIAL CLASS, AND INCOME CONTROL IN THE LIVES OF WOMEN GARMENT WORKERS IN BANGLADESH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NAZLI KIBRIA

    1995-01-01

    This article looks at the income-related experiences of women workers in Bangladesh in the export garment industry, the first modern industry in the country to employ large numbers of women. The analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 34 female sewing machine operators at five factories. Despite the traditionally low economic autonomy of Bangladeshi women, the women's ability to control their

  8. Effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial risk in pregnancy: Results from a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Magriples, Urania; Westdahl, Claire; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2012-01-01

    Few interventions have succeeded in reducing psychosocial risk among pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine whether an integrated group prenatal care intervention already shown to improve perinatal and sexual risk outcomes can also improve psychosocial outcomes compared to standard individual care. This randomised controlled trial included pregnant women ages 14–25 from two public hospitals (N = 1047) who were randomly assigned to standard individual care, group prenatal care or integrated group prenatal care intervention (CenteringPregnancy Plus, CP+). Timing and content of visits followed obstetrical guidelines, from 18-week gestation through birth. Each 2-h group prenatal care session included physical assessment, education/skills building and support via facilitated discussion. Using intention-to-treat models, there were no significant differences in psychosocial function; yet, women in the top tertile of psychosocial stress at study entry did benefit from integrated group care. High-stress women randomly assigned to CP+ reported significantly increased self-esteem, decreased stress and social conflict in the third trimester of pregnancy; social conflict and depression were significantly lower 1-year postpartum (all p-values <0.02). CP+ improved psychosocial outcomes for high-stress women. This ‘bundled’ intervention has promise for improving psychosocial outcomes, especially for young pregnant women who are traditionally more vulnerable and underserved. PMID:21318932

  9. Family Group Decision Making: Protecting Children and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Joan; Burford, Gale

    2000-01-01

    Details implementation of the Family Group Decision Making Project in Canadian Newfoundland and Labrador among residents from Inuit and European backgrounds. Notes how the program offered solutions to problems of fostering cultural autonomy, measuring family violence, unifying families and protecting family members, and integrating child welfare…

  10. The Intersection of Everyday Life and Group Prenatal Care for Women in Two Urban Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Groce, Nora Ellen; Kennedy, Holly Powell

    2013-01-01

    Women from vulnerable populations encounter challenging circumstances that generate stress and may adversely affect their health. Group prenatal care (GPNC) incorporates features which address social stressors, and has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes and prenatal care experiences. In this qualitative study, we describe the complex circumstances in the lives of women receiving care in two urban clinics and how GPNC attenuated them. Stressors included problems with transportation and child care, demanding jobs, poverty, homelessness, difficult relationships with partners, limited family support, and frustrating health care experiences. Receiving prenatal care in groups allowed women to strengthen relationships with significant others, gain social support, and develop meaningful relationships with group leaders. By eliminating waits and providing the opportunity to participate in care, GPNC also offered sanctuary from frustrations encountered in receiving individual care. Reducing such stressors may help improve pregnancy outcomes; however, more evidence is needed on mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:22643609

  11. Women with climacteric symptoms: A target group for prevention of rapid bone loss and osteoporosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Naessén; I. Persson; S. Ljunghall; R. Bergström

    1992-01-01

    The relations of vasomotor symptoms to the rate of bone loss and to the response of forearm bone mineral density (BMD) to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were analyzed in a 2-year non-randomized study. Forty peri\\/postmenopausal women who were given HRT for climacteric symptoms were compared with untreated control women, individually matched for age and length of time since the last

  12. Pelvic Static Magnetic Stimulation to Control Urinary Incontinence in Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Marianne C.; Davies, Elizabeth A.; Thalib, Lukman; Griffiths, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the efficacy of non-invasive static magnetic stimulation (SMS) of the pelvic floor compared to placebo in the treatment of women aged 60 years and over with urinary incontinence for 6 months or more. Subjects and Methods A single-blinded randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Subjects were excluded if they had an implanted electronic device, had experienced a symptomatic urinary tract infection, or had commenced pharmacotherapy for the same in the previous 4 weeks, or if they were booked for pelvic floor or gynecological surgery within the next 3 months. Once written consent was obtained, subjects were randomly assigned to the active SMS group (n=50) or the placebo group (n=51). Treatment was an undergarment incorporating 15 static magnets of 800–1200 Gauss anterior, posterior, and inferior to the pelvis for at least 12 hours a day for 3 months. Placebo was the same protocol with inert metal disks replacing the magnets. Primary outcome measure was cessation of incontinence as measured by a 24-hour pad test. Secondary outcomes were frequency and severity of symptoms as measured by the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTS-SF), the Incontinence Severity Index, a Bothersomeness Visual Analog scale, and a 24-hour bladder diary. Data were collected at baseline and 12 weeks later. Results There were no statistically significant differences between groups in any of the outcome measures from baseline to 12 weeks. Initial evidence of subjective improvement in the treatment group compared to the placebo group was not sustained with sensitivity analysis. Conclusion This study found no evidence that static magnets cure or decrease the symptoms of urinary incontinence. Additional work into the basic physics of the product and garment design is recommended prior to further clinical trials research. PMID:21817123

  13. Looking Out for The Secret Wound: The Effect of E-Cognitive Group Therapy with Emotional Disclosure on The Status of Mental Health in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Morshed Behbahani, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considering the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among infertile women, it seems that gynecologists, psychiatrists, and psychologists should be more attentive to identify and treat these disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of E-cognitive group therapy with emotional disclosure on mentwal health status of infertile women who are receiving assisted reproduction. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 80 infertile women who were receiving hormonal therapy or other assisted reproductive technologies (ART) were randomly allocated to the cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) group or the control group. The CBT group had a weekly 12-hour meeting for a period of three months. They also participated in some painting sessions (art therapy) and written and verbal emotional disclosure (both individually and in group presentation). The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) test and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) were used for data gathering. Results: Results showed the level of psychological distress decreased in the control group, but not significantly. Psychological intervention in the treatment group significantly lowered the level of psychological distress; the mean score of DASS in all aspects was significant. The difference between the mean score of the two groups after intervention was significant (p=0.001) and also according to ANCOVA (p=0.002). Differences were significant between the mean scores of both groups in the PSWQ (p=0.001), Inventory Test (p=0.001), which was confirmed by ANCOVA (p=0.009). Conclusion: These finding suggest that CBT with emotional self-disclosure promotes coping strategies among infertile women. Results also show that these approaches develop mental health and decrease stress in infertile women. Using a psychiatric approach in medical settings could help infertile women to promote their adjustment with mental health problems due to of in infertility. (Registration Number: IRCT201108247407N2). PMID:25493164

  14. The Influence of Personal and Group Racism on Entry into Prenatal Care among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Misra, Dawn P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Racism has been hypothesized as a barrier to accessing healthcare. No quantitative study has directly assessed its influence on women's initiation of prenatal care (PNC). We examined the relationship between PNC entry and experiences of personal and group racism among low-income African American women. We also examined whether the use of denial of racism as coping mechanism was associated with a delay in accessing PNC. Methods Using a prospective/retrospective cohort design we collected data from 872 African American women (prenatally: n=484; postpartum: n=388). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the overall denial of racism index and PNC initiation. Findings PNC entry was not significantly associated with personal experiences of racism (p=0.33); it was significantly associated with group experiences (p<0.01). Conclusion Denial of racism experienced by other AAs was a barrier to early PNC among low-income African American women. Delayed access to PNC may be rooted in the avoidance of racialized experiences among less empowered women when faced with discrimination. Our findings have important implication for the engagement of African American women into the PNC delivery system and the health care system postpartum. PMID:24041828

  15. The impact of obesity on balance control in community-dwelling older women.

    PubMed

    Dutil, Maxime; Handrigan, Grant A; Corbeil, Philippe; Cantin, Vincent; Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand; Hue, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Older individuals have impaired balance control, particularly those that are frail and/or have sensory deprivations. Obese individuals show faster body sway during upright stance than normal weight individuals, suggesting that they also have difficulty controlling balance even if they do not have the same sensory issues as the older people. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine if obesity is associated to a decreased balance control in older women. Postural sway of normal weight (n = 15, age = 70.8 ± 5.5 years; BMI = 22.2 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (n = 15, age = 71.7 ± 4.3 years; BMI = 27.3 ± 1.3 kg/m(2)), and obese (n = 15, age = 71.1 ± 4.3 years; BMI = 33.1 ± 3.4 kg/m(2)) women was measured with a force platform for normal quiet stance lasting for 30 s in opened and closed eyes conditions. The obese group oscillated at a faster speed than the normal weight group (vision 0.99 ± 0.29 cm/s vs. 0.70 ± 0.16 cm/s, p < 0.01; no vision 1.43 ± 0.50 cm/s vs. 0.87 ± 0.23 cm/s, p < 0.01). The obese group exhibited greater range in both axes without vision compared to the normal weight group (p < 0.05). When observing sway density parameters, the obese group also spent less time in stability zones (2 mm radius area in which the center of pressure is relatively stable), and the distance between these stability zones are greater than the normal weight group in both visual conditions (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Obesity clearly affects postural control in older women. Our results suggest that obesity has a negative impact on the capacity of older woman to adequately use proprioceptive information for posture control. As postural instability or balance control deficits are identified as a risk factor for falling, our results also suggest that obesity in older women could be considered as another potential contributing factor for falling. PMID:22318311

  16. Actions of the Burkina Faso women in physics working group at the University of Ouagadougou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, Pétronille; Zerbo, Issa

    2013-03-01

    At the University of Ouagadougou, the largest university in Burkina Faso, the percentage of female student enrollment in the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit was 5.1% (for all the levels) from 2006 to 2009-this rate was 2.3% for physics. For the same period, 22 women out of 455 students (4.8%) were enrolled in PhD (all the fields of the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit) and three women out of 180 students (1.7%) registered in physics PhD. During the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2008, the Burkina Faso Working Group proposed some strategies to attract more women to physics and all the sciences. Some actions were initiated at the University of Ouagadougou as well as in secondary schools. These actions and the feedback of female students are presented.

  17. Teaching ORT to women: individually or in groups?

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A M; Karim, F; Ahmed, J

    1988-12-01

    Programmes to promote the widespread use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for diarrhoea used a variety of methodologies to carry the message to mothers. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) sent its health workers to individual households, and mothers were trained through a one-to-one approach. The cost of training a mother was 72 US cents. Recently, an alternative approach was tried. Instead of individually, mothers were trained in groups which halved the cost. Outcome indicators, such as usage, knowledge and safety of ORT solution, were looked at for each type of approach and were not found to be significantly different. PMID:3204644

  18. Socio-economic differences in food group and nutrient intakes among young women in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all P< 0·001), yogurt (P= 0·001), low-fat spread (P= 0·002) and fresh meat (P= 0·003). They also had higher intakes of butter, processed red meats, white bread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P< 0·001) and full-fat milk (P= 0·014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P= 0·017), fat (P< 0·001), saturated fat (P< 0·001), refined sugar (P< 0·001), folate (P= 0·050), vitamin C (P< 0·001), vitamin D (P= 0·047) and Ca (P= 0·019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions. PMID:23721781

  19. An Examination of Sexual Orientation Group Patterns in Mammographic and Colorectal Screening in a Cohort of U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    Austin, S. Bryn; Pazaris, Mathew J.; Nichols, Lauren P.; Bowen, Deborah; Wei, Esther K.; Spiegelman, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Underutilization of cancer screening has been found especially to affect socially marginalized groups. We investigated sexual orientation group patterns in breast and colorectal cancer screening adherence. Methods Data on breast and colorectal cancer screening, sexual orientation, and sociodemographics were gathered prospectively from 1989 through 2005 from 85,759 U.S. women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Publicly available data on state-level health care quality and sexual orientation-related legal protections were also gathered. Multivariable models were used to estimate sexual orientation-group differences in breast and colorectal cancer screening, controlling for sociodemographics and state-level health care quality and legal protections for sexual minorities. Results Receipt of a mammogram in the past two years was common though not universal and differed only slightly by sexual orientation: heterosexual 84%; bisexual 79%; lesbian 82%. Fewer than half of eligible women had ever received a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy, and rates did not differ by sexual orientation: heterosexual 39%; bisexual 39%; lesbian 42%. In fully adjusted models, state-level health care quality score, though not state-level legal protections for sexual minorities, was positively associated with likelihood of being screened for all women regardless of sexual orientation. Conclusions Concerns have been raised that unequal health care access for sexual orientation minorities may adversely affect cancer screening. We found small disparities in mammography and none in colorectal screening, though adherence to colorectal screening recommendations was uniformly very low. Interventions are needed to increase screening in women of all sexual orientation groups, particularly in areas with poor health care policies. PMID:22729931

  20. WICS @ SFU: assessing the impact and outcomes of a women in computing science student group at the college level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Tsoukalas; Winona Tin Wing Wu

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, Women in Computing Science at Simon Fraser University (WICS) was established first as an email list and later as a full-fledged student group for individuals with a wide diversity of backgrounds with the following goals: first, to promote women in Computing Science; second, to support women throughout their study of Computing Science; third, to build a strong network

  1. Using Focus Groups To Develop a Heart Disease Prevention Program for Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettleman, Lynn; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2000-01-01

    Focus groups with diverse low-income women generated ideas about cardiovascular disease interventions. Women preferred programs that: addressed multiple risk factors; emphasized staying healthy for themselves; taught skills for adopting heart-healthy behaviors; and offered choices in effecting behavior change. Women stressed the need for health…

  2. Informal and Formal Support Groups Retain Women and Minorities in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Maria

    2005-10-01

    Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of "acceptable" appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of "accruing capital." Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.

  3. Sexual violence therapy group in a women's correctional facility: a preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Marie E; Bridges, Ana J; Bell, Jessica; Petretic, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    This pilot study was an evaluation of an 8-week exposure-based therapy group targeting sexual trauma in incarcerated women, an underserved population with high rates of trauma exposure. Preliminary findings from 14 female prisoners showed significant decreases in depressive and anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. Of the women who were above the screening cutoff for possible posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 13), depression (n = 12), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 12) at pretreatment, approximately 60% had recovered, meaning they had symptom reductions that placed them below the cutoff at posttreatment (n = 8 for PTSD; n = 8 for depression, and n = 9 for GAD). In addition, 85% of participants reported a clinically significant reduction in depressive symptoms and 50% in GAD symptoms. The findings show promise for successful group treatment of sexual violence sequelae in incarcerated women. PMID:24797176

  4. “If you can’t treat HPV, why test for it?” Women’s attitudes to the changing face of cervical cancer prevention: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between infection with high-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer is transforming prevention through HPV vaccination and HPV oncogenic testing. In Ireland, a national cervical cancer screening programme and HPV vaccination were recently launched; HPV testing is currently being integrated into the screening programme. Women’s views on the transformation of cervical cancer prevention have been relatively little investigated. Methods Using qualitative focus groups, we determined women’s knowledge, attitudes towards, and acceptability of cervical cancer screening, HPV oncogenic testing and vaccination of HPV. Fifty nine women, recruited through primary care in Ireland, participated in ten focus groups. A dynamic topic guide was developed from literature reviewed. Women were provided with standardised information about HPV infection, HPV testing. Discussion transcripts were analysed thematically. Results The primary themes that emerged regarding HPV infection were: knowledge, emotional response and societal influences; especially those of healthcare practitioners. Knowledge, logistics, and psychological impact were the primary themes relating to HPV testing. Women’s attitudes towards HPV testing changed during discussion as issues were explored, thus demonstrating the complexity of this issue; lack of existing treatment for HPV infection influenced women’s attitudes, attachment to existing cervical cancer screening also was a significant factor. Conclusions Women currently have a strong attachment to cytology and any changes towards HPV primary testing will need to be managed carefully. To ensure that future cervical cancer prevention strategies will be acceptable to women, sufficient thought will have to be given to information provision and education. We identified the importance to women of healthcare practitioners’ opinions regarding HPV. Appropriate and timely information on HPV will be crucial in order to minimise possible psychological effects women may have. PMID:24885650

  5. Response to antibiotics of women with symptoms of urinary tract infection but negative dipstick urine test results: double blind randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dee Richards; Stephen Chambers; Lynn Fletcher

    2005-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of women with symptoms of urinary tract infection but negative urine dipstick testing. Design Prospective, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. Setting Primary care, among a randomly selected group of general practitioners in Christchurch, New Zealand. Participants 59 women aged 16-50 years presenting with a history of dysuria and frequency in whom

  6. Group Psychotherapy for Women with a History of Incest: The Research Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and…

  7. Deconstructing the Mirror's Reflection: Narrative Therapy Groups for Women Dissatisfied with Their Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duba, Jill D.; Kindsvatter, Aaron; Priddy, Constance J.

    2010-01-01

    Women facing middle age and beyond are pressured by a cultural ideal of slimness. The authors review literature pertaining to the factors affecting the societal perceptions of body image and address relevant counseling interventions, specifically, group therapy based on narrative theory, that are aimed at this population.

  8. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  9. A Model for Short-Term Group Counseling for Women in Nontraditional Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weishaar, Marjorie; Sandmeyer, Louise

    1983-01-01

    Presents a group counseling model designed to help women in male-dominated college majors prepare for problems which may arise as the result of their nontraditional career choices. The five sessions dealt with school to work transition, assertiveness, support networks, multiple role management, and adjusting to minority status. (JAC)

  10. Explaining the impact of a women's group led community mobilisation intervention on maternal and newborn health outcomes: the Ekjut trial process evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suchitra Rath; Nirmala Nair; Prasanta K Tripathy; Sarah Barnett; Shibanand Rath; Rajendra Mahapatra; Rajkumar Gope; Aparna Bajpai; Rajesh Sinha; Anthony Costello; Audrey Prost

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few large and rigorous evaluations of participatory interventions systematically describe their context and implementation, or attempt to explain the mechanisms behind their impact. This study reports process evaluation data from the Ekjut cluster-randomised controlled trial of a participatory learning and action cycle with women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in Jharkhand and Orissa, eastern India (2005-2008).

  11. Evaluation of a New Selective Enrichment Broth for Detection of Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith S. Heelan; Judith Struminsky; Patricia Lauro; C. James Sung

    2005-01-01

    Studies at two Brown Medical School-affiliated hospitals were undertaken to evaluate a new selective broth medium (GBS broth) and to compare it to the LIM broth currently used to culture for group B streptococci. Beta-hemolytic group B streptococci produce a carotenoid pigment that turns GBS broth an orange color. From a total of 580 pregnant women, duplicate vaginal-rectal swabs were

  12. Effects of a Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Repeat Mammography Screening in Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Molina, Yamile; Roshani, Daem

    2014-01-01

    Background Although mammography use has increased in developed countries, regular screening in developing countries including Iran remains low. Multiple frameworks, including the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), have been used to understand screening practices among Iranians. The HBM includes intrapersonal constructs such as perceptions of breast cancer and mammography. The TPB includes interpersonal and environmental constructs, such as perceived control and subjective norms. Objectives The current study had 2 objectives: (1) to examine changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening in women receiving either intervention and women in the control group and (2) to compare changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening across the 2 interventions. Methods One hundred eight-four women from 3 randomly selected health centers in Sanandaj, Iran, participated. Eligibility criteria were being 50 years or older, having received a mammogram in the past 2 to 3 years, and no intention to obtain a mammogram within the next year. Results The TPB and HBM participants exhibited greater changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and were more likely to have a mammogram relative to control participants. The TPB and HBM participants exhibited comparable changes in constructs and repeat mammography. Conclusion Findings suggest both interventions equally improved mammography screening. Additional studies are furthermore warranted to address nonadherent Iranian women’s needs in line with these conceptual models. Implications for Practice Use of the HBM and TPB constructs in clinical practice may be helpful to promote continued screening among this population. PMID:25122130

  13. Group versus individual phone-based obesity treatment for rural women.

    PubMed

    Befort, Christie A; Donnelly, Joseph E; Sullivan, Debra K; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Perri, Michael G

    2010-01-01

    Rural women have among the highest rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyle, yet few studies have examined strategies for delivering state-of-the-art obesity treatment to hard-to-reach rural areas. The purpose of this pilot trial was to examine the impact and cost-effectiveness of a 6-month behavioral weight loss program delivered to rural women by phone either one-on-one with a counselor or to a group via conference call. Thirty-four rural women (mean BMI=34.4, SD=4.6) were randomized to group phone-based treatment or individual phone-based treatment. Completers analysis showed that weight loss was greater in the group condition (mean=14.9 kg=, SD=4.4) compared to the individual condition (mean=9.5 kg, SD=5.2; p=.03). Among the total sample, 62% of participants in the group condition achieved the 10% weight loss goal compared to 50% in the individual condition, and group treatment was found to be more cost-effective. Future research is warranted to examine the benefits of group phone-based treatment for long-term management of obesity among rural populations. PMID:19962115

  14. Physical and Psychologic Effects of Aromatherapy Inhalation on Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Stress reduction care is important for pregnant women to decrease obstetric complications and children's health problems after birth. The aim of this study is to clarify the physical and psychologic effects of inhalation aromatherapy on pregnant women. Essential oils with high linalool and linalyl acetate content that may be used during pregnancy were selected and among these, and the one preferred by the participant was used. Design This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Settings/location This trial was performed at a gynecology outpatient department in a hospital in Kyoto, Japan. Participants The study included pregnant women in week 28 of a single pregnancy with a normal course. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group and a control group. They were seated in the resting, seated position for 10 minutes. During the latter 5 minutes of each 10-minute session, aromatherapy inhalation was performed for the aromatherapy group. Outcome measures Before and after the intervention, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was measured. During the trial, the heart-rate fluctuations were measured for the autonomic nervous system regulation. Results A total of 13 pregnant women participated in the trial. Seven (7) participants were assigned to the aromatherapy group and 6 participants to the control group. The results of the POMS were such that based on an intragroup comparison, significant differences were observed in the Tension-Anxiety score (p<0.05) and the Anger-Hostility score (p<0.05), and the respective improvements observed were due to aromatherapy. The results of the autonomic nervous system regulation were such that based on an intragroup comparison within the aromatherapy group, the parasympathetic nerve activity increased significantly (p<0.05). Conclusions Aromatherapy inhalation using essential oils containing linalyl acetate and linalool was found to be effective for the POMS and parasympathetic nerve activity, based on an intragroup comparison. However, based on a comparison between the groups, no substantial difference was observed; hence, further study is necessary in the future. PMID:23410527

  15. Group A streptococcal vaginitis: an unrecognized cause of vaginal symptoms in adult women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Verstraelen; Rita Verhelst; Mario Vaneechoutte; Marleen Temmerman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose  Vaginal infection with group A streptococci (GAS) is an established cause of vaginitis amongst prepubescent girls, but largely\\u000a unrecognized in adult women and therefore often misdiagnosed as vulvovaginal candidosis. We sought to give an overview of\\u000a the epidemiology, risk factors, symptoms, signs, and treatment of GAS vaginitis in adult women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Systematic literature search.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We identified nine case reports covering 12

  16. Distance art groups for women with breast cancer: guidelines and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Collie, Kate; Bottorff, Joan L; Long, Bonita C; Conati, Cristina

    2006-08-01

    To overcome barriers that prevent women with breast cancer from attending support groups, innovative formats and modes of delivery both need to be considered. The present study was part of an interdisciplinary program of research in which researchers from counseling psychology, psycho-oncology, nursing, computer science, and fine arts have explored art making as an innovative format and telehealth as a mode of delivery. For this study, we conducted focus groups and interviews with 25 people with expertise about breast cancer, art, art therapy, and distance delivery of mental health services to generate guidelines for distance art-based psychosocial support services to women with breast cancer. A qualitative analysis of the focus group and interview data yielded guidelines for developers and facilitators of distance art groups for women with breast cancer pertaining to (a) emotional expression, (b) emotional support, (c) emotional safety, and (d) accommodating individual differences, plus special considerations for art therapy groups. Further research is needed pertaining to the use of computers, involvement of art therapists, and screening out vulnerable clients. PMID:16496188

  17. Prenatal depression: a randomized controlled trial in the emotional health of primiparous women.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Barbara A; Muller, Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of postnatal depression (10%-15%) renders it a major public health problem not only for the depressed mother but also for the infant, who may suffer from behavioral disturbances and cognitive delays in later years. This study aimed at evaluating an educational intervention to alleviate postnatal depression and at generally measuring the prenatal and postnatal mood of primiparous women. A prospective, randomized controlled trial of an education intervention to reduce postnatal depression was conducted at three sites in Australia enrolling a total of 184 primiparous women. The intervention consisted of an information booklet on postnatal depression and an audiotape of one woman's journey through clinical postnatal depression. Mood was assessed once prenatally (12-28 weeks) and twice postnatally (8-12 weeks and 16-24 weeks) using the Scale for Assessment of Depression and Schizophrenia modified for pregnant and postnatal women (SADS-M). Demographic and social support data were also collected at enrollment. Comparisons between the control group and the intervention group revealed no differences; the educational intervention did not show any effect when women's mood was measured by the SADS-M. Overall, a general, significant, steady decrease of depressive tendencies was observed when the two postnatal assessments were compared to the prenatal measurements. Women were less depressed postnatally than prenatally. This overall improvement of mood was significant in most SADS-M items. The exceptions were discouragement, anxiety, anger, and irritability, which did not reach significance. Additional multivariate analyses revealed no relevant influence of social support or demographic variables on the changes in mood. The main results that the education intervention had no effect and women, overall, were more depressed prenatally than postnatally contributes further evidence to the view that the prenatal period is a separate entity from the postnatal period, with distinctive psychoneuro-endocrine pathways and, thus, suggesting different profiles of women's experience. This evidence indicates the necessity to screen, refer, and manage prenatal maternal mood as an entity in its own right, rather than as a window on the postnatal period. PMID:15553345

  18. A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Hooshmand, Shirin; Feresin, Rafaela G; Payton, Mark E; Gu, Jennifer; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2015-03-01

    Menopause leads to an increased risk for osteoporosis in women. Although drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer alternative therapies such as dietary supplements, for example, calcium, vitamin D, and collagen hydrolysates for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We have previously shown that a 3-month intervention using a calcium-collagen chelate (CC) dietary supplement was efficacious in improving bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biomarkers of bone turnover in osteopenic postmenopausal women. This study reports the long-term efficacy of CC in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Thirty-nine women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 5?g of CC containing 500?mg of elemental calcium and 200?IU vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) or control (500?mg of calcium and 200?IU vitamin D) daily for 12 months. Total body, lumbar, and hip BMD were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months to assess levels of blood biomarkers of bone turnover. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed using repeated measures analysis of variance pairwise comparisons and multivariate analysis to assess time and group interactions. The loss of whole body BMD in women taking CC was substantially lower than that of the control group at 12 months in those who completed the study and the ITT analysis, respectively (CC: -1.33% and -0.33% vs. control: -3.75% and -2.17%; P=.026, P=.035). The CC group had significantly reduced levels of sclerostin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) (P<.05), and higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase/TRAP5b ratio (P<.05) than control at 6 months. These results support the use of CC in reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. PMID:25314004

  19. The Effect of Melatonin on Climacteric Symptoms in Menopausal Women; A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled, Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    PARANDAVAR, Nehleh; ABDALI, Khadijeh; KESHTGAR, Sara; EMAMGHOREISHI, Maasoumeh; AMOOEE, Seddegheh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Menopause is one of the most critical periods of woman’s life. With reducing of ovarian estrogen; women are more prone to psychological and physical symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the climacteric symptoms. Methods The present double blind, placebo randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 240 menopausal women (40 - 60 years old) referring to the gynecology clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (January - November 2012). The participants were randomly divided into two groups through sortition. Demographic characteristics, Goldberg’s general health questionnaire (GHQ), Greene Climacteric Scale and level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) were determined for both groups before the intervention. The intervention group received one 3mg melatonin tablet each night for 3 months and the control group received the placebo in the same period. Changes of climacteric symptoms and drug complications were measured 1, 2 and 3 months after the intervention Results We analyzed the data of 99 postmenopausal women in the intervention group and 101 postmenopausal women in the control group. In the melatonin group, the climacteric symptoms score decreased from 35.73+11.6 to 17.09+10.22 during the 3-month study period and regardless of time, a significant difference was observed between the two groups (P<0.001). In addition, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding various dimensions of the climacteric symptoms over time (P<0.001). No significant difference was found regarding side effects between the two groups (P= 0.135). Conclusion The study findings showed that using melatonin improved the climacteric symptoms.

  20. Screening for group B Streptococcus in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Taminato, Mônica; Fram, Dayana; Torloni, Maria Regina; Belasco, Angélica Gonçalves Silva; Saconato, Humberto; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is considered an important public health problem. It is associated with: Neonatal sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, neonatal death, septic abortion, chorioamnionitis, endometritis and other perinatal infections. The aim of this study was to determine the best screening strategy for GBS in pregnant women. For this a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out in the Nursing Department of the Federal University of São Paulo, Cochrane Center, Brazil. Sources used were, EMBASE, LILACS, Medline, list of references, personal communication and the Cochrane library. The criterion for the selection of the studies was; studies which analyze some type of screening for GBS in pregnant women. Independent of the comparator, all analyses were in favor of a universal screening program for reducing the incidence of neonatal sepsis. The evidence obtained in this study suggests that the strategy of universal screening of pregnant women associated with the use of prophylactic antibiotics is safe and effective. PMID:22249684

  1. Examining the efficacy of a brief group protective behavioral strategies skills training alcohol intervention with college women.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-12-01

    College students' use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students' use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women randomized to either a PBS skills training intervention or study skills control condition. Participants attended a 45-min group session and completed online surveys pre- and postintervention (1 month and 6 months). We conducted a series of 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANCOVAs with condition and baseline mental health (anxiety/depression) as the between-subjects factors and time as the within-subjects factor. Intervention participants, relative to controls, reported significantly greater increases in PBS use and reductions in both heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consequences. The intervention was particularly effective in increasing PBS use at 1 month among participants with high anxiety. Further, tests of moderated mediation showed a significant conditional indirect effect of condition on 1-month consequences through PBS use among participants with high levels of anxiety. Findings provide preliminary support for a brief PBS-specific group intervention to reduce alcohol risk among college women, particularly anxious women. Future research is needed to strengthen the long-term effectiveness of the present approach and further explore the moderating effects of mental health. PMID:25347024

  2. Association of Zinc, Copper and Magnesium with bone mineral density in Iranian postmenopausal women – a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of inadequate nutrition such as trace elements and vitamin deficiencies is considerable in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to compare trace elements (Zinc, Copper and Magnesium) concentration in nail, urine and serum among osteoporotic postmenopausal women with control group in Iran. Methods Forty eight postmenopausal women aged 36–60 years, were recruited, consisting 30 osteoporotic patients and 18 healthy controls. Blood, nail and urine concentration of Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma -Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) method. Their Bone Mineral Density was measured by Dual X-ray Absorption (DEXA) method. Results The urine level of trace elements had significant difference between osteoporotic groups and controls (p?groups (p?groups. Conclusion Our findings indicate that Urine Zn level could be considerable an appropriate marker for bone absorption, usage of Zn supplements in postmenopausal women may result a beneficial reduction in osteoporotic risk. PMID:24602492

  3. Regular physical activity reduces the effects of Achilles tendon vibration on postural control for older women.

    PubMed

    Maitre, J; Serres, I; Lhuisset, L; Bois, J; Gasnier, Y; Paillard, T

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to determine in what extent physical activity influences postural control when visual, vestibular, and/or proprioceptive systems are disrupted. Two groups of healthy older women: an active group (74.0 ± 3.8 years) who practiced physical activities and a sedentary group (74.7 ± 6.3 years) who did not, underwent 12 postural conditions consisted in altering information emanating from sensory systems by means of sensory manipulations (i.e., eyes closed, cervical collar, tendon vibration, electromyostimulation, galvanic vestibular stimulation, foam surface). The center of foot pressure velocity was recorded on a force platform. Results indicate that the sensory manipulations altered postural control. The sedentary group was more disturbed than the active group by the use of tendon vibration. There was no clear difference between the two groups in the other conditions. This study suggests that the practice of physical activities is beneficial as a means of limiting the effects of tendon vibration on postural control through a better use of the not manipulated sensory systems and/or a more efficient reweighting to proprioceptive information from regions unaffected by the tendon vibration. PMID:24853711

  4. Safety and efficacy of antenatal milk expressing for women with diabetes in pregnancy: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Della A; Jacobs, Susan; Amir, Lisa H; Davis, Peter; Walker, Susan P; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Donath, Susan M; Moorhead, Anita M; Ford, Rachael; McNamara, Catharine; Aylward, Amanda; Gold, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many maternity providers recommend that women with diabetes in pregnancy express and store breast milk in late pregnancy so breast milk is available after birth, given (1) infants of these women are at increased risk of hypoglycaemia in the first 24?h of life; and (2) the delay in lactogenesis II compared with women without diabetes that increases their infant's risk of receiving infant formula. The Diabetes and Antenatal Milk Expressing (DAME) trial will establish whether advising women with diabetes in pregnancy (pre-existing or gestational) to express breast milk from 36?weeks gestation increases the proportion of infants who require admission to special or neonatal intensive care units (SCN/NICU) compared with infants of women receiving standard care. Secondary outcomes include birth gestation, breastfeeding outcomes and economic impact. Methods and analysis Women will be recruited from 34?weeks gestation to a multicentre, two arm, unblinded randomised controlled trial. The intervention starts at 36?weeks. Randomisation will be stratified by site, parity and diabetes type. Women allocated to the intervention will be taught expressing and encouraged to hand express twice daily for 10?min and keep an expressing diary. The sample size of 658 (329 per group) will detect a 10% difference in proportion of babies admitted to SCN/NICU (85% power, ? 0.05). Data are collected at recruitment (structured questionnaire), after birth (abstracted from medical record blinded to group), and 2 and 12?weeks postpartum (telephone interview). Data analysis: the intervention group will be compared with the standard care group by intention to treat analysis, and the primary outcome compared using ?2 and ORs. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval will be obtained from participating sites. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented to clinicians, policymakers and study participants. Trial registration number Australian Controlled Trials Register ACTRN12611000217909. PMID:25358679

  5. Immigration transition and depressive symptoms: four major ethnic groups of midlife women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of symptoms and less severe symptoms than nonimmigrants (p <.01). When controlling for background characteristics, self-reported racial/ethnic identity and immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R(2) =.01, p <.05). PMID:24875592

  6. Men's controlling behaviors and women's experiences of physical violence in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J

    2013-09-01

    In the feminist paradigm, intimate partner violence (IPV) among heterosexual couples is gender asymmetric and largely a tactic of male control. However, research on the relationship between men's controlling behavior and physical violence against women is limited. This study examines whether having a controlling partner is associated with women's reports of experiencing physical violence in Malawi. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using data from 8,385 women who completed the domestic violence module of the Malawi 2004 Demographic and Health Survey. About 18 % of women reported they had experienced moderately severe physical violence and 1 % experienced very severe violence in the past 12 months. A third of women reported their partners had ever been controlling. Results from multivariable ordinal logistic regression showed that women who had controlling partners were significantly more likely to report experiencing physical violence. Other factors significantly associated with women's experience of physical violence included women who reported initiating physical violence against their partners, women's work status, partners' lower education level, and partners' alcohol consumption. Women with controlling partners were at increased risk of experiencing physical violence in the past year. However, women who reported initiating physical violence in the past year were nearly four times more likely to experience partner violence in the same time period. Future research should attempt to elucidate these two important risk factors for IPV. PMID:22996380

  7. Resolving Vitamin D Deficiency in the Preconception Period among High-Risk Reproductive Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Mahshid; Baheiraei, Azam; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Modarres, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although vitamin D deficiency has been linked to potential complications in reproductive women, the recommended intake dosage of this vitamin in populations with high incidence of deficiency in preconception period has not been defined. Objectives: The study investigated the effect of consuming a dosage of 2000 IU/day oral vitamin D for 105 days, on serum levels of this vitamin in reproductive women. Materials and Methods: 229 women with 18-35 years old, who were confirmed to be vitamin D deficient (vitamin D < 75 nmol/L), were randomized into the intervention and control groups and after 15 weeks consumption of the supplement and placebo, their serum samples were obtained. Results: At baseline the mean serum levels of vitamin D in the control group was 23.34 ± 15.87 nmol/L and in intervention group was 25.13 ± 18.46 nmol/L, that these values didn’t have any significant difference (P = 0.43), while after intervention, significant differences between the two groups was noticed (P < 0.001). The affecting factors to achieve normal range of vitamin D in the intervention group included basal amounts of vitamin D and two underlying factors based on questionnaire data: use of oral supplements (except vitamin D and calcium) in daily life and perfect sun exposure. Conclusion: This study showed positive effect of the 2000 IU/day oral vitamin D on the serum level elevation of this vitamin in reproductive women. PMID:24719700

  8. Effect of 6 months of whole body vibration on lumbar spine bone density in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chung-Liang; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Chen, Chung-Nan; Liao, Wan-Chun; Wang, Chun-Hou; Lee, Meng-Chih; Hsu, Pi-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Background The issue of osteoporosis-induced fractures has attracted the world’s attention. Postmenopausal women are particularly at risk for this type of fracture. The nonmedicinal intervention for postmenopausal women is mainly exercise. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise. There have been some studies investigating the effect of WBV on osteoporosis; however, the intervention models and results are different. This study mainly investigated the effect of high-frequency and high-magnitude WBV on the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women. Methods This study randomized 28 postmenopausal women into either the WBV group or the control group for a 6-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of high-frequency (30 Hz) and high-magnitude (3.2 g) WBV in a natural full-standing posture for 5 minutes, three times per week, at a sports center. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the lumbar BMD of the two groups before and after the intervention. Results Six months later, the BMD of the WBV group had significantly increased by 2.032% (P=0.047), while that of the control group had decreased by 0.046% (P=0.188). The comparison between the two groups showed that the BMD of the WBV group had increased significantly (P=0.016). Conclusion This study found that 6 months of high-frequency and high-magnitude WBV yielded significant benefits to the BMD of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women, and could therefore be provided as an alternative exercise. PMID:24348029

  9. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt medium for group B streptococcus screening in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andréia França; Silva, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; de Pádua, Rúbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ? 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ? 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  10. Do Innovations in Birth Control Technology Increase the Welfare of Women?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aloysius Siow

    Birth control pills and legal abortions enable single women to participate in sexual activity with much lower risk of unwanted pregnancy or childbearing. The standard view is that these innovations increase opportunities for women and therefore increase their welfare. An alternative view is that these innovations cause more single women to participate in sexual activities, reducing the bargaining power of

  11. Women's Issues Searching with DIALOG OnDisc ERIC: Natural Language and Controlled Vocabulary Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Paul; Holtmann, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    Compares free text versus controlled vocabulary searching for information relating to women's issues on the ERIC laserdisk database from Dialog. Topics discussed include terminology and women's studies; Boolean operators; and adequacy of the ERIC thesaurus for searching relevant topics including women's social roles, antiabortion movement, teenage…

  12. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Nested Case-Control Study of Risk Factors in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Ferry; Philip Hannaford; Maria Warskyj; Martyn Lewis; Peter Croft

    Risk factors for the development of carpal tunnel syndrome in women were studied by means of a nested case-control analysis of a prospective cohort study of the health effects of oral contraception in British women. A total of 1,264 women who had a diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome reported by their general practitioner between 1968 and 1993 were compared with

  13. Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of…

  14. Implementation and Benefits of Psychooncological Group Interventions in German Breast Centers: A Pilot Study on Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women with Primary Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Katrin; Scholl, Isabelle; Sillem, Martin; Hasenburg, Annette; Härter, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Psychosocial treatment is an integral component in today's comprehensive breast cancer care. The main goal of this study was to test the feasibility (benefits and acceptance) of supportive-expressive group psychotherapy (SEGT), a short-term breast cancer-specific group therapy developed and tested in Anglo-American countries, within breast centers in Germany. Patients and Methods The study was realized as a single-group pre-post design. Data were analyzed by combining quantitative and qualitative research methods. The sample consisted of 49 women with breast cancer stage 1 or 2 according to TNM classification (tumor, node, metastasis). Results The results indicate positive acceptance of the group intervention. Quality of life, tumor-related fatigue and coping strategies improved after SEGT. 1 year after the intervention, the patients report lasting positive results from the group intervention. Conclusions This pilot study illustrates the importance of psychooncological group interventions for breast cancer patients and indicates that this form of outpatient psychooncological care is feasible within the German health care system, and breast centers in particular. Effectiveness has to be investigated in randomized controlled trials. PMID:20847820

  15. Implementation and Benefits of Psychooncological Group Interventions in German Breast Centers: A Pilot Study on Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women with Primary Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Katrin; Scholl, Isabelle; Sillem, Martin; Hasenburg, Annette; Härter, Martin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial treatment is an integral component in today's comprehensive breast cancer care. The main goal of this study was to test the feasibility (benefits and acceptance) of supportive-expressive group psychotherapy (SEGT), a short-term breast cancer-specific group therapy developed and tested in Anglo-American countries, within breast centers in Germany. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was realized as a single-group pre-post design. Data were analyzed by combining quantitative and qualitative research methods. The sample consisted of 49 women with breast cancer stage 1 or 2 according to TNM classification (tumor, node, metastasis). RESULTS: The results indicate positive acceptance of the group intervention. Quality of life, tumor-related fatigue and coping strategies improved after SEGT. 1 year after the intervention, the patients report lasting positive results from the group intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study illustrates the importance of psychooncological group interventions for breast cancer patients and indicates that this form of outpatient psychooncological care is feasible within the German health care system, and breast centers in particular. Effectiveness has to be investigated in randomized controlled trials. PMID:20847820

  16. Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using and real world problems. GNP was firstly applied to Elevator Group Supervisory Control Syste m (EGSCS such as tile-worlds models. EGSCS is the system, where the elevator group supervisory controller controls

  17. Becoming farmers: opening spaces for women's resource control in Calakmul, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Radel, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Despite empirical findings on women's varied and often extensive participation in smallholder agriculture in Latin America, their participation continues to be largely invisible. In this article, I argue that the intransigency of farming women's invisibility reflects, in part, a discursive construction of farmers as men. Through a mixture of quantitative and qualitative methods, including interviews with one hundred women in Calakmul, Mexico, I demonstrate the material implications of gendered farmer identities for women's control of resources, including land and conservation and development project resources. In particular, I relate the activities of one women's agricultural community-based organization and the members' collective adoption of transgressive identities as farmers. For these women, the process of becoming farmers resulted in increased access to and control over resources. This empirical case study illustrates the possibility of women's collective action to challenge and transform women's continued local invisibility as agricultural actors in rural Latin American spaces. PMID:22069807

  18. Benefits of Combining Massage Therapy with Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy in Prenatally Depressed Women

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Deeds, Osvelia; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Gauler, Andy; Sullivan, Susan; Wilson, Donna; Nearing, Graciela

    2009-01-01

    One hundred twelve pregnant women who were diagnosed depressed were randomly assigned to a group who received group Interpersonal Psychotherapy or to a group who received both group Interpersonal Psychotherapy and massage therapy. The group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (one hour sessions) and massage therapy (30 minute sessions) were held once per week for six weeks. The data suggested that the group who received psychotherapy plus massage attended more sessions on average, and a greater percentage of that group completed the six-week program. The group who received both therapies also showed a greater decrease in depression, depressed affect and somatic-vegetative symptom scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), a greater decrease in anxiety scale (STAI) scores and a greater decrease in cortisol levels. The group therapy process appeared to be effective for both groups as suggested by the increased expression of both positive and negative affect and relatedness during the group therapy sessions. Thus, the data highlight the effectiveness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy and particularly when combined with massage therapy for reducing prenatal depression. PMID:19761951

  19. Population-based case-control study of mebendazole in pregnant women for birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Acs, Nándor; Bánhidy, Ferenc; Puhó, Erzsébet; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of the study was to check the embryotoxic-teratogenic and fetotoxic effect of mebendazole (Vermox; Richter, Budapest, Hungary) treatment during pregnancy. Mebendazole use during pregnancy was evaluated in mothers of babies born with congenital abnormalities and in matched control mothers of babies born without congenital abnormalities in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. Of 22,843 women who had newborns or fetuses with congenital abnormalities, 14 were found to have been treated with mebendazole for intestinal nematoda infections/diseases during pregnancy (crude POR: 1.8 with 95% CI: 0.7-4.2). Of 38,151 women who had newborns without any defects (controls), the same number (14) were found to have been treated with mebendazole during pregnancy. Six different congenital abnormality groups were evaluated and a higher prevalence of mebendazole use in these mothers throughout pregnancy was not found. Gestational age and birth weight were analyzed in control infants born to mothers with or without mebendazole treatment. The mean gestational age was somewhat longer and mean birth weight was larger in newborn infants born to mothers with mebendazole treatment. Thus, treatment with mebendazole during pregnancy did not indicate a teratogenic and fetotoxic risk to the embryo or fetus, though the numbers of treated cases and controls in this study were limited. PMID:16131365

  20. DNA Methylation Patterns in Peripheral Blood of Pregnant Women With Group B Streptococcus Colonization.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle L; Ralph, Jody L; Korniewicz, Denise M

    2015-07-01

    The primary risk factor for neonatal Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection, which is the leading cause of infectious neonatal morbidity and mortality, is maternal colonization. However, no definitive maternal risk factors for GBS colonization have been identified and no systematic efforts have been made to prevent maternal colonization. The purpose of this exploratory secondary analysis was to evaluate genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in maternal peripheral blood early in pregnancy for association with GBS colonization status in the third trimester. Genome-wide DNA methylation was analyzed from 18 nulliparous GBS-positive and -negative women (n = 9/group) recruited for a previous study. No statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics or DNA methylation in peripheral blood were identified between GBS-positive and -negative women in early pregnancy. The results suggest that DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood are not associated with risk for GBS colonization. PMID:25964656

  1. Do unto others as others have done unto you?: Perceiving sexism influences women's evaluations of stigmatized racial groups.

    PubMed

    Craig, Maureen A; Dehart, Tracy; Richeson, Jennifer A; Fiedorowicz, Luke

    2012-09-01

    The present research examines how making discrimination salient influences stigmatized group members' evaluations of other stigmatized groups. Specifically, three studies examine how salient sexism affects women's attitudes toward racial minorities. White women primed with sexism expressed more pro-White (relative to Black and Latino) self-report (Studies 1 and 3) and automatic (Study 2) intergroup bias, compared with White women who were not primed with sexism. Furthermore, group affirmation reduced the pro-White/antiminority bias White women expressed after exposure to sexism (Study 3), suggesting the mediating role of social identity threat. Overall, the results suggest that making discrimination salient triggers social identity threat, rather than a sense of common disadvantage, among stigmatized group members, leading to the derogation of other stigmatized groups. Implications for relations among members of different stigmatized groups are discussed. PMID:22569223

  2. Brief Report: Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Depressed Low-Income African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura P. Kohn; Tatia Oden; Ricardo F. Muñoz; Ayinka Robinson; Daria Leavitt

    2002-01-01

    In this study we examine the degree to which a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention can be adapted to be culturally sensitive in treating depressed low-income African American women with multiple stressors. We describe the adaptations we made to an existing intervention, a group treatment developed for depressed low-income medical patients. We also describe our evaluation of the adapted treatment in

  3. Late Life Attachment in Context: Patterns of Relating Among Men and Women from Seven Ethnic Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine L. Fiori; Nathan S. Consedine; Carol Magai

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the later life attachment literature by providing data contrasting patterns\\u000a of attachment among 616 older men and women (aged 50 to 70) from seven ethnic groups in the United States: African Americans,\\u000a English-speaking Caribbeans, Haitians, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, Eastern Europeans, and European Americans. A multivariate\\u000a analysis of the variance with ethnicity,

  4. Experiences of Women with Bulimia Nervosa in a Mindfulness-Based Eating Disorder Treatment Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Proulx

    2007-01-01

    The experience of 6 college-age women with bulimia nervosa was examined after they participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based eating disorder treatment group. This phenomenological study used individual interview and pre- and post-treatment self-portraits. Participants described their experience of transformation from emotional and behavioral extremes, disembodiment, and self-loathing to the cultivation of an inner connection with themselves resulting in greater self-awareness,

  5. Heterogeneity in the prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms in women of different ethnic groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Setareh Torabian Esfahani; Edward A Cogger; Marie A Caudill

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms in women of different ethnic groups and to relate these common mutations to plasma homocysteine, red cell folate, and serum folate. Design A one-time fasting blood sample was obtained for MTHFR genotype (C677T and A1298C) determinations (n=433). Serum folate, red cell folate, and homocysteine analyses were performed in nonfolic

  6. Pilot investigation of the circadian plasma melatonin rhythm across the menstrual cycle in a small group of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Ari; Lespérance, Paul; Ng Ying Kin, N M K; Boivin, Diane B

    2012-01-01

    Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP) and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under "unmasked", time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P?.03) worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P?=?.025) increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (P<.05) decreased melatonin at circadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed. PMID:23284821

  7. Thyroid function: comparison of women in late pregnancy with control women of reproductive age in regions of dietary iodine excess.

    PubMed

    Du, Quxiao; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Li

    2013-07-01

    Three hundred pregnant women and 300 women of reproductive age (controls) were selected from regions with a dietary iodine excess to evaluate thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions. Fasting morning urine and venous blood samples were collected. Urinary iodine concentration, serum free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) levels were determined. Iodine levels were excessive in 83.7% of pregnant women and 80.7% of the control women. The former showed lower rates of total thyroid disease and subclinical hypothyroidism than the latter (21.7% vs 29.7%, P < 0.05; 19.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.05). The FT3 level, FT4 level, and TGAb positive rate of pregnant women were lower than that in the controls (P < 0.05). Thus, both excessive iodine intake and pregnancy can influence the thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions of women. PMID:23858522

  8. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups

    PubMed Central

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control.

  9. 78 FR 68779 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples; Hearing Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...REG-114122-12] RIN 1545-BK96 Controlled Group Regulation Examples; Hearing Cancellation...to examples that illustrate the controlled group rules related to regulated investment companies. DATES: The public hearing originally...

  10. Motivational Groups Support Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and use of Risk Reduction Behaviors in HIV Positive Nigerian Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Essien, James E.; Ekong, Ernest; Higgins, Melinda; Teplinskiy, Ilya; Adewuyi, Modupe Falilatu

    2013-01-01

    Nigerian women comprise the fastest growing group of persons with AIDS in Africa. Antiretroviral therapy has transformed the course of HIV/AIDS to a treatable, chronic illness worldwide. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a group intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) to promote adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and use of risk reduction behaviors (RRB) among HIV-infected women in Nigeria. Recruited participants (n=60) were randomly assigned to the motivational group or the health promotion program (HPP) control group. The 6 month follow-up results indicate that, compared to the control group, MI participants reported significantly higher levels of adherence to ART, higher knowledge of HIV, higher use of condoms/protection during sexual encounters and decision-making not to have sex when no protection was available. The MI participants also had fewer mean number of sexual partners. MI in group format shows promise in promoting adherence to ART and use of RRB in HIV-infected Nigerian women. PMID:23437496

  11. Command control group behaviors. Objective 1: A methodology for and identification of command control group behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaser, J. M.; Stewart, S.; Tiede, R. V.

    1984-08-01

    This report provides the results of the first year's research of a three-year effort to identify the individual and multi-individual non-procedural skills exhibited by battalion command control group members and the commander/staff as a whole. In this project a model of command control group behavior was applied to identify and quantify four general categories of behavior. A methodology was developed for use at the Combined Arms Tactical Training Simulator (CATTS) at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas. Extensive recordings were made of battalion commanders and their staffs as they underwent training at the facility fighting a highly realistic computer-assisted war game. The methodology was effective in distinguishing between groups in three of the four areas. Preliminary results show that both procedural and nonprocedural, individual, and team behaviors contribute to overall team performance.

  12. Weight Control Behaviors of Low-Income, African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faryle Nothwehr; Timothy Stump

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is extremely common among African American women, and many women express interest in losing weight. To better understand current weight management practices in this population, this study measured behaviors and attitudes believed important to successful weight management. Data were obtained via telephone survey. The study involved 155 low-income African American women aged 30 to 69 identified through an urban

  13. Daughters of Abya Yala: Native Women Regaining Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderete, Wara, Ed.; And Others

    This book compiles testimonies of the struggles, everyday life, and accomplishments of Indian women from Central and South America. Following an introduction to the increasing role of Indian women in international forums and indigenous organizations, the words of individual women describe the problems that affect them and their determination to…

  14. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  15. Control Group Methods for HPT Program Evaluation and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Establishes a theoretical foundation for control groups; defines four types of control groups applicable to HPT (human performance technology) program evaluation and measurement; explores their validity; and presents scenarios for an electronic learning program to demonstrate the applicability of the control group methods for HPT program…

  16. Breast self-examination practices among women from six ethnic groups and the influence of cancer worry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Kudadjie-Gyamfi; Nathan Consedine; Carol Magai; Michael Gillespie; Jessy Pierre-Louis

    2005-01-01

    Summary Diverse samples of women (N = 1364) from Brooklyn, New York, were interviewed regarding their breast cancer screening practices. Of interest here is the relation between cancer worry and adherence to breast self-examination (BSE) guidelines among the six ethnic groups identified – European American, African American, Haitian, Dominican and English-speaking Caribbean women. There was a significant difference in cancer

  17. War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Riffat Moazam

    This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

  18. Evaluation of the Granada Agar Plate for Detection of Vaginal and Rectal Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. GARCIA GIL; M. C. RODRIGUEZ; R. BARTOLOME; B. BERJANO; L. CABERO; A. ANDREU

    1999-01-01

    Granada medium was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in vaginal and rectal swabs compared with selective Columbia blood agar and selective Lim broth. From May 1996 to March 1998, 702 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation) participated in this three-phase study; 103 (14.7%) of these women carried GBS. In the first phase of the

  19. STD 105: Process Groups as an Instructional Medium for Re-entry Women at Paul D. Camp Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Elizabeth; Duggin, Molly; Kidd, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    An effective team-based, group-oriented personal development from a woman's perspective course explores the effects of several issues on the re-entry woman: the role that society and culture play in influencing women's vocational choices; women's roles; the economic necessity of work; stress; and relationships. A team-based approach provides a…

  20. Culture and sex education: the acquisition of sexual knowledge for a group of Vietnamese Australian young women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen A. Rawson; Pranee Liamputtong

    2010-01-01

    Background. This paper explores how a group of Vietnamese Australian young women acquire knowledge of sexual issues, and the impact the traditional Vietnamese culture has on the acquisition of this knowledge. It is based on a qualitative study that examined the factors which shape the sexual behaviour of Vietnamese Australian young women living in Australia.Methods. A Grounded Theory methodology was

  1. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  2. Home ovulation tests and stress in women trying to conceive: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tiplady, S.; Jones, G.; Campbell, M.; Johnson, S.; Ledger, W.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does the use of a digital home ovulation test have any effect on the level of stress in women seeking to conceive? SUMMARY ANSWER No difference was found in levels of stress between women using digital ovulation tests to time intercourse compared with women who were trying to conceive without any additional aids: in addition, their use did not negatively impact time to conception in users but may provide additional benefits, including an increased understanding of the menstrual cycle, reassurance and confidence in focusing conception attempts to the correct time in the cycle. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY It has been suggested that timing of intercourse in such a way that it coincides with ovulation by using ovulation tests can lead to emotional distress; however, no study has been conducted to investigate this hypothesis specifically, until now. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION The study was performed over two complete menstrual cycles as a prospective, randomized, controlled trial including quantitative and qualitative methods. The intervention (test) group were given digital ovulation tests to time intercourse to the most fertile time of the cycle and the control group were provided with the current National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for increasing the chances of conception (intercourse every 2–3 days) and asked not to use any additional methods to time when ovulation occurs. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND METHODS A total of 210 women who were seeking to conceive were recruited from the general UK population. A total of 115 women were randomized to the test group and 95 to the control group through block randomization. The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) were used to measure subjective stress levels, the Short-Form 12 health survey was used as a measure of general health and well-being and urine samples were measured for biochemical markers of stress including urinary cortisol. Qualitative data were collected in the form of a telephone interview upon study completion. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no evidence for a difference either in total stress as measured using the PSS or in total positive or negative affect using the PANAS questionnaire between the test and control groups at any time point for the duration of the study. During cycle 1, for example, on Day 6, the difference in total stress score (test–control) was ?0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) ?2.47 to 1.24] and on the day of the LH surge, it was 0.53 (95% CI ?1.38 to 2.44). In addition, no correlation was observed between time trying to conceive and levels of stress, or between age and levels of stress, and no evidence was found to show that stress affected whether or not a pregnancy was achieved. There is also no evidence that the biochemistry measurements are related to whether a pregnancy was achieved or of a difference in biochemistry between the treatment groups. The use of digital ovulation tests did not negatively affect time to conception and with an adequately sized study, could potentially show improvement. To ensure that the results of this study were not affected by chance, we used a number of different methods for measuring stress, each of which had been independently validated. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Randomization occurred before the start of the study because of the need to provide the ovulation tests in readiness for Day 6 of the first cycle. As a consequence, a number of women fell pregnant during this period (22 and 13 in the test and control groups, respectively). A further 15 women were either lost to follow-up or withdrew consent prior to study start. Pregnancy rate was higher overall in the test group, so to ensure that there were sufficient data from women who failed to become pregnant in the test group, we implemented an additional biased recruitment. This second cohort may have been different from the first, although no significant differences were observed between the two

  3. Decreased maximal aerobic capacity with use of a triphasic oral contraceptive in highly active women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lebrun, C; Petit, M; McKenzie, D; Taunton, J; Prior, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Oral contraceptives are commonly used by women athletes. However, their effect on athletic performance is unclear. Objectives: To examine the effects of a moderate dose, triphasic oral contraceptive on measures of athletic performance in highly trained women athletes. Methods: This is a double blind, placebo controlled trial in 14 women with ovulatory menstrual cycles and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2MAX) ?50 ml/kg/min. Four measures of athletic performance were tested: VO2MAX, anaerobic capacity (anaerobic speed test), aerobic endurance (time to fatigue at 90% of VO2MAX), and isokinetic strength (Cybex II dynamometer). Height, weight, and six skinfold measurements were also recorded. All these observational tests were completed during both the follicular and mid-luteal phases of an ovulatory menstrual cycle. Cycle phases were confirmed by assaying plasma oestradiol and progesterone. Participants were subsequently randomly assigned to either a tricyclic oral contraceptive or placebo and retested in identical fashion (oral contraceptive phase). Results: Absolute and relative changes in VO2MAX from follicular to oral contraceptive phase decreased in the oral contraceptive group by 4.7%, whereas the placebo group showed a slight increase (+1.5%) over the same time period. Two of the women taking oral contraceptive had decreases of 4 and 9 ml/kg/min. In contrast, most women in the placebo group improved or maintained VO2MAX. There was also a significant increase in the sum of skinfolds in women taking oral contraceptive compared with those taking placebo (p<0.01). There were no significant changes in other physiological variables (maximum ventilation, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, packed cell volume) or measures of performance (anaerobic speed test, aerobic endurance, isokinetic strength) as a function of oral contraceptive treatment. Conclusions: The decrease in VO2MAX that occurs when oral contraceptive is taken may influence elite sporting performance in some women. Further studies are required to determine the mechanisms of this change. PMID:12893716

  4. Taking pictures to take control: Photovoice as a tool to facilitate empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic minority women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Teti, Michelle; Pichon, Latrice; Kabel, Allison; Farnan, Rose; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Poor and racial/ethnic minority women comprise the majority of women living with HIV (WLH) in the United States. Race, gender, class, and HIV-based stigmas and inequities limit women’s powers over their health and compromise their quality of life. To help WLH counter this powerlessness, we implemented a photovoice project called Picturing New Possibilities (PNP), and explored how women experienced empowerment through photovoice. PNP participants (N = 30) photographed their life experiences, attended 3 group discussions and a community exhibit of their photos, and completed a follow-up interview. We used strategies of Grounded Theory to identify key empowerment themes. Participants described empowerment through enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, critical thinking skills, and control. Our findings suggest that photovoice is an important tool for WLH. It offers women a way to access internal strengths and use these resources to improve their quality of life and health. PMID:24064314

  5. Effectiveness of policy to provide breastfeeding groups (BIG) for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers in primary care: cluster randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pat Hoddinott; Jane Britten; Gordon J Prescott; David Tappin; Anne Ludbrook; David J Godden

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a policy to provide breastfeeding groups for pregnant and breastfeeding women.Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with prospective mixed method embedded case studies to evaluate implementation processes.Setting Primary care in Scotland.Participants Pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers, and babies registered with 14 of 66 eligible clusters of general practices (localities) in Scotland that

  6. Supplementing lactating women with puréed papaya and grated carrots improved vitamin A status in a placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ncube, T N; Greiner, T; Malaba, L C; Gebre-Medhin, M

    2001-05-01

    Doubts have been raised about the effectiveness of carotene-containing foods in improving the vitamin A status of populations at risk. We investigated the effect of papaya and carrots on the vitamin A status of lactating women with 2- to 12-mo-old infants in ZIMBABWE: The women were randomly assigned to three supplementation groups and a placebo group, and received 6 mg of beta-carotene capsules, 650 g puréed papaya, 100 g grated carrots or a placebo, daily for 60 d. All groups were given a meal containing 10 g of vegetable oil daily. Serum retinol, relative dose response, serum ferritin, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein were measured before and after the supplementation period. Mean serum retinol increased significantly after supplementation in the beta-carotene group (P < 0.001), the papaya group (P < 0.001) and the carrot group (P < 0.001), but not in the placebo group (P > 0.05). The relative dose response decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the beta-carotene and papaya groups, but not in the carrot or placebo groups (P > 0.05). There was an increase in mean serum ferritin in all groups but the increase did not differ among groups. The hemoglobin increases in the beta-carotene and papaya groups were greater than that in the placebo group. We conclude that puréed papaya and grated carrots can improve the vitamin A and iron nutriture of lactating women. These findings reinforce the importance of plant food-based approaches in the control of vitamin A deficiency in low income countries. PMID:11340106

  7. Randomised controlled trial of the effect of evidence based information on women's willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Adab, P; Marshall, T; Rouse, A; Randhawa, B; Sangha, H; Bhangoo, N

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: To assess whether providing women with additional information on the pros and cons of screening, compared with information currently offered by the NHS, affects their intention to attend for screening. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the control, (based on an NHS Cervical Screening Programme leaflet currently used), or the intervention leaflet (containing additional information on risks and uncertainties). Setting: Three general practices in Birmingham. Participants: 300 women aged 20 to 64 attending the practices during a one month period. Main outcome measures: Intention to attend for screening. Main results: 283 women (94.3%) completed the study. Fewer women in the intervention (79%) than the control group (88%) expressed intention to have screening after reading the information leaflet (difference between groups 9.2%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.2% to 21.7%). The crude odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI was 0.50 (0.26 to 0.97). After adjusting for other factors, the trend persisted (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.29). Having a previous Pap smear was the only significant predictor of intention to have screening (adjusted OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.03 to 6.21). Subgroup analysis showed no intervention effect in intended uptake between women at higher and lower risk of cervical cancer (p=0.59). Conclusions: Providing women with evidence based information on the risks, uncertainties, and the benefits of screening, is likely to deter some, but not differentially those at higher risk. PMID:12883063

  8. Health Locus of Control and Assimilation of Cervical Cancer Information in Deaf Women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Regina; Aldridge, Arianna A.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Choe, Sun; Branz, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between Deaf women's internal health locus of control (IHLC) and their cervical cancer knowledge acquisition and retention. A blind, randomized trial evaluated Deaf women's (N?=?130) baseline cancer knowledge and knowledge gained and retained from an educational intervention, in relation to their IHLC. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales measured baseline IHLC, and a cervical cancer knowledge survey evaluated baseline to post-intervention knowledge change. Women's IHLC did not significantly predict greater cervical cancer knowledge at baseline or over time. IHLC does not appear to be a characteristic that must be considered when creating Deaf women's cancer education programs. PMID:20229077

  9. Effects of endurance and resistance training on total daily energy expenditure in young women: a controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Poehlman, Eric T; Denino, Walter F; Beckett, Travis; Kinaman, Kristen A; Dionne, Isabelle J; Dvorak, Roman; Ades, Philip A

    2002-03-01

    There exists considerable controversy regarding the impact of different modes of exercise training on total daily energy expenditure (TEE). To examine this question, young, nonobese women were randomly assigned to a supervised 6-month program of endurance training, resistance training, or control condition. TEE was measured before and 10 d after a 6-month exercise program was completed with doubly labeled water. Body composition was determined from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, maximum aerobic capacity from a treadmill test to exhaustion, and muscular strength from one-repetition maximum tests. Results showed that body composition did not change in endurance-trained women, but maximum aerobic capacity increased by 18%. Resistance-trained women increased muscular strength and fat-free mass (1.3 kg). TEE did not significantly change when measured subsequent to the endurance or resistance training programs. Absolute resting metabolic rate increased in resistance-trained women but not when adjusted for fat-free mass. No change in physical activity energy expenditure was found in any of the groups. These results suggest that endurance and resistance training does not chronically alter TEE in free-living young women. Thus, the energy-enhancing benefits of exercise training are primarily derived from the direct energy cost of exercise and not from a chronic elevation in daily energy expenditure in young, nonobese women. PMID:11889152

  10. Food group preferences and energy balance in moderately obese postmenopausal women subjected to brisk walking program.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Sophie; Vallée, Karine; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Joffroy, Sandra; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Auneau, Gérard; Mauriège, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of a 16-week walking program on food group preferences and energy balance of sedentary, moderately obese (body mass index, 29-35 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal Caucasian women, aged 60 ± 5 years old. One hundred and fifty-six volunteers were subjected to 3 sessions/week of 45 min of walking at 60% of heart rate reserve. Total energy intake (TEI) and food group preferences (3-day dietary record), total energy expenditure (TEE, 3-day physical activity diary), cardiorespiratory fitness (2-km walking test), anthropometry, and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) were measured before and after walking. Data were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA with repeated measures on 1 factor (time). The modest increase in TEE of 151 ± 24 kcal/day (p < 0.0001) leads to body weight, fat mass losses, and waist girth reduction (p < 0.0001). TEI remained unchanged despite a slight decrease in carbohydrate intake and a minor increase in protein intake (p < 0.05). Analysis of food records revealed a decreased consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and sweet and fatty foods (p < 0.01), but an increase in oil consumption (p < 0.0001) after walking. Women with the highest body weight loss showed the greatest reduction in the consumption of fruits, sugar, sweet foods, and fatty foods (p < 0.05). Women with the greatest fat mass loss showed the highest decrease in fatty food intake (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although our walking program changed some food group consumption patterns, body weight loss was primarily because of the increased TEE. PMID:26140417

  11. "I am not alone": a survey of women with peripartum cardiomyopathy and their participation in an online support group.

    PubMed

    Hess, Rosanna F; Weinland, Jo Ann; Beebe, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a devastating condition in which women without a previously identified heart condition experience heart failure in the ninth month of pregnancy or in the first 5 months after delivery of a baby. Online support groups are virtual communities for people affected by the same social or health issue. No literature exists on the benefits of women involved in an online support group for peripartum cardiomyopathy. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the benefits of participation in the online support group for peripartum cardiomyopathy based on a survey of active members of the group. All contacts between researchers and respondents were through e-mail. A survey of open-ended and Likert-type questions was used. Twelve women, aged 19 to 34 years, participated; all had a diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy. This online support group is a vital resource for women with peripartum cardiomyopathy. Benefits to participation in the online support group included getting and sharing information, exchanging stories, being understood by other women, and gaining hope. Nurse practice implications include referring patients to reputable Web sites and support groups and serving as a professional facilitator in an online group. PMID:20571373

  12. DCCPS: TCRB: TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Low SES Women and Girl

    Cancer.gov

    Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Home TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control

  13. Assessing the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.

  14. The Influence of the Caregiving Relationship on HIV Positive African American Women's Level of disease Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanda McFadden

    According to CDC statistics, African American women are one of the fastest growing population groups to contract HIV. These women face health disparities, social stigmas, fear of disclosure and the majority lack a trusted support system. As healthcare providers we have a responsibility to assess what influences the client's healthcare decisions. Mutual trust is needed to encourage and set the

  15. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, M.; Pegels, E.; Oviedo, P.; Pereyra, E.; Vergara, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramón Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4%) > levofloxacin (93.5%) > ciprofloxacin (64.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7%) was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 ?g/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women. PMID:24031210

  16. Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherryl H. Goodman; Eileen L. Cooley; Daniel R. Sewell; Naomi Leavitt

    1994-01-01

    Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control

  17. Randomized, Controlled Trial of Yoga in Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chandwani, Kavita D.; Perkins, George; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Raghuram, Nelamangala V.; Spelman, Amy; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Johnson, Kayla; Fortier, Adoneca; Arun, Banu; Wei, Qi; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Haddad, Robin; Morris, G. Stephen; Scheetz, Janet; Chaoul, Alejandro; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous research incorporating yoga (YG) into radiotherapy (XRT) for women with breast cancer finds improved quality of life (QOL). However, shortcomings in this research limit the findings. Patients and Methods Patients with stages 0 to III breast cancer were recruited before starting XRT and were randomly assigned to YG (n = 53) or stretching (ST; n = 56) three times a week for 6 weeks during XRT or waitlist (WL; n = 54) control. Self-report measures of QOL (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form survey; primary outcomes), fatigue, depression, and sleep quality, and five saliva samples per day for 3 consecutive days were collected at baseline, end of treatment, and 1, 3, and 6 months later. Results The YG group had significantly greater increases in physical component scale scores compared with the WL group at 1 and 3 months after XRT (P = .01 and P = .01). At 1, 3, and 6 months, the YG group had greater increases in physical functioning compared with both ST and WL groups (P < .05), with ST and WL differences at only 3 months (P < .02). The group differences were similar for general health reports. By the end of XRT, the YG and ST groups also had a reduction in fatigue (P < .05). There were no group differences for mental health and sleep quality. Cortisol slope was steepest for the YG group compared with the ST and WL groups at the end (P = .023 and P = .008) and 1 month after XRT (P = .05 and P = .04). Conclusion YG improved QOL and physiological changes associated with XRT beyond the benefits of simple ST exercises, and these benefits appear to have long-term durability. PMID:24590636

  18. Dynamics and controls working group summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The technology status of the dynamics and controls discipline as it applies to energy storage wheel systems was evaluated. No problems were identified for which an adequate solution could not be proposed. Design issues that influence control were addressed. The dynamics and control aspects associated with the energy storage system concept and its various constituent parts, and the control tasks attendant to large, manned spacecraft are discussed.

  19. A randomised placebo-controlled safety and acceptability trial of PRO 2000 vaginal microbicide gel in sexually active women in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatoli Kamali; Helen Byomire; Catherine Muwonge; Julie Bakobaki; Clare Rutterford; Pius Okong; Albert Profy; Romano Byaruhanga; Stella Namukwaya; Sheena McCormack; Heiner Grosskurth; Andrew J Nunn; Charles J N Lacey

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesTo determine the safety of 0.5% and 2% PRO 2000 gel in terms of local and systemic adverse events (AE) and the acceptability of gel use.DesignA randomised placebo-controlled trial among healthy, sexually active African women aged 18–45 years. Between June 2003 and September 2004, 180 consenting women were randomly assigned to one of four groups: PRO 2000 gel (0.5% or

  20. Reducing the risk of HIV infection during pregnancy among South African women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L; Peltzer, K; Villar-Loubet, O; Shikwane, E; Cook, R; Vamos, S; Weiss, S M

    2013-01-01

    Mpumalanga Province, South Africa has one of the highest HIV/AIDS diagnosis rates among pregnant women (~29.4%). This study sought to enhance male involvement in pregnancy to increase HIV disclosure, sexual communication, HIV knowledge and reduce unprotected sex. Participants attending Antenatal Clinics (ANC) completed HIV counseling and testing and were enrolled with male partners (n=239 couples, 478 individuals). Twelve ANCs were randomly assigned to provide a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) intervention or the standard of care, health education sessions plus PMTCT. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (approximately 6-8 weeks post-baseline) on demographics, sexual behavior, HIV-related knowledge, and conflict resolution strategies. Experimental participants increased HIV knowledge, use of negotiation, and decreased intimate partner violence. Additionally, they were more likely to have increased condom use from baseline to post-intervention (OR=5.1, 95% CI=[2.0, 13.3]). Seroconversions in the control condition exceeded experimental (6 vs. 0). HIV serostatus disclosure to partner did not increase over time for men or women within the experimental or control condition. Male involvement in pregnancy may be an important strategy to reduce sexual risk behavior and HIV transmission. Results support the utility of group interventions to enhance communication and HIV knowledge among pregnant couples. PMID:23438041

  1. Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control

    PubMed Central

    Dellar, Rachael C; Dlamini, Sarah; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2015-01-01

    Introduction At the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, adolescent girls and young women aged 15–24 contribute a disproportionate ~30% of all new infections and seroconvert 5–7 years earlier than their male peers. This age–sex disparity in HIV acquisition continues to sustain unprecedentedly high incidence rates, and preventing HIV infection in this age group is a pre-requisite for achieving an AIDS-free generation and attaining epidemic control. Discussion Adolescent girls and young women in southern Africa are uniquely vulnerable to HIV and have up to eight times more infection than their male peers. While the cause of this vulnerability has not been fully elucidated, it is compounded by structural, social and biological factors. These factors include but are not limited to: engagement in age-disparate and/or transactional relationships, few years of schooling, experience of food insecurity, experience of gender-based violence, increased genital inflammation, and amplification of effects of transmission co-factors. Despite the large and immediate HIV prevention need of adolescent girls and young women, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to reduce their risk. The exclusion of adolescents in biomedical research is a huge barrier. School and community-based education programmes are commonplace in many settings, yet few have been evaluated and none have demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Promising data are emerging on prophylactic use of anti-retrovirals and conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention in these populations. Conclusions There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural interventions are urgently needed for epidemic control. In the interim, a pragmatic approach of integrating existing HIV prevention efforts into broader sexual reproductive health services is a public health imperative. PMID:25724504

  2. Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of gentle Hatha yoga for women with major depression: Findings from a randomized controlled mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Whaley, Diane; Hauenstein, Emily; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating chronic condition in the United States and worldwide. Particularly in women, depressive symptoms are often accompanied by high levels of stress and ruminations, or repetitive self-critical negative thinking. There is a research and clinical imperative to evaluate complementary therapies that are acceptable and feasible for women with depression and that target specific aspects of depression in women, such as ruminations. To begin to address this need, we conducted a randomized, controlled, mixed-methods community-based study comparing an 8-week yoga intervention with an attention-control activity in 27 women with MDD. After controlling for baseline stress, there was a decrease in depression over time in both the yoga group and the attention-control group, with the yoga group having a unique trend in decreased ruminations. Participants in the yoga group reported experiencing increased connectedness and gaining a coping strategy through yoga. The findings provide support for future large scale research to explore the effects of yoga for depressed women and the unique role of yoga in decreasing rumination. PMID:23706890

  3. Intimacy Status, Locus of Control and Self-Disclosure in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Karen J.

    The fulfillment of the need for intimacy is believed to be central to adult life satisfaction, particularly in young adulthood. To explore the development of intimacy in women and to assess the relationships among intimacy status, locus of control, and self-disclosure, 97 college women with an average age of 30 were placed into 1 of 5 intimacy…

  4. Psychological Separation, Self-Control, and Weight Preoccupation among Elite Women Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Myrna L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined weight preoccupation among 55 elite women swimmers from 5 universities. Results showed that 10.9% of respondents could be characterized as "weight preoccupied," a percentage comparable to general population of college women. Athletes reported using significantly more benign than punitive self-control strategies, suggesting for them,…

  5. Race, Gender, and Social Control: Voices of Imprisoned Native American and White Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Luana

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the differing experiences of Native American and white women in prison. A literature review and unstructured interviews with 31 women in a Montana state prison concentrate on relationships between prisoners and guards, sexual harassment, mind-altering drugs, and prisoners' responses to multiple forms of control. Recommends new approach…

  6. Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Ortiz; Jesus Manuel Casas

    1990-01-01

    Nineth-nine Mexican-American women who were identified as either high or low acculturated responded to questionnaires assessing the relationship between birth control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and the values ascribed to motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Using a multiple regression analysis, a significant positive relationship was found for both high and low acculturated women with respect to their attitudes toward

  7. Testing a Violence-Prevention Intervention for Incarcerated Women Using a Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kim, Woo Jong; Fedock, Gina; Bybee, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Beyond Violence (BV), a new prevention program for women with assaultive offenses, demonstrated feasibility in previous studies. This study's purpose is to assess the efficacy of BV using a randomized control trial. Method: Eligible women were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) and the experimental condition (BV). Measures of…

  8. Greater anterior insula activation during anticipation of food images in women recovered from anorexia nervosa versus controls

    PubMed Central

    Oberndorfer, Tyson; Simmons, Alan; McCurdy, Danyale; Strigo, Irina; Matthews, Scott; Yang, Tony; Irvine, Zoe; Kaye, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict food consumption and become severely emaciated. Eating food, even thinking of eating food, is often associated with heightened anxiety. However, food cue anticipation in AN is poorly understood. Fourteen women recovered from AN and 12 matched healthy control women performed an anticipation task viewing images of food and object images during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing anticipation of food versus object images between control women and recovered AN groups showed significant interaction only in the right ventral anterior insula, with greater activation in recovered AN anticipating food images. These data support the hypothesis of a disconnect between anticipating and experiencing food stimuli in recovered AN. Insula activation positively correlated with pleasantness ratings of palatable foods in control women, while no such relationship existed in recovered AN, which is further evidence of altered interoceptive function. Finally, these findings raise the possibility that enhanced anterior insula anticipatory response to food cues in recovered AN could contribute to exaggerated sensitivity and anxiety related to food and eating. PMID:23993362

  9. Greater anterior insula activation during anticipation of food images in women recovered from anorexia nervosa versus controls.

    PubMed

    Oberndorfer, Tyson; Simmons, Alan; McCurdy, Danyale; Strigo, Irina; Matthews, Scott; Yang, Tony; Irvine, Zoe; Kaye, Walter

    2013-11-30

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict food consumption and become severely emaciated. Eating food, even thinking of eating food, is often associated with heightened anxiety. However, food cue anticipation in AN is poorly understood. Fourteen women recovered from AN and 12 matched healthy control women performed an anticipation task viewing images of food and object images during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing anticipation of food versus object images between control women and recovered AN groups showed significant interaction only in the right ventral anterior insula, with greater activation in recovered AN anticipating food images. These data support the hypothesis of a disconnect between anticipating and experiencing food stimuli in recovered AN. Insula activation positively correlated with pleasantness ratings of palatable foods in control women, while no such relationship existed in recovered AN, which is further evidence of altered interoceptive function. Finally, these findings raise the possibility that enhanced anterior insula anticipatory response to food cues in recovered AN could contribute to exaggerated sensitivity and anxiety related to food and eating. PMID:23993362

  10. Effect of aging on carotid baroreflex control of blood pressure and leg vascular conductance in women

    PubMed Central

    Credeur, Daniel P.; Holwerda, Seth W.; Boyle, Leryn J.; Vianna, Lauro C.; Jensen, Areum K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work suggests that ?-adrenergic vasodilation offsets ?-adrenergic vasoconstriction in young women, but this effect is lost after menopause. Given these age-related vascular changes, we tested the hypothesis that older women would exhibit a greater change in vascular conductance following baroreflex perturbation compared with young women. In 10 young (21 ± 1 yr) and 10 older (62 ± 2 yr) women, mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO; Modelflow), total vascular conductance (TVC), and leg vascular conductance (LVC, duplex-Doppler ultrasound) were continuously measured in response to 5-s pulses of neck suction (NS; ?60 Torr) and neck pressure (NP; +40 Torr) to simulate carotid hypertension and hypotension, respectively. Following NS, decreases in MAP were similar between groups; however, MAP peak response latency was slower in older women (P < 0.05). Moreover, at the time of peak MAP, increases in LVC (young, ?11.5 ± 3.9%LVC vs. older, +19.1 ± 7.0%LVC; P < 0.05) and TVC were greater in older women, whereas young women exhibited larger decreases in HR and CO (young, ?10 ± 3% CO vs. older, +0.8 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05). Following NP, increases in MAP were blunted (young, +14 ± 1 mmHg vs. older, +8 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.05) in older women, whereas MAP response latencies were similar. Interestingly, decreases in LVC and TVC were similar between groups, but HR and CO (young, +7.0 ± 2% CO vs. older, ?4.0 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05) responses were attenuated in older women. These findings suggest that older women have greater reliance on vascular conductance to modulate MAP via carotid baroreflex, whereas young women rely more on cardiac responsiveness. Furthermore, older women demonstrate a blunted ability to increase MAP to hypotensive stimuli. PMID:24682393

  11. A Pilot Study of a Group-Based HIV and STI Prevention Intervention for Lesbian, Bisexual, Queer, and Other Women Who Have Sex with Women in Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Weaver, James; Navia, Daniela; Este, David

    2015-06-01

    Limited research has evaluated interventions to reduce HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) vulnerability among lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women, and other women who have sex with women. The Queer Women Conversations (QWC) study examined the effectiveness of a group-based psycho-educational HIV/STI intervention with LBQ women in Toronto and Calgary, Canada. We conducted a nonrandomized cohort pilot study. Participants completed a pre-test, post-test, and 6-week follow-up. The primary outcome was sexual risk practices, while secondary objectives included intrapersonal (self-esteem, STI knowledge, resilient coping, depression), interpersonal (safer sex self-efficacy), community (community connectedness, social support), and structural (sexual stigma, access to healthcare) factors. The study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov . Forty-four women (mean age 28.7 years) participated in a weekend retreat consisting of six consecutive sessions tailored for LBQ women. Sessions covered a range of topics addressing behavioral and social-structural determinants of HIV/STI risk, including STI information, safer sex negotiation skills, and addressing sexual stigma. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, sexual risk practices (?2=-2.96, 95% CI -4.43, -1.50), barrier use self-efficacy (?2=1.52, 95% CI 0.51, 2.53), STI knowledge (?2=4.41, 95% CI 3.52, 5.30), and sexual stigma (?2=-2.62, 95% CI -3.48, -1.75) scores showed statistically significant changes 6 weeks post-intervention. Initial increases in safer sex self-efficacy, social support, and community connectedness were not sustained at 6-week follow up, highlighting the need for booster sessions or alternative approaches to address social factors. Study results may inform HIV/STI prevention interventions, sexual health care provision, and support services tailored for LBQ women. PMID:25867642

  12. Comparison of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment strategies in promotion of infertility self-efficacy scale in infertile women: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Hajar; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Esmailzadeh, Seddigheh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Salmalian, Hajar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The infertility is associated with psychological consequence including depression, and lack of self-efficacy. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacological and no pharmacological strategies in promotion of self-efficacy of infertile women. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 89 infertile women who were recruited from Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center and were randomized into three groups; cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), antidepressant therapy with flouxetine 20 mg daily for 3 month, and a control group. All participants completed Infertility Self-efficacy Inventory (ISE) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the beginning and end of the study. Results: The means ISE scores among the CBT, fluoxetine, and control groups at the beginning and end of the study were 6.1±1.6 vs. 7.2±0.9, 6.4±1.4 vs. 6.9±1.3 and 6.1±1.1 vs. 5.9±1.4 respectively. Both CBT and fluoxetine increased the mean of ISE scores more than control group after intervention (p<0.0001, p=0.033; respectively), but increase in the CBT group was significantly greater than flouxetine group. Finally, there was evidence of high infertility self-efficacy for women exposed to the intervention compared with those in the control group. Also, there was an improvement in depression. Both fluoxetine and CBT decreased significantly the mean of BDI scores more than the control group; decrease in the CBT group was significantly more than that in the fluoxetine group. Conclusion: CBT can serve as an effective psychosocial intervention for promoting self-efficacy of infertile women. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT2012061710048N1 PMID:24639784

  13. Women of Courage: A Personal Account of a Wilderness-Based Experiential Group for Survivors of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Virginia A.

    2006-01-01

    Adventure-based therapy has grown in both scope and popularity. These groups are frequently utilized in the treatment of adolescents with behavioral or substance abuse issues. Less evident is the use of this modality with other populations. Described here is a personal account of the author's participation in a wilderness-based group for women.…

  14. Detection of Group B Streptococcus in Brazilian pregnant women and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Filho, Didier Silveira; da Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Nascimento, Thiago César; de Toledo Vieira, Marcel; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2010-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is still not routinely screened during pregnancy in Brazil, being prophylaxis and empirical treatment based on identification of risk groups. This study aimed to investigate GBS prevalence in Brazilian pregnant women by culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated to the enrichment culture, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated bacteria, so as to support public health policies and empirical prophylaxis. After an epidemiological survey, vaginal and anorectal specimens were collected from 221 consenting laboring women. Each sample was submitted to enrichment culture and sheep blood agar was used to isolate suggestive GBS. Alternatively, specific PCR was performed from enrichment cultures. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for isolated bacteria by agar diffusion method. No risk groups were identified. Considering the culture-based methodology, GBS was detected in 9.5% of the donors. Twenty five bacterial strains were isolated and identified. Through the culture-PCR methodology, GBS was detected in 32.6% specimens. Bacterial resistance was not detected against ampicillin, cephazolin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin, whereas 22.7% were resistant to erythromycin and 50% were resistant to clindamycin. GBS detection may be improved by the association of PCR and enrichment culture. Considering that colony selection in agar plates may be laboring and technician-dependent, it may not reflect the real prevalence of streptococci. As in Brazil prevention strategies to reduce the GBS associated diseases have not been adopted, prospective studies are needed to anchor public health policies especially considering the regional GBS antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. PMID:24031585

  15. Anopheles punctulatus group: evolution, distribution, and control.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Nigel W; Russell, Tanya; Burkot, Thomas R; Cooper, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    The major malaria vectors of the Southwest Pacific belong to a group of closely related mosquitoes known as the Anopheles punctulatus group. The group comprises 13 co-occurring species that either are isomorphic or carry overlapping morphological features, and today several species remain informally named. The advent of species-diagnostic molecular tools in the 1990s permitted a new raft of studies into the newly differentiated mosquitoes of this group, and these have revealed five species as the region's primary malaria vectors: An. farauti, An. hinesorum, An. farauti 4, An. koliensis, and An. punctulatus. Species' distributions are now well established across Papua New Guinea, northern Australia, and the Solomon Archipelago, but little has been documented thus far in eastern Indonesia. As each species reveals significant differences in distribution and biology, the relative paucity of knowledge of their biology or ecology in relation to malaria transmission is brought into clearer focus. Only three of the species have undergone some form of spatial or population genetics analyses, and this has revealed striking differences in their genetic signatures throughout the region. This review compiles and dissects the key findings for this important mosquito group and points to where future research should focus to maximize the output of field studies in developing relevant knowledge on these malaria vectors. PMID:25341094

  16. Taking pictures to take control: Photovoice as a tool to facilitate empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic minority women with HIV.

    PubMed

    Teti, Michelle; Pichon, Latrice; Kabel, Allison; Farnan, Rose; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Poor and racial/ethnic minority women comprise the majority of women living with HIV (WLH) in the United States. Race, gender, class, and HIV-based stigmas and inequities limit women's powers over their health and compromise their quality of life. To help WLH counter this powerlessness, we implemented a Photovoice project, called Picturing New Possibilities (PNP), and explored how women experienced empowerment through Photovoice. PNP participants (n = 30) photographed their life experiences, attended 3 group discussions and a community exhibit of their photos, and completed a follow-up interview. We used strategies of Grounded Theory to identify key empowerment themes. Participants described empowerment through enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, critical thinking skills, and control. Our findings suggest that Photovoice is an important tool for WLH. It offers women a way to access internal strengths and use these resources to improve their quality of life and health. PMID:24064314

  17. Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043

  18. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  19. Effectiveness of two year balance training programme on prevention of fall induced injuries in at risk women aged 75-85 living in community: Ossébo randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Cassou, Bernard; Latouche, Aurélien; Aegerter, Philippe; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of a two year exercise programme of progressive balance retraining in reducing injurious falls among women aged 75-85 at increased risk of falls and injuries and living in the community. Design Pragmatic multicentre, two arm, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. Setting 20 study sites in 16 medium to large cities throughout France. Participants 706 women aged 75-85, living in their own home, and with diminished balance and gait capacities, randomly allocated to the experimental intervention group (exercise programme, n=352) or the control group (no intervention, n=354). Intervention Weekly supervised group sessions of progressive balance training offered in community based premises for two years, supplemented by individually prescribed home exercises. Outcome measures A geriatrician blinded to group assignment classified falls into one of three categories (no consequence, moderate, severe) based on physical damage and medical care. The primary outcome was the rate of injurious falls (moderate and severe). The two groups were compared for rates of injurious falls with a “shared frailty” model. Other outcomes included the rates of all falls, physical functional capacities (balance and motor function test results), fear of falling (FES-I), physical activity level, and perceived health related quality of life (SF-36). Analysis was by intention to treat. Results There were 305 injurious falls in the intervention group and 397 in the control group (hazard ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.99). The difference in severe injuries (68 in intervention group v 87 in control group) was of the same order of magnitude (0.83, 0.60 to 1.16). At two years, women in the intervention group performed significantly better on all physical tests and had significantly better perception of their overall physical function than women in the control group. Among women who started the intervention (n=294), the median number of group sessions attended was 53 (interquartile range 16-71). Five injurious falls related to the intervention were recorded. Conclusion A two year progressive balance retraining programme combining weekly group and individual sessions was effective in reducing injurious falls and in improving measured and perceived physical function in women aged 75-85 at risk of falling. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00545350). PMID:26201510

  20. Waseda University Doctoral Dissertation Elevator Group Supervisory Control of

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Waseda University Doctoral Dissertation Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using Genetic Network Programming YU, Lu Graduate School of Information, Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Overview of Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) . . . . . . 1.2.1 Development

  1. Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    1 Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using Genetic Network Programming YU, Lu 7 #12;2 Genetic Algorithm GA Genetic Programming GP Elevator Group Supervisory Control Systems EGSCS 1970 Artificial Intelligence AI) Double-Deck Elevator Systems DDES Multi

  2. 78 FR 36541 - Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting...Directorate will be hosting a Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) meeting...ICD-GPS-870; IS-GPS-200 (Navigation User Interfaces), IS- GPS-705 (User Segment...

  3. Evaluating Group-Based Interventions When Control Participants Are Ungrouped

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Bauer; Sonya K. Sterba; Denise Dion Hallfors

    2008-01-01

    Individually randomized treatments are often administered within a group setting. As a consequence, outcomes for treated individuals may be correlated due to provider effects, common experiences within the group, and\\/or informal processes of socialization. In contrast, it is often reasonable to regard outcomes for control participants as independent, given that these individuals are not placed into groups. Although this kind

  4. Birth Control for Women Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    The Pill Birth Control for Women Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2 Revised 9/14/11 The birth control pill is a combined hormonal contraceptive containing two hormones use another birth control method while on these medications and for 7 days after completing them

  5. A Case Control Study of Bacterial Species and Colony Count in Milk of Breastfeeding Women with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Mary Jane; Burgess, Kelly; Flocke, Susan; Zyzanski, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: An infectious etiology for chronic breast pain in breastfeeding women continues to be debated. Although recent data suggest that Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) may cause chronic breast pain, no studies have used quantitative cultures to address this question. In this study we compared bacterial species and colony counts between breastfeeding women with (cases) and without (controls) chronic pain. Subjects and Methods: We enrolled 114 breastfeeding women in a prospective cohort study. Cases (n=61), breastfeeding women with breast pain for >1 week and no signs of acute infection, were matched with controls (n=53) by weeks postpartum and parity. Results: More cases had a history of mastitis (14% vs. 2%, p=0.036), cracked nipples (64% vs. 17%, p=0.001), and other breastfeeding difficulties. Enterobacter species growth was less likely in cases (0% vs. 7.5%, p=0.029). Cases had a significantly higher growth of S. aureus (19.7% vs. 1.9%, p=0.003). CNS frequency was similar between groups (75% vs. 79%, p=0.626), but median colony count growth was significantly lower in cases (900 colony-forming units/mL vs. 5,000 colony-forming units/ml, p=0.003). Growth of CNS and S. aureus was negatively correlated (r=–0.265, p=0.004). Conclusions: Higher S. aureus growth in cases supports a pathogenic role for S. aureus and reinforces the need for future antibiotic treatment studies in breastfeeding women with chronic pain. In contrast, similar CNS frequency between groups, lower CNS colony counts in cases, and a negative correlation between S. aureus and CNS growth suggest that neither CNS, nor its overgrowth, causes chronic breast pain. PMID:23789831

  6. Maternal Fetal Attachment, Locus of Control and Adherence to STI/HIV Prevention and Prenatal Care Promotion Behaviors in Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Kornfield, Sara L.; Geller, Pamela A.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2015-01-01

    Young women of childbearing age are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. In particular, young women have more frequent and more serious health problems from STI or HIV infection than men, and among women, African American women have especially high rates of infection. Pregnancy is an important time for beginning or continued STI and HIV prevention behaviors as discontinuing condom use when the contraceptive motivation is gone puts women and their fetuses at risk for contraction of STIs and HIV if they remain sexually active. There are many personal attributes that predict adherence to STI risk reduction behaviors including health related locus of control. The current study surveyed a group of 100 low-income, urban dwelling minority women during their pregnancies to determine whether maternal-fetal attachment, a characteristic specific to pregnancy, favorably influences pregnant women’s health related locus of control such that women might be more inclined to engage in preventative STI/HIV risk reduction behaviors. Our findings revealed that while our sample has very high levels of MFA despite the high rate of unplanned pregnancy, condom use is not the method used to reduce the risk of contracting STIs/HIV. Rather, women are more likely to limit their number of sexual partners during pregnancy. While this is beneficial, pregnant women in non-monogamous relationships may discount the importance of condom use during pregnancy. Prenatal care providers can provide education about condom use as a beneficial prenatal care behavior similar to taking prenatal vitamins. PMID:25729776

  7. Improving the Livelihoods of Women in the Developing World: Selected Perceptions of Women's Self-Help Groups in Western Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Billy A. Jivetti; M. Craig Edwards

    2008-01-01

    Development specialists agree that poverty in developing countries is a multidimensional phenomenon. The United Nations (2001) reported that the poorest of the world's poor are women. The Kenyan Government recognizes that poverty is area specific and interventions aimed at creating employment and reducing poverty must be localized. In Kenya, \\

  8. Factors associated with nonresponse to ovulation induction using letrozole among women with World Health Organization group II anovulation

    PubMed Central

    Palihawadana, Thilina Sanjeewa; Wijesinghe, Prasantha Sudehana; Seneviratne, Harshalal Rukka

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Letrozole, a third generation aromatase inhibitor is gaining importance in ovulation induction. Some prefer to use it as a second line agent in women who fail to respond to clomifene citrate. However, our knowledge about the predictors of response to letrozole is limited. AIMS: The study was aimed at identifying the factors associated with letrozole resistance among women with World Health Organization (WHO) group II anovulation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Study was conducted at the infertility clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. A case–control study design was used and included 50 subjects with WHO group II anovulation (25 clomifene responsive and 25 clomifene resistant). After a treatment cycle of letrozole, the factors were compared between the subjects who responded and those who failed to respond to treatment. RESULTS: Ovulation was achieved in 76% (n = 19) of subjects who had responded to clomifene previously and in 24% (n = 6) with clomifene resistance. The factors associated with letrozole resistance included the presence of hirsutism (odds ratio [OR]: 3.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–12.3) and clomifene resistance (OR: 10.03; 95% CI: 2.81–35.7). The early follicular phase mean (standard deviation) luteinizing hormone level was significantly higher among the nonresponders (9.75 [4.78] – 7.28 [2.3]; P = 0.02). Nonresponders showed significantly lower levels of oestradiol on the 5th and 9th days (28.50 [3.39] pg/mL vs. 7.49 [3.62] pg/mL; P = 0.0007 and 142.04 [76.22] pg/mL vs. 28.10 [12.8] pg/mL; P = 0.0001) of the menstrual cycle, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The features associated with resistance to Letrozole at a dose of 2.5 mg show some overlap with those associated with clomifene resistance. However, some features do not show similar association. The effectiveness of letrozole at a dose of 2.5 mg in induction of ovulation among women with clomifene resistance is low and it does not seem to be a suitable treatment at a dose of 2.5 mg for this indication.

  9. Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanton, Carmela R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.

  10. Preliminary Efficacy of Group Medical Nutrition Therapy and Motivational Interviewing among Obese African American Women with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephania T.; Oates, Veronica J.; Brooks, Malinda A.; Shintani, Ayumi; Jenkins, Darlene M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the efficacy and acceptability of a group medical nutritional therapy (MNT) intervention, using motivational interviewing (MI). Research Design & Method. African American (AA) women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participated in five, certified diabetes educator/dietitian-facilitated intervention sessions targeting carbohydrate, fat, and fruit/vegetable intake and management. Motivation-based activities centered on exploration of dietary ambivalence and the relationships between diet and personal strengths. Repeated pre- and post-intervention, psychosocial, dietary self-care, and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed using generalized least squares regression. An acceptability assessment was administered after intervention. Results. Participants (n = 24) were mostly of middle age (mean age 50.8 ± 6.3) with an average BMI of 39 ± 6.5. Compared to a gradual pre-intervention loss of HbA1c control and confidence in choosing restaurant foods, a significant post-intervention improvement in HbA1c (P = 0.03) and a near significant (P = 0.06) increase in confidence in choosing restaurant foods were observed with both returning to pre-intervention levels. 100% reported that they would recommend the study to other AA women with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. The results support the potential efficacy of a group MNT/MI intervention in improving glycemic control and dietary self-care-related confidence in overweight/obese AA women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25243082

  11. Yoga for managing knee osteoarthritis in older women: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common problem in older women that is associated with pain and disabilities. Although yoga is recommended as an exercise intervention to manage arthritis, there is limited evidence documenting its effectiveness, with little known about its long term benefits. This study’s aims were to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of a Hatha yoga exercise program in managing OA-related symptoms in older women with knee OA. Methods Eligible participants (N?=?36; mean age 72 years) were randomly assigned to 8-week yoga program involving group and home-based sessions or wait-list control. The yoga intervention program was developed by a group of yoga experts (N?=?5). The primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total score that measures knee OA pain, stiffness, and function at 8 weeks. The secondary outcomes, physical function of the lower extremities, body mass index (BMI), quality of sleep (QOS), and quality of life (QOL), were measured using weight, height, the short physical performance battery (SPPB), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Cantril Self-Anchoring Ladder, and the SF12v2 Health Survey. Data were collected at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. Results The recruitment target was met, with study retention at 95%. Based on ANCOVAs, participants in the treatment group exhibited significantly greater improvement in WOMAC pain (adjusted means [SE]) (8.3 [.67], 5.8 [.67]; p?=?.01), stiffness (4.7 [.28], 3.4 [.28]; p?=?.002) and SPPB (repeated chair stands) (2.0 [.23], 2.8 [.23]; p?=?.03) at 8 weeks. Significant treatment and time effects were seen in WOMAC pain (7.0 [.46], 5.4 [.54]; p?=?.03), function (24.5 [1.8], 19.9 [1.6]; p?=?.01) and total scores (35.4 [2.3], 28.6 [2.1]; p?=?.01) from 4 to 20 weeks. Sleep disturbance was improved but the PSQI total score declined significantly at 20 weeks. Changes in BMI and QOL were not significant. No yoga related adverse events were observed. Conclusions A weekly yoga program with home practice is feasible, acceptable, and safe for older women with knee OA, and shows therapeutic benefits. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01832155 PMID:24886638

  12. The Positive Effect of a Group Intervention to Reduce Postpartum Depression on Breastfeeding Outcomes in Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jennifer Chienwen; Johnson, Jennifer E; Todorova, Ralitsa; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-07-01

    This study examined, as a secondary analysis, whether a group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) intervention focused on preventing postpartum depression by strengthening social support and building interpersonal skills during the transition to motherhood positively affected breastfeeding outcomes among low-income women. The intervention-Reach Out, Stand strong, Essentials for new mothers (ROSE)-taught participants the importance of self-care and assertive help seeking to be better able to sustain breastfeeding practices. Ninety-nine pregnant women were randomized to ROSE plus standard care or to standard care alone. Though women in both conditions had similar breastfeeding initiation rates, women in ROSE had longer breastfeeding duration (median days breastfed: 54 vs. 21). Results suggest ROSE may positively affect breastfeeding. PMID:26076207

  13. Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape Concerns among a Group of College Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Thomsen

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that exposure to thin ideal images in women's magazines is associated with heightened concerns for body shape and size in a number of young women, although the media's role in the psychopathology of body image disturbance is generally believed to be mediated by personality and sociocultural factors. Here, data from a survey of 340 college-age women (ages 18–25)

  14. A Group-Based Program of Emotional Recovery for Younger Women Following Myocardial Infarction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Michele J.; Buchanan, Marla J.

    2007-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of illness, disability, and death among women in Canada. Myocardial infarction (MI) accounts for almost half of these deaths yearly. The purpose of this study was to understand younger women's experience of recovery from MI. A purposive sample consisting of six younger women diagnosed with MI participated in …

  15. Effects of a Multi-Disciplinary Lifestyle Intervention on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Young Women with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Share, Bianca L.; Naughton, Geraldine A.; Obert, Philippe; Peat, Jennifer K.; Aumand, Elizabeth A.; Kemp, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Young women are under-represented in cardiovascular disease research, with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factor interventions generally targeting older adults. Furthermore, appropriate study designs for young women remain uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of a 12 week multi-disciplinary lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Methods Women aged 18–30 y with abdominal obesity [waist circumference (WC) ? 80 cm] were randomised to a 12 week lifestyle intervention (n = 26) of physical activity, nutrition education and cognitive behavioural therapy, or a wait-list control group (n = 17). Both groups completed anthropometric, biochemical, nutrition and fitness testing, at pre (0 weeks) and post (12 weeks), with intervention participants completed follow-up testing at 24 weeks. Results Results from a linear mixed model showed no between-group differences, other than increased physical activity in the intervention group, at post. In the intervention group alone, positive within-group changes were observed in WC, waist-hip-ratio (WHR), waist-height-ratio (WHtR), resting heart rate, blood pressure, predicted VO2max, and total energy intake. Most changes were maintained at 24 weeks post-intervention. Similar within-group improvements were observed in control participants in WC, WHR, WHtR, and systolic blood pressure but no changes were detected in physical activity and nutrition. Conclusions Cardiometabolic risk factors were decreased as a result of a lifestyle intervention in young women with abdominal obesity. It is difficult to describe observations in the control group without greater understanding of the behaviour of wait-list participants. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001017819 PMID:26114854

  16. Controlled Prospective Longitudinal Study of Women With Cancer: I. Sexual Functioning Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Anderson, Barrie; deProsse, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The incidence and etiology of sexual difficulties for women with survivable cancer were studied. Women with early stage gynecologic cancer (n = 47) were assessed after their diagnosis but prior to treatment and then reassessed at 4, 8, and 12 months posttreatment. Sexual and medical outcomes were compared with data from members of two matched comparison groups who were also assessed longitudinally: women diagnosed and treated for benign gynecologic disease (n = 18) and gynecologically healthy women (n = 57). Global sexual behavior disruption did not occur but the frequency of intercourse declined for women treated for disease, whether malignant or benign. In relation to the sexual response cycle, diminution of sexual excitement is pronounced for women with disease; however, this difficulty is more severe and distressing for women with cancer, possibly due to significant coital and postcoital pain, premature menopause, treatment side effects, or a combination. Changes in desire, orgasm, and resolution phases of the sexual response cycle may also occm; but they are of lesser magnitude or duration or both. Approximately 30% of the women treated for cancer were diagnosed with a sexual dysfunction. The nature, early timing, and maintenance of sexual functioning morbidity suggest the instrumental role that cancer and cancer treatments play in these deficits (particularly arousal problems) and suggest that preventive therapies are necessary. PMID:2600238

  17. Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial?,??

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Kelsey M.; Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L.; Kenny, Anne M.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Abourizk, Robin H.; Bruno, Richard S.; Lipcius, Rosanne; Fall, Pamela; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa; Prestwood, Karen M.; Kerstetter, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Soy foods contain several components, notably, isoflavones and amino acids, that may improve cardiovascular health. We evaluated the long-term effect of soy protein and/or soy isoflavones supplementation on serum lipids and inflammatory markers using a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-control, clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women older than 60 years. We hypothesized that soy protein, in combination with isoflavones, would have the largest positive effect on coronary heart disease risk factors (serum lipids and inflammatory markers) compared with either intervention alone and that, within groups receiving isoflavones, equol producers would have more positive effects on coronary heart disease risk factors than nonequol producers. After a 1-month baseline period, participants were randomized into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g/d) and isoflavone tablets (105 mg/d isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein and placebo tablets, control protein and isoflavone tablets, or control protein and placebo tablets. T Tests were used to assess differences between equol and nonequol producers. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone tablets did not differ among groups, and compliance with study powder and tablets was 79% and 90%, respectively. After 1 year, in the entire population, there were either no or little effects on serum lipids and inflammatory markers, regardless of treatment group. Equol producers, when analyzed separately, had significant improvements in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratios (?5.9%, P = .02; ?7.2%, P = .04 respectively). Soy protein and isoflavone (either alone or together) did not impact serum lipids or inflammatory markers. Therefore, they should not be considered an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease because of lipid modification in healthy late postmenopausal women lacking the ability to produce equol. PMID:24267042

  18. Disparities in mammographic screening for Asian women in California: a cross-sectional analysis to identify meaningful groups for targeted intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scarlett Lin Gomez; Susanna Tan; Theresa HM Keegan; Christina A Clarke

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among the rapidly growing population of Asian Americans; it is also the most common cause of cancer mortality among Filipinas. Asian women continue to have lower rates of mammographic screening than women of most other racial\\/ethnic groups. While prior studies have described the effects of sociodemographic and other characteristics of women

  19. Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

  20. Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

  1. Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance education program that can be adopted by universities, to assess whether aspects of the program need to be strengthened, and also to indicate how long the effects of the program last and at which point in time refresher sessions may be necessary. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01338428 PMID:23702221

  2. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, H M; Dawkins, J; Rattray, C; Wharfe, G; Reid, M; Gordon-Strachan, G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been used for many years as an anti-inflammatory agent. We tested the efficacy of Noni in women with dysmenorrhea. Method. We did a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 100 university students of 18 years and older over three menstrual cycles. Patients were invited to participate and randomly assigned to receive 400?mg Noni capsules or placebo. They were assessed for baseline demographic variables such as age, parity, and BMI. They were also assessed before and after treatment, for pain, menstrual blood loss, and laboratory variables: ESR, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume. Results. Of the 1027 women screened, 100 eligible women were randomized. Of the women completing the study, 42 women were randomized to Noni and 38 to placebo. There were no significant differences in any of the variables at randomization. There were also no significant differences in mean bleeding score or pain score at randomization. Both bleeding and pain scores gradually improved in both groups as the women were observed over three menstrual cycles; however, the improvement was not significantly different in the Noni group when compared to the controls. Conclusion. Noni did not show a reduction in menstrual pain or bleeding when compared to placebo. PMID:23431314

  3. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, H. M.; Dawkins, J.; Rattray, C.; Wharfe, G.; Reid, M.; Gordon-Strachan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been used for many years as an anti-inflammatory agent. We tested the efficacy of Noni in women with dysmenorrhea. Method. We did a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 100 university students of 18 years and older over three menstrual cycles. Patients were invited to participate and randomly assigned to receive 400?mg Noni capsules or placebo. They were assessed for baseline demographic variables such as age, parity, and BMI. They were also assessed before and after treatment, for pain, menstrual blood loss, and laboratory variables: ESR, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume. Results. Of the 1027 women screened, 100 eligible women were randomized. Of the women completing the study, 42 women were randomized to Noni and 38 to placebo. There were no significant differences in any of the variables at randomization. There were also no significant differences in mean bleeding score or pain score at randomization. Both bleeding and pain scores gradually improved in both groups as the women were observed over three menstrual cycles; however, the improvement was not significantly different in the Noni group when compared to the controls. Conclusion. Noni did not show a reduction in menstrual pain or bleeding when compared to placebo. PMID:23431314

  4. Space, agency, and withdrawal: birth control choices of women in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sirkeci, Ibrahim; Cindoglu, Dilek

    2012-01-01

    Withdrawal (WD) is not a reliable method for preventing unwanted pregnancies, yet it is still a very popular form of birth control in many societies, including Turkey. We look at the relationship between women's agency and physical space in relation to birth control choices of women in Turkey. Agency in our context refers to a woman's ability to resist domination and subordination to the patriarchal beliefs valuing her reproductivity over her pleasure. Our analysis of the Turkish Demographic Health Survey (TDHS) suggests that (a) the available space in the household for possible private encounters between husband and wife, and (b) the women's capacity to insert her agency into her life choices are closely correlated with WD choices. Women with better social and physical resources prefer WD less. PMID:22681746

  5. Treatment of condylomata acuminata with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The results of treatment of condylomata acuminata of the anogenital region in pregnant women are presented. All patients were treated between the 28th and 35th weeks of gestation. The laser surgery was done in 23 patients. One laser procedure was done in 14 women. In 5 patients we performed two and in 4 women 3 laser therapies. Complete destruction of pathological changes was obtained and no recurrences were diagnosed. There were no clinical signs of HPV infection in all neonates. In the authors' opinion the use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control is an efficient and safe method in the treatment of condylomata acuminata in pregnant women. Colposcopic control allows us to discover and coagulate the bleeding spots using the defocused laser beam with low power density.

  6. Physical activity in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood: a case-control study among women shift workers.

    PubMed

    Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Canuto, Raquel; Olinto, Beatriz Anselmo; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity may have a protective effect against abdominal obesity, an important risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the practice of physical activities in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood among women shift workers in Southern Brazil in 2011. This case-control study included 215 cases (waist circumference greater than or equal to 88 cm) and 326 controls. For both the case and control groups, participation in leisure-time physical activities was most frequent in adolescence and was significantly less in adulthood. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, women who participated in five or more physical activities in adolescence were 50 percent less likely to have abdominal obesity than women who participated in one activity or no physical activities (Odds Ratio = 0.50; 95% confidential interval: 0.27-0.93, p value = .029). Participation in various types of leisure-time physical activities in adolescence may protect against abdominal obesity in adulthood, even if the number of physical activities decreases over time. This finding demonstrated the importance of physical activity as well as the period of life in which these should be encouraged for the prevention of health disorders, such as abdominal obesity. PMID:25893969

  7. The Effect of Acupressure at GB-21 and SP-6 Acupoints on Anxiety Level and Maternal-Fetal Attachment in Primiparous Women: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Moradi, Parvin; Toosi, Monieh; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Delivery is one of the most stressful events in women’s life. Excessive anxiety, in turn, increases delivery and pregnancy complications. Mother’s positive experience of delivery leads to more effective maternal-fetal attachment in the first few hours of birth. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of acupressure at two different acupoints on anxiety level and maternal-fetal attachment in primiparous women. Materials and Methods: In this study, 150 primiparous women were allocated to acupressure at GB-21 acupoint, acupressure at SP-6 acupoint, and control group. The women in their active phase of delivery were enrolled in the study and pressure was applied to the acupoints for 20 minutes. Mother’s anxiety level was assessed using Spielberger’s questionnaire before and one hour after the intervention. In addition, maternal-fetal attachment behaviors were evaluated using Avant’s questionnaire during the first breastfeeding. Then the data were introduced to the SPSS (v. 13) and were analyzed using t test and one way ANOVA. Results: The results revealed no significant difference among the three groups regarding the anxiety level before the intervention (P > 0.05). One hour after the intervention, this measure was significantly lower in the intervention groups in comparison to the control group (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found between the two intervention groups in this regard (P > 0.05). Moreover, maternal-fetal attachment was higher in the intervention groups in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Acupressure at both acupoints reduced anxiety level and increased maternal-fetal attachment. This method can be easily used in the delivery room. PMID:25699279

  8. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: a review of randomized controlled trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriane Fugh-Berman; Fredi Kronenberg

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies are widely used in the general population. This paper reviews randomized controlled trials of CAM therapies for obstetrical and gynecologic conditions and presents therapies that are likely to be used by women of reproductive age and by pregnant women.Data Sources: Sources included English-language papers in MEDLINE 1966–2002 and AMED (1985–2000) and the authors’

  9. A Pooled Analysis of Bladder Cancer Case–Control Studies Evaluating Smoking in Men and Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Puente; Patricia Hartge; Eberhard Greiser; Kenneth P. Cantor; Will D. King; Carlos A. González; Sylvaine Cordier; Paolo Vineis; Elsebeth Lynge; Jenny Chang-Claude; Stefano Porru; Anastasia Tzonou; Karl-Heinz Jöckel; Consol Serra; Charles F. Lynch; Ulrich Ranft; Jürgen Wahrendorf; Debra Silverman; Francisco Fernandez; Paolo Boffetta; Manolis Kogevinas

    2006-01-01

    Objective A recent study suggested that risk of bladder cancer may be higher in women than in men who smoked comparable amounts of\\u000a cigarettes. We pooled primary data from 14 case–control studies of bladder cancer from Europe and North America and evaluated\\u000a differences in risk of smoking by gender.\\u000a \\u000a Methods The pooled analysis included 8316 cases (21% women) and 17,406

  10. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

  11. Comparison of different sampling techniques and of different culture methods for detection of group B streptococcus carriage in pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nabil A El Aila; Inge Tency; Geert Claeys; Bart Saerens; Piet Cools; Hans Verstraelen; Marleen Temmerman; Rita Verhelst; Mario Vaneechoutte

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), followed by subculture on sheep blood

  12. 2006 Nature Publishing Group Electrical signals control wound healing through

    E-print Network

    Devreotes, Peter

    wound healing in vivo. Electric stimulation triggers acti- vation of Src and inositol confirmed consistent and sustained outward electric currents at wounds in human skin and in rodent cornea© 2006 Nature Publishing Group Electrical signals control wound healing through

  13. Effects on balance, falls, and bone mineral density of a home-based exercise program without home visits in community-dwelling elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kamide, Naoto; Shiba, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of home-based exercise without home visits on physical function, falls, and bone mineral density in community-dwelling elderly women. Sixty community-dwelling, elderly (> or =65 years of age) women were recruited from a Japanese community. Subjects were randomly assigned to a home-based exercise group or a control group. The subjects assigned to the home-based exercise group performed home-based exercise without home visits 3 times per week for 6 months in their homes. Assessments of physical function and bone mineral density were carried out before and after intervention in both groups. Muscle strength, gait velocity, the timed up and go test (TUGT), single leg stance time, the bend reach performance test, and reaction time were measured to assess physical function. The patients' history of falls was also assessed before and after the 12-month follow-up. To determine bone mineral density, the speed of sound (SOS) at the right calcaneus was measured using a quantitative ultrasound device. There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline characteristics. 82.6% of subjects completed the prescribed exercise program in the home-based exercise group. Compared to the control group, TUGT improved significantly (p<0.05) in the home-based exercise group. Home-based exercise without home visits can be adopted for community-dwelling elderly women, particularly since no specific place or instructor is needed. PMID:19483372

  14. A Co-Twin Control Study of Physical Function in Elderly African American Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia E. Furner; Barbara E. Giloth; Lester Arguelles; Toni P. Miles; Jack H. Goldberg

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated variables associated with physical functioning limitations among elderly African American women, controlling for genetics and common family environment. Method: Activities of daily living limitations (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living limitations (IADL) are examined in 180 pairs of African American elderly twins using a co-twin control design. The association of chronic disease, other physical problems,

  15. Pelvic organ support in nulliparous pregnant and nonpregnant women: A case control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy L. O'Boyle; Patrick J. Woodman; John D. O'Boyle; Gary D. Davis; Steven E. Swift

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to compare pelvic organ support in nulliparous pregnant and nonpregnant women at a single institution. Study Design: This was a case-control study. Pregnant patients and nonpregnant control subjects were matched according to age and race. Subjects underwent pelvic organ support evaluation by use of the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) examination as part of routine prenatal

  16. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  17. A Head Start Control Group. Part of the Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Grover

    A study was conducted to determine if the observed changes in Head Start children were related to the practice effects inherent in a test-retest situation. The "control" group consisted of 64 children who had been eligible for a Head Start program. They roughly matched a group of Head Start (HS) children in IQ scores, age, and socioeconomic level.…

  18. Impact of an active patient education program on gastrointestinal symptoms in women with celiac disease following a gluten-free diet: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jacobsson, Lisa Ring; Friedrichsen, Maria; Göransson, Anne; Hallert, Claes

    2012-01-01

    Despite living with a gluten-free diet, Swedish women with celiac disease report a higher rate of gastrointestinal symptoms than women without the disease. This study was designed to assess the impact of active patient education on gastrointestinal symptoms in women with a gluten-free diet. A total of 106 Swedish women, aged 20 years or older, with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet for a minimum of 5 years took part in a randomized controlled trial. The intervention group (n = 54) underwent a 10-session educational program, "Celiac School," based on problem-based learning. Controls (n = 52) were sent information regarding celiac disease at home. The outcome measure was gastrointestinal symptoms at 10 weeks and 6 months after intervention, assessed with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. After 10 weeks of "Celiac School," the participating women reported significant improvements that remained 6 months later (p = .029). The controls did not improve significantly. A comparison of the development of scores, from baseline to 10 weeks, could not demonstrate a significant difference in the overall index between the 2 groups but showed a significant improvement concerning 1 of its components, namely the index reflecting Abdominal Pain (p = .007). Intervention methods should be refined to reach an even more pronounced effect. PMID:22647800

  19. A controlled study of the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction technique in women with multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Sampalli, Tara; Berlasso, Elizabeth; Fox, Roy; Petter, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on women diagnosed with conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and fibromyalgia (FM). Methods: The intervention group underwent a 10-week MBSR program. Symptoms Checklist Inventory (SCL-90R) was used as outcome measure and was administered before the start of the program (pre-), immediately upon completion (post-) and at three-month follow-up. Women on the wait list to receive treatment at the Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre were used as control subjects for the study. Results: A total of 50 participants in the intervention group and 26 in the wait-list controls group were recruited for this study. Global scores in the intervention group reached statistical significance pre-post (<0.0001) and at pre-follow-up (<0.0001) while the global scores in the control group remained the same. Five of nine and eight of nine subscales of the SCL-90R showed improvement of statistical significance in MBSR group following treatment and at three-month follow-up. Conclusions: The study showed the importance of complementary interventions such as MBSR techniques in the reduction of psychological distress in women with chronic conditions. PMID:21197347

  20. 60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at left, power distribution box at right, all at right of entrance to lcc. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  1. Elevator Group Control System Based on Information Fusion Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liting Cao; Jingwen Tian; Zhaoli Zhang

    2008-01-01

    An elevator group control system based on information fusion is presented in this paper. The control system is consisting of data processing unit and elevator dispatching unit mainly. A fuzzy ANN based on data fusion technology is proposed in the data processing unit to process state signals, and the fusion result is used as the input of elevator dispatching unit.

  2. RN-to-MSN students' attitudes toward women experiencing homelessness: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Chung-Park, Min; Hatton, Diane; Robinson, Linda; Kleffel, Dorothy

    2006-08-01

    When health professionals, including RNs, have negative attitudes toward women experiencing homelessness, they create barriers to services. It is incumbent on nursing faculty to develop curricula that address homelessness and associated stereotypes, as well as to prepare students to provide safe and appropriate care to the homeless population. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the attitudes of RN-to-MSN students toward mothers living with their children in a transitional shelter. A convenience sample of 10 students enrolled in a community health nursing course at a university in southern California participated in the study. Two focus groups were conducted: one before and one after a 15-week clinical experience. Data analysis revealed that during the clinical experience, students discovered that they, or perhaps an individual like them, could become homeless. Their attitudes and views changed to include a bigger picture of homelessness, described by public health nursing researchers as "moving upstream." This article suggests strategies for integrating clinical experiences with socioeconomically vulnerable individuals into undergraduate nursing curricula. PMID:16915991

  3. The effect of group mindfulness - based stress reduction program and conscious yoga on the fatigue severity and global and specific life quality in women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Soheila; Talepasand, Siavash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is not merely an event with a certain end, but it is a permanent and vague situation that is determined by delayed effects due to the disease, its treatment and its related psychological issues. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program and conscious yoga on the mental fatigue severity and life quality of women with breast cancer. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test and control group. In this study, 24 patients with the diagnosis of breast cancer were selected among the patients who referred to the Division of Oncology and Radiotherapy of Imam Hossein hospital in Tehran using available sampling method, and were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. All the participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale, Global Life Quality of Cancer Patient and Specific Life Quality of Cancer Patient questionnaires. Data were analyzed by multivariate repeated measurement variance analysis model. Results: Findings revealed that the mindfulness-based stress reduction treatment significantly improved the overall quality of life, role, cognitive, emotion, social functions and pain and fatigue symptoms in global life quality in the experimental group. It also significantly improved the body image, future functions and therapy side effects in specific life quality of the experimental group compared to the control group. In addition, fatigue severity caused by cancer was reduced significantly. Conclusion: The results showed that the mindfulness - based stress reduction treatment can be effective in improving global and specific life quality and fatigue severity in women with breast cancer.

  4. Predictors of Unintended Pregnancy among Married Women in Hamadan, Western Iran: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    CHERAGHI, Parvin; POOROLAJAL, Jalal; MOEINI, Babak; CHERAGHI, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Literatures that focus on the risk factors of unintended pregnancy among married women are limited especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of unintended pregnancy in a west region of Iran. Methods: This case-control study was conducted from September to November 2011 in Hamadan City, western Iran. A stratified cluster random sampling method was used for data collection. All participants were enrolled voluntarily into the study including 181 cases and 391 controls. Cases were married women with unintended pregnancy. Controls were married women with planned pregnancy. Results: Of 572 participants, 31 (5.4%) women had not used any methods of contraception prior to the recent pregnancy. The proportion of using ineffective contraceptive methods such as withdrawal was higher in cases than in controls. The most effective predictor of unintended pregnancy was the number of previous alive children so that the risk of unplanned pregnancy increased 3.68 per one child (P<0.001). Conclusion: This study introduced several effective predictors for unintended pregnancy among married women which may be useful for family planning programs. The high-risk population should be strongly advised to use highly effective contraceptive methods such as tubal ligation, vasectomy or OCP provided that being used correctly.

  5. Prevalence of Group B Streptococcus serotypes III and V in pregnant women of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Georgia Cristina Tavolaro; Alviano, Daniela Sales; da Silva Santos, Gabriela; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Nagao, Prescilla Emy

    2013-01-01

    GBS serotypes III and V were the most prevalent in pregnant women and exhibited resistance to tetracycline, clindamycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Serotype III showed high sialic acid content and PFGE analysis discerned 33 heterogeneous profiles. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization could be relevant to control GBS infections unaffected by intra-partum chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24516454

  6. Controlling a group velocity of light by magnetic field

    E-print Network

    Yu. M. Golubev; T. Yu. Golubeva; Yu. V. Rostovtsev; M. O. Scully

    2004-07-22

    We have shown that quantum interference in a driven quasi-degenerate two-level atomic system can be controlled by an externally applied magnetic field. We demonstrate that the mechanism of optical control is based on quantum interference, which allows one to implement both electromagnetically induced transparency and electromagnetically induced absorption in one atomic system. Dispersion of such the medium allows one to control group velocity of propagation of light pulses be ultra-slow or superluminal via applied magnetic field.

  7. [Women of Guatemala City: facilitating AIDS prevention in a vulnerable group].

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, A; Arathoon, E; Lundgren, R; Bezmalinovic, B

    1992-01-01

    Despite the mistaken belief in Central America that AIDS is primarily a disease of male homosexuals, some 21% of reported cases in Guatemala have been women 15-44 years old. Many Guatemalan women are at risk of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) because of their lack of sexual bargaining power and negotiating skills, the widespread acceptance of male infidelity in marriage, tolerance of bisexual relations and frequenting of prostitutes, and ignorance of women about sexuality. Condom use is infrequent in Guatemala. Most men and women lack knowledge of AIDS and other STDs and have no perception of their own vulnerability. Male alcohol use and violence against women diminishes the ability of women to protect themselves. Sex education and information about STDs should be provided for both men and women to slow the spread of AIDS. AIDS educators should direct their messages to women toward promoting condom use, increasing knowledge of AIDS and STDs, providing basic sex education, questioning stereotypes of AIDS patients as persons with disordered lifestyles, encouraging realistic assessment of risks, and assisting women to increase their negotiating ability in sexual relations. Three crucial ways of helping women protect themselves are by making them aware of the influence of gender roles in their reproductive lives, teaching them communication and negotiating skills, and providing strategies for them to confront alcohol abuse and gender violence. Survey results indicate that Guatemalan women were extremely motivated to protect their children and secondarily to maintain their homes and be good wives. Motivational messages for AIDS prevention should be related to children and the family. Men were found to be concerned about their families as well and to fear the stigma of HIV infection. Educational techniques for AIDS prevention should be accessible to the illiterate and should focus on life stories or similar methods that make AIDS seem less abstract to those who have had no direct experience with the disease. PMID:12290622

  8. A study of the relationship between food group recommendations and perceived stress: findings from black women in the Deep South.

    PubMed

    Carson, Tiffany L; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Sharonda; Townsend, Sh'Nese; Ard, Jamy D; Meneses, Karen; Partridge, Edward E; Baskin, Monica L

    2015-01-01

    Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n = 355) provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10), and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall) data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5?kg/m(2)) and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16) and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group). Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake. PMID:25821595

  9. Evaluation of reproductive function in women treated for bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds-May, Margaret F; Kenna, Heather A; Marsh, Wendy; Stemmle, Pascale G; Wang, Po; Ketter, Terence A; Rasgon, Natalie L

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive function of women with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls. Methods Women diagnosed with BD and healthy controls with no psychiatric history ages 18 to 45 years were recruited from a university clinic and surrounding community. Participants completed a baseline reproductive health questionnaire, serum hormone assessment, and ovulation tracking for three consecutive cycles using urine luteinizing hormone (LH)-detecting strips with a confirmatory luteal-phase serum progesterone. Results Women with BD (n = 103) did not differ from controls (n = 36) in demographics, rates of menstrual abnormalities (MA), or number of ovulation-positive cycles. Of the women with BD, 17% reported a current MA and 39% reported a past MA. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 17-hydroxyprogresterone were higher in controls (p = 0.052 and 0.004, respectively), otherwise there were no differences in biochemical levels. Medication type, dose, or duration was not associated with MA or biochemical markers, except those currently taking an atypical antipsychotic indicated a greater rate of current or past MA (80% versus 55%, p = 0.013). In women with BD, 22% reported a period of amenorrhea associated with exercising or stress, versus 8% of controls (p = 0.064). Self-reported rates of bulimia and anorexia nervosa were 10% and 5%, respectively. Conclusions Rates of MA and biochemical levels did not significantly differ between women with BD and controls. Current atypical antipsychotic use was associated with a higher rate of current or past MA and should be further investigated. Incidence of stress-induced amenorrhea should be further investigated in this population, as should comorbid incidence of eating disorders. PMID:24262071

  10. High prevalence and low awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Asian Indian women.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R; Pandey, R M; Misra, A; Agrawal, A; Misra, P; Dey, S; Rao, S; Menon, V U; Kamalamma, N; Vasantha Devi, K P; Revathi, K; Vikram, N K; Sharma, V; Guptha, S

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is an important public health problem in India. To determine its prevalence, awareness, treatment and control among women, we performed a nationwide study. Population-based studies among women aged 35-70 years were performed in four urban and five rural locations. Stratified sampling was performed and we enrolled 4608 (rural 2604 and urban 2004) of the targeted 8000 (57%). Demographic details, medical history, diet, physical activity, anthropometry and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Descriptive statistics are reported. Logistic regression was performed to determine the association of hypertension and its awareness, treatment and control with socioeconomic factors. Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension (known or BP?140/?90 mm?Hg) was observed in 1672 women (39.2%) (rural 746, 31.5%; urban 926, 48.2%). Significant determinants of hypertension were urban location, greater literacy, high dietary fat, low fibre intake, obesity and truncal obesity (P<0.01). Hypertension awareness was noted in 727 women (42.8%), more in urban (529, 56.8%) than in rural (198, 24.6%). Of these, 38.6% of the women were on treatment (urban 35.7, rural 46.5) and of those treated, controlled blood pressure (<140 and <90 mm?Hg) was observed in 21.5% (urban 28.3 vs 10.2). Among hypertensive subjects, treatment was noted in 18.3% (rural 13.1, urban 22.5) and control in 3.9% (rural 1.3, urban 5.9). A significant determinant of low awareness, treatment and control was rural location (multivariate-adjusted P<0.05). There is a high prevalence of hypertension in middle-aged Asian Indian women. Very low awareness, treatment and control status are observed. PMID:21881598

  11. Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape Concerns among a Group of College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines three potential factors that might mediate the relationship between reading women's magazines and body shape and size concern. Finds that health and fitness magazine reading by college-aged women was linked directly to body shape concerns, indirectly through beliefs about men's thinness expectations. Explains that beauty and fashion…

  12. Art therapy for women with breast cancer: The therapeutic consequences of boundary strengthening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inger Öster; Eva Magnusson; Karin Egberg Thyme; Jack Lindh; Sture Åström

    2007-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2004, 42 women with breast cancer (20 women in the study group and 22 women in the control group) participated in an intervention study involving art therapy. This article elaborates on previous quantitative results, taking a discursive approach and drawing on gender theories in analyzing the women's use of interpretative repertoires in interviews and diaries and their

  13. Insights from a survey of sexual behavior among a group of at-risk women in Tehran, Iran, 2006.

    PubMed

    Hajiabdolbaghi, Mahboubeh; Razani, Nooshin; Karami, Nazli; Kheirandish, Parastoo; Mohraz, Minoo; Rasoolinejad, Mehrnaz; Arefnia, Khojasteh; Kourorian, Zahra; Rutherford, George; McFarland, Willi

    2007-12-01

    Despite high rates of HIV among male injection drug users, the sexual behaviors of at-risk women in Iran remain unknown. A questionnaire on HIV knowledge and risk behavior was administered in a Tehran nongovernmental organization targeting runaways and other women seeking safe haven. Half (total N = 50) were less than 24 years old; baseline HIV knowledge was high. The few who acknowledged using illicit substances said they used "frequently." Nonresponse rates to questions regarding sexual behavior were high (12 of 50). Half admitted a history of sexual activity; 40% of those reported their first sexual contact with someone other than their husband; three people had multiple partners. Three women reported a history of rape. Zero (97.5% one-sided confidence interval [CI] = 0, 0.17) of 35 women tested positive for HIV or syphilis. This study documents the existence of sexual behavior in a population of Iranian women, represents one of the first attempts at sexual research in the Iranian context, and highlights challenges in surveying this vulnerable group. PMID:18190276

  14. Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4–8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. Method/design A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. Discussion This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752 PMID:23714411

  15. Effect of Nurse Home Visits vs. Usual Care on Reducing Intimate Partner Violence in Young High-Risk Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mejdoubi, Jamila; van den Heijkant, Silvia C. C. M.; van Leerdam, Frank J. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Crijnen, Alfons A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV). The nurse-family partnership (NFP) is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes. Evidence regarding the effect of nurse home visiting on IPV is inconsistent. This study aims to study the effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch NFP, on IPV. Methods A random sample of 460 eligible disadvantaged women <26 years, with no previous live births, was randomized. Women in the control group (C; n=223) received usual care; women in the intervention group (I; n=237) received usual care plus nurse home visits periodically during pregnancy and until the child’s second birthday. Results At 32 weeks of pregnancy, women in the intervention group self-reported significantly less IPV victimization than women in the control group in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 56% vs. I: 39%), physical assault level 1 (C: 58% vs. I: 40%) and level 2 (C: 31% vs. I: 20%), and level 1 sexual coercion (C: 16% vs. I: 8%). Furthermore, women in the intervention group reported significantly less IPV perpetration in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 60% vs. I: 46%), level 1 physical assault (C: 65% vs. I: 52%), and level 1 injury (C: 27% vs. I: 17%). At 24 months after birth, IPV victimization was significantly lower in the intervention group for level 1 physical assault (C: 44% vs. I: 26%), and IPV perpetration was significantly lower for level 1 sexual assault (C: 18% vs. I: 3%). Multilevel analyses showed a significant improvement in IPV victimization and perpetration among women in the intervention group at 24 months after birth. Conclusion VoorZorg, compared with the usual care, is effective in reducing IPV during pregnancy and in the two years after birth among young high-risk women. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR854 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=854 PMID:24205150

  16. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Section 4001.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For purposes of title IV of...

  17. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2015-07-01

    Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a secondary analysis of the data from a larger study among 466 participants, collected from 2006 to 2011. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health and menopausal status, and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics, including Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. Significant racial/ethnic differences were observed in the total numbers and total severity scores of cardiovascular symptoms (p < .01). Non-Hispanic Asians had significantly lower total numbers and total severity scores compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p < .05). The demographic and health factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms were somewhat different in each racial/ethnic group. Further studies are needed about possible reasons for the racial/ethnic differences and the factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. PMID:25826460

  18. Self-development groups reduce medical school stress: a controlled intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High stress levels and mental health problems are common among medical students and there is a lack of studies on group interventions that aim to reduce such distress during medical school. Methods A full class of students (n = 129) participated in group sessions during their third year of medical school in Bergen, Norway. The subsequent third-year class (n = 152) acted as control group, in order to create a quasi-experimental design. Two types of group intervention sessions were offered to the first class. One option was self-development groups led by trained group psychotherapists. Alternatively, students could choose discussion groups that focused on themes of special relevance to doctors, led by experienced general practitioners. The intervention comprised of 12 weekly group sessions each lasting 90 minutes. Data were gathered before the intervention (T1), and three months post intervention (T2). Distress was measured using the Perceived Medical School Stress (PMSS) and Symptom Check List-5 (SCL-5) assessments. Results The intervention group showed a significant reduction in PMSS over the observation period. The subsequent year control group stayed on the same PMSS levels over the similar period. The intervention was a significant predictor of PMSS reduction in a multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and sex, ? = -1.93 (-3.47 to -0.38), P = 0.02. When we analysed the effects of self-development and discussion groups with the control group as reference, self-development group was the only significant predictor of PMSS reduction, ? = -2.18 (-4.03 to -0.33), P = 0.02. There was no interaction with gender in our analysis. This implicates no significant difference between men and women concerning the effect of the self-development group. There was no reduction in general mental distress (SCL-5) over this period. Conclusion A three-month follow-up showed that the intervention had a positive effect on perceived medical school stress among the students, and further analyses showed this was due to participation in self-development groups. PMID:20233434

  19. A Study of the Effects of Latent Iron Deficiency on Measures of Cognition: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of Iron Supplementation in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Alecia J.; Chalmers, Kerry A.; Collins, Clare E.; Patterson, Amanda J.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of iron deficiency are high amongst healthy young women. Cognitive impairment occurs secondary to iron deficiency in infants and children, but evaluation of the impact on cognition among young women is inconsistent. The aim was to determine the suitability of the IntegNeuro test battery for assessing cognitive function in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient young women. A pilot double-blinded, placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted in iron-deficient (serum ferritin ? 20 ?g/L and haemoglobin > 120 g/L) and iron-sufficient young women (18–35 years). Cognitive function and haematological markers of iron status were measured at baseline and follow-up. Iron-deficient participants (n = 24) were randomised to receive placebo, 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron daily supplements for 16 weeks. A control group of iron-sufficient participants (n = 8) was allocated to placebo. Change scores for Impulsivity and Attention were significantly greater in plasma ferritin improvers than in non-improvers (p = 0.004, p = 0.026). IntegNeuro was easy to administer and acceptable to young women. Based on the differences in Memory and Attention scores between iron-deficient participants on iron treatment and those on placebo, it was decided that between 26 and 84 participants would be required in each iron treatment group for an adequately powered extension of this pilot RCT. PMID:24959952

  20. Impact of a mindfulness stress management program on stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stefanaki, Charikleia; Bacopoulou, Flora; Livadas, Sarantis; Kandaraki, Anna; Karachalios, Athanasios; Chrousos, George P; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder with a significant psychological burden throughout the life course of affected women. Thus, use of mindful awareness may be beneficial as an adjunct to conventional medical management of women with PCOS. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted at the Evgenideion Hospital of the Athens University Medical School to explore the impact of an 8-week mindfulness stress management program on measures of depression, anxiety and stress as well as on the quality of life in reproductive age women with PCOS. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee. Twenty-three and 15 women with PCOS were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group, respectively. All participants were administered DASS21, PSS-14, PCOSQ, Daily Life and General Life Satisfaction Questionnaires and provided three-timed daily samples of salivary cortisol, before and after the intervention. Intervention group participants were provided with the Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire at the day of enrolment, to check for possible placebo effect on the outcome. Post-intervention, between-group results revealed statistically significant reductions in stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as in salivary cortisol concentrations, along with an increase in Life Satisfaction and Quality of Life scores in the intervention group only. There was no significant "placebo" effect on the outcome measures. Mindfulness techniques seem promising in ameliorating stress, anxiety, depression and the quality of life in women with PCOS and could be used as an adjunct method to the conventional management of these women. PMID:25287137

  1. Contraception and sexuality in an area-specific group of Swedish women 15-34 years of age.

    PubMed

    Brännström, M; Josefsson, G B; Liljestrand, J

    1991-10-01

    In a community-based study in a Swedish suburban/rural area, all women aged 15-34 years (n = 671) were invited to the local health centre to be examined for chlamydia infection and for an interview. The attenders were asked about contraceptive history, age at first intercourse, number of life-time sexual partners and socioeconomic background. The net attendance was 69%, and contraceptive information on an additional 20% could be gathered through medical records. The average age at first intercourse was around 16 years, and the average number of sexual partners in the age-groups 20-24, 25-30 and 31-34 years was 4.0, 5.6 and 6.1, respectively. Of all women, around 75% had used contraception at first intercourse, and there was no tendency to a changing pattern during the past 20 years studies through the interviews. Combined estrogen-progestagen pills were by far the most used contraceptive method, presently being used by 42% of the contracepting women, followed by condom (23%), IUD (19%) and other hormonal methods (10%). It is concluded that sexual life in Sweden starts earlier than it did 30 years ago, that the number of sexual partners is higher, that most women in the studied group were efficient contraceptors, and that hormonal contraception was by far the most common method. PMID:1756629

  2. Genitourinary tract infections in pregnancy and low birth weight: case-control study in Australian aboriginal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Schultz; A W Read; J A Straton; F J Stanley; P Morich

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the association between genital and urinary tract infections in pregnant Aboriginal women and low birth weight. DESIGN--Retrospective case-control study controlling for potential confounding variables. SETTING--Western Australia from 1985 to 1987. SUBJECTS--All Aboriginal women (n = 269) who had given birth to singleton infants weighing 2250 g or less (cases), and 269 randomly selected Aboriginal women who had given

  3. The telling my story quilting workshop: innovative group work with older African American women transitioning out of homelessness.

    PubMed

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois Jean

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the use of a quilting workshop as a strategy for helping older African American women address the consequences of their homeless experience. In this examination, four studies are addressed: the original, the re-analysis, the interviews, and the quilting intervention. The relationship of quilting to group work and social support is described, and the use of quilting in the Telling My Story homeless research project is demonstrated. The researchers used the lay definition of quilting that implies the general meaning of attaching many disparate and unique pieces of material together into a whole. The researchers also describe the relevance of the group work method inherent in the quilting workshop in helping women successfully transition out of homelessness and progress in their recovery from its consequences. PMID:19921762

  4. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Women: Similarities and Differences from Other Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) reflects defects in insulin secretion in response to the metabolic demands of pregnancy. While GDM is increasingly common worldwide due in large part to the obesity epidemic, its frequency is relatively low in Korean women. In this report, the prevalence and risk factors for GDM, perinatal outcomes, and postpartum course are compared in non-Korean and Korean women. While Koreans and non-Koreans with GDM share pathophysiology and complications, there may be differences in the role of obesity and thus the effectiveness of interventions targeting obesity in GDM women. Further investigations of the effectiveness of weight loss interventions and pharmacotherapy specifically among Korean women are needed. Dietary and other lifestyle data from Korean populations could inform prevention and treatment strategies in other countries which suffer from significantly higher prevalences of GDM. PMID:24627822

  5. Effect of different types of exercise on postural balance in elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcio R; da Silva, Rubens A; Dascal, Juliana B; Teixeira, Denilson C

    2014-01-01

    Different types of exercise are indicated for the elderly to prevent functional capacity limitations due to aging and reduce the risk of falls. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different exercises (mini-trampoline, MT; aquatic gymnastics, AG and general floor gymnastics, GG) on postural balance in elderly women. Seventy-four physically independent elderly women, mean age 69±4 years, were randomly assigned to three intervention groups: (1) MT (n=23), (2) AG (n=28), and (3) GG (n=23). Each group performed physical training, including cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and sensory-motor exercises for 12 weeks. To determine the effects on each intervention group, five postural balance tasks were performed on a force platform (BIOMEC 400): the two-legged stand with eyes open (TLEO) and two-legged stand with eyes closed (TLEC); the semi-tandem stand with eyes open (STEO) and semi-tandem stand with eyes closed (STEC) and the one-legged stand. Three trials were performed for each task (with 30s of rest between them) and the mean was used to compute balance parameters such as center of pressure (COP) sway movements. All modalities investigated such as the MT, AG and GG were significantly (P<0.05) efficient in improving the postural balance of elderly women after 12 weeks of training. These results provide further evidence concerning exercise and balance for promoting health in elderly women. PMID:25239512

  6. Evaluation of pelvic floor muscle function in a random group of adult women in Austria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Talasz; G. Himmer-Perschak; E. Marth; J. Fischer-Colbrie; E. Hoefner; M. Lechleitner

    2008-01-01

    Despite an increasing clinical interest in female pelvic floor function, there is a lack of data with respect to the knowledge\\u000a of average adult women about the physiological role of the pelvic floor and their ability to contract pelvic floor muscles\\u000a (PFM) voluntarily. It was the aim of our study to evaluate the percentage of PFM dysfunction in adult women

  7. Effect of advanced provision of emergency contraception on women's contraceptive behaviour: a randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue S. T. Lo; Susan Y. S. Fan; P. C. Ho; Anna F. Glasier

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency contraception (EC) can prevent pregnancy but is under-used. Advanced provision increases use but the effect on contraceptive behaviour varies. METHODS: Women aged 18 -45 years, using less effective contraceptives, were randomized to either advanced provision of three courses of EC (intervention) or to obtaining each course from clinic (control). EC use and contraceptive behaviour were monitored for 1

  8. Antiobesity effect of caraway extract on overweight and obese women: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30?mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377. PMID:24319489

  9. Antiobesity Effect of Caraway Extract on Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30?mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377. PMID:24319489

  10. Prospective, case-control study on the effect of pregnancy on seizure frequency in women with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    La Neve, Angela; Boero, Giovanni; Francavilla, Teresa; Plantamura, Marzia; De Agazio, Giusy; Specchio, Luigi M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate if pregnancy induces a change in seizure frequency and in percentage of subjects remaining seizure-free. This is a prospective case-control study conducted in our tertiary epilepsy centre. Controls were matched 2:1 with the cases for relevant clinical parameters. Cases had to be referred to our centre for at least 9 months before-pregnancy, during pregnancy and the-9-months-after-birth. Controls were followed for the correspondent periods of time: named respectively control period 1-2-3. Seizure frequency was defined as "improved" if there was a 50 % of reduction, "worsened" if there was a 50 % of increase, and "unchanged" in the rest of cases. We recruited 36 cases and 72 controls [in both group mean age was 28 years, partial epilepsy (80.6 %), generalized epilepsy (19.4 %)]; 30 cases and 60 controls were seizure-free before pregnancy and in period 1, respectively. During pregnancy 72 % of cases remained "unchanged" while 8 and 19 % respectively "improved" and "worsened"; moreover, there was no statistical difference in the number of seizure-free patients and in the monthly seizure frequencies. No differences were found in controls. In this prospective case-control study, pregnancy does not affect seizure frequency in women with epilepsy. PMID:25070383

  11. Clomiphene citrate versus high doses of gonadotropins for in vitro fertilisation in women with compromised ovarian reserve: a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present randomised controlled non-inferiority trial is to test whether in women with compromised ovarian reserve requiring in vitro fertilisation, a protocol of ovarian stimulation using exclusively clomiphene citrate performs similarly to a regimen with high doses of gonadotropins. Methods Women with day 3 serum FSH > 12 IU/ml on at least two occasions or previous poor response to hyper-stimulation were recruited at four Italian infertility units. Selected women were allocated to clomiphene citrate 150 mg/day from day 3 to day 7 of the cycle (n=145) or to a short protocol with GnRH agonist 0.1 mg and recombinant FSH 450 IU daily (n=146). They were randomised by means of a computer-generated list into two groups. The study was not blinded. The main outcome of the study was the delivery rate per started cycle. Results The study was interrupted after the scheduled two years of recruitment before reaching the sample size. 148 women were allocated to clomiphene citrate and 156 to the short protocol with high doses of gonadotropins; 124 and 125 participants were analysed in the groups, respectively. Women allocated to high doses of gonadotropins retrieved more oocytes and had a higher probability to perform embryo-transfer. However, the chances of success were similar. The delivery rate per started cycle in women receiving clomiphene citrate and high-dose gonadotropins was 3% (n=5) and 5% (n=7), respectively (p=0.77). The mean estimated cost per delivery in the two groups was 81,294 and 113,107 Euros, respectively. No side-effects or adverse events were observed. Conclusions In women with compromised ovarian reserve selected for in vitro fertilisation, ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate or high-dose gonadotropins led to similar chances of pregnancy but the former is less expensive. Trial registration Trial registered on http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01389713) PMID:23249758

  12. Effect of berberine on insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: study protocol for a randomized multicenter controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and presence of polycystic ovaries on pelvic scanning. Insulin resistance is significantly associated with the long-term risks of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Berberine has effects on insulin resistance but its use in women with PCOS has not been fully investigated. In this paper, we present a research design evaluating the effects of berberine on insulin resistance in women with PCOS. Methods/design This is a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind trial. A total of 120 patients will be enrolled in this study and will be randomized into two groups. Berberine or placebo will be taken orally for 12 weeks. The primary outcome is the whole body insulin action assessed with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Discussion We postulate that women with PCOS will have improved insulin resistance following berberine administration. Trial registration This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01138930. PMID:23866924

  13. The Life Control Scale: Validation with a Population Cohort of Middle-Aged Australian Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Lee; Jess Ford; Helen Gramotnev

    2009-01-01

    Background  The concept of perceived control is central to many theories of physical and emotional well-being. However, existing measures\\u000a are lengthy and generally focus on job control. In epidemiological research, brief measures and those which can be applied\\u000a across entire populations are needed. Among women in particular, a substantial minority have no paid work, while most also\\u000a have major unpaid family

  14. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...will leave plan A's controlled group. Company B (Plan B's contributing...will leave Plan B's controlled group. Company C is not required to report...consolidation within a controlled group. Company X and Company Y are...

  15. Fructose content of low calorie diets: effect on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Line K; Holven, Kirsten B; Nordstrand, Njord; Mellembakken, Jan R; Tanbo, Tom; Hjelmesæth, Jøran

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to examine whether a whole-grain crispbread (CB) low-fructose, low-calorie diet (LCD) might be superior to a traditional LCD based on fructose-rich liquid meal replacements (LMRs) with respect to improvement of various cardiometabolic risk factors and reproductive hormones. Parallel-group randomised controlled clinical trial. Morbidly obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) were randomised to either an 8-week CB-LCD or LMR-LCD (900-1100?kcal/day, fructose 17?g/day or 85?g/day). A total of 51 women completed the study. Body weight, fat mass and waist circumference reduced by mean (s.d.) 10.0 (4.8) kg, 7.4 (4.2) kg and 8.5 (4.4) cm, with no significant differences between groups. Total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and Apo-A1 were significantly reduced within both groups (all P values <0.01), with no significant between-group differences. The triacylglycerol and LDL-cholesterol levels were reduced within the LMR group only, with no significant between-group differences. Blood pressure and most measures of glucose metabolism improved significantly in both diet groups, with no significant between-group difference. Uric acid levels rose by 17.7 (46.4) and 30.6 (71.5) ?mol/l in the CB and LMR group, respectively, with no significant difference between groups. Gastrointestinal discomfort was significantly and equally reduced in both intervention groups. Free testosterone index was reduced in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. Morbidly obese women with PCOS who underwent either an 8-week low or high-fructose LCD-diet had similar changes in various cardiometabolic risk factors and reproductive hormones. Registration at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00779571. PMID:26138702

  16. Menatetrenone versus alfacalcidol in the treatment of Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, positive drug-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Zhen-Lin; Zhang, Zhong-Lan; Zhu, Han-Min; Wu, Yi-Yong; Cheng, Qun; Wu, Feng-Li; Xing, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Jian-Li; Yu, Wei; Meng, Xun-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the efficacy and safety of menatetrenone for the treatment of osteoporosis is noninferior to alfacalcidol in Chinese postmenopausal women. Method This multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, noninferiority, positive drug-controlled clinical trial was conducted in five Chinese sites. Eligible Chinese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (N=236) were randomized to Group M or Group A and received menatetrenone 45 mg/day or alfacalcidol 0.5 ?g/day, respectively, for 1 year. Additionally, all patients received calcium 500 mg/day. Posttreatment bone mineral density (BMD), new fracture onsets, and serum osteocalcin (OC) and undercarboxylated OC (ucOC) levels were compared with the baseline value in patients of both groups. Results A total of 213 patients (90.3%) completed the study. After 1 year of treatment, BMD among patients in Group M significantly increased from baseline by 1.2% and 2.7% at the lumbar spine and trochanter, respectively (P<0.001); and the percentage increase of BMD in Group A was 2.2% and 1.8%, respectively (P<0.001). No difference was observed between groups. There were no changes in femoral neck BMD in both groups. Two patients (1.9%, 2/108) in Group M and four patients (3.8%, 4/105) in Group A had new fracture onsets (P>0.05). In Group M, OC and ucOC decreased from baseline by 38.7% and 82.3%, respectively (P<0.001). In Group A, OC and ucOC decreased by 25.8% and 34.8%, respectively (P<0.001). Decreases in serum OC and ucOC were more obvious in Group M than in Group A (P<0.001). The safety profile of menatetrenone was similar to alfacalcidol. Conclusion Menatetrenone is an effective and safe choice in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese women. PMID:24426779

  17. Fructose content of low calorie diets: effect on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Line K; Holven, Kirsten B; Nordstrand, Njord; Mellembakken, Jan R; Tanbo, Tom; Hjelmesæth, Jøran

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether a whole-grain crispbread (CB) low-fructose, low-calorie diet (LCD) might be superior to a traditional LCD based on fructose-rich liquid meal replacements (LMRs) with respect to improvement of various cardiometabolic risk factors and reproductive hormones. Parallel-group randomised controlled clinical trial. Morbidly obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) were randomised to either an 8-week CB-LCD or LMR-LCD (900–1100?kcal/day, fructose 17?g/day or 85?g/day). A total of 51 women completed the study. Body weight, fat mass and waist circumference reduced by mean (s.d.) 10.0 (4.8) kg, 7.4 (4.2) kg and 8.5 (4.4) cm, with no significant differences between groups. Total-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and Apo-A1 were significantly reduced within both groups (all P values <0.01), with no significant between-group differences. The triacylglycerol and LDL-cholesterol levels were reduced within the LMR group only, with no significant between-group differences. Blood pressure and most measures of glucose metabolism improved significantly in both diet groups, with no significant between-group difference. Uric acid levels rose by 17.7 (46.4) and 30.6 (71.5) ?mol/l in the CB and LMR group, respectively, with no significant difference between groups. Gastrointestinal discomfort was significantly and equally reduced in both intervention groups. Free testosterone index was reduced in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. Morbidly obese women with PCOS who underwent either an 8-week low or high-fructose LCD-diet had similar changes in various cardiometabolic risk factors and reproductive hormones. Registration at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00779571. PMID:26138702

  18. Women's health

    MedlinePLUS

    Women's health refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment and diagnosis of diseases and ... Women's health includes a wide range of specialties and focus areas, such as: Birth control, sexually transmitted infections ( ...

  19. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Gallbladder Disease: A Hospital-based Case-Control Study in Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Jessri, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gallbladder disease is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders that may result from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. This study examined the association of dietary patterns with gallstone disease among Iranian women. This case-control study was conducted in general teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Participants were 101 female cases and 204 female controls aged 40-65 years who were admitted for problems other than GBD. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis based on food frequency questionnaire. Compared to the control group, cases were less educated, less physically active, and consumed more total energy (p<0.02). Having ?3 livebirths increased the risk of gallstone by more than 5 times, followed by having rapid weight loss, being single, having familial history of gallstone, and consuming high total energy. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified in women (healthy and unhealthy). After adjustment for several confounding variables, healthy dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of gallstone disease (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.048-0.4) while unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk (OR=3.77, 95% CI 1.52-9.36). These findings confirm that dietary pattern approach provides potentially useful and relevant information on the relationship between diet and disease. Identifying risk factors will provide an opportunity for prevention of gallbladder disease in developing countries facing an increased risk of obesity. PMID:25995720

  20. What I Need to Know about Bladder Control for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a sign that something is wrong. It's a medical problem, and a doctor or nurse can help. [ Top ] How does the bladder work? Parts of the bladder control system. The bladder is a balloon-shaped organ that stores and releases urine. It ...

  1. Stress, Locus of Control, and Age in College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Colleen; Seal, Justine

    Stress is the result of demand placed on the body by either positive or negative events. Locus of Control (LOC) refers to personal perception of the cause of events and reinforcement within the environment. Previous literature has indicated that low LOC scores are positively related to low stress scores. This study applied these concepts to female…

  2. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  3. 2005 Nature Publishing Group WUSCHEL controls meristem function by direct

    E-print Network

    Weigel, Detlef

    © 2005 Nature Publishing Group WUSCHEL controls meristem function by direct regulation of cytokinin,2 . Phytohormones such as auxin and cytokinin are also important for meristem regulation3 . Here we show, ARR6, ARR7 and ARR15), which act in the negative- feedback loop of cytokinin signalling4

  4. Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

  5. Locus of Control and Preference for Type of Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, P. R.

    1974-01-01

    In light of the importance given to the consideration of individual difference variables in the identification of client-treatment compatability, thhe present study examined the locus of control variable as a predictor of individual preference for type of group counseling. (Author)

  6. Summary of beam quality diagnostics and control working group

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, John; /Argonne; Piot, Philippe; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    The working group on beam quality, diagnostics, and control at the 12th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. The generation of bright charged-particle beams (in particular electron and positron beams), along with state-of-the-art beam diagnostics and synchronization were discussed.

  7. The Impact of Trauma-Focused Group Therapy upon HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network “Women and Trauma” Multi-Site Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise A. Hien; Aimee N. C. Campbell; Therese Killeen; Mei-Chen Hu; Cheri Hansen; Huiping Jiang; Mary Hatch-Maillette; Gloria M. Miele; Lisa R. Cohen; Weijin Gan; Stella M. Resko; Michele DiBono; Elizabeth A. Wells; Edward V. Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Women in drug treatment struggle with co-occurring problems, including trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which\\u000a can heighten HIV risk. This study examines the impact of two group therapy interventions on reduction of unprotected sexual\\u000a occasions (USO) among women with substance use disorders (SUD) and PTSD. Participants were 346 women recruited from and receiving\\u000a treatment at six community-based drug treatment

  8. Natural acquired humoral immunity against serotype-specific group B Streptococcus rectovaginal colonization acquisition in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, G; Adrian, P V; Shiri, T; Buchmann, E J; Cutland, C L; Madhi, S A

    2015-06-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) rectovaginal colonization in pregnant women is associated with invasive GBS disease in newborns, preterm delivery and stillbirths. We studied the association of GBS serotype-specific capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antibody on new acquisition and clearance of rectovaginal GBS colonization in pregnant women from 20 weeks until 37 to 40 weeks' gestation. Serum serotype-specific CPS IgG antibody concentration was measured by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titres. Rectovaginal swabs were evaluated for GBS colonization, using standard culture methods and serotyping by latex agglutination, at five to six weekly intervals. Higher serotype III CPS antibody concentration was associated with lower risk of rectovaginal acquisition of serotype III during pregnancy (p 0.009). Furthermore, serotype-specific OPA titres to Ia and III were higher in women who remained free of GBS colonization throughout the study compared to those who acquired the homotypic serotype (p <0.001 for both serotypes). Serum CPS IgG values of ?1?g/mL for serotype V and ?3?g/mL for serotypes Ia and III were significantly associated with protection against rectovaginal acquisition of the homotypic serotype. A GBS vaccine that induces sufficient capsular antibody in pregnant women, including high OPA titres, could protect against rectovaginal colonization during the latter half of pregnancy. PMID:25680313

  9. Survival and progression of HIV disease in women attending GUM/HIV clinics in Britain and Ireland. Study Group for the MRC Collaborative Study of HIV Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the pattern of clinical disease in women with HIV infection and to examine the effect of potential cofactors, including oral contraceptive use, alcohol and smoking, ethnic group, and route of HIV transmission, on progression to AIDS and death. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: 15 HIV and genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in Britain and Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: 505 women aged over 18 years with a positive HIV antibody test entered the study between June 1992 and August 1995, with outcome data available for 503 women, and 1208 woman years of follow up to April 1996. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: AIDS defining conditions, incidence of AIDS, and death. RESULTS: 120 women (24%) had AIDS at entry to the study. There were 99 incident AIDS cases and 132 deaths during 1208 woman years of follow up. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) was the commonest first AIDS defining condition in white women (31% of AIDS cases), followed by oesophageal candidiasis (19%) while tuberculosis was the most common first AIDS defining condition among black African women (24% of AIDS cases), followed by oesophageal candidiasis (19%). In multivariate analyses, rate of progression to AIDS was significantly related to CD4 lymphocyte count at entry and PCP prophylaxis, but not to ethnic group, route of HIV transmission, alcohol, smoking, or oral contraceptive use. Mortality from all causes was not significantly different in women infected through injecting drugs (adjusted ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.7-1.8) compared with those infected through sexual intercourse, and non-significantly lower in black African women (0.7, 0.3-1.2) compared with white women. Survival was not significantly related to smoking, alcohol, or oral contraceptive use. CONCLUSIONS: In women attending GUM/HIV clinics, the pattern of AIDS defining conditions differs by ethnic group, but progression of HIV disease is not importantly related to smoking, alcohol, oral contraceptive use, route of HIV transmission, or ethnic group. ??? PMID:10615311

  10. Efficacy of metformin in pregnant obese women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiswick, Carolyn A; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Denison, Fiona C; Whyte, Sonia A; Drake, Amanda J; Newby, David E; Walker, Brian R; Forbes, Shareen; Murray, Gordon D; Quenby, Siobhan; Wray, Susan; Norman, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence suggests obesity has its origins prior to birth. There is clear correlation between maternal obesity, high birthweight and offspring risk of obesity in later life. It is also clear that women who are obese during pregnancy are at greater risk of adverse outcomes, including gestational diabetes and stillbirth. The mechanism(s) by which obesity causes these problems is unknown, although hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are strongly implicated. We present a protocol for a study to test the hypothesis that metformin will improve insulin sensitivity in obese pregnant women, thereby reducing the incidence of high birthweight babies and other pregnancy complications. Methods and analysis The Efficacy of Metformin in Pregnant Obese Women, a Randomised controlled (EMPOWaR) trial is a double-masked randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine whether metformin given to obese (body mass index >30?kg/m2) pregnant women from 16?weeks’ gestation until delivery reduces the incidence of high birthweight babies. A secondary aim is to test the mechanism(s) of any effect. Obese women with a singleton pregnancy and normal glucose tolerance will be recruited prior to 16?weeks’ gestation and prescribed study medication, metformin or placebo, to be taken until delivery. Further study visits will occur at 28 and 36?weeks’ gestation for glucose tolerance testing and to record anthropometric measurements. Birth weight and other measurements will be recorded at time of delivery. Anthropometry of mother and baby will be performed at 3?months postdelivery. As of January 2014, 449 women had been randomised across the UK. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice. A favourable ethical opinion was obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee, reference number 10/MRE00/12. Results will be disseminated at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number ISRCTN51279843. PMID:25588785

  11. Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Côte d’Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding “gender dialogue groups” to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d’Ivoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to “gender dialogue groups” added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman’s ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR?=?0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p?group (??=?-0.97; 95% CI: -1.67, -0.28, p?=?0.006), while attitudes towards refusal of sex did not significantly change Per protocol analysis suggests that compared to control women, treatment women attending more than 75% of intervention sessions with their male partner were less likely to report physical IPV (a OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.94; p?=?.04) and report fewer justifications for wife beating (adjusted ??=?-1.14; 95% CI: -2.01, -0.28, p?=?0.01) ; and both low and high adherent women reported significantly decreased economic abuse (a OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.52, p?

  12. The FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised, controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Leone; Maclennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of implementing a dedicated feeding support team on a postnatal ward and pilot the potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of team (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after discharge. Design Randomised controlled trial embedded within a before-and-after study. Participatory approach and mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women living in disadvantaged areas initiating breast feeding. Methods Eligible women were recruited to a before-and-after intervention study, a proportion of whom were independently randomised after hospital discharge to intervention: daily proactive and reactive telephone calls for ?14?days or control: reactive telephone calls ? day 14. Intention-to-treat analysis compared the randomised groups on cases with complete outcomes at follow-up. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: any breast feeding at 6–8?weeks assessed by a telephone call from a researcher blind to group allocation. Secondary outcomes: exclusive breast feeding, satisfaction with care, NHS costs and cost per additional woman breast feeding. Results There was no difference in feeding outcomes for women initiating breast feeding before the intervention (n=413) and after (n=388). 69 women were randomised to telephone support: 35 intervention (32 complete cases) and 34 control (26 complete cases). 22 intervention women compared with 12 control women were giving their baby some breast milk (RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.92 to 2.40) and 17 intervention women compared with eight control women were exclusively breast feeding (RR 1.73, 95% CI 0.88 to 3.37) at 6–8?weeks after birth. The incremental cost of providing proactive calls was £87 per additional woman breast feeding and £91 per additional woman exclusively breast feeding at 6–8?weeks; costs were sensitive to service organisation. Conclusions Proactive telephone care delivered by a dedicated feeding team shows promise as a cost-effective intervention for improving breastfeeding outcomes. Integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST) intervention into routine postnatal care was feasible. Trial registration number ISRCTN27207603. The study protocol and final report are available on request. PMID:22535790

  13. Nutrient and food group intakes of women with and without bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder during pregnancy1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Margaretha Haugen; Helle M Meltzer; Ann Von Holle; Robert Hamer; Leila Torgersen; Cecilie Knopf-Berg; Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud; Cynthia M Bulik

    Background: Little is known concerning the dietary habits during pregnancy of women with eating disorders that may lie in the causal pathway of adverse birth outcomes. Objective: We examined the nutrient and food group intakes of womenwithbulimianervosaandbinge-eatingdisorderduringpreg- nancy and compared these with intakes of women with no eating disorders. Design: Data on 30 040 mother-child pairs from the prospective Norwegian

  14. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  15. My Time, My Space (an arts-based group for women with postnatal depression): a project report.

    PubMed

    Morton, Alison; Forsey, Philippa

    2013-05-01

    This paper will describe an innovative method of treatment for women with postnatal depression that has been used in the south west of England since 2004 and has now been successfully piloted in other areas of the UK. My Time My Space is an arts-based group for women with postnatal depression that aims to improve mood by reducing social isolation and using creativity to improve self-esteem. Results of the programme will be shared, in addition to the ways in which the project has been implemented using collaborative working with children's centres and building community capacity by engaging local charities. The qualitative results have been collected from participants (n = 30) over the last two years using post-course evaluation forms with open questions to elicit participants' views. The quantitative results of a small pilot study (n = 8) based on pre- and post-group Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) are also reported. The findings suggest My Time My Space has a positive effect on women's mood and perceived social support, and provides an effective alternative or additional method of treatment for postnatal depression. PMID:23724760

  16. Effects of an exercise programme on self-esteem, self-concept and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aida M. Garcia-MartinezJoseA; José A. De Paz; Sara Márquez

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of an exercise trial on self-esteem, self-concept and quality of life in patients\\u000a with fibromyalgia and to evaluate whether improvements in psychological distress were related to changes in physical functioning.\\u000a Twenty-eight women with a primary diagnosis of fibromyalgia were randomized to a usual care control group or to a 12-week\\u000a supervised training

  17. Changes in Blood Pressure and Lipid Levels in Young Women Consuming a Vitamin D-Fortified Skimmed Milk: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Toxqui, Laura; Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Wright, Ione; Pérez-Granados, Ana M.; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D exerts a variety of extra-skeletal functions. Aim: to know the effects of the consumption of a vitamin D-fortified skimmed milk on glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure in young women. Methods: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel-group trial of 16 weeks duration was conducted in young women with low iron stores who consumed a skimmed milk fortified with iron and 200 IU/day (5 ?g) of vitamin D (D-fortified group, n = 55), or a placebo without vitamin D (D-placebo group, n = 54). A reference group (n = 56) of iron-sufficient women was also recruited. Results: baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was inversely correlated with total-cholesterol (r = ?0.176, p = 0.023) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-chol) (r = ?0.176, p = 0.024). During the assay, LDL-cholesterol increased in the D-placebo group (p = 0.005) while it tended to decrease in the D-fortified group (p = 0.07). Neither group displayed changes in total-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-chol), triglycerides or glucose levels. Systolic (p = 0.017) and diastolic (p = 0.010) blood pressure decreased during the assay in the D-fortified group without significant differences compared to the D-placebo. Conclusion: consumption of a dairy product fortified with vitamin D reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure but does not change lipid levels in young women. PMID:24317556

  18. An exploratory study of predictors of participation in a computer support group for women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Bret R; Hawkins, Robert; Arora, Neeraj; McTavish, Fiona; Pingree, Suzanne; Gustafson, David H

    2006-01-01

    This study examined what characteristics predict participation in online support groups for women with breast cancer when users are provided free training, computer hardware, and Internet service removing lack of access as a barrier to use. The only significant difference between active and inactive participants was that active users were more likely at pretest to consider themselves active participants in their healthcare. Among active participants, being white and having a higher energy level predicted higher volumes of writing. There were also trends toward the following characteristics predictive of a higher volume of words written, including having a more positive relationship with their doctors, fewer breast cancer concerns, higher perceived health competence, and greater social/family well-being. Implications for improving psychosocial interventions for women with breast cancer are discussed, and future research objectives are suggested. PMID:16436908

  19. Fetal blood grouping using cell free DNA - an improved service for RhD negative pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bills, V L; Soothill, P W

    2014-04-01

    Red cell alloimmunisation involves the transplacental movement of maternally derived red cell antibodies into the fetal circulation, causing red cell haemolysis, fetal anaemia and ultimately fetal death. Current standard UK practice is to prevent sensitisation to the D antigen by administering anti-D at about 28 weeks' gestation to all RhD negative pregnancies. The determination of fetal blood group by non-invasive cell free fetal DNA testing offers an improved and more efficient service to RhD negative pregnant women and avoids the potential iatrogenic harm associated with standard practice. It also has significantly improved the management of women with red cell alloimunisation to D and other antigens. This review summarises the past and future management of red cell alloimmunisation during pregnancy and the impact of ffDNA tests. PMID:24679596

  20. Gender, Discrimination Beliefs, Group-Based Guilt, and Responses to Affirmative Action for Australian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckmann, Robert J.; Feather, N. T.

    2007-01-01

    Views of a selection committee's decision to promote a woman over a man on the basis of affirmative action were studied in a random sample of Australians (118 men and 111 women). The relations between perceptions of workplace gender discrimination, feelings of collective responsibility and guilt for discrimination, and judgments of entitlement to…

  1. Recruiting and Retaining Women and Underrepresented Groups in Computer Science, Engineering and Related Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Sorkin; Donna Hiestand-Tupper; Barbara Leitherer; Mary Elizabeth Gore

    This paper describes the efforts of two distinct programs at The Community College of Baltimore County, each funded by the National Science Foundation, with the common goal of recruiting and supporting women and underrepresented minorities interested in pursuing careers in computer science, engineering, and related fields. The first of these programs is the Grace Hopper Scholars Program, which was the

  2. Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.; Maibodi, M. [Bechtel Power corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Srivastava, R. [and others

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.

  3. Antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent post-abortal upper genital tract infection in women with bacterial vaginosis: randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tessa Crowley; Nicola Low; Andrew Turner; Ian Harvey; Ken Bidgood; Patrick Horner

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in women undergoing first trimester suction termination of pregnancy and to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole in reducing the risk of post abortal pelvic infection in women with bacterial vaginosis.Design Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.Setting Two teaching hospitals and one district general hospital.Sample Two hundred and seventy-three women with bacterial vaginosis undergoing termination

  4. Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme Impact in Pregnant Women and Status of Universal Salt Iodization

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, AK; Tripathi, S; Gandhi, NK; Singh, AJ

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several studies pertaining to current status of Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme in India have revealed goiter prevalence in the range of 1.5–44.5%, mean urinary iodine excretion level ranging from 92.5–160 mcg/L and iodized salt coverage ranging from 37–62.3%. Most of these studies were based on school children. However, very few studies have focused on pregnant women. This population is very sensitive to marginalized iodine deficiency throughout their gestational period. Methods: This 40 cluster cross sectional study was done in Raipur district. Iodine content of salt was estimated by using “Rapid Salt Testing Kits” along with observing salt storage practices, at household and in shops. Pregnant women were interviewed by using semi structured comprehensive questionnaire, which was based on knowledge attitude, and practices about salt use pattern and awareness about IDDCP, UIE level were also estimated. Results: Prevalence of goiter was 0.17%. Many (41.12%) pregnant women had <15ppm iodine content in the salt sample and 51.58% of women had subnormal iodine uptake. Wrong salt storage practice was observed in 36.3% of households. Conclusions: There were lacunae in Iodine deficiency control program in Chhattisgarh. Implementation and monitoring of program was weak. Thus for monitoring purpose IDD Cell & IDD Laboratory should be established at district level. This will lead to periodic assessment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, by monitoring of Iodine intake and all other preventive, promotive as well as curative measures in the state. PMID:23113082

  5. The effect of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on the risk of venous thromboembolism. From the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Blondon, M; Rodabough, R J; Budrys, N; Johnson, K C; Berger, J S; Shikany, J M; Raiesdana, A; Heckbert, S R; Manson, J E; LaCroix, A Z; Siscovick, D; Kestenbaum, B; Smith, N L; de Boer, I H

    2015-04-29

    Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D may be implicated in haemostatic regulations and influence the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral supplementation of vitamin D3 combined with calcium reduces the risk of VTE. In the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled Women's Health Initiative Calcium Plus Vitamin D trial, 36,282 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years were randomised to receive 1,000 mg of calcium carbonate and 400 IU of vitamin D3 per day (n=18,176) or a matching placebo (n=18,106) during an average of seven years. This secondary analysis of the trial compared the incidence of VTE by treatment group using an intention-to-treat Cox regression analysis. The incidence of VTE did not differ between women randomised to calcium plus vitamin D and women randomised to placebo (320 vs 348 VTE events, respectively; hazard ratio (HR) 0.92, 95?% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.07). Results were not modified in an analysis using inverse-probability weights to take non-adherence into account (HR 0.94, 95?%CI 0.73-1.22) or in multiple subgroups. Whereas the risk of a non-idiopathic VTE was similar between groups, the risk of idiopathic VTE was lower in women randomised to calcium plus vitamin D (40 vs 65 events; HR 0.62, 95?%CI 0.42-0.92). In conclusion, daily supplementation with 1,000 mg of calcium and 400 IU of vitamin D did not reduce the overall incidence of VTE in generally healthy postmenopausal women. However, the observed reduced risk of idiopathic VTE in women randomised to calcium and vitamin D warrants further investigations. PMID:25672892

  6. HIV-infected Women's Perspectives on the Use of the Internet for Social Support: A Potential Role for Online Group-based Interventions.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Oni J; Shah, Pooja A; Haughton, Lorlette J; Horvath, Keith J; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2015-01-01

    While the development and implementation of HIV-related online interventions has expanded, few have been tailored for women or have leveraged Web 2.0's capabilities to provide social support. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 women with HIV at an urban community health center to understand their perspectives on the potential role of the Internet and the use of an online group format to provide social support. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. We identified six themes: a need for groups and increased sense of connectedness, convenience and accessibility, trust as a precondition for participating, online groups as a potential facilitator or barrier to expression, limited digital access and literacy, and privacy concerns. Overall, women were highly supportive of online group-based interventions but acknowledged the need for increased digital access and Internet navigation training. Hybrid (in-person and online) interventions may be most useful for women with HIV. PMID:25749532

  7. Interbirth interval and history of previous preeclampsia: a case–control study among multiparous women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia is a disorder with a reported incidence of 2%-8% among all pregnancies, accounting for more than 50,000 deaths worldwide each year. In low- and middle- income countries maternal/perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia are high due to the lack of proper prenatal and hospital care and limited access to neonatal intensive care. The objectives of our study were to determine the association of long interbirth interval (IBI) and preeclampsia and to investigate the interactions between long IBI and other risk factors among multiparous women in Yerevan, Armenia. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study among 36 multiparous women with preeclampsia (cases) and 148 without preeclampsia (controls) during their last pregnancy, selected from the two largest maternity hospitals in Armenia. The data were collected through telephone-based structured interviews and analyzed using STATA software. The study applied univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The study found a significant interaction between IBI and previous history of preeclampsia. Among women without a history of previous preeclampsia, the odds of having preeclampsia among women with long IBI (greater than or equal to five years) was 6.88 time higher compared to those with short IBI (CI: 1.75-27.05; p?=?0.006) after adjusting for confounders; among women with a history of previous preeclampsia the odds ratio was 0.60 (CI: 0.07-4.99; p?=?0.638). The final fitted model for preeclampsia among multiparous women who had planned their pregnancies included IBI, time to pregnancy, Body Mass Index, method of contraception and household monthly income. Conclusions Long IBI appeared to be a strong risk factor for preeclampsia development only among women without a history of previous preeclampsia. This finding may contribute to a new approach in understanding the etiology of preeclampsia and may be useful for developing further recommendations for this particular subgroup of women that are at higher risk for preeclampsia development in subsequent pregnancies. PMID:24373629

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the RHANI Wives HIV Intervention for Women in India at Risk for HIV from Husbands

    PubMed Central

    Saggurti, Niranjan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Naik, D. D.; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G.; Balaiah, Donta

    2013-01-01

    This study involved evaluation of the shortterm impact of the RHANI Wives HIV intervention among wives at risk for HIV from husbands in Mumbai, India. A two-armed cluster RCT was conducted with 220 women surveyed on marital sex at baseline and 4–5 month followup. RHANI Wives was a multisession intervention focused on safer sex, marital communication, gender inequities and violence; control participants received basic HIV prevention education. Generalized linear mixed models were conducted to assess program impact, with cluster as a random effect and with time, treatment group, and the time by treatment interaction as fixed effects. A significant time by treatment effect on proportion of unprotected sex with husband (p = 0.01) was observed, and the rate of unprotected sex for intervention participants was lower than that of control participants at follow-up (RR = 0.83, 95 % CI = 0.75, 0.93). RHANI Wives is a promising model for women at risk for HIV from husbands. PMID:23921584

  9. Randomized controlled trial to test the RHANI Wives HIV intervention for women in India at risk for HIV from husbands.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Naik, D D; Abramovitz, Daniela; Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta

    2013-11-01

    This study involved evaluation of the short-term impact of the RHANI Wives HIV intervention among wives at risk for HIV from husbands in Mumbai, India. A two-armed cluster RCT was conducted with 220 women surveyed on marital sex at baseline and 4-5 month follow-up. RHANI Wives was a multisession intervention focused on safer sex, marital communication, gender inequities and violence; control participants received basic HIV prevention education. Generalized linear mixed models were conducted to assess program impact, with cluster as a random effect and with time, treatment group, and the time by treatment interaction as fixed effects. A significant time by treatment effect on proportion of unprotected sex with husband (p = 0.01) was observed, and the rate of unprotected sex for intervention participants was lower than that of control participants at follow-up (RR = 0.83, 95 % CI = 0.75, 0.93). RHANI Wives is a promising model for women at risk for HIV from husbands. PMID:23921584

  10. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-06-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (?60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P?groups (TG -8.8, -4.1, and -5.7 mmHg, respectively; P?

  11. 'I think my future will be better than my past': examining support group influence on the mental health of HIV-infected Rwandan women.

    PubMed

    Walstrom, Paige; Operario, Don; Zlotnick, Caron; Mutimura, Eugene; Benekigeri, Chantal; Cohen, Mardge H

    2013-01-01

    Urgent need exists for improved psychological services among HIV-infected women in post-genocide Rwanda. Psychological problems associated with trauma and sexual violence (i.e., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) place women at increased risk for sexual risk behaviour, low health-seeking behaviour, delay of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and reduced ART adherence. We explored experiences of HIV-infected Rwandan women attending psychosocial support groups and their narratives about how participation affected their mental health and HIV treatment. Focus group discussions examined participants' reasons for support group attendance, perceived psychological benefit of support groups, influence on ART adherence, and other influences on health behaviors and attitudes. Rwandan women (aged 18-65) were randomly selected from 10 health clinic-facilitated support groups for HIV-infected trauma survivors in Kigali. Results identified positive psychological and physical changes as well as behaviour changes in relationships with men, which participants attributed to support group attendance. Data showed significant improvement in mental health, ART adherence and HIV serostatus disclosure resulting from group attendance. Participants acknowledged limitations of support groups with respect to addressing poverty and hunger. Implementing psychosocial support groups may leverage clinical outcomes and rejuvenate the well-being of HIV-infected women with interpersonal trauma and/or PTSD and depressive symptoms, particularly those from post-conflict countries. PMID:22812728

  12. Nonproliferation and arms control technology working group. RD database focus group. 1996 annual report. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    In response to guidance from the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Group (NPAC TWG), the Proliferation Modeling Focus Group (PMFG) formulated objectives and terms of reference from which to conduct its activities. A major recommendation of this group in its report last year was that NPAC TWG needed to establish a separate focus group to develop and implement communications and data sharing within the larger NPAC TWG and among its various focus groups. The need was recognized for communicating and data sharing at both classified and unclassified levels. In response to this recommendation, the NPAC TWG established the Research and Development Database Focus Group. To facilitate our communication needs, it was decided to use a three-tier approach on three parallel communications networks: the Internet`s World Wide Web, Secret Internet Protocol Router Network`s (SIPRNET) INTELINK-S, and Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System`s (JWICS) INTELINK. Since all three networks at all classification levels use WEB browsers (Mosaic, Netscape, Microsoft`s Navigator, and others) and Internet tools to search and display data, and all networks are or could be made available to all members, it was propitious to use them as the infrastructure for NPAC TWG`s information sharing requirements.

  13. Combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid in metabolic syndrome-affected women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inositol has been reported to improve insulin sensitivity since it works as a second messenger achieving insulin-like effects on metabolic enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inositol and alpha lipoic acid combination effectiveness on metabolic syndrome features in postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer. Methods A six-month prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial was carried out on a total of 155 postmenopausal women affected by metabolic syndrome at risk of breast cancer, the INOSIDEX trial. All women were asked to follow a low-calorie diet and were assigned randomly to daily consumption of a combination of inositol and alpha lipoic acid (77 pts) or placebo (78 pts) for six months. Primary outcomes we wanted to achieve were both reduction of more than 20% of the HOMA-IR index and of triglycerides serum levels. Secondary outcomes expected were both the improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the reduction of anthropometric features such as body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Results A significant HOMA-IR reduction of more than 20% was evidenced in 66.7% (P <0.0001) of patients, associated with a serum insulin level decrease in 89.3% (P <0.0000). A decrease in triglycerides was evidenced in 43.2% of patients consuming the supplement (P <0.0001). An increase in HDL cholesterol (48.6%) was found in the group consuming inositol with respect to the placebo group. A reduction in waist circumference and waist-hip ratio was found in the treated group with respect to the placebo group. Conclusions Inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be used as a dietary supplement in insulin-resistant patients in order to increase their insulin sensitiveness. Daily consumption of inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid has a significant bearing on metabolic syndrome. As metabolic syndrome is considered a modifiable risk factor of breast tumorigenesis, further studies are required to assess whether inositol combined with alpha lipoic acid can be administered as a dietary supplement in breast cancer primary prevention. Trial registration Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN74096908. PMID:23981814

  14. Spiritual therapy to improve the spiritual well-being of Iranian women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Najmeh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Emami, Hamid; Loghmani, Amir; Jafari, Nooshin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of spiritual therapy intervention in improving the spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL) of Iranian women with breast cancer. Methods. This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) recruited 65 women with breast cancer, randomly assigned to a 6-week spirituality-based intervention (n = 34) or control group (n = 31). Before and after six-week spiritual therapy intervention, spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL) were assessed using Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-being scale (FACIT-Sp12) and cancer quality-of-life questionnaire (QLQ-C30), respectively. t-test, Paired t-test, pearson's correlation, and hierarchical regression analyses were used for analysis using Predictive Analytic software (PASW, version 18) for Windows. Results. After six spiritual therapy sessions, the mean spiritual well-being score from 29.76 (SD = 6.63) to 37.24 (SD = 3.52) in the intervention group (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between arms of study (F = 22.91, P < 0.001). A significant positive correlation was detected between meaning and peace with all subscales of functional subscales on European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of Life (EORTC QLQ-C30) (P < 0.05). Hierarchical regression analyses of participants indicated that the study arm, pain, and financial impact were significant predictors of spiritual well-being and overall QOL. Social functioning was another significant predictor of spiritual well-being. Conclusion. The results of this randomized controlled trial study suggest that participation in spiritual therapy program is associated with improvements in spiritual well-being and QOL. Targeted interventions to acknowledge and incorporate spiritual needs into conventional treatment should be considered in caring of Iranian patients with breast cancer. PMID:24023572

  15. Knowledge and practice of colorectal screening in a suburban group of iraqi american women.

    PubMed

    Jillson, Irene; Faeq, Zainab; Kabbara, Khaled W; Cousin, Carolyn; Mumford, William; Blancato, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) was the second most common cancer among women in 2008, accounting for 571,000 cases, and 9.4 % of all cancer cases afflicting women worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Iraqi National Cancer Registry (INCR), Iraq has seen a steady rise in CRC rates among its general population over the past several decades. Despite Iraq's increasing national incidence of CRC and the growth of the US' Iraqi immigrant population over the last 10 years, little remains known about the prevalence of CRC among the latter population, their knowledge of CRC and associated risk factors, or their behavioral intent and practices regarding CRC screening. The aims of this study were to (1) examine the knowledge of and adherence to National Cancer Institute screening recommendations for CRC among a population of Iraqi women living in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area and (2) test the efficacy of a one-time educational intervention conducted using linguistically and culturally appropriate materials to raise awareness of, and promote future adherence to, CRC screening methods. This descriptive study used a pre/post design with a 12-month follow-up. Following extensive dissemination of information regarding the study in the Iraqi American community in the study location, 50 women were initially recruited, of whom 32 participated in the study. The study's findings revealed that the participants generally had low baseline levels of CRC screening adherence and preventive knowledge that significantly improved after the intervention as demonstrated by pre- and post-assessments of knowledge and behavior. These findings could be used to raise awareness (1) among clinicians regarding the need for early detection and screening of and referral for CRC treatment among Iraqi American women and (2) among Iraqi American women about risk factors for this disease and the importance of early detection and screening. The study also highlights the need for a larger study of knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions among both this population and the clinicians who serve them. PMID:25787223

  16. Improving Ambulatory Saliva-Sampling Compliance in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Julian; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Loetscher, Katharina Quack; Krastel, Bettina; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Objective Noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and has been associated with biased cortisol estimates in nonpregnant subjects. This study is the first to investigate in pregnant women strategies to improve ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance, and the association between sampling noncompliance and saliva cortisol estimates. Methods We instructed 64 pregnant women to collect eight scheduled saliva samples on two consecutive days each. Objective compliance with scheduled sampling times was assessed with a Medication Event Monitoring System and self-reported compliance with a paper-and-pencil diary. In a randomized controlled study, we estimated whether a disclosure intervention (informing women about objective compliance monitoring) and a reminder intervention (use of acoustical reminders) improved compliance. A mixed model analysis was used to estimate associations between women's objective compliance and their diurnal cortisol profiles, and between deviation from scheduled sampling and the cortisol concentration measured in the related sample. Results Self-reported compliance with a saliva-sampling protocol was 91%, and objective compliance was 70%. The disclosure intervention was associated with improved objective compliance (informed: 81%, noninformed: 60%), F(1,60) ?=?17.64, p<0.001, but not the reminder intervention (reminders: 68%, without reminders: 72%), F(1,60) ?=?0.78, p?=?0.379. Furthermore, a woman's increased objective compliance was associated with a higher diurnal cortisol profile, F(2,64)?=?8.22, p<0.001. Altered cortisol levels were observed in less objective compliant samples, F(1,705)?=?7.38, p?=?0.007, with delayed sampling associated with lower cortisol levels. Conclusions The results suggest that in pregnant women, objective noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and is associated with biased cortisol estimates. To improve sampling compliance, results suggest informing women about objective compliance monitoring but discourage use of acoustical reminders. PMID:24465958

  17. Looking at Infertility Treatment through The Lens of The Meaning of Life: The Effect of Group Logotherapy on Psychological Distress in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Khodabakshi Koolee, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women in particular suffer from psychological stress when diagnosed with infertility. Psychosocial interventions are known to not only prevent and lessen various mental problems, but also to play a positive role in physical health and pregnancy rates. The aim of this study is to determine the unique impact of spiritual psychotherapy on concerns about infertility and their perceived psychological stresses. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study population included nearly 800 infertile couples who attended the Maternity and Gynecology Clinic of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran. We enrolled65 people who were randomly divided into two groups, experimental (n=33)and control (n=32). The experimental group received spiritual group psychotherapy counseling for 12 sessions, 2 hours per week for a 3 months period. The control group did not receive any intervention, but due to ethical considerations, we gave a presentation (one session) about infertility treatment for this group after the research process was completed. We used two questionnaires to obtain data, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Data analysis was done by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS 16 software. Results: Psychological intervention in the treatment group significantly decreased the PSWQ (p=0.004). There were significant differences in the mean score of the PSWQ in both groups as determined by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA; p=0.009). Psychological intervention in the treatment group decreased the level of perceived stress, when compared with the control group. According to ANCOVA there were significant differences between the mean PSS scores of both groups (p=0.01). Conclusion: Logotherapy is related to stress reduction and can decrease psychiatric symptoms of worry and perceived stress. This approach tends to improve an infertile person's ability to deal with their problem of finding the meaning of life. Thus it can be concluded that logotherapy along with other treatment methods, is a useful approach for infertile couples (Registration Number:IRCT201108247407N2). PMID:24520444

  18. Supplementing Lactating Women with Pureed Papaya and Grated Carrots Improved Vitamin A Status in a Placebo-Controlled Trial1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thokozile N. Ncube; Ted Greiner; Lucie C. Malaba; Mehari Gebre-Medhin

    Doubts have been raised about the effectiveness of carotene-containing foods in improving the vitamin A status of populations at risk. We investigated the effect of papaya and carrots on the vitamin A status of lactating women with 2- to 12-mo-old infants in Zimbabwe. The women were randomly assigned to three supplementation groups and a placebo group, and received 6 mg

  19. Time course of arthralgia among women initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy and a postmenopausal comparison group in a prospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Liana D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Mayer, Ingrid A.; Saville, Benjamin R.; Alvarez, JoAnn; Boomershine, Chad S.; Abramson, Vandana G.; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Friedman, Debra L.; Cella, David F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than 80,000 postmenopausal breast cancer patients in the US each year are estimated to begin a five-year course of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) to prevent recurrence. AI-related arthralgia (joint pain and/or stiffness) may contribute to nonadherence, but longitudinal data are needed on arthralgia risk factors, trajectories, and background in postmenopause. OBJECTIVES To describe one-year arthralgia trajectories and baseline covariates among AI patients and a postmenopausal comparison group. METHODS Patients initiating AIs (n=91) were surveyed at the time of AI initiation and at six repeated assessments over one year. A comparison group of postmenopausal women without breast cancer (n=177) completed concomitantly-timed surveys. Numeric rating scales (0–10) were used to measure pain in eight joint pair groups (bilateral fingers, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles, and toes). Poisson regression models were used to analyze arthralgia trajectories and risk factors. RESULTS By week six, the AI-initiating group had more severe arthralgia than did the comparison group (ratio of means=1.8, (95% CI 1.2–2.7, p=0.002), adjusting for baseline characteristics. Arthralgia then worsened further over a year in the AI group. Menopausal symptom severity and existing joint-related comorbidity at baseline among women initiating AI were associated with more severe longitudinal arthralgia. CONCLUSIONS Patients initiating AI should be told about the timing of arthralgia over the first year of therapy, and advised that it does not appear to resolve over the course of a year. Menopausal symptoms and joint-related comorbidity at AI initiation can help identify patients at risk for developing AI-related arthralgia. PMID:23575918

  20. An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, Sherryl A. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Calgary Health Region Chronic Pain Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Robinson, John W. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Program in Clinical Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S. [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Keats, Melanie R. [Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

  1. Compensatory Weight Control Behaviors of Women in Emerging Adulthood: Associations between Childhood Abuse Experiences and Adult Relationship Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Jackson, Michelle A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine correlates of compensatory weight control behaviors among women in transition between adolescence and adulthood. Participants: The authors recruited a sample of undergraduate women ("N" = 759) at a large northwestern university during the 2009-2010 academic year. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess…

  2. Effect of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yogurt on Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zatollah Asemi; Shima Jazayeri; Mohammad Najafi; Mansoreh Samimi; Vahid Mofid; Farzad Shidfar; Hossein Shakeri; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Due to the enhanced oxygen requirement of the mitochondria-rich placenta primarily during the third trimester, pregnancy is associated with elevated levels of oxidative stress. This study was designed to determine the effects of daily consumption of probiotic yogurt on oxidative stress among Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This randomized single-blind controlled clinical trial was performed among 70 pregnant women, singleton

  3. Relationship of Body Satisfaction, with Nutrition and Weight Control Behaviors in Women

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi-Darani, Firoozeh; Daniali, Seyede-Shahrbanoo; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Considering the importance and prevalence of obesity and the desire to lose weight, especially among women, this study intended to investigate the relationship between Body Mass Index, body satisfaction, and weight control behavior among women employees in Isfahan. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 408 women who were selected by stratified random sampling method among employees at Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2012. The data collection tool was a multidimensional questionnaire which comprised two sections: Demographic Tool and Body Satisfaction Tool (7 items), Weight Control Behavior Scale (18 items). Results: Age, marital status, educational level, and multiparity were significantly correlated with body size satisfaction. Seventy-five participants were dissatisfied with their weight and 60.5% reported a desire to lose weight; 92.15% of women studied had participated in a healthy dieting behavior and 10.8% of them had participated in an unhealthy one during the past six months. There was an inverse correlation between body satisfaction and Body Mass Index (BMI) (r = –0.64, P = 0.001). Ninety percent of participants had at least one of the dieting behaviors. There was an inverse significant relationship between body satisfaction and dieting behaviors (r = –0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Due to the importance of the prevention of obesity and the necessity of having a normal BMI in order to prevent subsequent complications, precise self-evaluation of body size can be used to focus on designing and conducting public health programs, especially for women. PMID:23671780

  4. The Sex Panic: Women, Censorship and "Pornography." A Conference of the Working Group on Women, Censorship, and "Pornography" (New York, New York, May 7-8, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition Against Censorship, New York, NY.

    In May 1993, representatives of anti-censorship feminists convened at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York to overturn the myths that censorship is good for women, that women want censorship, and that those who support censorship speak for women. Participants at the convention discussed four major themes: the current panic over…

  5. Fast controlled unitary protocols using group or quasigroup structures

    E-print Network

    Li Yu

    2013-03-12

    A nonlocal bipartite unitary gate can sometimes be implemented using prior entanglement and only one round of classical communication in which the two parties send messages to each other simultaneously. This cuts the classical communication time by a half compared to the usual protocols, which require back-and-forth classical communication. We introduce such a "fast" protocol that can implement a class of controlled unitaries exactly, where the controlled operators form a subset of a projective representation of a finite group, which may be Abelian or non-Abelian. The entanglement cost is only related to the size of the group and is independent of the dimension of the systems. We also introduce a second fast protocol that can implement any given controlled unitary approximately. This protocol uses the algebraic structure of right quasigroups, which are generalizations of quasigroups, the latter being equivalent to Latin squares. This second protocol could optionally use shared classical randomness as a resource, in addition to using entanglement. When compared with other known fast unitary protocols, the entanglement cost of this second protocol is lower for general controlled unitaries except for some rare cases.

  6. General influenza infection control policies and practices during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: A survey of women’s health, obstetric, and neonatal nurses

    PubMed Central

    Ruch-Ross, Holly S.; Zapata, Lauren B.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Ruhl, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background An evaluation of infection control practices was conducted following the release of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidance regarding the care of pregnant women during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. This paper describes 9 general hospital practices. Methods A questionnaire was distributed electronically to 12,612 members of the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN). Respondents (N = 2,304) who reported working in obstetric or neonatal settings during the pandemic completed the questionnaire. Results Most (73%) respondents considered the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s guidance very useful. Significantly more reported a written hospital policy for each practice during versus before the pandemic. Six of the 9 practices were implemented most of the time by at least 70% of respondents; the practices least often implemented were mandatory vaccination of health care personnel involved (52%) and not involved (34%) in direct patient care and offering vaccination to close contacts of newborns prior to discharge (22%). The most consistent factor associated with implementation was the presence of a written policy supporting the practice at the respondent’s hospital. Conclusion We offer a descriptive account of general hospital infection control policies and practices during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Factors associated with reported implementation may be useful to inform planning to protect women and children for future public health emergencies. PMID:24837128

  7. Media Images and Ideal Body Shapes: A Perspective on Women with Emphasis on Anorexics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda Lazier

    A study was conducted to determine whether the images of "standard" or "acceptable" thinness that women suffering from eating disorders strive to achieve come primarily from advertising. A questionnaire was administered to 19 college women in counseling for anorexia, a control group of 29 college women, and to 30 high school women. The…

  8. Increased Ability of LDL from Normolipidemic Type 2 Diabetic Women to Generate Peroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Guerci; Helena Antebi; Laurent Meyer; Vincent Durlach; Olivier Ziegler; Jean-Pierre Nicolas; Louis-Gerald Alcindor; Pierre Drouin

    1999-01-01

    Background: We assessed the ability of LDL from 30 type 1 diabetic patients (18 men, 12 women), 65 type 2 diabetic patients (35 men, 30 women), and 35 controls (19 men, 16 women) to generate peroxides. The men and women in the diabetic groups were studied separately and matched for age, body mass index, duration of diabetes, glycohemoglobin, and conventional

  9. The effect of combination treatment using palonosetron and dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting versus dexamethasone alone in women receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, Seung-hwa; Yoo, Jae Hwa; Kim, Mun Gyu; Lee, Ki Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of palonosetron combined with dexamethasone for the prevention of PONV compared to dexamethasone alone in women who received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) using fentanyl. Methods In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, 204 healthy female patients who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anesthesia followed by IV-PCA for postoperative pain control were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups: the PD group (palonosetron 0.075 mg and dexamethasone 5 mg IV; n = 102) and the D group (dexamethasone 5 mg IV; n = 102). The treatments were given after the induction of anesthesia. The incidence of nausea, vomiting, severity of nausea, and the use of rescue anti-emetics during the first 48 hours after surgery were evaluated. Results The incidence of PONV was significantly lower in the PD group compared with the D group during the 0-24 hours (43 vs. 59%) and 0-48 hours after surgery (45 vs. 63%) (P < 0.05). The severity of nausea during the 6-24 hours after surgery was significantly less in the PD group compared with the D group (P < 0.05). The incidence of rescue antiemetic used was significantly lower in the PD group than in the D group during the 0-6 hours after surgery (13.1 vs. 24.5%) (P < 0.05). Conclusions Palonosetron combined with dexamethasone was more effective in preventing PONV compared to dexamethasone alone in women receiving IV-PCA using fentanyl.

  10. Mindfulness based stress reduction study design of a longitudinal randomized controlled complementary intervention in women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The stress of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatment can produce a variety of psychosocial sequelae including impaired immune responses. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a structured complementary program that incorporates meditation, yoga and mind-body exercises. Despite promising empirical evidence for the efficacy of MBSR, there is a need for randomized controlled trials (RCT). There is also a need for RCTs investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions on mood disorder and immune response in women with breast cancer. Therefore, the overall aim is to determine the efficacy of a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on well-being and immune response in women with breast cancer. Methods and design In this RCT, patients diagnosed with breast cancer, will consecutively be recruited to participate. Participants will be randomized into one of three groups: MBSR Intervention I (weekly group sessions?+?self-instructing program), MBSR Intervention II (self-instructing program), and Controls (non-MBSR). Data will be collected before start of intervention, and 3, 6, and 12 months and thereafter yearly up to 5 years. This study may contribute to evidence-based knowledge concerning the efficacy of MBSR to support patient empowerment to regain health in breast cancer disease. Discussion The present study may contribute to evidence-based knowledge concerning the efficacy of mindfulness training to support patient empowerment to regain health in a breast cancer disease. If MBSR is effective for symptom relief and quality of life, the method will have significant clinical relevance that may generate standard of care for patients with breast cancer. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01591915 PMID:24088535

  11. Yoga decreases kyphosis in senior women and men with adult onset hyperkyphosis: results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Greendale, Gail A.; Huang, Mei-Hua; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Seeger, Leanne; Crawford, Sybil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether a specifically designed Yoga intervention can reduce hyperkyphosis. Design A 6-month, 2 group, randomized, controlled, single masked trial. Setting Community research unit. Participants 118 women and men aged >60 years with kyphosis angle >40 degrees. Major exclusions were: serious medical comorbidity; use of assistive device; unable to hear or see adequately for participation; or unable to pass a physical safety screen. Intervention The active treatment group attended hour-long Yoga classes, 3 days per week, for 24 weeks. The control group attended a monthly luncheon/seminar and received mailings. Measurements Primary outcomes were change (baseline to 6 months) in Debrunner kyphometer-assessed kyphosis angle, standing height, timed chair stands, functional reach and walking speed. Secondary outcomes were change in: kyphosis index, flexicurve kyphosis angle, the Rancho Bernardo Blocks posture assessment and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Results Compared to control participants, those randomized to Yoga experienced a 4.4% improvement in flexicurve kyphosis angle (p=0.006) and a 5% improvement in kyphosis index (p=0.004). The intervention did not result in statistically significant improvement in Debrunner kyphometer angle, measured physical performance or in self-assessed HRQOL (each p>0.1). Conclusion The decrease in flexicurve kyphosis angle in the Yoga treatment group shows that hyperkyphosis is remediable, a critical first step in the pathway to treating or preventing this condition. Larger, more definitive studies of Yoga or other interventions for hyperkyphosis should be considered. Targeting individuals with more malleable spines and using longitudinally precise measures of kyphosis could strengthen the treatment effect. PMID:19682114

  12. Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among Pregnant Women Resident in Urban Slums, Southern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dako-Gyeke, Mavis; Kofie, Humphrey M

    2015-03-01

    Throughout Africa and particularly in Ghana, there are concerns about malaria infection during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant women residing in Chorkor and Korle-Gonno in Accra, Ghana. One hundred and twenty pregnant women between ages 18-49 were randomly recruited during antenatal sessions at a maternity facility in Accra, as participants for the study. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which were analysed using SPSS version16.0. It was found that in Chorkor and Korle-Gonno, 57.4% and 42.6% participants respectively reported having been infected with malaria during their current pregnancy. There was no significant relationship between religious beliefs of participants and their malaria prevention and control practices (X2 = 0.28, P = .53). However, there was a significant relationship between malaria prevention and control practices of participants and their income earning (X2 = 53.94, P = .00) and employment (X2 = 61.76, P = .00) statuses. With the exception of ethnicity (X2 = 35.62, P =.22), other socio-cultural conditions had a significant relationship with malaria prevention and control practices of the participants. The findings suggest the need to consider and integrate factors, such as poverty and poor living conditions in malaria prevention and control strategies. PMID:26103694

  13. Economic crisis helps to "demarginalize" women.

    PubMed

    Forje, C L

    1998-05-01

    This article discusses processes that demarginalize women in developing countries. The case study pertained to women in the Santa coffee growing area of North West Province, Cameroon. Coffee is the main source of income for families. Women obtain land for growing subsistence crops with the permission of their husbands and with pleading. The sharp fall in coffee prices left families in economic difficulties. It forced families to reduce coffee production or abandon coffee production entirely. Women found an alternative in growing vegetables for retail sale. The women formed associations that provided instruction on how to farm, sell produce, and obtain credit. Men observed the increase in income from the women's sale of produce. Women included the men in discussions about their progress and difficulties. Men were thus encouraged to sell their land to women. Women gained power by becoming the sole source of family income. The women's groups helped women improve land use and the use of income. This experience proved that crises can have positive outcomes. Men's power was based on economic control over resources rather than culture or machismo. Women's cooperation with men in nation building resulted in economic independence. Marginalization of women was based on money. Women proved that participation, rather than power, was the appropriate means to social change and more equitable relations. The obstacles to women's power included cultural expectations about their roles and choices, sex discrimination, and lack of access to leadership networks. PMID:12293703

  14. A cluster randomised controlled trial of a brief couple-focused psychoeducational intervention to prevent common postnatal mental disorders among women: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Heather; Wynter, Karen; Lorgelly, Paula; Amir, Lisa H; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Proimos, Jenny; Cann, Warren; Hiscock, Harriet; Bayer, Jordana; Burns, Joanna; Ride, Jemimah; Bobevski, Irene; Fisher, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postnatal common mental disorders among women are an important public health problem internationally. Interventions to prevent postnatal depression have had limited success. What Were We Thinking (WWWT) is a structured, gender-informed, psychoeducational group programme for parents and their first infant that addresses two modifiable risks to postnatal mental health. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial to test the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of WWWT when implemented in usual primary care. Methods and analysis 48 maternal and child health (MCH) centres from six diverse Local Government Areas, in Victoria, Australia are randomly allocated to the intervention group (usual care plus WWWT) or the control group (usual care). The required sample size is 184 women in each group. English-speaking primiparous women receiving postpartum healthcare in participating MCH centres complete two computer-assisted telephone interviews: baseline at 4?weeks and outcome at 6?months postpartum. Women attending intervention MCH centres are invited to attend WWWT in addition to usual care. The primary outcome is meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for major depressive episode; generalised anxiety disorder; panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia with or without panic, social phobia, adult separation anxiety or adjustment disorder with depressed mood, anxiety or mixed depressed mood and anxiety within the past 30?days at 6?months postpartum. Secondary outcomes are self-rated general and emotional health, infant sleep problems, method of infant feeding, quality of mother–infant relationship and intimate partner relationship, and healthcare costs and outcomes. Ethics and dissemination Approval to conduct the study has been granted. A comprehensive dissemination plan has been devised. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000506796. UTN U1111-1125-8208. PMID:25248497

  15. Emotions for sale: cigarette advertising and women's psychosocial needs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stacey J Anderson; P M Ling

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore messages of psychosocial needs satisfaction in cigarette advertising targeting women and implications for tobacco control policy. Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents and public advertising collections. Results: Tobacco industry market research attempted to identify the psychosocial needs of different groups of women, and cigarette advertising campaigns for brands that women smoke explicitly aimed to position cigarettes

  16. Birth outcomes in the offspring of mentally disordered women.

    PubMed

    Zax, M; Sameroff, A J; Babigian, H M

    1977-04-01

    The course of pregnancy and birth were studied among schizophrenic, neurotic depressive, and personality-disordered women, compared to a normal control group. The lighter birthweight of schizophrenic women's offspring was found more strongly related to the severity and chronicity of their mental illness than to the diagnosis itself. Children of neurotic depressive women had lower APGAR scores and more fetal deaths. PMID:857679

  17. Attitudes Toward Physical Activity of Champion Women Basketball Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.

    This study was undertaken to determine which attitudes were central to the motivation of women involved in championship basketball competition. Seventy-five women members of teams represented in national basketball championships served as subjects for this experiment. In addition, a control group of 212 women was randomly selected from physical…

  18. Cognitive Ability and Everyday Functioning in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Jennifer; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of 23 Turner syndrome (TUS) women with 23 women with constitutional short stature (CSS) found significant group differences for Performance and Full Scale IQ, largely due to TUS women's deficits in spatial and mathematical ability. TUS individuals had significantly lower educational and occupational attainment than CSS controls but did…

  19. Pathological gamblers and a non-psychiatric control group taking gender differences into account.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify personality traits, emotional states and adjustment variables in a sample of pathological gamblers as compared to a non-gambling control group taking gender differences into account. The sample for this study consisted of 206 subjects (103 pathological gamblers and 103 non-psychiatric subjects from the general population matched for age and gender). Pathological gamblers had a lower educational level and a family history of alcohol abuse higher than non-gamblers. In turn, female gamblers were affected by unemployment and a lower socioeconomic status more often than female non-gamblers. Pathological gamblers were more anxious and impulsive and suffered from a poorer self-esteem than non-gamblers. Likewise, pathological gamblers had a greater history of other Axis I psychiatric disorders and were more often affected by anxiety and depression symptoms and showed a more problematic adjustment to everyday life than non-gamblers. Alcohol abuse was not higher in pathological gamblers than in non-gamblers, but, when gender was taken into account, male gamblers were more affected by alcohol abuse than male non-gamblers. Importantly 68.6% of female gamblers versus 9.8% of control group women reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These findings can be used to specifically inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23866213

  20. The Relationship Between Attachment Scales and Group Therapy Alliance Growth Differs by Treatment Type for Women With Binge-Eating Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio A. Tasca; Louise Balfour; Kerri Ritchie; Hany Bissada

    2007-01-01

    The impact of the treatment context in influencing the relationship between attachment anxiety\\/avoidance and group therapy alliance growth was examined. Sixty-five women treatment completers with binge-eating disorder received 16 sessions of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) or group psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy (GPIP). Attachment scales were completed before treatment, and a group therapy alliance measure was completed after each therapy session.

  1. Evaluating Competence of Women and Men: Effects of Experimenter Gender and Group Gender Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etaugh, Claire; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Placed college students (N=157) in all-female, all-male, or mixed-gender groups. With experimenter present, subjects evaluated article written by job applicant. Mixed-gender group members generally evaluated female applicant more favorably in presence of female rather than male experimenter, and rated female applicant more favorably than male…

  2. Control group response variability in short-term toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.C.; Shimp, C. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Wang, Q.; Shukla, R. [UC Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health; Fulk, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The US EPA`s National Reference Toxicant Database (NRTDB) has afforded an excellent opportunity to examine and document variability in responses within control groups (i.e. zero concentration of the toxicant.) The NRTDB has compiled acute and chronic reference toxicant test results for eight species and currently contains results for 32 laboratories and generally eight to ten tests for a species within each laboratory. The Ceriodaphnia dubia Survival and Reproduction test and the Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Survival and Growth test are the most frequently represented chronic tests with 331 and 144 sets of test data, respectively. For this presentation, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction data, expressed as total numbers of young in the test period, and fathead minnow survival and growth data were analyzed using a variance components model. The information regarding the control population is useful in examining the sources of inter and intralaboratory variability of chronic testing. In addition, this control population response variability information will be valuable for characterizing what can be termed as ``practically equivalent responses`` between a control and an effluent. The preliminary analysis indicates considerable between-test variability; however, this variability is not consistent across laboratories. Results of further exploration on this issue will be presented.

  3. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure and Glucose Control in Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kumareswaran, Kavita; Elleri, Daniela; Allen, Janet M.; Caldwell, Karen; Westgate, Kate; Brage, Soren; Raymond-Barker, Philippa; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Amiel, Stephanie A.; Hovorka, Roman; Murphy, Helen R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe activity patterns in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and evaluate the impact of increased structured physical activity on glucose control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and glucose levels (continuous glucose monitoring) were measured in 10 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (age 33.2 years, gestation 20 weeks, BMI 27.9 kg/m2, diabetes duration 16.6 years, HbA1c 6.5% [48 mmol/mol], insulin pump duration 2.4 years) during a day at home (free-living) and during a 24-h visit incorporating controlled diet and structured physical activity with light intensity activity (three 20-min self-paced walks) and moderate intensity activity (two 50-min sessions of brisk treadmill walking). PAEE was evaluated through individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. RESULTS Free-living PAEE was comparable to that under controlled study conditions (3.8 and 5.1 kcal/kg/day, P = 0.241), with women achieving near to the recommended 30 min of moderate physical activity (median 27 min [interquartile range 14–68]). During the free-living period, more time was spent in light activity (10.3 vs. 7.2 h, P = 0.005), with less sedentary time (13.0 vs. 14.9 h, P = 0.047) and less moderate activity (27 vs. 121 min, P = 0.022). The free-living 24-h mean glucose levels by continuous glucose monitoring were significantly higher (7.7 vs. 6.0 mmol/L, P = 0.028). The effect of controlled diet and exercise persisted overnight, with significantly less time spent hyperglycemic (19 vs. 0%, P = 0.028) and less glucose variability (glucose SD 1.3 vs. 0.7 mmol/L, P = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS A controlled diet and structured physical activity program may assist women with type 1 diabetes in achieving optimal glucose control during pregnancy. PMID:23404301

  4. High-Fiber Orange Juice as a Nutrition Supplement in Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Tolerance and Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Bergamasco, Christiane; Horie, Lilian Mika; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2014-06-18

    Background: The daily consumption of dietary fiber is frequently below suggested recommendations. Using a double-blind, controlled, randomized study, we assessed the efficiency and tolerance of a fiber-enriched orange juice to supplement fiber intake in women. Materials and Methods: After 1 week of noninterventional observation, 192 healthy adult women ingested 400 mL of orange juice for 21 days, which either was not (placebo group) or was enriched with fiber (fiber group). Orange juice ingestion was registered daily and controlled for each week during the study period. Macronutrient, fiber, and energy intake were determined using a 3-day food record, validated food chemical composition databases, and the "Pro Diet" software. Gastrointestinal symptoms were self-evaluated daily by scoring 4 grades of symptom intensity and using a visual analog scale to grade pain severity. Results: No changes were observed for macronutrient and energy ingestion. For the placebo group (n = 97), the total fiber intake record was under the daily recommended value. In contrast, the fiber group (n = 95) displayed higher comparative values of total and soluble fiber consumption (P ? .001), achieving the daily recommended values of fiber intake. Both groups reported an increased frequency of slight bloating and rumbles over time (P ? .05). The fiber group also experienced a higher frequency of slight flatulence over time (P = .002). Conclusion: Consumption of fiber-enriched orange juice was efficient to achieve the daily fiber intake recommendation for women, was not accompanied by intense adverse events, and may represent a suitable method to supplement fiber intake in woman. PMID:24941951

  5. Efficacy of high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in vitamin D deficient pregnant women with multiple sclerosis: Preliminary findings of a randomized-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Etemadifar, Masoud; Janghorbani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this preliminary study was to assess the safety and efficacy of high-dose oral vitamin D3 supplementation during pregnancy in women with multiple sclerosis (MS) in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In a single center open-label randomized, controlled clinical Phase I/II pilot study, 15 pregnant women with confirmed MS with low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were randomly allocated to receive either 50,000 IU/week vitamin D3 or routine care from 12 to 16 weeks of gestation till delivery. The main outcome measures were mean change in serum 25(OH)D levels, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score, and number of relapse events during pregnancy and within 6 months after delivery. Results: Average serum 25(OH)D level at the end of trial in vitamin D3 supplemented group was higher than routine care group (33.7 ng/mL vs. 14.6 ng/ml, P < 0.050). In vitamin D3 group, the mean EDSS did not changed 6 months after delivery (P > 0.050), whereas in routine care group, the mean EDSS increased from 1.3 (0.4) to 1.7 (0.6) (P < 0.070). Women in vitamin D3 group appeared to have fewer relapse events during pregnancy and within 6 months after delivery. No significant adverse events occurred. Conclusion: Adding high dose vitamin D3 supplementation during pregnancy to routine care of women with MS had significant effect on the serum 25(OH)D levels, EDSS and number of relapse events during pregnancy and within 6 months after delivery.

  6. Outcome of the vaginal infections and prematurity study: Results of a clinical trial of erythromycin among pregnant women colonized with group B streptococci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Klebanoff; Joan A. Regan; A. Vijaya Rao; Robert P. Nugent; William C. Blackwelder; David A. Eschenbach; Joseph G. Pastorek; Sterling Williams; Ronald S. Gibbs; J. Chris Carey

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether erythromycin treatment of pregnant women colonized with group B streptococci would reduce the occurrence of low birth weight (<2500 gm) and preterm (<37 completed weeks) birth.STUDY DESIGN: In a double-blind clinical trial, 938 carriers of group B streptococci were randomized to receive erythromycin base (333 mg three times a day) or matching placebo

  7. The effect of the Malaysian Food Guideline guidance on a group of overweight and obese women during Ramadan

    PubMed Central

    Suriani, Ismail; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Latif, Khalib Abdul; Saad, Hazizi A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of imparting knowledge of the Malaysian Food Guideline (MFG) on a group of overweight and obese women during Ramadan. Methods: This intervention study was conducted during the months of Ramadan 2011. A group of 84 Malay Muslim women with a body mass index (BMI) ?25 kg/m2 were recruited. Prior to Ramadan, the respondents were educated regarding MFG, and how to monitor and record their daily food intake in a food diary. Their quantity of food intake, BMI, blood pressure (BP), blood lipid profile, and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were measured before Ramadan as a baseline. Their quantity of food intake was then measured again in the third week, whereas their BMI, BP, blood lipid profile, and FBS were determined on the fourth week of Ramadan. Results: At baseline, compared with the MFG recommendations, the intake of protein (107.5%), and milk and dairy products (133%) was higher, whereas the intake of carbohydrates (78.5%), and vegetables and fruits (44.4%) was lower. During Ramadan, carbohydrate intake, BMI, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL)-C (all p=0.000), triglyceride (p=0.005), and FBS (p=0.002) were reduced, but the TC/HDL-C ratio was increased (p=0.000). Conclusion: A month-long Ramadan fast guided by the knowledge of MFG resulted in certain positive changes in this group of respondents. These changes can be a good start for health improvement, provided that they are followed-up after Ramadan. PMID:25630003

  8. Randomized, placebo-controlled, calcium supplementation trial in pregnant Gambian women accustomed to a low calcium intake: effects on maternal blood pressure and infant growth1234

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Gail R; Jarjou, Landing MA; Cole, Tim J; Prentice, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary calcium intake in rural Gambian women is very low (?350 mg/d) compared with international recommendations. Studies have suggested that calcium supplementation of women receiving low-calcium diets significantly reduces risk of pregnancy hypertension. Objective: We tested the effects on blood pressure (BP) of calcium carbonate supplementation (1500 mg Ca/d) in pregnant, rural Gambian women. Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled supplementation trial from 20 wk of gestation (P20) until delivery (calcium: n = 330; placebo; n = 332). BP and anthropometric measures were taken at P20 and then 4 weekly until 36 wk of gestation (P36), and infant anthropometric measures were taken at 2, 13, and 52 wk postdelivery. Results: A total of 525 (calcium: n = 260; placebo: n = 265) women had BP measured at P36 and subsequently delivered a healthy term singleton infant. Mean compliance was 97%, and urinary calcium measures confirmed the group allocation. At P20, the mean (±SD) systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 101.2 ± 9.0 and 102.1 ± 9.3 mm Hg, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 54.5 ± 7.3 and 55.8 ± 7.8 mm Hg, in the calcium and placebo groups, respectively. The intention-to-treat analysis that was adjusted for confounders showed no significant effect of calcium supplementation on the change between P20 and P36 (calcium compared with placebo; mean ± SEM) in SBP (?0.64 ± 0.65%; P = 0.3) or DBP (?0.22 ± 1.15%; P = 0.8). There was no significant effect of supplementation on BP, pregnancy weight gain, weight postpartum, or infant weight, length, and other measures of growth. However, the comparability of the original randomly assigned groups may have been compromised by the exclusion of 20.7% of women from the final analysis. Conclusions: Calcium supplementation did not affect BP in pregnancy. This result may have been because the Gambian women were adapted to a low dietary calcium intake, and/or obesity, high gestational weight gain, high underlying BP, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and sedentary lifestyles were rare. This trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Register (www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/) as ISRCTN96502494. PMID:24004887

  9. Frequency of rh phenotypes in relation to the outcome of pregnancy in the two groups of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Redzi?, Amira; Begi?, Fatima

    2002-12-01

    Lethal and sublethal genetical factors, including Rh factor, represent endogenous risk factors of the pregnancy outcome. These factors are most frequently inherited in recessive way and they often lead to the negative outcome of pregnancies. They represent pregnancy (a prirori) risk of various degrees. Inheritance of Rh system blood groups is linked to chromosome 1 and it could be explained by two alternative theories; molecular Rh system genetics has not yet been completely explained. The first formal-genetic theory postulates three closely linked gene sites (loci C, D and E) while the second theory has a monogenic character (one locus with several allele genes). Data on 755 pregnancies, which were (for various reasons) estimated as increased risk pregnancies, were registered at Gynaecology Clinic, Clinical Centre of University of Sarajevo, during the period from 1989 to 1992. These data were collected from pregnant women who, according to the certain indications from their familiar and personal anamnesis, demanded genetic consultations. The result of investigation of the basic Rh system phenotype distribution shows no statistically significant difference between monitored pregnant women. This result is assumed as valid for both pregnant women and their partners. The same result is suggesting that the observed increased risk pregnancy samples do not significantly differ from the previously studied population samples. Therefore, it has been concluded that Rh factor is not closely related to the increased risk of individual pregnancy outcomes, that is, it does not have relevant influence on the observed reproduction parameters. This result is very interesting and deserves particular medical attention and further evaluation in the future, particularly considering known immunological phenomena resulting from relations between reproduction partners belonging to the basic Rh system phenotypes. PMID:16212567

  10. Haemoglobin status of adult women of two ethnic groups living in a peri-urban area of Kolkata city, India: a micro-level study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda

    2003-01-01

    A micro level study on the haemoglobin status of 127 Munda (a tribe) and 174 Poundrakshatriya (Pod) (caste) women were conducted in the peri-urban area of Kolkata City, India. The two ethnic groups were selected in order to find out whether populations residing in the same habitat, with similar medical and health care facilities have similar haemoglobin status. Results indicate that there exists very high percentage of anaemia in both the ethnic groups and 100 percent anaemia was observed among the Munda. Mean haemoglobin level was higher among the women of both the ethnic groups, consuming calorie, protein, iron and folic acid, above the recommended value (Indian Council of Medical Research, 2000). Women below the age of 30 years were found to be more anaemic. Education (P <0.001), height (P <0.001) and weight (P<0.005) were significantly associated with the haemoglobin status of the Pod women. Haemoglobin level of both ethnic groups was found to increase with increase in Body Mass Index. Low socioeconomic condition, very low literacy rates, poverty and higher live births may have lowered the haemoglobin level of the women of the Munda population. However, women of both the ethnic groups were found to be anaemic in higher percentage than the state of West Bengal and all India (NFHS, 2000). Linear regression analysis indicated that expenditure on food had positive effect on the haemoglobin level (P<0.05) of the Munda adult women, possibly due to better buying capacity. However, negative effect of food expenditure on the haemoglobin level was noticed among the Pod women (P<0.05), which may be due to disparity in food sharing within the households. Thus populations residing with similar medical and health care facilities revealed differences in the haemoglobin level. Differential expenditure pattern and food sharing practice seems to be the major factors responsible for the differences in haemoglobin status among the adult women in this present study. Very low intake of iron and heavy workload may be the reasons for this high percentage of anaemia. Moreover, hookworm infections need to be analyzed, as its prevalence is very high in India and South Asia. One hundred percent anaemia among Munda women is also very alarming. The results suggest that government policies should be intensified further at problem specific areas for the more vulnerable populations and literacy and antenatal care (especially iron supplementation) at various growing periods among the women should be intensified to eradicate anaemia. PMID:14672870

  11. Estradiol for treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a large-scale randomized-controlled trial in women of child-bearing age.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, J; Gavrilidis, E; Wang, W; Worsley, R; Fitzgerald, P B; Gurvich, C; Van Rheenen, T; Berk, M; Burger, H

    2015-06-01

    Many women with schizophrenia remain symptomatic despite optimal use of current therapies. While previous studies suggest that adjunctive oestrogen therapy might be effective, large-scale clinical trials are required before clinical applications are possible. This study is the first large-scale randomized-controlled trial in women with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. This Definitive Oestrogen Patch Trial was an 8-week, three-arm, double-blind, randomized-controlled trial conducted between 2006 and 2011. The 183 female participants were aged between 18 and 45 (mean=35 years), with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and ongoing symptoms of psychosis (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, PANSS score>60) despite a stable dose of antipsychotic medication for at least 4 weeks. Mean duration of illness was more than 10 years. Participants received transdermal estradiol 200??g, transdermal estradiol 100??g or an identical placebo patch. For the 180 women who completed the study, the a priori outcome measure was the change in PANSS score measured at baseline and days 7, 14, 28 and 56. Cognition was assessed at baseline and day 56 using the Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Status. Data were analysed using latent growth curve modelling. Both estradiol groups had greater decreases in PANSS positive, general and total symptoms compared with the placebo group (P<0.01), with a greater effect seen for 200??g than 100??g estradiol. The largest effect size was for the positive subscale of PANSS in the estradiol 200??g treatment group (effect size 0.44, P<0.01). This study shows estradiol is an effective and clinically significant adjunctive therapy for women with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, particularly for positive symptoms. PMID:24732671

  12. Increasing Breast Examinations Among Arab Women Using a Tailored Culture-Based Intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miri Cohen; Faisal Azaiza

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to assess outcomes of a culture-specific intervention devised to reduce barriers to breast cancer screening among Arab women in Israel. Women in intervention (n = 42) and control (n = 24) groups answered breast examination performance and Arab culture–specific barriers and health beliefs questionnaires at pre- and postintervention. Women in the study group received tailored telephone intervention

  13. Reproductive risk factors for cutaneous melanoma in women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lea, C Suzanne; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hartge, Patricia; Lee, Jennifer S; Guerry, Dupont; Elder, David E; Halpern, Allan; Sagebiel, Richard W; Tucker, Margaret A

    2007-03-01

    Reproductive hormonal factors may have a potential role in cutaneous melanoma. This study estimated the risk of melanoma in women related to self-reported changes in nevi during pregnancy, while using oral contraceptives and/or hormone replacement therapy. Trained interviewers administered a questionnaire obtaining information about oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, reproductive history, sun exposure, occupation, and medical history from 318 Caucasian women newly diagnosed between 1991 and 1992 from two pigmented lesion clinics in San Francisco, California, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A total of 395 frequency-matched control participants were recruited from hospital-affiliated outpatient clinics. Clinicians conducted skin examinations to assess the number and type of nevi, extent of freckling, solar damage, and skin type. For women aged less than 55 years, there was an association between a livebirth 5 years before diagnosis (odds ratio = 2.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 5.3) and between number of births and melanoma risk (for > or = 3 births: odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 6.5; ptrend < 0.001). Changes in nevi during recent pregnancies were a risk factor for melanoma, based upon small numbers (odds ratio = 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 8.1). Oral contraceptive use and hormone replacement therapy were not associated with melanoma risk. PMID:17158470

  14. A STUDY OF THE PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A GROUP OF WOMEN WHO HAD PARTICIPATED IN SEWING CLASSES IN AN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM AND A GROUP OF THEIR FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS WHO HAD NOT PARTICIPATED IN ANY ADULT EDUCATION ACTIVITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SITTS, MARVIN RALPH

    IN THIS STUDY OF PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES, THE SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTOR QUESTIONNAIRE AND AN ADULT EDUCATION INTERVIEW SHEET WERE ADMINISTERED TO A GROUP OF WOMEN WHO HAD PARTICIPATED IN SEWING CLASSES OFFERED BY THE MOTT ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM OF THE FLINT, MICHIGAN, BOARD OF EDUCATION, AND TO A GROUP OF THEIR FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS WHO HAD NOT…

  15. Candy or apple? How self-control resources and motives impact dietary healthiness in women.

    PubMed

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Strohbach, Stefanie; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2011-06-01

    People can choose between a virtually endless array of food items rising the question, which factors determine healthy or unhealthy food choice. The present study examines the impact of two contrasting motives for food choice (affect regulation and body weight control) and self-regulatory competences on healthy eating within a sample of women (N=761). The data show that a relative lack of self-regulatory resources combined with a high tendency to regulate negative affect through comfort eating was associated with an unfavorable dietary pattern. Accordingly, a healthy dietary pattern requires not only self-regulatory capacities but also a facilitating motive structure. PMID:21296115

  16. New Tools for Examining Undergraduate Students' STEM Stereotypes: Implications for Women and Other Underrepresented Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Wyer, Mary; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Schneider, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although both domestic U.S. and international statistics on population demographics within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields indicate overall gains and more even representation among various groups, caution must be taken to interpret these gains as suggesting blanket improvement in underrepresentation issues. When…

  17. The effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The latest meta-analysis demonstrated that acupuncture improves pregnancy rates among women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), and surface acupoint stimulation, such as transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS), may have the same or better potential. Methods/Design To explore the effect of TEAS on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and live birth rate (LBR) compared with real acupuncture and controls in women undergoing IVF, a multicenter, randomized controlled trial will be conducted. The inclusion criteria are the following: infertile women <40 years of age undergoing a fresh IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle, and the study will be restricted to women with the potential for a lower success rate as defined by two or more previous unsuccessful ETs (fresh or frozen). Those who have severe illnesses possibly precluding IVF or pregnancy, have FSH levels greater than 20 IU/L, received donor eggs, had been previously randomized for this study or had undergone acupuncture (in any modality) as infertility treatment will be excluded. The subjects will be randomly assigned to the TEAS group (IVF?+?TEAS), the electro-acupuncture (EA) group (IVF?+?EA), or the control group (only IVF). A total sample size of 2,220 women is required to detect differences in CPR among the three groups. TEAS or EA treatments will start once every two or three days from day 3 of menstruation in the ovarian stimulation cycle until the day of ET. The parameters of TEAS or EA will be the following: a frequency of 2/100 Hz, a moderate electrical current of 3 to 5 mA for TEAS and 0.8 to 1.0 mA for EA. The primary outcome is CPR. Secondary outcomes are LBR, the number of oocytes aspirated and the total gonadotropin dose used in the stimulation cycle. Discussion This study will provide significant evidence for using a new method (TEAS) in IVF. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.govID: NCT01608048 (05/24/2012). PMID:24886647

  18. Randomised controlled trial of aspirin and aspirin plus heparin in pregnant women with recurrent miscarriage associated with phospholipid antibodies (or antiphospholipid antibodies)

    PubMed Central

    Rai, R.; Cohen, H.; Dave, M.; Regan, L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether treatment with low dose aspirin and heparin leads to a higher rate of live births than that achieved with low dose aspirin alone in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage associated with phospholipid antibodies (or antiphospholipid antibodies), lupus anticoagulant, and cardiolipin antibodies (or anticardiolipin antibodies). DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Specialist clinic for recurrent miscarriages. SUBJECTS: 90 women (median age 33 (range 22-43)) with a history of recurrent miscarriage (median number 4 (range 3-15)) and persistently positive results for phospholipid antibodies. INTERVENTION: Either low dose aspirin (75 mg daily) or low dose aspirin and 5000 U of unfractionated heparin subcutaneously 12 hourly. All women started treatment with low dose aspirin when they had a positive urine pregnancy test. Women were randomly allocated an intervention when fetal heart activity was seen on ultrasonography. Treatment was stopped at the time of miscarriage or at 34 weeks' gestation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of live births with the two treatments. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the two groups in age or the number and gestation of previous miscarriages. The rate of live births with low dose aspirin and heparin was 71% (32/45 pregnancies) and 42% (19/45 pregnancies) with low dose aspirin alone (odds ratio 3.37 (95% confidence interval 1.40 to 8.10)). More than 90% of miscarriages occurred in the first trimester. There was no difference in outcome between the two treatments in pregnancies that advanced beyond 13 weeks' gestation. Twelve of the 51 successful pregnancies (24%) were delivered before 37 weeks' gestation. Women randomly allocated aspirin and heparin had a median decrease in lumbar spine bone density of 5.4% (range -8.6% to 1.7%). CONCLUSION: Treatment with aspirin and heparin leads to a significantly higher rate of live births in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage associated with phospholipid antibodies than that achieved with aspirin alone. PMID:9022487

  19. Simultaneous Measurement of Thirteen Steroid Hormones in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Control Women Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ke; Clarke, Nigel; Welt, Corrine K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The measurement of adrenal and ovarian androgens in women with PCOS has been difficult based on poor specificity and sensitivity of assays in the female range. Methods Women with PCOS (NIH criteria; n?=?52) and control subjects with 25–35 day menstrual cycles, no evidence of hyperandrogenism and matched for BMI (n?=?42) underwent morning blood sampling. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to simultaneously measure 13 steroids from a single blood sample to measure adrenal and ovarian steroids. Androgen and progesterone results were compared in the same samples using RIA. Results Testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and 17OH progesterone levels were higher when measured using RIA compared to LC-MS/MS, although the testosterone RIA demonstrated the best agreement with the LC-MS/MS using a Bland-Altman analysis. Results using LC-MS/MS demonstrated that the concentration of androgens and their precursors were higher in women with PCOS than controls [median (2.5, 97.5th %ile); 1607 (638, 3085) vs. 1143 (511, 4784) ng/dL; p?=?0.03]. Women with PCOS had higher testosterone [49 (16, 125) vs. 24 (10, 59) ng/dL], androstenedione [203 (98, 476) vs. 106 (69, 223) ng/dL] and 17OH progesterone levels [80 (17, 176) vs. 44 (17, 142) ng/dL] compared to controls (all P<0.02), but no differences in serum concentrations of the adrenal steroids DHEAS, cortisol, corticosterone and their 11 deoxy precursors. Women with PCOS also had an increase in the product:precursor ratio for 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [22% (6, 92) vs. 20% (4, 43); p?=?0.009]. Conclusion LC-MS/MS was superior to RIA in measuring androstenedione, progesterone and 17OH progesterone levels, while testosterone measurements were better matched in the two assays. Androgen levels were higher in women with PCOS in the absence of a difference in adrenal-predominant steroids. These data support previous findings that the ovary is an important source for the androgen excess in women with PCOS. PMID:24713888

  20. Malaria control under the Taliban regime: insecticide-treated net purchasing, coverage, and usage among men and women in eastern Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Scaling up insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) coverage is a key malaria control strategy even in conflict-affected countries [1,2]. Socio-economic factors influence access to ITNs whether subsidized or provided free to users. This study examines reported ITN purchasing, coverage, and usage in eastern Afghanistan and explores women's access to health information during the Taliban regime (1996-2001). This strengthens the knowledge base on household-level health choices in complex-emergency settings. Methods Fifteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with men and women from ITN-owning and non-owning households. FGDs included rank ordering, pile sorting and focused discussion of malaria knowledge and ITN purchasing. Interviews explored general health issues, prevention and treatment practices, and women's malaria knowledge and concerns. Seven key informant interviews with health-related workers and a concurrent survey of 200 ITN-owning and 214 non-owning households were used to clarify or quantify findings. Results Malaria knowledge was similar among men and women and ITN owners and non-owners. Women reported obtaining health information through a variety of sources including clinic staff, their husbands who had easier access to information, and particularly female peers. Most participants considered ITNs very desirable, though not usually household necessities. ITN owners reported more household assets than non-owners. Male ITN owners and non-owners ranked rugs and ITNs as most desired, while women ranked personal assets such as jewellery highest. While men were primarily responsible for household decision-making and purchasing, older women exerted considerable influence. Widow-led and landless households reported most difficulties purchasing ITNs. Most participants wanted to buy ITNs only if they could cover all household members. When not possible, preferential usage was given to women and children. Conclusions Despite restricted access to health facilities and formal education, Afghan women were surprisingly knowledgeable about the causes of malaria and the value of ITNs in prevention. Inequities in ITN usage were noted between rather than within households, with some unable to afford even one ITN and others not wanting ITNs unless all household members could be protected. Malaria knowledge thus appears a lesser barrier to ITN purchasing and coverage in eastern Afghanistan than are pricing and distribution strategies. PMID:20053281

  1. Calcium Plus Vitamin D Supplementation and the Risk of Nonmelanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer: Post Hoc Analyses of the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jean Y.; Fu, Teresa; LeBlanc, Erin; Manson, JoAnn E.; Feldman, David; Linos, Eleni; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Zeitouni, Nathalie C.; Larson, Joseph; Stefanick, Marcia L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In light of inverse relationships reported in observational studies of vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma, we evaluated the effects of vitamin D combined with calcium supplementation on skin cancer in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Methods Postmenopausal women age 50 to 79 years (N = 36,282) enrolled onto the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) calcium/vitamin D clinical trial were randomly assigned to receive 1,000 mg of elemental calcium plus 400 IU of vitamin D3 (CaD) daily or placebo for a mean follow-up period of 7.0 years. NMSC and melanoma skin cancers were ascertained by annual self-report; melanoma skin cancers underwent physician adjudication. Results Neither incident NMSC nor melanoma rates differed between treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.07) and placebo groups (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.16). In subgroup analyses, women with history of NMSC assigned to CaD had a reduced risk of melanoma versus those receiving placebo (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.90; Pinteraction = .038), which was not observed in women without history of NMSC. Conclusion Vitamin D supplementation at a relatively low dose plus calcium did not reduce the overall incidence of NMSC or melanoma. However, in women with history of NMSC, CaD supplementation reduced melanoma risk, suggesting a potential role for calcium and vitamin D supplements in this high-risk group. Results from this post hoc subgroup analysis should be interpreted with caution but warrant additional investigation. PMID:21709199

  2. C-Reactive protein levels among women of various ethnic groups living in the United States (from the Women's Health Study)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle A Albert; Robert J Glynn; Julie Buring; Paul M Ridker

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels was compared among 24,455 white, 475 black, 357 Asian, and 254 Hispanic women, all of whom are participants in the Women's Health Study. Median CRP levels were significantly higher among black women (2.96 mg\\/L, interquartile range [IQR] 1.19 to 5.86) than among their white (2.02 mg\\/L, IQR 0.81 to 4.37), Hispanic (2.06 mg\\/L,

  3. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial related to the effects of melatonin on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters of obese women.

    PubMed

    Mesri Alamdari, N; Mahdavi, R; Roshanravan, N; Lotfi Yaghin, N; Ostadrahimi, A R; Faramarzi, E

    2015-06-01

    Obesity, the global epidemic health problem, results in chronic disorders. Melatonin supplementation may prevent the adverse health consequences of obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of melatonin supplementation on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in obese women. In randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 44 obese women were randomly assigned to melatonin (n=22) and placebo (n=22) groups. Subjects were supplemented with a daily dose of 6?mg melatonin or placebo with low calorie diet for 40 days. Serum TNF-?, IL-6, hsCRP, TAC, and MDA levels were assessed before and after intervention. In the melatonin group, mean serum TNF-?, IL-6, hsCRP, and MDA levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) from 3.52±0.72?pg/ml, 27.12±6.32?pg/ml, 2.54±0.49?mg/l, and 3.81±0.29?nmol/l to 1.73±0.07, 16.34±6.32, 1.67±0.27, and 2.79±0.29, respectively. Whilst in the placebo group the decrease in values were not statistically significant. Mean TAC level increased slightly (from 1.11±0.30 to 1.14±0.45?mmol/l) in the melatonin group whereas it decreased slightly (from 1.13±0.15 to 1.08±0.21?nmol/l) in the placebo group. Significant differences were observed only for TNF-? (p=0.02) and IL-6 (p=0.03) between the 2 study groups. Considering the improvements in inflammatory and oxidative stress factors in obese women, it seems that melatonin supplementation may provide beneficial effects in obesity treatment by ameliorating some of its complications. However, further studies are needed to make concise conclusions. PMID:25126957

  4. Exercise and Bone Mineral Density in Premenopausal Women: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, George A.; Kelley, Kristi S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Examine the effects of exercise on femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal women. Methods. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled exercise trials ?24 weeks in premenopausal women. Standardized effect sizes (g) were calculated for each result and pooled using random-effects models, Z score alpha values, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and number needed to treat (NNT). Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2. Moderator and predictor analyses using mixed-effects ANOVA and simple metaregression were conducted. Statistical significance was set at P ? 0.05. Results. Statistically significant improvements were found for both FN (7g's, 466 participants, g = 0.342, 95%??CI = 0.132, 0.553, P = 0.001, Q = 10.8, P = 0.22, I2 = 25.7%, NNT = 5) and LS (6g's, 402 participants, g = 0.201, 95%??CI = 0.009, 0.394, P = 0.04, Q = 3.3, P = 0.65, I2 = 0%, NNT = 9) BMD. A trend for greater benefits in FN BMD was observed for studies published in countries other than the United States and for those who participated in home versus facility-based exercise. Statistically significant, or a trend for statistically significant, associations were observed for 7 different moderators and predictors, 6 for FN BMD and 1 for LS BMD. Conclusions. Exercise benefits FN and LS BMD in premenopausal women. The observed moderators and predictors deserve further investigation in well-designed randomized controlled trials. PMID:23401684

  5. Main morbidities recorded in the women's international study of long duration oestrogen after menopause (WISDOM): a randomised controlled trial of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madge R Vickers; Alastair H MacLennan; Beverley Lawton; Deborah Ford; Jeannett Martin; Sarah K Meredith; Bianca L DeStavola; Sally Rose; Anthony Dowell; Helen C Wilkes; Janet H Darbyshire; Tom W Meade

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the long term risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy (combined hormone therapy versus placebo, and oestrogen alone versus combined hormone therapy).Design Multicentre, randomised, placebo controlled, double blind trial.Setting General practices in UK (384), Australia (91), and New Zealand (24).Participants Postmenopausal women aged 50-69 years at randomisation. At early closure of the trial, 56 583 had been

  6. DCCPS: TCRB: TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Low SES Women and Girl

    Cancer.gov

    Tobacco control policies, such as increases in cigarette excise taxes, worksite smoking bans, and youth-focused media campaigns show promise in reducing smoking at the population level. However, few studies have examined the effects of policies in reducing smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure among disadvantaged women and girls. Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher-than-average rates of tobacco use and suffer disproportionately from the health consequences of tobacco.

  7. Efficacy and safety of the combined oral contraceptive ethinylestradiol/drospirenone (Yasmin) in healthy Chinese women: a randomized, open-label, controlled, multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Guang-Sheng, Fan; Mei-Lu, Bian; Li-Nan, Cheng; Xiao-Ming, Cao; Zi-Rong, Huang; Zi-Yan, Han; Xiao-Ping, Jing; Jian, Li; Shu-Ying, Wu; Cheng-Liang, Xiong; Zheng-Ai, Xiong; Tian-Fu, Yue

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the contraceptive efficacy, bleeding pattern, side effects and other positive effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing drospirenone (DRSP) [Yasmin] with those of a COC containing desogestrel (DSG) in healthy Chinese women. This was a randomized, open-label, controlled, multicentre study of 768 healthy Chinese women requiring contraception. The subjects were randomized to ethinylestradiol (EE) 30 microg/DRSP 3 mg (n = 573) or EE 30 microg/ DSG 150 microg (n = 195), at a ratio of 3 : 1. Each individual was treated for 13 cycles. Further visits were required at cycle 4, cycle 7, cycle 10 and cycle 13 of treatment. Weight, height and body mass index were evaluated at each visit. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) was administered at baseline, visit 3 (cycle 7) and visit 5 (after cycle 13). Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups (p > 0.05). The Pearl Index (method failure) for EE/DRSP was 0.208 per 100 women-years, which was lower than that for EE/DSG (0.601 per 100 women-years). There were no significant differences between the treatment groups with regard to bleeding patterns. According to the MDQ subscale, improvements in water retention and increases in appetite during the intermenstrual period and in water retention and general well-being during the menstrual period in the EE/DRSP group (-0.297, -0.057, 0.033 and 0.150, respectively) were significantly improved compared with the EE/DSG group (-0.108, 0.023, 0.231 and -0.023, respectively) [all p < 0.05]. Other values that improved in both groups, particularly improvement in breast pain and tenderness and skin condition, were more evident in the EE/DRSP group (18.0%, 89/494; 12.6%, 62/494) than in the EE/DSG group (11.3%, 19/168; 5.4%, 9/168). Mean weight increased in the EE/DSG group (0.57 kg) while there was a significant decrease in mean weight (-0.28 kg) in the EE/DRSP group (p < 0.01). Both EE/DRSP and EE/DSG have good contraceptive efficacy and a comparable bleeding pattern. EE/DRSP had a more favourable effect on weight and premenstrual symptoms than EE/DSG. PMID:20201608

  8. Women's Work, Autonomy, and Birth Control: Evidence From Two South Indian Villages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dharmalingam; S. Philip Morgan

    1996-01-01

    In this study we contrast two South Indian villages which offer women very different employment opportunities. Many women in Village I roll beedis, which are crude hand-rolled cigarettes. The structure of beedi work was designed to meet the needs of the beedi contractor, but inadvertently it has provided women with substantial autonomy. In Village II very few women work for

  9. Women and smoking.

    PubMed

    Amos, A

    1996-01-01

    Smoking kills over half a million women each year and is the most important preventable cause of female premature death in several developed countries. However, in many countries, cigarette smoking still tends to be regarded as a mainly male problem. This paper explores the reasons why more attention needs to be paid to issues around smoking and women, even in countries which currently have low levels of female cigarette smoking. The article includes an overview of current patterns and trends of smoking among women, and the factors which influence smoking uptake and cessation in women compared to men. The experience of countries with the longest history of widespread female smoking is used to identify some of the key challenges facing developed and developing countries. Tobacco companies have identified women as a key target group, therefore particular attention is given to the ways in which they have attempted to reach women through advertising and other marketing strategies. It is concluded that in order to halt and ultimately reverse the tobacco epidemic among women, tobacco control policies need to encompass both gender-specific and gender-sensitive approaches. Examples are given of the types of action that are needed in relation to research, public policy and legislation, and education. PMID:8746298

  10. Women and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... studies that track women with HIV who take HIV medicines during pregnancy. To Learn More AIDS.gov National Library of ... Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health Topics Resources for You ...

  11. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Levonorgestrel Vs. The Yuzpe Regimen as Emergency Contraception Method among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hoseini, Fatemeh Sadat; Eslami, Mohammad; Abbasi, Mohammed; Noroozi Fashkhami, Fatemeh; Besharati, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background We aimed to compare acceptability of Levonorgestrel with the Yuzpe regimen among Iranian women based on their side-effects and resulting changes in the amount and pattern of menses. Methods Five hundred twenty nine participants aged 15-49 having regular menses and one act of unprotected intercourse within 72 h were included in the double-blind, controlled trial in 2006-2007 and randomly assigned into LNG (n=263) and HD (n=266) groups, receiving Levonorgestrel 0.75 mg given 12 h apart and ethinyl estradiol 100 ?g plus 0.5 mg Levonorgestrel 0.5 mg repeated after 12 h, respectively. Results The participants receiving Levonorgestrel experienced significantly lower side-effects in the case of nausea, vomiting, and dizziness (P<0.05). The changes occurred in the amount and pattern of menses were the same for both groups (P>0.05). No significant difference was observed between the efficiencies of the treatments. Conclusion Significantly lower side-effects of Levonorgestrel can be considered as greater acceptability and translated to higher efficiency.

  12. PAHA study: Psychological Active and Healthy Aging: psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude and happiness effects of whole-body vibration versus Multicomponent Training in aged women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence demonstrates that physical exercise and psychological wellbeing are closely interlinked, particularly in older-aged women. However, research investigating how different forms of exercise influence mental health in older-aged women is underdeveloped. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial (N?=?300) will assess the relative effectiveness of two different exercise programs (whole-body vibration and Multicomponent Training) for improving psychological wellbeing in older-aged women. The following outcomes will be assessed at three time points (that is, pre, post, and follow-up): psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude, quality of life, and happiness. Discussion Results will have important implications for preventing psychological and physiological disease in older-aged women and for managing health-related costs for this population group. Trial registration Number NCT01966562 on Clinical Gov database the 8 October 2013 PMID:24886107

  13. Arousal of the Power Motive in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Abigail J.; Winter, David G.

    1976-01-01

    Female subjects were randomly assigned to an n Power arousal group or control group. Analysis of TAT protocols revealed that n Power was aroused in women as successfully as the procedures had been with men. Subjects' self-ratings also demonstrated that subjects felt stronger in the experimental group. (NG)

  14. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Urinary Escherichia coli in Women Ingesting Cranberry Juice Daily: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Ann E.; Dziura, James; Hooton, Thomas M.; Cox, Marsha E.; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Chen, Shu; Gupta, Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the time to urinary tract infection (UTI) and the rates of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary P-fimbriated Escherichia coli during a 6-month period in women ingesting cranberry vs placebo juice daily. Patients and Methods Premenopausal women with a history of recent UTI were enrolled from November 16, 2005, through December 31, 2008, at 2 centers and randomized to 1 of 3 arms: 4 oz of cranberry juice daily, 8 oz of cranberry juice daily, or placebo juice. Time to UTI (symptoms plus pyuria) was the main outcome. Asymptomatic bacteriuria, adherence, and adverse effects were assessed at monthly visits. Results A total of 176 participants were randomized (120 to cranberry juice and 56 to placebo) and followed up for a median of 168 days. The cumulative rate of UTI was 0.29 in the cranberry juice group and 0.37 in the placebo group (P=.82). The adjusted hazard ratio for UTI in the cranberry juice group vs the placebo group was 0.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.39; P=.29). The proportion of women with P-fimbriated urinary E coli isolates during the intervention phase was 10 of 23 (43.5%) in the cranberry juice group and 8 of 10 (80.0%) in the placebo group (P=.07). The mean dose adherence was 91.8% and 90.3% in the cranberry juice group vs the placebo group. Minor adverse effects were reported by 24.2% of those in the cranberry juice group and 12.5% in the placebo group (P=.07). Conclusion Cranberry juice did not significantly reduce UTI risk compared with placebo. The potential protective effect we observed is consistent with previous studies and warrants confirmation in larger, well-powered studies of women with recurrent UTI. The concurrent reduction in urinary P-fimbriated E coli strains supports the biological plausibility of cranberry activity. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00128128 PMID:22305026

  15. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Maca Root as Treatment for Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    PubMed Central

    Dording, Christina M.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Dalton, Elizabeth D.; Parkin, Susannah R.; Walker, Rosemary S. W.; Fehling, Kara B.; Fava, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We sought to demonstrate that maca root may be an effective treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction (AISD) in women. Method. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of maca root (3.0?g/day) in 45 female outpatients (mean age of 41.5 ± 12.5 years) with SSRI/SNRI-induced sexual dysfunction whose depression remitted. Endpoints were improvement in sexual functioning as per the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ). Results. 45 of 57 consented females were randomized, and 42 (30 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal women) were eligible for a modified intent-to-treat analysis based on having had at least one postmedication visit. Remission rates by the end of treatment were higher for the maca than the placebo group, based on attainment of an ASEX total score ? 10 (9.5% for maca versus 4.8% for placebo), attaining an MGH-SFQ score ? 12 (30.0% for maca versus 20.0% for placebo) and reaching an MGH-SFQ score ? 8 (9.5% for maca versus 5.0% for placebo). Higher remission rates for the maca versus placebo group were associated with postmenopausal status. Maca was well tolerated. Conclusion. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with NCT00568126. PMID:25954318

  16. Integration of comprehensive women’s health programmes into health systems: cervical cancer prevention, care and control in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Ngabo, Fidele; Mugeni, Cathy; Gatera, Maurice; Nutt, Cameron T; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Problem Although it is highly preventable and treatable, cervical cancer is the most common and most deadly cancer among women in Rwanda. Approach By mobilizing a diverse coalition of partnerships, Rwanda became the first country in Africa to develop and implement a national strategic plan for cervical cancer prevention, screening and treatment. Local setting Rwanda – a small, landlocked nation in East Africa with a population of 10.4 million – is well positioned to tackle a number of “high-burden” noncommunicable diseases. The country’s integrated response to infectious diseases has resulted in steep declines in premature mortality over the past decade. Relevant changes In 2011–2012, Rwanda vaccinated 227?246 girls with all three doses of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Among eligible girls, three-dose coverage rates of 93.2% and 96.6% were achieved in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The country has also initiated nationwide screening and treatment programmes that are based on visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid, testing for HPV DNA, cryotherapy, the loop electrosurgical excision procedure and various advanced treatment options. Lessons learnt Low-income countries should begin to address cervical cancer by integrating prevention, screening and treatment into routine women’s health services. This requires political will, cross-sectoral collaboration and planning, innovative partnerships and robust monitoring and evaluation. With external support and adequate planning, high nationwide coverage rates for HPV vaccination and screening for cervical cancer can be achieved within a few years. PMID:24101786

  17. Web-Based Symptom Management for Women with Recurrent Ovarian Cancer: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of the WRITE Symptoms Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Heidi S.; Ward, Sandra E.; Sereika, Susan; Knapp, Judith; Sherwood, Paula; Bender, Catherine M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Fields, Margaret; Ingel, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Context Little research has focused on symptom management among women with ovarian cancer. WRITE Symptoms (Written Representational Intervention To Ease Symptoms) is an educational intervention delivered through asynchronous web-based message boards between a study participant and a nurse. Objectives We evaluated WRITE Symptoms for: 1) feasibility of conducting the study via message boards; 2) system usability; 3) participant satisfaction; and 4) initial efficacy. Methods Participants were 65 women (mean age 56.5 [SD=9.23]) with recurrent ovarian cancer randomized using minimization with race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White vs. minority) as the stratification factor. Measures were obtained at baseline and two and six weeks post-intervention. Outcomes were: feasibility of conducting the study, system usability, participant satisfaction, and efficacy (symptom severity, distress, consequences, and controllability). Results Fifty-six (87.5%) participants were retained and the mean usability score (range 1–7) was 6.18 (SD=1.29). All satisfaction items were scored at 5 (of 7) or higher. There were significant between-group effects at T2 for symptom distress, with those in the WRITE Symptoms group reporting lower distress than those in the control group [t(88.4)=?2.57; P=0.012], with a similar trend for symptom severity [t(40.4)=?1.95; P=0.058]. Repeated measures analysis also supported a group effect, with those in the WRITE Symptoms group reporting lower symptom distress compared with those in the control condition [F(1, 56.7)=4.59; P=0.037]. Conclusion Participants found the intervention and assessment system easy to use and had high levels of satisfaction. Initial efficacy was supported by decreases in symptom severity, distress, and consequences. PMID:24018206

  18. More Active Mums in Stirling (MAMMiS): a physical activity intervention for postnatal women. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many postnatal women are insufficiently physically active in the year after childbirth and could benefit from interventions to increase activity levels. However, there is limited information about the efficacy, feasibility and acceptability of motivational and behavioral interventions promoting postnatal physical activity in the UK. Methods The MAMMiS study is a randomized, controlled trial, conducted within a large National Health Service (NHS) region in Scotland. Up to 76 postnatal women will be recruited to test the impact of two physical activity consultations and a 10-week group pram-walking program on physical activity behavior change. The intervention uses evidence-based motivational and behavioral techniques and will be systematically evaluated using objective measures (accelerometers) at three months, with a maintenance measure taken at a six-month follow-up. Secondary health and well-being measures and psychological mediators of physical activity change are included. Discussion The (MAMMiS study will provide a test of a theoretical and evidence-based physical activity behavior change intervention for postnatal women and provide information to inform future intervention development and testing within this population. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN79011784 PMID:22818406

  19. The effect of distant reiki on pain in women after elective Caesarean section: a double-blinded randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    vanderVaart, Sondra; Berger, Howard; Tam, Carolyn; Goh, Y Ingrid; Gijsen, Violette M G J; de Wildt, Saskia N; Taddio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 25% of all babies in North America are delivered via Caesarean section (C-section). Though a common surgical procedure, C-section recovery can be painful. Opioids, specifically codeine, are commonly used to ease pain; however, its active metabolite, morphine, passes into breast milk, and may produce unwanted side effects in neonates; therefore, alternatives to opioids are being sought. Reiki is an ancient Japanese form of healing where practitioners transfer healing energy through light touch and positive healing intention. Although 1.2 million Americans use reiki to reduce pain or depression, there is a lack of strong evidence supporting its effectiveness. A recent systematic review showed existing studies to be of poor methodological quality, with the common limitation of lack of blinding. To overcome this issue, the authors used distant reiki to assess its effectiveness in reducing pain following an elective C-section. Methods In this randomised, double-blinded study, women who underwent an elective C-section were allocated to either usual care (control, n=40) or three distant reiki sessions in addition to usual care (n=40). Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The primary endpoint was the Area Under the VAS-Time Curve (AUC) for days 1–3. Secondary measures included: the proportion of women who required opioid medications and dose consumed, rate of healing and vital signs. Results AUC for pain was not significantly different in the distant reiki and control groups (mean±SD; 212.1±104.7 vs 223.1±117.8; p=0.96). There were no significant differences in opioid consumption or rate of healing; however, the distant reiki group had a significantly lower heart rate (74.3±8.1?bpm vs 79.8±7.9?bpm, p=0.003) and blood pressure (106.4±9.7?mm?Hg vs 111.9±11.0?mm?Hg, p=0.02) post surgery. Conclusion Distant reiki had no significant effect on pain following an elective C-section. Clinical Trial Registration Number ISRCTN79265996. PMID:22021729

  20. Effect of milk and calcium supplementation on bone density and bone turnover in pregnant Chinese women: a randomized controlled trail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Liu; Ling Qiu; Yu-ming Chen; Yi-xiang Su

    2011-01-01

    Objective  Calcium demand is increased during pregnancy. However, few randomized controlled trials examined the effects of calcium supplementation\\u000a on bone mass during pregnancy. This study determined effects of calcium and milk supplementation on maternal bone mineral\\u000a density (BMD) and bone turnover in pregnant Chinese women with habitual low calcium intake.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this randomized controlled trial, 36 Chinese pregnant women (24–31 years, 18

  1. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral and Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutin, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the literature revealed 20 studies that examined the extent to which cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT), and a combination of these two treatments impact women with breast cancer. Based on this review, it is determined that CBT and SEGT have repeated experimental support for positively…

  2. Attitudes of women and men physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Heins, M; Hendricks, J; Martindale, L; Smock, S; Stein, M; Jacobs, J

    1979-01-01

    Attitudinal data obtained from interviewing random samples of women and men physicians in metropolitan Detroit indicated that women were generally more liberal and egalitarian than men. Older women were more liberal/egalitarian than older men while younger men were closer in attitudes to younger women. Within specialities, women and men physicians frequently held similar attitudinal scores; however, controlling for age, sex accounted for more variation than did specialty. A weighted combination of variables which together most significantly discriminated between age and sex subgroups pointed to a sensitivity dimension. This was stronger in the women; yet men demonstrating a similar sensitivity were found in almost every age and specialty grouping. Although younger men physicians are less conservative than older men physicians, both younger and older women physicians demonstrated strong liberalism/egalitarianism. PMID:507244

  3. Effect of pelvic floor muscle training compared with watchful waiting in older women with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse: randomised controlled trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wiegersma, Marian; Panman, Chantal M C R; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Berger, Marjolein Y; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of pelvic floor muscle training and watchful waiting on pelvic floor symptoms in a primary care population of women aged 55 years and over with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Dutch primary care. Participants Women aged 55 years or over with symptomatic mild prolapse (leading edge above the hymen) were identified by screening. Exclusion criteria were current prolapse treatment or treatment in the previous year, malignancy of pelvic organs, current treatment for another gynaecological disorder, severe/terminal illness, impaired mobility, cognitive impairment, and insufficient command of the Dutch language. Interventions Pelvic floor muscle training versus watchful waiting. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was change in bladder, bowel, and pelvic floor symptoms measured with the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20), three months after the start of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in condition specific and general quality of life, sexual function, degree of prolapse, pelvic floor muscle function, and patients’ perceived change in symptoms. Results Of the 287 women who were randomised to pelvic floor muscle training (n=145) or watchful waiting (n=142), 250 (87%) completed follow-up. Participants in the intervention group improved by (on average) 9.1 (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 15.4) points more on the PFDI-20 than did participants in the watchful waiting group (P=0.005). Of women in the pelvic floor muscle training group, 57% (82/145) reported an improvement in overall symptoms from the start of the study compared with 13% (18/142) in the watchful waiting group (P<0.001). Other secondary outcomes showed no significant difference between the groups. Conclusions Although pelvic floor muscle training led to a significantly greater improvement in PFDI-20 score, the difference between the groups was below the presumed level of clinical relevance (15 points). Nevertheless, 57% of the participants in the intervention group reported an improvement of overall symptoms. More studies are needed to identify factors related to success of pelvic floor muscle training and to investigate long term effects. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register (www.trialregister.nl) identifier: NTR2047. PMID:25533442

  4. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Cardiometabolic Risks and Health-Related Quality of Life among Urban Premenopausal Women in a Tropical Country – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramly, Mazliza; Ming, Moy Foong; Chinna, Karuthan; Suboh, Suhaili; Pendek, Rokiah

    2014-01-01

    Background Many observational studies linked vitamin D to cardiometabolic risks besides its pivotal role in musculoskeletal diseases, but evidence from trials is lacking and inconsistent. Aim To determine whether Vitamin D supplementation in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency can improve cardiometabolic risks and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Design A double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 192 vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/l) premenopausal women were randomized to receive either vitamin D 50,000 IU or placebo once a week for 2 months and then monthly for 10 months. Primary outcomes were serum 25(OH)D, serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and HOMA-IR measured at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. HRQOL was assessed with SF-36 at baseline and 12 months. Results Ninety three and ninety-nine women were randomised into intervention and placebo groups respectively. After 12 months, there were significant differences in the serum 25(OH)D concentration (mean difference: 49.54; 95% CI: 43.94 to 55.14) nmol/l) and PTH levels (mean difference: ?1.02; 95% CI: ?1.67 to ?0.38 pmol/l) in the intervention group compared to placebo group. There was significant difference between treatment group in both serum 25(OH)D and PTH. There was no effect of supplementation on HOMA-IR, serum lipid profiles and blood pressure (all p>0.05) between two groups. There was a small but significant improvement in HRQOL in the components of vitality (mean difference: 5.041; 95% CI: 0.709 to 9.374) and mental component score (mean difference: 2.951; 95% CI: 0.573 to 5.329) in the intervention group compared to placebo group. Conclusion Large and less frequent dosage vitamin D supplementation was safe and effective in the achievement of vitamin D sufficiency. However, there was no improvement in measured cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women. Conversely vitamin D supplementation improves some components of HRQOL. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12612000452897 PMID:25350669

  5. Operation transformation based concurrency control in group editors 

    E-print Network

    Li, Rui

    2006-10-30

    Collaborative editing systems (or group editors) allow a geographically dispersed group of human users to view and modify shared multimedia documents, such as research papers, design diagrams, web pages and source code ...

  6. Quality of Life after Diet or Exercise-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight to Obese Postmenopausal Women: The SHAPE-2 Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Gemert, Willemijn A. M.; van der Palen, Job; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Rozeboom, Anouk; Peters, Roelof; Wittink, Harriet; Schuit, Albertine J.; Peeters, Petra H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study investigates the effect of a modest weight loss either by a calorie restricted diet or mainly by increased physical exercise on health related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women. We hypothesize that HRQoL improves with weight loss, and that exercise-induced weight loss is more effective for this than diet-induced weight loss. Methods The SHAPE-2 trial was primarily designed to evaluate any additional effect of weight loss by exercise compared with a comparable amount of weight loss by diet on biomarkers relevant for breast cancer risk. In the present analysis we focus on HRQoL. We randomly assigned 243 eligible women to a diet (n = 97), exercise (n = 98), or control group (n = 48). Both interventions aimed for 5–6 kg weight loss. HRQoL was measured at baseline and after 16 weeks by the SF-36 questionnaire. Results Data of 214 women were available for analysis. Weight loss was 4.9 kg (6.1%) and 5.5 kg (6.9%) with diet and exercise, respectively. Scores of the SF-36 domain ‘health change’ increased significantly by 8.8 points (95% CI 1.6;16.1) with diet, and by 20.5 points (95% CI 13.2;27.7) with exercise when compared with control. Direct comparison of diet and exercise showed a statistically significantly stronger improvement with exercise. Both intervention groups showed a tendency towards improvements in most other domains, which were more pronounced in the exercise group, but not statistically different from control or each other. Conclusion In a randomized trial in overweight-to-obese and inactive postmenopausal women a comparable 6%-7% weight loss was achieved by diet-only or mainly by exercise and showed improvements in physical and mental HRQoL domains, but results were not statistically significant in either the diet or exercise group. However, a modest weight loss does lead to a positive change in self-perceived health status. This effect was significantly larger with exercise-induced weight loss than with comparable diet-induced weight loss. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01511276 PMID:26029921

  7. Comparison of Internet and Face-to-Face Delivery of a Group Body Image and Disordered Eating Intervention for Women: A Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma K. Gollings; Susan J. Paxton

    2006-01-01

    Increased access to therapy for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating is required. This pilot study compared a group intervention delivered face-to-face or synchronously over the Internet. Women with body dissatisfaction and disordered eating were randomly assigned to a face-to-face (N = 19) or Internet (N = 21) group. Body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and psychological variables were assessed at baseline, post-intervention,

  8. Randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial: effects of myo-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Gerli, S; Papaleo, E; Ferrari, A; Di Renzo, G C

    2007-01-01

    Oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovaries in women are one of the most important causes of the high incidence of ovulation failure. This is linked, perhaps, to insulin resistance and related metabolic features. A small number of reports show that myo-inositol improves ovarian function, but in these trials the quality of evidence supporting ovulation is suboptimal. Furthermore, few of them have been placebo-controlled. The aim of our study was to use a double-blind, placebo-controlled approach with detailed assessment of ovarian activity (two blood samples per week) to assess the validity of this therapeutic approach in this group of women. Of the 92 patients randomized, 47 received 400 mcg folic acid as placebo, and 45 received myo-inositol plus folic acid (4 g myo-inositol plus 400 mcg folic acid). The ovulation frequency assessed by the ratio of luteal phase weeks to observa-tion weeks was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the treated group (25%) compared with the placebo (15%), and the time to first ovulation was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter [24.5 d; 95% confidence interval (CI), 18, 31; compared with 40.5 d; 95% CI, 27, 54]. The number of patients failing to ovulate during the placebo-treatment period was higher (P < 0.05) in the placebo group, and the majority of ovulations were characterized by normal progesterone concentrations in both groups. The effect of myo-inositol on follicular maturation was rapid, because the E2 circulating concentration increased over the first week of treatment only in the myo-inositol group. A significant increase in circulating high-density lipoprotein was observed only in the myo-inositol-treated group. Metabolic risk factor benefits of myo-inositol treatment were not observed in the morbidly obese subgroup of patients (body mass index > 37). After 14-wk myo-inositol or placebo therapy, no change in fasting glucose concentrations, fasting insulin, or insulin responses to glucose challenge was recorded. There was an inverse relationship between body mass and treatment efficacy. In fact a significant weight loss (and leptin reduction) (P < 0.01) was recorded in the myo-inositol group, whereas the placebo group actually increased weight (P < 0.05). These data support a beneficial effect of myo-inositol in women with oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovaries in improving ovarian function. PMID:18074942

  9. A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of a stigma reduction intervention for HIV-infected women in the Deep South.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Julie; Relf, Michael V; Williams, Megan Scull; Arscott, Joyell; Moore, Elizabeth D; Caiola, Courtney; Silva, Susan G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare outcomes (self-esteem, coping self-efficacy, and internalized stigma) across time in HIV-infected women living in the Deep South who received a stigma reduction intervention (n=51) with those of a control group (n=49) who received the usual care at baseline, and at 30 and 90 days. We recruited 99 women from clinics and an AIDS service organization; they were randomized by recruitment site. A video developed from the results of a qualitative metasynthesis study of women with HIV infection was loaded onto iPod Touch devices. Participants were asked to watch the video weekly for 4 weeks, and to record the number of times they viewed it over a 12-week period. We examined the trajectory model results for efficacy outcomes for the intent-to-treat and the supplemental completers groups. There was a treatment-by-time effect for improved self-esteem (intent-to-treat: p=0.0308; completers: p=0.0284) and decreases in internalized stigma (intent-to-treat: p=0.0036; completers: p=0.0060), and a treatment-by-time-by-time effect for improved coping self-efficacy (intent-to-treat: p=0.0414; completers: p=0.0321). A medium effect of the intervention in terms of improving self-esteem was observed when compared with the control condition in those who completed the study. The magnitude of the intervention effect, however, was large with regard to reducing overall stigma, improving social relationships, and decreasing stereotypes in both groups. PMID:25084499

  10. Impact of different controlled ovarian stimulation protocols on the physical and psychological burdens in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Mamata, Deenadayal; Ray, Subrat K.; Pratap, Kumar; Firuza, Parikh; Birla, Ashish Ramesh; Manish, Banker

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Infertility treatment involves a considerable amount of physical and psychological burden which may impact the outcome. AIM: The objective was to understand the amount of physical and psychological burden in women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. SETTING AND DESIGN: Multi-center, prospective, parallel, observational study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted across 12 IVF centers in India. A total of 692 women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation as a part of the first cycle IVF/ICSI completed the trial. Women were recruited in 2 groups based on type of treatment (Group A - gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH] antagonist; Group B - GnRH agonist) and were asked to fill questionnaires during the 2 treatment visits. RESULTS: The mean changes between Visit 1 (baseline) and Visit 2 in anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) scores in Group A for anxiety and depression were ?0.5 (3.67), ?0.1 (3.57) respectively and for Group B were ?0.4 (3.68), 0.1 (3.67) respectively, which was not statistically significant. In Group A, the mean (±standard deviation [SD]) Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL) score was 17.9 (±5.17) in visit 1 and 19.1 (±5.45) Visit 2. The change between visits was 1.1 (P < 0.0001) with higher score reflecting higher somatic distress symptoms. In Group B, the mean (±SD) HSCL score was 18.2 (±5.19) in Visit 1 and 18.8 (±5.23) in visit 2. The change between visits was 0.6 (P < 0.0014). The difference of the mean change in physical burden between Group A and Group B was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: A significant impact in both treatment protocols with respect to the physical burden was found between Visit 1 and Visit 2 but no difference in physical or psychological burden between the two treatment groups was observed.

  11. Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women. PMID:24685531

  12. Role of women in population.

    PubMed

    Srivasdava, T N

    Population control through voluntary adoption of family planning is emphasized in India's family planning policy. The 1981 census figures have not shown an arresting rate of population growth. The social and attitudinal barriers to promoting the concept of the small family are great where men and women are not exposed to new ideas. The target groups for family planning include the 75% of the population residing in rural areas. The literacy rate for women in rural areas in 1971 was 18.69. Motivation is difficult unless supported by systematic education. Women play an important role in the determination of family size. Participation in social and economic activities may help to promote small family size by meeting the necessary conditions of emotional and social fulfillment of women outside the family context. Adquate education for women in rural as well as urban areas can elucidate alternatives to childbearing and enable women to appreciate the need for and use of contraception. Employment opportunities enhance women's familial decision making power through the acquisition of an alternative social and economic role, which may help them to adopt birth control practices, space their children, and limit family size. Motivational schemes may change the attitudes of a small number of families, however, greater gains could be achieved through an investment in women's education and employment. PMID:12311983

  13. A four week randomised control trial of adjunctive medroxyprogesterone and tamoxifen in women with mania.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Jayashri; Berk, Michael; Wang, Wei; Mu, Ling; Scarr, Elizabeth; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Worsley, Roisin; Gurvich, Caroline; Gavrilidis, Emorfia; de Castella, Anthony; Fitzgerald, Paul; Davis, Susan R

    2014-05-01

    Emerging research has suggested that hormone treatments such as selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) or progestins may be useful in the treatment of mania. The current pilot study compared the use of the SERM tamoxifen and the progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), as an adjunct to mood stabiliser medications, for the treatment of mania symptoms in 51 women in a 28-day double blind, placebo controlled study. The primary outcome was the change between baseline and day 28 mania scores as measured by the Clinician Administered Rating Scale for Mania (CARS-M). Adjunctive MPA treatment provided greater and more rapid improvement in mania symptoms compared with adjunctive placebo and tamoxifen treatment. Adjunctive therapy with MPA may be a potentially useful new treatment for persistent mania, leading to a greater and more rapid resolution of symptoms compared with mood stabiliser treatment alone. PMID:24703170

  14. Static balance control and lower limb strength in blind and sighted women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paraskevi Giagazoglou; Ioannis G. Amiridis; Andreas Zafeiridis; Maria Thimara; Vassiliki Kouvelioti; Elefthrerios Kellis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine isokinetic and isometric strength of the knee and ankle muscles and to compare\\u000a center of pressure (CoP) sway between blind and sighted women. A total of 20 women volunteered to participate in this study.\\u000a Ten severe blind women (age 33.5 ± 7.9 years; height 163 ± 5 cm; mass 64.5 ± 12.2 kg) and 10 women with normal vision (age

  15. Experiences in Cooperating with Women, Women's Groups and Organisations and the Use of Electronic Communication in On-Farm Research in Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The role of women in agriculture is discussed in relation to participatory approaches to defining and executing on-farm research. Examples are given of two projects in Vietnam in the first of which the original outsider- driven proposal was changed in the light of discussions in the village concerning the interventions on offer and the priorities of the farm families. The

  16. Sterilization and birth control in the shadow of eugenics: married, middle-class women in Alberta, 1930-1960s.

    PubMed

    Dyck, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The history of eugenic sterilization connotes draconian images of coerced and involuntary procedures robbing men and women of their reproductive health. While eugenics programs often fit this characterization, there is another, smaller, and less obvious legacy of eugenics that arguably contributed to a more empowering image of reproductive health. Sexual sterilization surgeries as a form of contraception began to gather momentum alongside eugenics programs in the middle of the 20th century and experiences among prairie women serve as an illustrative example. Alberta maintained its eugenics program from 1929 to 1972 and engaged in thousands of eugenic sterilizations, but by the 1940s middle-class married women pressured their Albertan physicians to provide them with sterilization surgeries to control fertility, as a matter of choice. The multiple meanings and motivations behind this surgery introduced a moral quandary for physicians, which encourages medical historians to revisit the history of eugenics and its relationship to the contemporaneous birth control movement. PMID:24909023

  17. SHEWHART CONTROL CHARTS TO DETECT MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION SHIFTS BASED ON GROUPED DATA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEFAN H. STEINER; P. LEE GEYER; GEORGE O. WESOLOWSKY

    1996-01-01

    We propose a Shewhart control chart based on gauging theoretically continuous observations into multiple groups. This chart is designed to monitor the process mean and standard deviation for deviations from stability. By assuming an underlying normal distribution, we derive the optimal grouping criteria that maximizes the expected statistical information available in a sample. Control charts based on grouped observations are

  18. Adverse Lipid and Coronary Heart Disease Risk Profiles in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Results of a Case-Control Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn Talbott; Annette Clerici; Sarah L Berga; Lewis Kuller; David Guzick; Katherine Detre; Tammy Daniels; Richard A Engberg

    1998-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a disorder of hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation affects 5%–10% of all women. Women with PCOS often have elevated cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 244 PCOS cases were identified through the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology at Magee-Womens Hospital and were age-matched to 244 neighborhood controls. The average age of cases and controls was 35.3 ± 7.4

  19. Ironic Effects of Sexual Minority Group Membership: Are Lesbians Less Susceptible to Invoking Negative Female Stereotypes than Heterosexual Women?

    PubMed

    Niedlich, Claudia; Steffens, Melanie C; Krause, Jacqueline; Settke, Elisabeth; Ebert, Irena D

    2015-07-01

    The traditional stereotype of the typical woman has been described as "nice, but incompetent." However, such general gender stereotypes are applied to individual targets only under certain conditions: They are used to "fill in the blanks" (Heilman, 2012) if little personal information is provided about a target. "Typical lesbians" are regarded to have more typically masculine (agentic) characteristics such as task competence than the typical woman does. We thus hypothesized that if a woman displays behavior coinciding with the stereotype of the typical woman, it is more readily interpreted as stereotypically female if performed by a heterosexual woman than by a lesbian. Participants (N = 296) read a hypothetical job interview in which we manipulated the target's sexual orientation (between subjects). Findings demonstrated that a lesbian was judged as more competent than a heterosexual woman in the presence of behavior that may be interpreted as gender-stereotypical (Experiments 1 and 2). This difference in competence judgments was not found in the absence of gender-stereotypical behavior (Experiment 1). Judging the heterosexual woman as low in masculinity was related to a judgment of lower competence (Experiment 2). Our findings demonstrate that there are conditions under which lesbians, a group often stereotyped negatively, are less susceptible to invoking negative female stereotypes than heterosexual women are. PMID:25510890

  20. Changes in balance, functional performance and fall risk following whole body vibration training and vitamin D supplementation in institutionalized elderly women. A 6 month randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, An; Delecluse, Christophe; Boonen, Steven; Claessens, Albrecht L; Milisen, Koen; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2011-03-01

    Falls in the elderly constitute a growing public health problem. This randomized controlled trial investigated the potential benefit of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) training and/or vitamin D supplementation on balance, functionality and estimated fall risk in institutionalized elderly women. A total of 113 women (mean age: 79.6) were randomly assigned to either a WBV or a no-training group, receiving either a conventional dose (880 IU/d) or a high dose (1600 IU/d) of vitamin D3. The WBV group performed exercises on a vibration platform 3×/week. Balance was evaluated by computerized posturography. Functionality was assessed by 10 m walk test, Timed up and Go (TUG) performance and endurance capacity (Shuttle Walk). Fall risk was determined with the Physiological Profile Assessment. Performance on the 10 m walk test and on TUG improved over time in all groups. For none of the parameters, high-dose vitamin D resulted in a better performance than conventional dosing. The improvements in the WBV group in endurance capacity, walking at preferred speed, and TUG were significantly larger than the changes with supplementation alone. No additional benefit of WBV training could be detected on fall risk and postural control, although sway velocity and maximal isometric knee extension strength improved only in the WBV group. This trial showed that a high-dose vitamin D supplementation is not more efficient than conventional dosing in improving functionality in institutionalized elderly. WBV training on top of vitamin D supplementation provided an added benefit with regard to walking, TUG performance, and endurance capacity. PMID:21256028

  1. Does alcohol increase breast cancer risk in African-American women? Findings from a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, U; Zirpoli, G; Ciupak, G; McCann, S E; Gong, Z; Pawlish, K; Lin, Y; Demissie, K; Ambrosone, C B; Bandera, E V

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alcohol is an important risk factor for breast cancer in Caucasian women, but the evidence in African-American (AA) women is limited and results are inconclusive. Methods: Associations between recent and lifetime drinking and breast cancer risk were evaluated in a large sample of AA women from a case–control study in New York and New Jersey. Multivariable logistic regression models provided odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: There was no association between recent drinking and breast cancer risk, even when stratified by menopausal status or by hormone receptor status. A borderline decreased risk with increased lifetime consumption was found (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.58–1.03), which was stronger among women who drank when under 20 years of age (OR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.47–0.89), regardless of menopausal or hormone receptor status. Conclusion: Breast cancer risk associated with recent alcohol consumption was not apparent in AA women, while early age drinking seemed to decrease risk. This is the first investigation on recent and lifetime drinking in subgroups and drinking during different age periods in AA women. If findings are replicated, racial differences in biological pathways involving alcohol and its metabolites should be explored. PMID:24008665

  2. A case-control study to assess the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk.

    PubMed

    Assi, Valentina; Massat, Nathalie J; Thomas, Susan; MacKay, James; Warwick, Jane; Kataoka, Masako; Warsi, Iqbal; Brentnall, Adam; Warren, Ruth; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-05-15

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its potential application in risk management is not clear, partly due to uncertainties about its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. We aimed to quantify the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer (average lifetime risk of 23%), in particular in premenopausal women, and to investigate its relationship with other breast cancer risk factors in this population. We present the results from a case-control study nested with the FH01 cohort study of 6,710 women mostly aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer. One hundred and three cases of breast cancer were age-matched to one or two controls. Density was measured by semiautomated interactive thresholding. Absolute density, but not percent density, was a significant risk factor for breast cancer in this population after adjusting for area of nondense tissue (OR per 10 cm(2) = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, p = 0.04). The effect was stronger in premenopausal women, who made up the majority of the study population. Absolute density remained a significant predictor of breast cancer risk after adjusting for age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, past or present hormone replacement therapy, and the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate of breast cancer. Absolute density can improve breast cancer risk stratification and delineation of high-risk groups alongside the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate. PMID:25333209

  3. What's Good for the Goose May Not Be as Good for the Gander: The Benefits of Self-Monitoring for Men and Women in Task Groups and Dyadic Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Francis J.; Ames, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors posit that women can rely on self-monitoring to overcome negative gender stereotypes in certain performance contexts. In a study of mixed-sex task groups, the authors found that female group members who were high self-monitors were considered more influential and more valuable contributors than women who were low self-monitors. Men…

  4. Little Brother is Watching and Recording You: Social Control in a Deviant Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua Wayne Roberts

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1950s social control has mostly been explained from the counteraction of deviance perspective. In this research I examine social control in a broader context, what I call social control as the furtherance of action perspective. In order to accomplish this, I conducted a digital ethnography with a group engaged in deviant behavior. The group has no formal name,

  5. The recruitment of breast cancer survivors into cancer control studies: a focus on African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Ashing-Giwa, K.

    1999-01-01

    The recruitment of African Americans into cancer prevention and control studies has presented a major challenge to scientific investigators. Scientific findings, whether biomedical or behavioral, may not be appropriate and applicable to ethnic minority populations unless they are adequately represented as study participants. Moreover, the need to involve greater numbers of ethnic minorities is quite urgent due to the poor morbidity and mortality outcomes associated with ethnic minority group membership. Such is the case with breast cancer survivorship. The purpose of the study was to test a personalized recruitment strategy on response rate in African-American women. The response rate of 45% (n = 117) African Americans and 64% (n = 161) white subjects indicated only limited success in the recruitment of the African-American breast cancer survivors. The recruitment result suggests that culturally relevant recruitment strategies (e.g., inclusion of African-American investigators, culturally consistent letter of recruitment) may be insufficient in adequately increasing research participation. Therefore, further studies on investigating factors that influence research participation (eg, type of incentives, and schedule of payment as well as type of stationery and stamps used) are needed. PMID:10365546

  6. CONTROLLED SUBSTITUTION OF SOY PROTEIN FOR MEAT PROTEIN: EFFECTS ON CALCIUM RETENTION, BONE, AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH INDICES IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a controlled feeding study, the effects of substituting 25 g soy protein for meat on calcium retention and bone biomarkers were determined. Postmenopausal women (n = 13) ate two diets that were similar, except that, in one diet, 25 g high-isoflavone soy protein (SOY) was substituted for an equiva...

  7. Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

  8. Women's Marijuana Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Chacín

    1996-01-01

    Individual, cultural, professional, and gender-related factors converge to increase the denial of women's marijuana problems. Recent epidemiological information on marijuana use shows that marijuana is a significant problem for women of various ethnic groups, pregnant women, young adults and workers. Women's marijuana-related problems affect their health, safety, domestic relations, motherhood, and work. Outdated addiction theories, diagnostic tools, and insufficient research

  9. The Use of Object Groups to Implement Dependability in a Process Control Supervision System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Eychenne; Michel Simatic; Christophe Baradel; Laurent Junot; Bruno Kohen

    1993-01-01

    Large and dependable process control and supervision systems are a key component of today's integrated computer manufacturing. These systems must offer various levels of quality of service such as scalability, distribution, fault-tolerance and online maintenability. How the concepts of object groups and process groups have been exploited to meet this challenge is discussed. Object groups extend the process group functionalities

  10. Breast Cancer Risk Perception, Benefits of and Barriers to Mammography Adherence Among a Group of Iranian Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamid Allahverdipour; Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi; Azita Emami

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to assess associations between Health Belief Model variables, stages of change, and participation in mammography for early detection of breast cancer in a sample of Iranian women. A total of 414 women, aged 40 to 73 years, were recruited by random sampling. The study took place in the winter of 2007, using a self-report questionnaire and structured

  11. Substance abuse and mental health disparities: Comparisons across sexual identity groups in a national sample of young Australian women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonda Hughes; Laura A. Szalacha; Ruth McNair

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of research amply documents health disparities related to substance abuse among sexual minority women. However, relatively little research has examined risk factors or predictors of substance use in this population and even less has explored differences among sexual minority subgroups. Using data from 8850 women aged 25–30 years in the 2003 survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study

  12. An expressive therapy group disclosure intervention for women living with HIV improves social support, self-efficacy, and the safety and quality of relationships: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, Edward L; Lavin, Sonja M; Hilliard, Starr; Jones, Rhodessa; Haberer, Jessica E; Capito, Kristen; Dawson-Rose, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLHIV) face high rates of morbidity and mortality. HIV disclosure interventions have been identified as a promising but under-evaluated approach for WLHIV to improve their health and well-being. The Medea Project is an expressive therapy group intervention that was first developed to help incarcerated women develop the confidence and skills to tell their stories publicly in theatrical performances. The intervention was subsequently adapted as a community-based disclosure intervention for WLHIV. Our study describes an analysis of the impact of the Medea Project on the lives of the WLHIV who participated. All participating WLHIV publicly disclosed their HIV status during the performances. Five impact themes emerged from the data: sisterhood, catharsis, self-acceptance, safer and healthier relationships, and gaining a voice. Our study identifies a voluntary, effective, and broadly beneficial disclosure intervention for women living with HIV. PMID:25027284

  13. [Vulvoplethysmographic reaction in homosexually-oriented women].

    PubMed

    Tichý, P

    1990-09-21

    The author examined, using an electrocapacitance VPG apparatus, 50 women reporting homosexual orientation. The results were compared with a control group of 50 women volunteers who reported a defined heterosexual orientation and had no marked complaints and problems in their sexual life. The general vasomotor reactivity in response to erotic stimuli did not differ in the two groups of women (the number of recorded vasomotor reactions differed only insignificantly). During evaluation of the total number of positive reactions to heterosexual and homosexual categories of stimuli the difference between the two groups was highly significant (similarly as during evaluation of the number of positive reactions which were described as major reactions). Women of the homosexually oriented group responded as expected, significantly more frequently and more markedly to homosexual stimuli. As compared with the control group of heterosexually oriented women, they had a generally poorer capacity to differentiate between different categories of erotic stimuli and a lower reactivity during projection of slides of homosexual partnership activities than during projection of slides of homosexual objects (nudes). In all examined women of the control group an unequivocal heterosexual orientation was recorded, in the group of homosexual women a more or less defined homosexual orientation was confirmed. In both groups was a high correlation between the subjectively reported sexual orientation and the results of the VPG examination. The authors confirmed that it is possible to use electrocapacitance vulvoplethysmography as evidence of the homosexual orientation in women and that this psychophysiological examination method is relatively reliable in the diagnosis of female homosexuality. PMID:2224989

  14. The Dimensions of Talk in Peer Groups: Negotiating Control in Writing Group Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin

    In this study comparing peer group conversation with conversation in other settings, five college freshmen were observed and taped in the 12th week of the semester during a group discussion about their own writing. Four types of conversational moves were tallied: structural comments, solicitations, responses, and reactions. Comparison of these…

  15. The effect of short-term vitamin D supplementation on lipid profile and blood pressure in post-menopausal women: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Moghassemi, Sedigheh; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with a series of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, metabolic disorders, obesity, peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke. Objective: To assess the effect of oral vitamin D3 on cardiovascular risk factors in post-menopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency. Materials and Methods: In this parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 76 healthy post-menopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency (defined as a 25-[OH] D level <75 nmol/L) were randomly assigned to receive vitamin D3 2000 IU once daily (n = 38) or placebo (n = 38). The trial was undertaken in the different health centers in Gorgan, north of Iran. Lipid profile, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and blood pressure of the patients was assessed at the beginning of the study and 12 weeks after the trial. Data were entered into the computer using SPSS and analyzed by t-test. Results: FBS, lipid profile and blood pressure were not significantly different between the groups after 12 weeks (P > 0.05). No participant discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Conclusions: Vitamin D dietary supplementation is unlikely to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in post-menopausal women with vitamin D deficiency. PMID:25400681

  16. The effect of dried plum on serum levels of receptor activator of NF-?B ligand, osteoprotegerin and sclerostin in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Shirin; Brisco, Jayme R Y; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-07-14

    Although several studies have confirmed the bone-protective properties of dried plum, its exact mechanisms of action remain unclear. Recent research has shown that osteocytes may control bone formation via the production of sclerostin and bone resorption via the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) and its inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG). To investigate the mechanism of action of dried plum in reversing bone loss, we measured serum levels of RANKL, OPG and sclerostin in osteopenic postmenopausal women (n 160). Participants were randomly assigned to the treatment group of either 100 g dried plum/d or 75 g dried apple/d (comparative control) for 1 year. All participants received 500 mg Ca plus 400 IU (10 ?g) vitamin D daily. Bone mineral densities (BMD) of the lumbar spine, forearm, hip and whole body were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 12 months to assess bone biomarkers. Dried plum significantly increased the BMD of the ulna and spine in comparison with the control group. In comparison with corresponding baseline values, dried plum increased the RANKL levels by only +1·99 v. +18·33% and increased the OPG levels by +4·87 v. - 2·15% in the control group. Serum sclerostin levels were reduced by - 1·12% in the dried plum group v. +3·78% in the control group. Although percentage changes did not reach statistical significance (P? 0·05), these preliminary data may indicate that the positive effects of dried plum on bone are in part due to the suppression of RANKL production, the promotion of OPG and the inhibition of sclerostin. PMID:24780728

  17. Protocol and Recruitment Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Group Phone-Based versus Newsletter Interventions for Weight Loss Maintenance among Rural Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Befort, Christie A.; Klemp, Jennifer R.; Fabian, Carol; Perri, Michael G.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Shireman, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and death. Women who reside in rural areas have higher obesity prevalence and suffer from breast cancer treatment-related disparities compared to urban women. The objective of this 5-year randomized controlled trial is to compare methods for delivering extended care for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors. Group phone-based counseling via conference calls addresses access barriers, is more cost-effective than individual phone counseling, and provides group support which may be ideal for rural breast cancer survivors who are more likely to have unmet support needs. Women (n = 210) diagnosed with Stage 0 to III breast cancer in the past 10 years who are ? 3 months out from initial cancer treatments, have a BMI 27–45 kg/m2, and have physician clearance were enrolled from multiple cancer centers. During Phase I (months 0 to 6), all women receive a behavioral weight loss intervention delivered through group phone sessions. Women who successfully lose 5% of weight enter Phase II (months 6 to 18) and are randomized to one of two extended care arms: continued group phone-based treatment or a mail-based newsletter. During Phase III, no contact is made (months 18 to 24). The primary outcome is weight loss maintenance from 6 to 18 months. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, serum biomarkers, and cost-effectiveness. This study will provide essential information in how to reach rural survivors in future efforts to establish weight loss support for breast cancer survivors as a standard of care. PMID:24486636

  18. Case–control study of breast cancer and exposure to synthetic environmental chemicals among Alaska Native women

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Adrianne K.; Koller, Kathryn R.; Kieszak, Stephanie M.; Sjodin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M.; Sacco, Frank D.; Varner, D. Wayne; Lanier, Anne P.; Rubin, Carol H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental chemicals may impair endocrine system function. Alaska Native (AN) women may be at higher risk of exposure to these endocrine disrupting chemicals, which may contribute to breast cancer in this population. Objective To measure the association between exposure to select environmental chemicals and breast cancer among AN women. Design A case–control study of 170 women (75 cases, 95 controls) recruited from the AN Medical Center from 1999 to 2002. Participants provided urine and serum samples. Serum was analyzed for 9 persistent pesticides, 34 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 8 polybrominated diethyl ether (PBDE) congeners. Urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites. We calculated geometric means (GM) and compared cases and controls using logistic regression. Results Serum concentrations of most pesticides and 3 indicator PCB congeners (PCB-138/158; PCB-153, PCB-180) were lower in case women than controls. BDE-47 was significantly higher in case women (GM=38.8 ng/g lipid) than controls (GM=25.1 ng/g lipid) (p=0.04). Persistent pesticides, PCBs, and most phthalate metabolites were not associated with case status in univariate logistic regression. The odds of being a case were higher for those with urinary mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) concentrations that were above the median; this relationship was seen in both univariate (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.16–4.05, p=0.02) and multivariable (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.13–5.25, p=0.02) logistic regression. Women with oestrogen receptor (ER)–/progesterone receptor (PR)-tumour types tended to have higher concentrations of persistent pesticides than did ER+/PR+ women, although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Exposure to the parent compound of the phthalate metabolite MEHP may be associated with breast cancer. However, our study is limited by small sample size and an inability to control for the confounding effects of body mass index. The association between BDE-47 and breast cancer warrants further investigation. PMID:25442219

  19. Prescribed exercise in people with fibromyalgia: parallel group randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selwyn C M Richards; David L Scott

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate cardiovascular fitness exercise in people with fibromyalgia. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Hospital rheumatology outpatients. Group based classes took place at a \\

  20. Comparative Effectiveness of Medication versus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Low-income Young Minority Women with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Juned; Chung, Joyce Y.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Miranda, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether there are latent trajectory classes in response to treatment and whether these latent classes moderate the effects of medication versus psychotherapy. Method Our data come from a one-year randomized controlled trial of 267 low-income, young (mean=29yrs), minority (44% Black, 50% Latina, 6% White) women with current major depression randomized to antidepressants, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or referral to community mental health services. Growth mixture modeling was used to determine whether there are differential effects of medication versus CBT in this population. Depression was measured via the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results We identified two latent trajectory classes. The first class was characterized by severe depression at baseline. At 6-months, mean depression scores for the medication and CBT groups in this class were 13.9 and 14.9, respectively (difference not significant). At 12-months, mean depression scores were 16.4 and 11.0, respectively (p-value for difference=.04). The second class was characterized by moderate depression and anxiety at baseline. At 6-months, mean depression scores for the medication and CBT groups in the second class were 4.4 and 6.8, respectively (p-value for difference=.03). At 12-months, the mean depression scores were 7.1 and 7.8, respectively, and the difference was no longer significant. Conclusions Among depressed women with moderate baseline depression and anxiety, medication was superior to CBT at 6-months, but the difference was not sustained at one year. Among depressed women with severe depression, there was no significant treatment group difference at 6-months, but CBT was superior to medication at one year. PMID:23088620

  1. Behavior Based Motion Planning for Group Control Christopher Vo Joseph F. Harrison JyhMing Lien

    E-print Network

    Lien, Jyh-Ming

    , Virginia, USA #12;Group Control Problems · Agriculture ­ Animal herding (sheep, goats, cattle) · Civil control · Motion planning helps in some cases to explore the space and make progress when simulation

  2. 76 FR 31543 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue...provides notice of public hearing on a notice of proposed...into account deferred losses on the sale or exchange...DATES: The public hearing is being held on...

  3. Shifting Motivations: Young Women's Reflections on Physical Activity over Time and across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    This research analyzes motivations expressed by young, healthy, sedentary women before and after an exercise intervention. Young women (aged 18-30, n = 39) participated in focus groups or interviews during a 4-month exercise intervention. Afterward, 22 of these women and 20 controls completed physical activity diaries for 6 months and were…

  4. Peptide Dimethylation: Fragmentation Control via Distancing the Dimethylamino Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, Adam J.; Shen, Yuanyuan; Castillo, Mary Joan; Yao, Xudong

    2014-10-01

    Direct reductive methylation of peptides is a common method for quantitative proteomics. It is an active derivatization technique; with participation of the dimethylamino group, the derivatized peptides preferentially release intense a1 ions. The advantageous generation of a1 ions for quantitative proteomic profiling, however, is not desirable for targeted proteomic quantitation using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry; this mass spectrometric method prefers the derivatizing group to stay with the intact peptide ions and multiple fragments as passive mass tags. This work investigated collisional fragmentation of peptides whose amine groups were derivatized with five linear ?-dimethylamino acids, from 2-(dimethylamino)-acetic acid to 6-(dimethylamino)-hexanoic acid. Tandem mass spectra of the derivatized tryptic peptides revealed different preferential breakdown pathways. Together with energy resolved mass spectrometry, it was found that shutting down the active participation of the terminal dimethylamino group in fragmentation of derivatized peptides is possible. However, it took a separation of five methylene groups between the terminal dimethylamino group and the amide formed upon peptide derivatization. For the first time, the gas-phase fragmentation of peptides derivatized with linear ?-dimethylamino acids of systematically increasing alkyl chain lengths is reported.

  5. Statement of the Thai Grassroots Women's Forum on the occasion of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    In order to insure the participation of Thai women in the Fourth World Conference on Women, the Thai Grassroots Women's Forum was established in 1994. In seeking ways to improve women's status, the Women's Forum holds as its central position the statement that "Women must have the rights and opportunities to participate in all levels of decision-making processes." The policy implications of this statement affect many aspects of women's lives. In terms of health care, women must be given appropriate information about reproductive health, control over their own bodies must be guaranteed, and the Thai government must develop an occupational health service. All violence against women must be eradicated as a human rights violation, and victimized women must receive help and protection. Women laborers must be included in the labor policy-making process, and the Thai government must ratify International Labor Organization Conventions on workers' organizations, night-time work, rights to collective bargaining, and occupational health and safety. Governments should enact measures to protect women labor migrants, including those who work in the sex industry. The Thai government must support women's groups and provide opportunities for women to participate in government committees at every level. The composition of the Tambol (sub-district) Council should be equally divided between men and women. Finally, the Thai government must terminate any development plan which threatens the environment and must give communities the right to manage their natural resources and environment. PMID:12290170

  6. Male clients of brothel prostitutes as a bridge for HIV infection between high risk and low risk groups of women in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    d Gomes; Etheredge, G

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the extent to which male clients of prostitutes have a role as a bridge in the spread of HIV into the general population of Dakar, Senegal. Methods: A sexual behaviour HIV prevalence survey was carried out among clients of female prostitutes working in brothels recruited outside the prostitutes' rooms after the encounter. All men entering the house and leaving the women's rooms were asked to answer the questions and to donate saliva for HIV-1 and HIV-2 testing. Results: Findings suggest that a proportion of clients form a potential bridge for HIV transmission between prostitutes and partners from the general population. They have unprotected sexual contacts with both brothel prostitutes, and steady and casual partners, and expose both unmarried and married women to HIV infection. Findings also indicate that wives are more exposed to HIV than other categories of women in the population. Conclusions: Clients of brothels' prostitutes have a significant potential for spreading HIV beyond the initial high risk behaviour groups in Senegal. Efforts should be provided to target specific groups at higher risk for HIV infection, such as young men from the densely populated working class neighbourhoods of Dakar, and women outside the commercial sex networks for HIV education and prevention. PMID:16061544

  7. Virtual leaders, artificial potentials and coordinated control of groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomi Ehrich Leonard; Edward Fiorelli

    2001-01-01

    We present a framework for coordinated and distributed control of multiple autonomous vehicles using artificial potentials and virtual leaders. Artificial potentials define interaction control forces between neighboring vehicles and are designed to enforce a desired inter-vehicle spacing. A virtual leader is a moving reference point that influences vehicles in its neighborhood by means of additional artificial potentials. Virtual leaders can

  8. Carotid atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Initial results from a case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Guzick; Evelyn O. Talbott; Kim Sutton-Tyrrell; Holly C. Herzog; Lewis H. Kuller; Sidney K. Wolfson

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether women with polycystic ovary syndrome have greater subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by carotid artery ultrasonography. STUDY DESIGN: Sixteen premenopausal women ?40 years old with a history of clinical polycystic ovary syndrome and a current total testosterone concentration ?2.0 nmol\\/L and 16 age-matched (±5 years) cycling women underwent carotid scanning. Intima-media thickness and plaque

  9. A Double-Deck Elevator Group Supervisory Control System Using Genetic Network Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kotaro Hirasawa; Toru Eguchi; Jin Zhou; Lu Yu; Jinglu Hu; Sandor Markon

    2008-01-01

    Elevator group supervisory control systems (EGSCSs) are designed so that the movement of several elevators in a building is controlled efficiently. The efficient control of EGSCSs using conventional control methods is very difficult due to its complexity, so it is becoming popular to introduce artificial intelligence (AI) technologies into EGSCSs in recent years. As a new approach, a graph-based evolutionary

  10. 3 CFR - Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and girls, and gender-related health disparities; (ii) alternative...making available gender-sensitive health care for women and girls through...prevention and counseling as well as mental health and trauma services;...

  11. Designing a Control for a Behavioral Group Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Debra L.; Hugo, Emily M.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate whether the specific techniques of a newly developed behavioral therapy exceed the effects of its common factors (e.g. therapeutic alliance), an ideal comparison control must omit the unique ingredients of the active treatment while possessing the common factors in equal measure. Reviews of the controlled-trial psychotherapy research literature show that such systematic matching is not a common practice. Addressing this gap between theory and practice, we delineate seven steps for designing a credible control for a recently developed behavioral therapy adapted for Binge Eating Disorder—Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). Our detailed description of matching the common factors to the extent possible and specifically measuring these offers a useful research design template for investigators of controlled behavioral treatment trials. PMID:16823465

  12. Insulin, androgens, and obesity in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome: a heterogeneous group of disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Acién; Francisco Quereda; Pilar Matall??n; Encarnación Villarroya; Jose A López-Fernández; Maribel Acién; Monserrat Mauri; Roc??o Alfayate

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the correlations among insulin, androgens, body mass index (BMI), and other related metabolic anomalies in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Design: Retrospective study of normal and obese women with and without PCOS.Setting: Gynecologic endocrinology units of Elche, San Juan, and Alicante Hospitals and Hormone Laboratory at Alicante University Hospital (“Miguel Hernández” University).Patient(s): A total of

  13. Women and AD/HD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problems than men with ADHD, and often feel shame when comparing themselves to women without ADHD 11 . Because many women with ADHD feel shame and rejection, psychotherapy groups specifically designed for women ...

  14. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children’s coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. Methods/design The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7–13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the “Ladder of life” which measures overall life satisfaction, and “Jag tycker jag är” (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale “Familjeklimat” (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. Discussion There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study therefore makes an important contribution to this novel field of research. In the article various problems related to pursuing a study with children at risk are discussed. Trial registration ISRCTN52310507 PMID:24460905

  15. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  16. Constructing a Control Group Using Multivariate Matched Sampling Methods That Incorporate the Propensity Score

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Rosenbaum; Donald B. Rubin

    1985-01-01

    Matched sampling is a method for selecting units from a large reservoir of potential controls to produce a control group of modest size that is similar to a treated group with respect to the distribution of observed covariates. We illustrate the use of multivariate matching methods in an observational study of the effects of prenatal exposure to barbiturates on subsequent

  17. Trajectory Control for Groups of Humans by Deploying a Team of Mobile Robots

    E-print Network

    Ohya, Akihisa

    Trajectory Control for Groups of Humans by Deploying a Team of Mobile Robots Edgar Martinez a multi-robot system (MRS) trajectory control for conducting a group of humans is proposed. Its archi- tecture, implementation and the strategy to conduct people by a team of robots is discussed, as well

  18. Tensions Between Black Women and White Women: A Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Letha A. Lee See

    1989-01-01

    Despite the gains that women have made because of the women's liberation movement, black women have not embraced the move ment. This article reports on a pilot study of 94 black women and white women that examined the tensions between these two groups and their failure to unite to combat the oppressive patriarchal system. The variables that were studied included

  19. SOLID FUEL USE IS A MAJOR RISK FACTOR FOR ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROMES AMONG RURAL WOMEN: A MATCHED CASE CONTROL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Fatmi, Z.; Coggon, D.; Kazi, A.; Naeem, I.; Azam, I.; Kadir, M.M.; Sathiakumar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Almost half of the world’s population uses solid fuel for cooking, exposing women to high levels of particulate pollution in indoor air. We assessed the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among rural women, according to their use of solid fuel. Study design Matched case control study. Methods Data were collected at a public tertiary care hospital in a rural district of Pakistan. Seventy-three women with ACS were compared with controls, individually matched for sex and age (±5years), who were admitted to hospital for other reasons. Fuels used for cooking and exposures to potentially confounding variables were ascertained through a questionnaire administered at interview and measurement of height and weight. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results After adjustment for potential confounding factors, current use of solid fuel was strongly associated with ACS ( OR 4.8, 95% CI: 1.5 to 14.8), and risk was lowest in women who had last used solid fuel more than 15 years earlier. The population attributable fraction for ACS in relation to current use of solid fuel was 49.0% (95% CI: 41.3% - 57.4%). Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that indoor air pollution from use of solid fuel is an important cause of ACS. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of case-control studies in rural populations of women to address this question, and is an encouragement to larger and statistically more powerful investigations. PMID:24342134

  20. A longitudinal study of birth control and pregnancy outcome among women in a Swedish population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd Larsson; Febe Blohm; Gunilla Sundell; Björn Andersch; Ian Milsom

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of contraception and pregnancy outcome in the same women, at 19, 24, and 29 years of age, was assessed in a longitudinal cohort study using a postal questionnaire technique. A one-in-four random sample of all women born in 1962 and resident in the city of Göteborg in 1981, was obtained from the population register (n = 656). Respondents

  1. Locus of Control and HIV Risk Among a Sample of Mexican and Puerto Rican Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sana Loue; Marlene Cooper; Fatoumata Traore; Jay Fiedler

    2004-01-01

    The disproportionate impact of HIV\\/AIDS on Hispanic women in the United States has been variously attributed to a failure to utilize protective measures due to low levels of HIV knowledge, a denial or minimization of risk, and conflicts with cultural norms. It has been hypothesized that women's relative lack of power in relationships may be associated with higher risk sexual

  2. Enhancing Women's Resistance to Sexual Coercion: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the DATE Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorelei Simpson Rowe; Ernest N. Jouriles; Renee McDonald; Cora G. Platt; Gabriella S. Gomez

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to develop sexual assault prevention programs for college women, few have been rigorously evaluated, and fewer have demonstrable effects on victimization. This study pilots the Dating Assertiveness Training Experience (DATE), designed to train young women in assertiveness skills for responding to sexual coercion and to provide them opportunities to practice these skills in a safe environment.

  3. Enhancing Women's Resistance to Sexual Coercion: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the DATE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson Rowe, Lorelei; Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to develop sexual assault prevention programs for college women, few have been rigorously evaluated, and fewer have demonstrable effects on victimization. This study pilots the Dating Assertiveness Training Experience (DATE), designed to train young women in assertiveness skills for responding to sexual…

  4. The NGDO Co-ordination Group for Onchocerciasis Control.

    PubMed

    Haddad, D

    2008-09-01

    Since the beginning of the donation of Mectizan by Merck & Co., Inc., non-governmental development organizations (NGDO) have been actively involved in the mass distribution of this drug to control onchocerciasis. In 2006, the network of NGDO involved in onchocerciasis control assisted in the treatment of over 62 million people. The current strategy that is used for distribution in Africa, community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), is very well suited for integration with other health activities. NGDO have been the pioneers in integrating comprehensive eye care, insecticide-treated nets for malaria, the control of multiple 'neglected' tropical diseases, and vitamin-A supplementation. These expanded activities bring with them new challenges, which need to be addressed by all partners and where the NGDO will play an active role. PMID:18718153

  5. Implications of managerial control on performance of Dutch academic (bio)medical and health research groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inge van der Weijden; Dick de Gilder; Peter Groenewegen; Eduard Klasen

    2008-01-01

    Our paper examines the relationship between managerial control and research performance of academic groups. An understanding of the determinants of research performance is a prerequisite for designing effective micro- and macro-research policies. The paper focuses on Dutch medical and health research groups. Our paper addresses the following question: do (certain) research management activities enhance the performance of academic groups? A

  6. Menstrual and reproductive factors in the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in young women in France: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Xhaard, Constance; Rubino, Carole; Cléro, Enora; Maillard, Stéphane; Ren, Yan; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Sassolas, Geneviève; Schvartz, Claire; Colonna, Marc; Lacour, Brigitte; Danzon, Arlette; Velten, Michel; Buemi, Antoine; Bailly, Laurent; Mariné Barjoan, Eugènia; Schlumberger, Martin; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Adjadj, Elisabeth; de Vathaire, Florent

    2014-11-15

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in eastern Europe since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Although the radioactive fallout was much less severe and the thyroid radiation dose was much lower in France, a case-control study was initiated in eastern France. The present study included 633 young women who were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer before 35 years of age between 2002 and 2006 and matched with 677 controls. Face-to-face interviews were conducted from 2005 to 2010. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regressions and were reported in the total group and by histopathological type of cancer ("only papillary" and "excluding microcarcinomas"). The risk of thyroid cancer was higher in women who had a higher number of pregnancies, used a lactation suppressant, or had early menarche. Conversely, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, and late age at first pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of thyroid cancer. No association was observed between thyroid cancer and having irregular menstrual cycle, undergoing treatment for menstrual cycle regularity shortly after menarche, having a cessation of menstruation, use of another contraceptive, history of miscarriage or abortion for the first pregnancy, or having had gestational diabetes. This study confirms the role of hormonal and reproductive factors in thyroid cancer, and our results support the fact that exposure to estrogens increases thyroid cancer risk. PMID:25269571

  7. Abused and Nonabused Women: MMPI Profile Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellen, Murray I.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared abused women (N=10) with nonabused women (N=10) by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Results showed that when compared to a matched group of nonabused women, a significantly greater proportion of abused women evidenced pathological conditions. (LLL)

  8. High co-occurrence of anorectal chlamydia with urogenital chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic revealed by routine universal testing in an observational study; a recommendation towards a better anorectal chlamydia control in women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Symptom- and sexual history-based testing i.e., testing on indication, for anorectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women is common. Yet, it is unknown whether this strategy is effective. Moreover, little is known about alternative transmission routes i.e. by fingers/toys. This study assesses anorectal STI prevalence and infections missed by current testing practice, thereby informing the optimal control strategy for anorectal STIs in women. Methods Women (n?=?663) attending our STI-clinic between May 2012-July 2013 were offered routine testing for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Data were collected on demographics, sexual behaviour and symptoms. Women were assigned to one of the categories: indication (reported anal sex/symptoms), fingers/toys (only reported use of fingers/toys), or without indication. Results Of women, 92% (n?=?654) participated. There were 203 reports (31.0%) of anal sex and/or symptoms (indication), 48 reports (7.3%) of only using fingers/toys (fingers/toys), and 403 reports (61.6%) of no anal symptoms, no anal sex and no anal use of fingers/toys (without indication). The overall prevalence was 11.2% (73/654) for urogenital chlamydia and 8.4% (55/654) for anorectal chlamydia. Gonorrhoea infections were not observed. Prevalence of anorectal chlamydia was 7.9% (16/203) for women with indication and 8.6% (39/451) for all other women (P?=?0.74). Two-thirds (39/55) of anorectal infections were diagnosed in women without indication. Isolated anorectal chlamydia was rare (n?=?3): of all women with an anorectal infection, 94.5% (52/55) also had co-occurrence of urogenital chlamydia. Of all women with urogenital chlamydia, 71.2% (52/73) also had anorectal chlamydia. Conclusions Current selective testing on indication of symptoms and sexual history is not an appropriate control strategy for anorectal chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic. Routine universal anorectal testing is feasible and may be a possible control strategy in women. Yet costs may be a problem. When more restricted control measures are preferred, possible alternatives include (1) anorectal testing only in women with urogenital chlamydia (problem: treatment delay or loss to follow up), and (2) direct treatment for urogenital chlamydia that is effective for anorectal chlamydia as well. PMID:24885306

  9. Skin-whitening and skin-condition-improving effects of topical oxidized glutathione: a double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Fumiko; Hashizume, Erika; Chan, Gertrude P; Kamimura, Ayako

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Glutathione is a tripeptide consisting of cysteine, glycine, and glutamate and functions as a major antioxidant. It is synthesized endogenously in humans. Glutathione protects thiol protein groups from oxidation and is involved in cellular detoxification for maintenance of the cell environment. Reduced glutathione (GSH) has a skin-whitening effect in humans through its tyrosinase inhibitory activity, but in the case of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) this effect is unclear. We examined the skin-whitening and skin-condition effects of topical GSSG in healthy women. Subjects and methods The subjects were 30 healthy adult women aged 30 to 50 years. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, matched-pair, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects applied GSSG 2% (weight/weight [w/w]) lotion to one side of the face and a placebo lotion to the other side twice daily for 10 weeks. We objectively measured changes in melanin index values, moisture content of the stratum corneum, smoothness, wrinkle formation, and elasticity of the skin. The principal investigator and each subject also used subjective scores to investigate skin whitening, wrinkle reduction, and smoothness. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences between groups. Results The skin melanin index was significantly lower with GSSG treatment than with placebo from the early weeks after the start of the trial through to the end of the study period (at 10 weeks, P<0.001). In addition, in the latter half of the study period GSSG-treated sites had significant increases in moisture content of the stratum corneum, suppression of wrinkle formation, and improvement in skin smoothness. There were no marked adverse effects from GSSG application. Conclusion Topical GSSG is safe and effectively whitens the skin and improves skin condition in healthy women. PMID:25378941

  10. Adverse fetomaternal outcome among pregnant overweight women

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Shazia; Bibi, Seema; Makhdoom, Asadullah; Farooq, Sumaiya; SM, Tahir; Qazi, Roshan Ara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the adverse fetometernal out come in overweight and normal weight pregnant women. Methods: This comparative cohort study was conducted from 1st October 2010 to 30 September 2012. Total 200 gravid women 100 were overweight and 100 normal weight pregnant women with gestational age for 08-40 weeks were included. Women having BMI (25 – 29.9 Kg/m2) were measured overweight and included in group A and 100 women having normal BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 as controls were in-group B. Chi-square test was applied to compare the proportion of maternal and fetal outcomes. Significant P – value of < 0.05 was considered. Results: The age range was between 30 to 45 years with mean age of 30±4.1 years in both groups. Overweight pregnant women had significantly high frequency of pre-eclampsia (27% versus 9% in controls), PIH (24% versus 8% in controls), gestational diabetes mellitus (22% versus 5% in controls), prolonged labour (4% versus 6% in controls), Caesarean section (44% versus 16% in controls), Wound infection (3% versus 2% in controls) and Postpartum Hemorrhage (5% versus 2% in controls). P-value < 0.001 was considered significance. Fetal complications in overweight pregnant women compared to controls i.e. Still birth (13% versus 2%), Early neonatal death (11% versus 1%), shoulder dystocia (5% versus 1%) and NICU admission (47% versus 10%). Results were statistically significant except shoulder dystocia. Conclusion: We conclude that the result of present study indicates obesity exerts deleterious effect, both on fetal and maternal outcome.

  11. Control of complex, physically simulated robot groups David C. Brogan

    E-print Network

    Brogan, David

    when creating subtle movements that are unique or highly stylized. Generating expressive facial animations usually requires this low level of control. Automatic methods are beneficial because they can a desired action. This recorded motion is then played back through a graphical character. Motion capture

  12. Effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-Day Bed Rest on Postural Control in Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esteves, Julie; Taylor, Laura C.; Vanya, Robert D.; Dean, S. Lance; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDT) has been used as a safe gr ound-based analog to mimic and develop countermeasures for the physiological effects of spaceflight, including decrements in postural stability. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-day bed rest on postural control in men and women. METHODS Twenty-nine subjects (18M,11F) underwent 13 days of ambula tory acclimatization and were placed in 6? HDT for 30 (n=12), 60 (n=8), or 90 (n=9) days, followed by 14 days of ambulatory recovery. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) was used to assess changes in sensory and motor components of postural control, and recovery after HDT. Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) objectively evaluate one?s ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Stability during the SOTs was assessed using peak-to-peak sway and convergence toward stability limits to derive an equilibrium score. Motor Control Tests (MCTs) evaluate one?s ability to recover from unexpected support surface perturbations, with performance determined by center-of-pressure path length. Whole-body kinematic data were collected to determine body-sway strategy used to maintain stability during each condition. Baselines were determined pre-HDT. Recovery was tracked post-HDT on days 0, 1, 2, and 4. RESULTS Immediately after HDT, subjects showed decreased performance on most SOTs, primarily on sway-referenced support conditions, typically returning to baseline levels within 4 days. MCT performance was not significantly affected. There were no significant gender or duration differences in performance. Kinematic data revealed a tendency to use ankle strategy to maintain an upright stance during most SOT conditions. Interestingly, six subjects (2M,4F) experienced orthostatic intolerance and were unable to complete day 0 testing. CONCLUSION HDT mimics some un loading mechanisms of spaceflight and elicits orthostatic issues present post-spaceflight (contributing to instability); however, it does not sufficiently address the vestibular dysfunction which occurs post-spaceflight.

  13. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of the effects of a multi-modal exercise program on cognition and physical functioning in older women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intervention studies testing the efficacy of cardiorespiratory exercise have shown some promise in terms of improving cognitive function in later life. Recent developments suggest that a multi-modal exercise intervention that includes motor as well as physical training and requires sustained attention and concentration, may better elicit the actual potency of exercise to enhance cognitive performance. This study will test the effect of a multi-modal exercise program, for older women, on cognitive and physical functioning. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial involves community dwelling women, without cognitive impairment, aged 65–75 years. Participants are randomised to exercise intervention or non-exercise control groups, for 16 weeks. The intervention consists of twice weekly, 60 minute, exercise classes incorporating aerobic, strength, balance, flexibility, co-ordination and agility training. Primary outcomes are measures of cognitive function and secondary outcomes include physical functioning and a neurocognitive biomarker (brain derived neurotrophic factor). Measures are taken at baseline and 16 weeks later and qualitative data related to the experience and acceptability of the program are collected from a sub-sample of the intervention group. Discussion If this randomised controlled trial demonstrates that multimodal exercise (that includes motor fitness training) can improve cognitive performance in later life, the benefits will be two-fold. First, an inexpensive, effective strategy will have been developed that could ameliorate the increased prevalence of age-related cognitive impairment predicted to accompany population ageing. Second, more robust evidence will have been provided about the mechanisms that link exercise to cognitive improvement allowing future research to be better focused and potentially more productive. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registration Number: ANZCTR12612000451808 PMID:23009189

  14. A Phase Ii Trial Of Selumetinib (Azd6244) In Women With Recurrent Low-Grade Serous Carcinoma Of The Ovary Or Peritoneum: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Farley, John; Brady, William E.; Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Lankes, Heather A.; Coleman, Robert; Morgan, Mark A.; Mannel, Robert; Yamada, S. Diane; Mutch, David; Rodgers, William H.; Birrer, Michael; Gershenson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Because low grade serous carcinoma of the ovary is relatively chemo resistant disease, this study evaluated Selumetinib (AZD6244), an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK-1/2), and explored associations between RAS, and RAF family mutations with clinical outcome. METHODS Women with recurrent low-grade serous ovarian or peritoneal carcinoma were eligible and received Selumetinib at 100 mg. orally b.i.d. until progression or toxicity were enrolled in Gynecologic Oncology protocol 239(NCT00551070). This trial has been completed and we are reporting the results. The primary endpoint of this trial was to examine tumor response rate to Selumetinib. The study used all-treated patients to determine response rate and overall survival. FINDINGS Fifty-two patients were enrolled over two years. Eight patients (15.4%) had complete (1) or partial (7) responses, and 34 (65%) had stable disease. There were no treatment-related deaths. There were three observed grade 4 toxicities and 46 grade 3 toxicities that occurred in more than one patient. Observed grade 4 toxicities were cardiac (1), pain (1), and pulmonary (1). Grade 3 toxicities that occurred included gastrointestinal (13), dermatologic (9), and metabolic (7). CONCLUSIONS Selumetinib is well tolerated, and is active in the treatment of recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma. In exploratory analyses, response to Selumetinib did not appear to be related to RAS/RAF mutational status. The 63% disease control is encouraging and worthy of further evaluation of MEK inhibitors in this population. This study was supported by National Cancer Institute grants to the Gynecologic Oncology Group. PMID:23261356

  15. Learning Wisdom through Collectivity: The Women Writing Women Collective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Luanne; Bickel, Barbara; Fels, Lynn; Gerhard, Gillian; Hoy, Alyson; Jordan, Nané; Nielsen, Wendy; Smith, Annie; Stubbs, Jeannie; Triggs, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    The Women Writing Women Collective was a collegial and collaborative response to the isolation that is often experienced by women scholars as they pursue their academic careers. For 5 years, a group of women gathered on a monthly basis to share their writing. In doing so, the group members provided a sounding board for each other as they engaged…

  16. A Smartphone-Based Intervention With Diaries and Therapist-Feedback to Reduce Catastrophizing and Increase Functioning in Women With Chronic Widespread Pain: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fors, Egil A; Eide, Erlend; Finset, Arnstein; Stensrud, Tonje Lauritzen; van Dulmen, Sandra; Wigers, Sigrid Hørven; Eide, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet-based interventions using cognitive behavioral approaches can be effective in promoting self-management of chronic pain conditions. Web-based programs delivered via smartphones are increasingly used to support the self-management of various health disorders, but research on smartphone interventions for persons with chronic pain is limited. Objective The aim of this trial was to study the efficacy of a 4-week smartphone-delivered intervention with written diaries and therapist feedback following an inpatient chronic pain rehabilitation program. Methods A total of 140 women with chronic widespread pain who participated in a 4-week inpatient rehabilitation program were randomized into 2 groups: with or without a smartphone intervention after the rehabilitation. The smartphone intervention consisted of 1 face-to-face session and 4 weeks of written communication via a smartphone. Participants received 3 smartphone diary entries daily to support their awareness of and reflection on pain-related thoughts, feelings, and activities. The registered diaries were immediately available to a therapist who submitted personalized written feedback daily based on cognitive behavioral principles. Both groups were given access to a noninteractive website after discharge to promote constructive self-management. Outcomes were measured with self-reported questionnaires. The primary outcome measure of catastrophizing was determined using the pain catastrophizing scale (score range 0-52). Secondary outcomes included acceptance of pain, emotional distress, functioning, and symptom levels. Results Of the 140 participants, 112 completed the study: 48 in the intervention group and 64 in the control group. Immediately after the intervention period, the intervention group reported less catastrophizing (mean 9.20, SD 5.85) than the control group (mean 15.71, SD 9.11, P<.001), yielding a large effect size (Cohen’s d=0.87) for study completers. At 5-month follow-up, the between-group effect sizes remained moderate for catastrophizing (Cohen’s d=0.74, P=.003), acceptance of pain (Cohen’s d=0.54, P=.02), and functioning and symptom levels (Cohen’s d=0.75, P=.001). Conclusions The results suggest that a smartphone-delivered intervention with diaries and personalized feedback can reduce catastrophizing and prevent increases in functional impairment and symptom levels in women with chronic widespread pain following inpatient rehabilitation. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01236209; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01236209 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6DUejLpPY) PMID:23291270

  17. Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy with Mefloquine in HIV-Negative Women: A Multicentre Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Salim; Accrombessi, Manfred; Aponte, John J.; Akerey-Diop, Daisy; Basra, Arti; Briand, Valérie; Capan, Meskure; Cot, Michel; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor M.; Kleine, Christian; Kremsner, Peter G.; Macete, Eusebio; Mackanga, Jean-Rodolphe; Massougbodgi, Achille; Mayor, Alfredo; Nhacolo, Arsenio; Pahlavan, Golbahar; Ramharter, Michael; Rupérez, María; Sevene, Esperança; Vala, Anifa; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Menéndez, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended by WHO to prevent malaria in African pregnant women. The spread of SP parasite resistance has raised concerns regarding long-term use for IPT. Mefloquine (MQ) is the most promising of available alternatives to SP based on safety profile, long half-life, and high efficacy in Africa. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of MQ for IPTp compared to those of SP in HIV-negative women. Methods and Findings A total of 4,749 pregnant women were enrolled in an open-label randomized clinical trial conducted in Benin, Gabon, Mozambique, and Tanzania comparing two-dose MQ or SP for IPTp and MQ tolerability of two different regimens. The study arms were: (1) SP, (2) single dose MQ (15 mg/kg), and (3) split-dose MQ in the context of long lasting insecticide treated nets. There was no difference on low birth weight prevalence (primary study outcome) between groups (360/2,778 [13.0%]) for MQ group and 177/1,398 (12.7%) for SP group; risk ratio [RR], 1.02 (95% CI 0.86–1.22; p?=?0.80 in the ITT analysis). Women receiving MQ had reduced risks of parasitemia (63/1,372 [4.6%] in the SP group and 88/2,737 [3.2%] in the MQ group; RR, 0.70 [95% CI 0.51–0.96]; p?=?0.03) and anemia at delivery (609/1,380 [44.1%] in the SP group and 1,110/2743 [40.5%] in the MQ group; RR, 0.92 [95% CI 0.85–0.99]; p?=?0.03), and reduced incidence of clinical malaria (96/551.8 malaria episodes person/year [PYAR] in the SP group and 130/1,103.2 episodes PYAR in the MQ group; RR, 0.67 [95% CI 0.52–0.88]; p?=?0.004) and all-cause outpatient attendances during pregnancy (850/557.8 outpatients visits PYAR in the SP group and 1,480/1,110.1 visits PYAR in the MQ group; RR, 0.86 [0.78–0.95]; p?=?0.003). There were no differences in the prevalence of placental infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes between groups. Tolerability was poorer in the two MQ groups compared to SP. The most frequently reported related adverse events were dizziness (ranging from 33.9% to 35.5% after dose 1; and 16.0% to 20.8% after dose 2) and vomiting (30.2% to 31.7%, after dose 1 and 15.3% to 17.4% after dose 2) with similar proportions in the full and split MQ arms. The open-label design is a limitation of the study that affects mainly the safety assessment. Conclusions Women taking MQ IPTp (15 mg/kg) in the context of long lasting insecticide treated nets had similar prevalence rates of low birth weight as those taking SP IPTp. MQ recipients had less clinical malaria than SP recipients, and the pregnancy outcomes and safety profile were similar. MQ had poorer tolerability even when splitting the dose over two days. These results do not support a change in the current IPTp policy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00811421; Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR 2010020001429343 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25247709

  18. Iron status and socioeconomic determinants of the quantity and quality of dietary iron in a group of rural Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Djazayery, A; Keshavarz, A; Ansari, F; Mahmoudi, M

    2001-01-01

    Iron intake and status were investigated in 471 mothers (age range: 16-53 years) from rural areas in Khorramabad, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although average total iron intake was acceptable, only 6.4% of women derived at least 4% of their total intake from animal iron. Average energy and protein intakes were inadequate. Low iron status was seen in 8.2%-28.7%, depending on the parameter used, with 28.3% experiencing iron-deficiency anaemia. Significantly higher animal iron intakes were found in literate or employed women, or those of family size fewer than six people. Increasing employment opportunities, income levels and literacy rates for women will result in better iron intake and status and should receive particular attention in national planning. PMID:15332762

  19. Oxytocin infusion during second stage of labour in primiparous women using epidural analgesia: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Saunders; H. Spiby; L. Gilbert; R. B. Fraser; J. M. Hall; P. M. Mutton; A. Jackson; D. K. Edmonds

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the high rate of forceps delivery associated with the use of epidural analgesia could be reduced through giving an intravenous infusion of oxytocin during the second stage of labour. DESIGN--A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. SETTING--Delivery suites in three hospitals. SUBJECTS--226 Primiparous women with adequate epidural analgesia in whom full dilatation of the cervix had been

  20. Effect of Glycemic Treatment and Microvascular Complications on Menopause in Women With Type 1 Diabetes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Catherine; Cleary, Patricia A.; Cowie, Catherine C.; Braffett, Barbara H.; Dunn, Rodney L.; Larkin, Mary E.; Gatcomb, Patricia M.; Wessells, Hunter B.; Nathan, David M.; Sarma, Aruna V.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the impact of intensive versus conventional diabetes treatment upon menopause among women with type 1 diabetes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), a randomized controlled trial of intensive diabetes treatment, and its observational follow-up, the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a secondary analysis of women in the DCCT/EDIC (n = 657), outcomes were the cumulative incidences of natural menopause and surgical menopause. Cox regression analyses were used to examine associations with treatment group, time-varying estimates of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin dosage, BMI, and microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy). RESULTS By EDIC year 18, after an average of 28 years of follow-up, 240 (38%) women had experienced natural menopause and 115 (18%) women had experienced surgical menopause. Age at natural menopause was similar in the intensive versus conventional groups (49.9 vs. 49.0 years; P = 0.28), and age at surgical menopause was similar in the intensive versus conventional groups (40.8 vs. 42.0 years; P = 0.31). In multivariable models, treatment group, HbA1c, and microvascular complications were not associated with risk of natural or surgical menopause. Each 10 unit/day increase in insulin dosage decreased risk of natural menopause (hazard ratio [HR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.75–0.98) and each kg/m2 increase in BMI increased risk of surgical menopause (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00–1.16). CONCLUSIONS In the DCCT/EDIC, intensive versus conventional treatment group and HbA1c level were not associated with menopause risk. Greater insulin dose was associated with lower menopause risk. PMID:24170751

  1. A safety awareness program for women with diverse disabilities: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Whelen, Susan; Hughes, Rosemary B; Gabrielli, Joy; Lund, Emily M; Abramson, Wendie; Swank, Paul R

    2014-07-01

    Women with diverse disabilities (N = 213), recruited through 10 centers for independent living (CILs), were randomly assigned to either a personal safety awareness program or usual care. The 8-week program, led by CIL staff, was designed to increase safety awareness, abuse and safety knowledge, safety skills, safety self-efficacy, social support, and safety promoting behaviors. All participants completed pre-, post-, and 6-month follow-up questionnaires. Results revealed that participation in a brief safety awareness program may improve safety protective factors among women with disabilities who vary widely in their experience with abuse. The program holds promise for enhancing safety among women with disabilities. PMID:25031362

  2. Myo-inositol may prevent gestational diabetes in PCOS women.

    PubMed

    D'Anna, R; Di Benedetto, V; Rizzo, P; Raffone, E; Interdonato, M L; Corrado, F; Di Benedetto, A

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate retrospectively the prevalence of gestational diabetes (GD) in pregnancies obtained with myo-inositol administration in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. A total of 98 pregnancies in PCOS women obtained in a 3-year period, either with myo-inositol (n. 54), or with metformin (n. 44) were considered. While myo-inositol was assumed through the whole pregnancy, the group of women treated with metformin stopped the drug assumption after pregnancy diagnosis, and was considered as a control group. After having eliminated cases of miscarriages and twin pregnancies, a definitive number of 46 women in the myo-inositol group and 37 in the control group was taken in account to be retrospectively evaluated. The primary outcome measure was GD occurrence in both groups; whereas secondary outcome measures were pregnancy outcomes: hypertensive disorders, pre-term birth, macrosomia and caesarean section occurrence. Prevalence of GD in the myo-inositol group was 17.4% versus 54% in the control group, with a highly significant difference also after adjusting for covariates. Consequently, in the control group the risk of GD occurrence was more than double compared to the myo-inositol group, with an odds ratio 2.4 (confidence interval 95%, 1.3-4.4). There was no difference between the groups in relation to secondary outcome measures. This study suggests a possible effect of myo-inositol in the primary prevention of GD in PCOS women. PMID:22122627

  3. Initial Outcomes From a 4-Week Follow-Up Study of the Text4baby Program in the Military Women’s Population: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wallace Bihm, Jasmine; Szekely, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter; Murray, Elizabeth; Abroms, Lorien; Snider, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of mobile phone technologies for health promotion and disease prevention has advanced rapidly in recent years. Text4baby is a theory-based mobile health (mHealth) program in which text messages are delivered to pregnant women and new mothers to improve their health care beliefs and behaviors and improve health status and clinical outcomes. Recent evaluations of Text4baby have found that it improves targeted health attitudes and beliefs, but effects on behavior have not yet been determined. Objective In this study, investigators aimed to evaluate Text4baby in the military women’s population. Methods Investigators conducted a randomized controlled trial at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington, from December 2011 through September 2013. All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at Madigan. Investigators conducted a baseline assessment using a 24-item, self-administered online survey of attitudes and behaviors related to Text4baby message content. Participants were randomized to Text4baby plus usual care (intervention) or usual care alone (control). Investigators analyzed treatment effects of Text4baby on short-term targeted outcomes 4 weeks post enrollment. Results For this study, 943 patients were randomized and completed a baseline assessment. The average patient age was 28 years and nearly 70% self-identified as Caucasian. 48.7% of enrollees (459/943) completed the first follow-up assessment. Higher rates of single and working/in-school patients dropped out of the intervention arm of the study, and we adjusted for this finding in subsequent models. However, while investigators were unable to re-survey these participants, only 1.9% of Text4baby enrollees (18/943) dropped the service during the study period. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic generalized estimating equation models were developed to assess intervention effects on measured outcomes. In the model adjusting for age, marital status, having had a previous baby, and race/ethnicity, there was a significant effect of Text4baby intervention exposure on increased agreement with belief in the importance of taking prenatal vitamins (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.08-3.34, P=.024). All of these attitudes had been targeted by at least one text message during the 4-week evaluation period examined in this study. In unadjusted models, there was a significant effect of intervention exposure on belief in the importance of visiting a health care provider to be a healthy new mother (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.31, P=.046) and in the health risks of alcohol during pregnancy (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.00-4.31, P=.05). No behavioral effects of the intervention were observed in this analysis. Conclusions Text4baby is a promising program that offers lessons for future mHealth activities. This large-scale study demonstrated initial effects of the program on attitudes and beliefs targeted by the messages received by women during the study period. Results confirm previous findings from Text4baby studies and other mHealth research. Future analyses will examine dosage effects of the intervention on behaviors and clinical outcomes. PMID:24846909

  4. Effect of Administration of Single Dose GnRH Agonist in Luteal Phase on Outcome of ICSI-ET Cycles in Women with Previous History of IVF/ICSI Failure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zafardoust, Simin; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Kamali, Koroush; Mokhtar, Sara; Badehnoosh, Bita; Arjmand-Teymouri, Fatemeh; Fatemi, Farnaz; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background GnRH agonist administration in the luteal phase has been suggested to beneficially affect the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer (ET) cycles. This blind randomized controlled study evaluates the effect of GnRH (Gonadotropine Releasing Hormone) agonist administration on ICSI outcome in GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol in women with 2 or more previous IVF/ICSI-ET failures. Methods One hundred IVF failure women who underwent ICSI cycles and stimulated with GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol, were included in the study. Women were randomly assigned to intervention (received a single dose injection of GnRH agonist (0.1 mg of Decapeptil) subcutaneously 6 days after oocyte retrieval) and control (did not receive GnRH agonist) groups. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were the primary outcome measures. Results Although the age of women, the number of embryos transferred in the current cycle and the quality of the transferred embryos were similar in the two groups, there was a significantly higher rate of implantation (Mann Whitney test, p = 0.041) and pregnancy (32.6% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.030, OR = 3.3, 95%CI, 1.08 to 10.4) in the intervention group. Conclusion Our results suggested that, in addition to routine luteal phase support using progesterone, administration of 0.1 mg of Decapeptil 6 days after oocyte retrieval in women with previous history of 2 or more IVF/ICSI failures led to a significant improvement in implantation and pregnancy rates after ICSI following ovarian stimulation with GnRH antagonist protocol. PMID:25927026

  5. DIAL 2004 Working Group Report on Acquisition Quality Control Elisa H. Barney Smith1

    E-print Network

    Nagy, George

    DIAL 2004 Working Group Report on Acquisition Quality Control Elisa H. Barney Smith1 , Henry Baird2 third is scanning, OCR, correction, and markup. The final third is quality control, file maintenance. The committee contemplated whether we can convince people it is worthy to spend the money on quality control

  6. Comparative histological analysis of anterior vaginal wall in women with pelvic organ prolapse or control subjects. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Badiou, Wassim; Granier, Guillaume; Bousquet, Philippe-Jean; Monrozies, Xavier; Mares, Pierre; de Tayrac, Renaud

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare smooth muscle content of anterior vaginal wall in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and control subjects. Specimens were taken in the midline from the apex of anterior vaginal cuff from eleven women with POP and eight control subjects operated for hysterectomy without prolapse. Masson's trichrome stain was used to determine the distribution of collagen in the extracellular matrix of the vaginal muscularis and to quantify the collagen in area of interest. Slides of alpha smooth muscle actin were detected using antibodies. Morphometric analysis was used to compare and to quantify the smooth muscle content of the vaginal muscularis. Fractional area of nonvascular vaginal smooth muscle of women with POP was significantly decreased in comparison to control subjects (41.9 vs 61.9%, p = 0.005). Fractional area of connective tissue was significantly increased (56.8 vs 35%, p = 0.004). Fractional area of blood vessels was similar (2.2 vs 3.4%, p = 0.20). PMID:18183343

  7. [The prevalence of low back pain and its relationship with household jobs and other factors in a group of women in a rural area in Manisa].

    PubMed

    Erbay Dündar, Pinar; Cengiz Ozyurt, Beyhan; Ozmen, Dilek

    2006-10-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of low back pain and to evaluate the effects of household jobs on low back pain in women living in a rural setting in Manisa. Study population is consisted of 302 women and cluster sampling is performed according to percentage of health center district populations. Participation ratio of this study was 89.1%. Univariete and multivariete risk approach in 95% confidence interval and t test were performed in data analysis. Brief Disability Questionnaire was applied to the study group. Life time and point prevalence of low back pain were determined 79.2% and 34.9% of the study group. Low back pain risk in 95 % CI was higher in wrong posture during ironing, heavy load lifting, overweight/obesity and disability 2.2 (1.1- 4.5), 4.5 (2.1-9.2), 3.8 (1.7-8.3) and 9.2 (4.3-19.7) times respectively. For preventive health measures it is necessary to apply ergonomic working conditions and to give appropriate postural habits to women. PMID:17457714

  8. Predictors of HIV positivity among pregnant women presenting for obstetric care in South India - a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Eileen; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Philip, Philimol; Alexander, Glory

    2011-10-01

    Feminization of the HIV epidemic in India has increasingly burdened the public health infrastructure to provide prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. A mere 20% of pregnant women in the country receive HIV counseling and testing. One of the strategies, for expansion of PMTCT services is to ascertain an accurate identification of HIV-positive pregnant women. Thus, we sought to characterize a demographic profile of pregnant women at high-risk for HIV infection. We performed a retrospective case-control study. We included as cases, all HIV-positive women identified in a PMTCT program implemented in 23 charitable faith-based hospitals in four states in South India over a period of 75 months, starting in January 2003. Thus a total of 320 HIV-positive cases were frequency matched using stratified random sampling to 365 HIV-negative pregnant women presenting for antenatal care during the same time period. Cases and controls were compared using Chi-square test for categorical variables and Student's t-test for continuous variables. Multivariate step-wise logistic regression analysis was performed. On multivariate analysis, following factors were independently predictive of HIV positivity: age ?25 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.50; confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.76; p = 0.001); illiteracy (OR 4.89; CI 2.79-8.57; p <0.0001); woman holding a service and/or professional job (OR 0.27; CI 0.14-0.53; p <0.0001); spouses holding a service or higher job (OR 3.13; CI 2.13-4.59; p <0.0001); being married ?5 years (OR 2.89; CI 1.68-4.95; p <0.0001); late gestational age at presentation (OR 3.06; CI 2.04-4.59; p <0.0001); history of fetal and/or live born loss (OR 2.36; CI 1.51-3.67; p <0.0001). To our knowledge this is the first large study to evaluate factors predictive of HIV positivity among women presenting for antenatal care in the Indian setting. This type of profiling of HIV-positive pregnant women may help expand PMTCT services in a focused and cost-effective manner in India. PMID:21732895

  9. Sleep Disturbance and Neurobehavioral Performance among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Williams, Kayla B.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disturbances cause neurobehavioral performance and daytime functioning impairments. Postpartum women experience high levels of sleep disturbance. Thus, the study objective was to describe and explore the relation between neurobehavioral performance and sleep among women during the early postpartum period. Design: Longitudinal field-based study. Participants: There were 70 primiparous women and nine nulliparous women in a control group. Interventions: None. Methods and Results: During their first 12 postpartum weeks, 70 primiparous women wore continuous wrist actigraphy to objectively monitor their sleep. Each morning they self-administered the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to index their neurobehavioral performance. Nine nulliparous women in a control group underwent the same protocol for 12 continuous weeks. Postpartum PVT mean reciprocal (1/RT) reaction time did not differ from that of women in the control group at postpartum week 2, but then worsened over time. Postpartum slowest 10% 1/RT PVT reaction time was significantly worse than that of women in the control group at all weeks. Despite improvements in postpartum sleep, neurobehavioral performance continued to worsen from week 2 through the end of the study. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, PVT measures were more frequently associated with percent sleep compared with total sleep time, highlighting the deleterious consequences of sleep disruption on maternal daytime functioning throughout the early postpartum period. Conclusions: Worsened maternal neurobehavioral performance across the first 12 postpartum weeks may have been influenced by the cumulative effects of sleep disturbance. These results can inform future work to identify the particular sleep profiles that could be primary intervention targets to improve daytime functioning among postpartum women, and indicate need for further research on the effectiveness of family leave policies. The time when postpartum women return to control-level daytime functioning is unknown. Citation: Insana SP; Williams KB; Montgomery-Downs HE. Sleep disturbance and neurobehavioral performance among postpartum women. SLEEP 2013;36(1):73–81. PMID:23288973

  10. Ethnic Chinese women's perceptions about condoms, withdrawal and rhythm methods of birth control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen R. Wiebe; Patricia A. Janssen; Angela Henderson; Iris Fung

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveTo gain a better understanding of ethnic Chinese women's perceptions and experiences of using barrier and rhythm methods of contraception in order to improve contraceptive counseling at abortion clinics.

  11. Women as Mendelians and Geneticists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Marsha L.

    2015-01-01

    After the rediscovery of Mendel's laws of heredity in 1900, the biologists who began studying heredity, variation, and evolution using the new Mendelian methodology—performing controlled hybrid crosses and statistically analyzing progeny to note the factorial basis of characters—made great progress. By 1910, the validity of Mendelism was widely recognized and the field William Bateson christened `genetics' was complemented by the chromosome theory of heredity of T. H. Morgan and his group in the United States. Historians, however, have largely overlooked an important factor in the early establishment of Mendelism and genetics: the large number of women who contributed to the various research groups. This article examines the social, economic, and disciplinary context behind this new wave of women's participation in science and describes the work of women Mendelians and geneticists employed at three leading experimental research institutes, 1900-1940. It argues that the key to more women working in science was the access to higher education and the receptivity of emerging interdisciplinary fields such as genetics to utilize the expertise of women workers, which not only advanced the discipline but also provided new opportunities for women's employment in science.

  12. Two decision aids for mode of delivery among women with previous caesarean section: randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan A Montgomery; Clare L Emmett; Tom Fahey; Claire Jones; Ian Ricketts; Roshni R Patel; Tim J Peters; Deirdre J Murphy

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effects of two computer based decision aids on decisional conflict and mode of delivery among pregnant women with a previous caesarean section.Design Randomised trial, conducted from May 2004 to August 2006.Setting Four maternity units in south west England, and Scotland.Participants 742 pregnant women with one previous lower segment caesarean section and delivery expected at ?37 weeks.

  13. Developing a Leadership Identity: A Case Study Exploring a Select Group of Hispanic Women at a Hispanic Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onorato, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Leadership is a socially constructed concept shaped by the context, values and experiences of society (Klenke, 1996); the historical context of gender and ethnicity in society affects views about leadership and who merits a leadership role. Therefore, developing an understanding of Hispanic women students' leadership identity development is…

  14. IDENTIFYING FOOD GROUPINGS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE ENERGY DENSITY OF DIETS OF WOMEN IN THE GEISINGER RURAL AGING STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, energy density (ED) (kcal/wt of food) rather than energy intake was shown to be associated with weight status in rural older women. Specifically, diets higher in ED were associated with higher BMI and waist circumference. To understand how to guide specific dietary recommendat...

  15. HOLISTIC OBSTETRICAL PROBLEM EVALUATION (HOPE): TESTING A THEORY TO PREDICT BIRTH OUTCOMES IN A GROUP OF WOMEN FROM APPALACHIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Elizabeth Jesse; Martha Raile Alligood

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Holistic Obstetrical Problem Evaluation (HOPE) theory by determining the effects of prenatal factors from the biophysical, psychosocial, spiritual, and perceptual domains of the HOPE theory with infant birth outcomes. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using standard and reliable questionnaires with a convenience sample of 120 pregnant women between the ages of 14

  16. What British women say matters to them about donating an aborted fetus to stem cell research: A focus group study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomi Pfeffer

    2008-01-01

    This is the first investigation into what matters to British women when they think about donating an aborted fetus to research, and how stem cell research and therapies might influence their views. Tissue derived from the aborted fetus is considered “the right tool for the job” in some stem cell laboratories. Research using tissue derived from aborted fetuses is permitted

  17. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Mike; /Fermilab; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  18. Sexual Response in Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Controlled Laboratory Study Measuring Vaginal Blood Flow and Subjective Sexual Arousal.

    PubMed

    Both, Stephanie; Ter Kuile, Moniek; Enzlin, Paul; Dekkers, Olaf; van Dijk, Marieke; Weijenborg, Philomeen

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that women with diabetes mellitus are at higher risk to develop sexual dysfunctions. In the current study, we hypothesized that lower genital arousal response-as a consequence of diabetes-related damage to nerves and blood vessels-might play a part in these higher prevalence rates. Vaginal blood flow, subjective sexual response, and clitoral sensitivity were compared between women with diabetes and healthy controls, and associations with diabetes complications were investigated. In pre- and postmenopausal women with type 1 diabetes (n = 42) and healthy controls (n = 46), vaginal blood flow was measured as vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA). VPA was assessed at rest, during erotic film viewing, and during vibrotactile clitoral stimulation. Subjective sexual arousal was measured using a questionnaire. Clitoral sensitivity was assessed by a vibration perception test. Data on diabetes complications were obtained from medical records, and neuropathy was assessed by quantitative sensory testing. VPA, subjective sexual arousal, and clitoral sensitivity were not significantly different between women with diabetes and controls. Nevertheless, women with diabetes who had retinopathy showed significantly lower VPA than women without retinopathy, and women with diabetes who had neuropathy showed significantly higher sensation thresholds for vibrotactile clitoral stimulation. The results do not support the hypothesis of a disrupted genital arousal response in women with diabetes. However, the observed associations between retinopathy and vaginal blood flow, and between neuropathy and clitoral sensitivity, suggest that diabetes-related complications might adversely affect the physiological basis of female sexual response. PMID:26054485

  19. Case–control study of anaemia among middle-aged and elderly women in three rural areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pengkun; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Wang, Chunrong; Meng, Liping; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To propose a feasible suggestion to reduce the high prevalence of anaemia in middle-aged and elderly women by investigating risk factors, particularly nutritional factors, and analysing the effect on anaemia in three different rural areas of China. Design A case–control study. Setting Three counties of China. Participants Women aged 50–75?years in the three counties. Main outcome measures Adjusted OR (95% CI) of anaemia associated with diet, lifestyle and blood biochemical indices. Results Compared with controls, women with anaemia had lower body mass index (22.1 (3.2) kg/m2 vs 23.2 (3.5)?kg/m2; p<0.001), a higher experience of shortage of food (45.0% vs 36.5%; p<0.001), less soy food intake (0.5 (0.3, 26.7)?g/day vs 5.6 (0.4, 27.8)?g/day; p<0.048), lower serum iron (13.4 (5.4)??mol/L vs 16.4 (5.7)??mol/L; p<0.001), lower ferritin (109.6 (85.6)?ng/mL vs 131.0 (92.0)?ng/mL; p<0.001), lower transferrin saturation levels (22.5 (9.5)% vs 26.8 (9.6)%; p<0.001) and higher levels of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (42.4 (21.2)??g/dL vs 39.6 (17.8)??g/dL; p<0.001). Anaemia was significantly associated with BMI(OR=0.90, 95% CI (0.87 to 0.92)), food shortage experience (OR=1.39, 95% CI (1.15 to 1.69)), total protein (OR=0.66, 95%CI (0.54 to 0.80)), Albumin (OR=0.72, 95%CI (0.59 to 0.87)) in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that body mass index, experience of food shortage, total protein and albumin were independently related to anaemia. Conclusions Among middle-aged and elderly women in rural China, the nutrition status of anaemic cases is far below that of controls. Lower body mass index and a greater experience of food shortage are closely related to anaemia. Improving the blood protein status by consuming protein-sufficient foods such as soy food is a feasible approach for elderly anaemic women. Further research is needed on the effect of chronic inflammation and infectious disease on anaemia in elderly women in rural China. PMID:25138800

  20. Online Data Collection in Women’s Health Research: A Study of Perimenopausal Women with Migraines

    PubMed Central

    MOLONEY, MARGARET F.; STRICKLAND, ORA L.; DIETRICH, ALEXA; MYERBURG, STUART

    2008-01-01

    An estimated 17 to 18 percent of all women, and six percent of men, experience migraines. Hormonal shifts may cause migraines to recur, worsen, or even begin during the perimenopause and are a significant cause of discomfort and disability. However, very little research has explored the experience of migraines in this population. The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of perimenopausal women with migraines, via online questionnaires and discussion boards, and to evaluate the feasibility of collecting women’s health data via the Internet. In an earlier study, we found that midlife women had difficulty attending focus groups due to other time commitments. This study was designed to increase accessibility to the research via the Internet. Of the 43 women recruited into the study, 21 were also interviewed in “real-time” qualitative interviews; all received passwords to complete online questionnaires and participate in three- to four-week discussion boards on the study Web site. Quantitative data were imported into SPSS; narrative qualitative data from discussion boards were transferred to a software package for analysis. Online questionnaires and discussion boards were found to be feasible methods for data collection for this population. Qualitative data analysis revealed themes related to women’s efforts to predict and control their headaches, the relationship of headaches to women’s menses and menopausal symptoms, and the effects of migraines on their lives. In this paper we describe the process of using the Internet, feminist issues related to this innovative methodology, and also discuss the results of a major study theme, the experience of headaches in relationship to the menstrual cycle. PMID:20209041

  1. Results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a mobile SMS-based intervention on treatment adherence in HIV/AIDS-infected Brazilian women and impressions and satisfaction with respect to incoming messages

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Thiago Martini; Barbosa, Bárbara Jaqueline Peres; e Costa, Durval Alex Gomes; Sigulem, Daniel; de Fátima Marin, Heimar; Filho, Adauto Castelo; Pisa, Ivan Torres

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether a warning system based on mobile SMS messages increases the adherence of HIV-infected Brazilian women to antiretroviral drug-based treatment regimens and their impressions and satisfaction with respect to incoming messages. Design A randomized controlled trial was conducted from May 2009 to April 2010 with HIV-infected Brazilian women. All participants (n = 21) had a monthly multidisciplinary attendance; each participant was followed over a 4-month period, when adherence measures were obtained. Participants in the intervention group (n = 8) received SMS messages 30 min before their last scheduled time for a dose of medicine during the day. The messages were sent every Saturday and Sunday and on alternate days during the working week. Participants in the control group (n = 13) did not receive messages. Measurements Self-reported adherence, pill counting, microelectronic monitors (MEMS) and an interview about the impressions and satisfaction with respect to incoming messages. Results The HIV Alert System (HIVAS) was developed over 7 months during 2008 and 2009. After the study period, self-reported adherence indicated that 11 participants (84.62%) remained compliant in the control group (adherence exceeding 95%), whereas all 8 participants in the intervention group (100.00%) remained compliant. In contrast, the counting pills method indicated that the number of compliant participants was 5 (38.46%) for the control group and 4 (50.00%) for the intervention group. Microelectronic monitoring indicated that 6 participants in the control group (46.15%) were adherent during the entire 4-month period compared to 6 participants in the intervention group (75.00%). According to the feedback of the 8 participants who completed the research in the intervention group, along with the feedback of 3 patients who received SMS for less than 4 months, that is, did not complete the study, 9 (81.81%) believed that the SMS messages aided them in treatment adherence, and 10 (90.90%) responded that they would like to continue receiving SMS messages. SMS messaging can help Brazilian women living with HIV/AIDS to adhere to antiretroviral therapy for a period of at least 4 months. In general, the results are encouraging because the SMS messages stimulated more participants in the intervention group to be adherent to their treatment, and the patients were satisfied with the messages received, which were seen as reminders, incentives and signs of affection by the health clinic for a marginalized population. PMID:22296762

  2. Local Control, Toxicity, and Cosmesis in Women >70 Years Enrolled in the American Society of Breast Surgeons Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Registry Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Atif J., E-mail: atif_khan@rwjuh.edu [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Vicini, Frank A.; Beitsch, Peter [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States)] [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States); Goyal, Sharad [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)] [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Kuerer, Henry M.; Keisch, Martin; Quiet, Coral; Zannis, Victor; Keleher, Angela; Snyder, Howard; Gittleman, Mark; Whitworth, Pat; Fine, Richard [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States)] [American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States); Lyden, Maureen [BioStat International, Inc., Tampa, FL (United States)] [BioStat International, Inc., Tampa, FL (United States); Haffty, Bruce G. [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States) [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); American Society of Breast Surgeons, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The American Society of Breast Surgeons enrolled women in a registry trial to prospectively study patients treated with the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System breast brachytherapy device. The present report examined the outcomes in women aged >70 years enrolled in the trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,449 primary early stage breast cancers were treated in 1,440 women. Of these, 537 occurred in women >70 years old. Fisher's exact test was performed to correlate age ({<=}70 vs. >70 years) with toxicity and with cosmesis. The association of age with local recurrence (LR) failure times was investigated by fitting a parametric model. Results: Older women were less likely to develop telangiectasias than younger women (7.9% vs. 12.4%, p = 0.0083). The incidence of other toxicities was similar. Cosmesis was good or excellent in 92% of the women >70 years old. No significant difference was found in LR as a function of age. The 5-year actuarial LR rate with invasive disease for the older vs. younger population was 2.79% and 2.92%, respectively (p = 0.5780). In women >70 years with hormone-sensitive tumors {<=}2 cm who received hormonal therapy (n = 195), the 5-year actuarial rate of LR, overall survival, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival was 2.06%, 89.3%, 87%, and 97.5%, respectively. These outcomes were similar in women who did not receive hormonal therapy. Women with small, estrogen receptor-negative disease had worse LR, overall survival, and disease-free survival compared with receptor-positive patients. Conclusions: Accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system resulted in low toxicity and produced similar cosmesis and local control at 5 years in women >70 years compared with younger women. This treatment should be considered as an alternative to omitting adjuvant radiotherapy for older women with small-volume, early-stage breast cancer.

  3. A randomised controlled trial on the Four Pillars Approach in managing pregnant women with anaemia in Yogyakarta–Indonesia: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a common health problem among pregnant women and a contributing factor with a major influence on maternal mortality in Indonesia. The Four Pillars Approach is a new approach to anaemia in pregnancy, combining four strategies to improve antenatal and delivery care. The primary objective of this study is to measure the effectiveness of the Four Pillars Approach. The barriers, the facilitators, and the patients’ as well as the midwives’ satisfaction with the Four Pillars Approach will also be measured. Methods/Design This study will use a cluster randomised controlled trial. This intervention study will be conducted in the Public Health Centres with basic emergency obstetric care in Yogyakarta Special Province and in Central Java Province. We will involve all the Public Health Centres (24) with emergency obstetric care in Yogyakarta Special Province. Another 24 Public Health Centres with emergency obstetric care in Central Java Province which have similarities in their demographic, population characteristics, and facilities will also be involved. Each Public Health Centre will be asked to choose two or three nurse-midwives to participate in this study. For the intervention group, the Public Health Centres in Yogyakarta Special Province, training on the Four Pillars Approach will be held prior to the model’s implementation. Consecutively, we will recruit 360 pregnant women with anaemia to take part in part in the study to measure the effectiveness of the intervention. The outcome measurements are the differences in haemoglobin levels between the intervention and control groups in the third trimester of pregnancy, the frequency of antenatal care attendance, and the presence of a nurse-midwife during labour. Qualitative data will be used to investigate the barriers and facilitating factors, as to nurse-midwives’ satisfaction with the implementation of the Four Pillars Approach. Discussion If the Four Pillars Approach is effective in improving the outcome for pregnant women with anaemia, this approach could be implemented nationwide and be taken into consideration to improve the outcome for other conditions in pregnancy, after further research. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN35822126. PMID:24884497

  4. The Effects of Consumption of Bread Fortified With Soy Bean Flour on Metabolic Profile in Type 2 Diabetic Women: A Cross-over Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Asma Salari; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholam Reza; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and has become a major threat for global health. Recent studies reported that the soy has beneficial effects in diabetic mellitus patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of soybean flour fortified bread consumption on metabolic profile in type 2 diabetic women. Methods: This randomized, cross-over, controlled clinical trial was carried out in 30 type 2 diabetic women. At first, a 2-week run-in period was applied. Then, participants were randomly assigned to either intervention or control groups. Participants in the intervention group were asked to replace 120 g of soybean flour fortified bread with the same amount of their usual bread intake or other cereal products for 6 weeks. After a 4 weeks washout period, participants were crossed over for another 6 weeks. Results: Mean (±standard deviation) age and body mass index of subjects was 45.7 ± 3.8 years and 29.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2, respectively. The results of our study showed no significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on metabolic profile. We found a reduction in serum triglycerides (change difference: ?3.7, P = 0.82), serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (change difference: ?11.2, P = 0.50), insulin (change difference: ?3.6, P = 0.7), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (change differences: ?0.57, P = 0.45) after 6 weeks but these changes were not statistically significant. No significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, high-density lipoproteins and total cholesterol levels were found. Conclusions: Six weeks consumption of soybean flour fortified bread among diabetic patients had no significant effects on metabolic profile. PMID:25709788

  5. The moisturizing effect of a wheat extract food supplement on women's skin: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Guillou, S; Ghabri, S; Jannot, C; Gaillard, E; Lamour, I; Boisnic, S

    2011-04-01

    Ceramides, specific lipid components of the skin, represent 35-40% of the intercellular cement binding cells together and contributing to skin hydration. A wheat extract rich in ceramides and digalactosyl-diglycerides was developed by Hitex in two forms: wheat extract oil (WEO) and wheat extract powder (WEP). In vitro tests and two clinical studies demonstrated promising efficacy results with WEP on skin hydration. To confirm these early results, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was carried out on 51 women aged 20-63 years with dry to very dry skin who received either 350 mg of WEO or placebo for 3 months. Evaluation of skin hydration on legs, arms and face, assessed at baseline (D0) and at study end (D84) was performed by the dermatologist using dermatological scores (dryness, roughness, erythema), skin hydration measurement (corneometry) and self-assessment scores (Visual Analogue Scale: VAS). Perceived efficacy was noted by participants throughout the study; tolerability and overall acceptability of the study products were evaluated by the dermatologist and the participants at the end of study. Skin hydration was significantly increased between D0 and D84 on the arms (P < 0.001) and legs (P = 0.012) in the WEO group compared with placebo. Even if no significant statistical differences between groups were observed for the dermatological evaluation, skin dryness and redness tended to be reduced in the WEO group. Moreover, from D0 to D84, the VAS index had a tendency to increase in favour of WEO for the overall skin hydration (P = 0.084) indicating that participants perceived an improvement. The WEO capsules were perceived by participants as being more effective than placebo on all skin dryness signs. In conclusion, WEO capsules were well tolerated and appreciated. After 3 months' treatment, a significant increase in skin hydration and an improvement in associated clinical signs were observed in women with dry skin. PMID:20646083

  6. Does self-administered vaginal misoprostol result in cervical ripening in postmenopausal women after 14 days of pre-treatment with estradiol? Trial protocol for a randomised, placebo-controlled sequential trial*

    PubMed Central

    Oppegaard, KS; Lieng, M; Berg, A; Istre, O; Qvigstad, E; Nesheim, B-I

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the impact of 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus self-administered vaginal placebo on preoperative cervical ripening after pre-treatment with estradiol vaginal tablets at home in postmenopausal women prior to day-care operative hysteroscopy. Design Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled sequential trial. The boundaries for the sequential trial were calculated on the primary outcomes of a difference of cervical dilatation ?1 millimetre, with the assumption of a type 1 error of 0.05 and a power of 0.95. Setting Norwegian university teaching hospital. Population Postmenopausal women referred for day-care operative hysteroscopy. Methods The women were randomised to either 1000 micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol or self-administered vaginal placebo the evening before day-care operative hysteroscopy. All women had administered a 25-microgram vaginal estradiol tablet daily for 14 days prior to the operation. Main outcome measures Preoperative cervical dilatation (difference between misoprostol and placebo group, primary outcome), difference in dilatation before and after administration of misoprostol or placebo, number of women who achieve a preoperative cervical dilatation ?5 millimetres, acceptability, complications and side effects (secondary outcomes). Results Intra-operative findings and distribution of cervical dilatation in the two treatment groups: values are given as median (range) or n(%). Difference in dilatation before and after administration of misoprostol and placebo: values are given as median (range) of intraindividual differences. Percentage of women who achieve a cervical dilatation of ?5 mm, percentage of women who were difficult to dilate. Acceptability in the two treatment groups: values are given as completely acceptable n(%), fairly acceptable n(%), fairly unacceptable n(%), completely unacceptable n(%). Pain in the two treatment groups: pain was measured with a visual analogue scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (unbearable pain): values are given as median (range). Occurrence of side effects in the two treatment groups. Values are given as n(%). Complications given as n(%). Funding sources No pharmaceutical company was involved in this study. A research grant from the regional research board of Northern Norway has been awarded to finance Dr K.S.O.'s leave from Hammerfest hospital as well as travel expenses between Hammerfest and Oslo, and research courses. The research grant from Prof B.I.N. (Helse Øst) funded the purchase of estradiol tablets, the manufacturing costs of misoprostol and placebo capsules from the hospital pharmacy, as well as the costs incurred for preparing the randomisation schedule and distribution of containers containing capsules to hospital. Prof B.I.N.'s research grant also funded insurance for the study participants. Conclusions Estimated completion date 31 December 2008. PMID:18485172

  7. Visfatin and Resistin Serum Levels in Normal-Weight and Obese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Farshchian, Fatemeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Amirrasouli, Houshang; Rahimi Pour, Hooman; Hedayati, Mehdi; Kazerouni, Faranak; Soltani, Adeleh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age that is linked to insulin resistance and obesity. While studies have shown that plasma levels of resistin and visfatin increase with obesity, the association between PCOS and these markers has not been described well. Objectives: This case-control study aimed to compare the serum levels of visfatin and resistin in women with PCOS in comparison with the healthy controls matched for age and body mass index (BMI). Patients and Methods: A total of 80 women consisted of 40 women with PCOS and 40 matched eumenorrheic women without hyperandrogenism enrolled in the study. They were subcategorized into obese and normal-weight women according to their BMI. Serum visfatin and resistin levels were assessed using sandwich enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Serum levels of resistin were higher among both obese and normal-weight women with PCOS in comparison with the controls (2.36 and 1.58 ng/mL in normal-weight women with PCOS and controls, respectively; and 2.10 and 1.91 ng/mL in obese women with PCOS and controls, respectively). Serum visfatin levels was higher in both obese women with PCOS and controls (3.46 and 3.49 ng/mL PCOS and control groups, respectively) in comparison with normal-weight women in both groups (3.16 and 3.15 in PCOS and control groups, respectively); however; there were no statistically significant differences in serum resistin and visfatin levels between PCOS and control groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: While the expression of visfatin and resistin may be upregulated in women with PCOS, it is not translated at serum level. PMID:25237319

  8. Fall Risk Awareness and Safety Precautions Taken by Older Community-Dwelling Women and Men—A Qualitative Study Using Focus Group Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Petra; Sandlund, Marlene; Ahlgren, Christina; Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta; Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor; Wikman, Anita Melander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Daily life requires frequent estimations of the risk of falling and the ability to avoid a fall. The objective of this study was to explore older women’s and men’s understanding of fall risk and their experiences with safety precautions taken to prevent falls. Methods A qualitative study with focus group discussions was conducted. Eighteen community-dwelling people [10 women and 8 men] with and without a history of falls were purposively recruited. Participants were divided into two groups, and each group met four times. A participatory and appreciative action and reflection approach was used to guide the discussions. All discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, and categories were determined inductively. Findings Three categories describing the process of becoming aware of fall risks in everyday life were identified: 1] Facing various feelings, 2] Recognizing one’s fall risk, and 3] Taking precautions. Each category comprised several subcategories. The comprehensive theme derived from the categories was “Safety precautions through fall risk awareness”. Three strategies of ignoring [continuing a risky activity], gaining insight [realizing the danger in a certain situation], and anticipating [thinking ahead and acting in advance] were related to all choices of actions and could fluctuate in the same person in different contexts. Conclusions The fall risk awareness process might be initiated for various reasons and can involve different feelings and precautions as well as different strategies. This finding highlights that there are many possible channels to reach older people with information about fall risk and fall prevention, including the media and their peers. The findings offer a deeper understanding of older peoples’ conceptualizations about fall risk awareness and make an important contribution to the development and implementation of fall prevention programmes. PMID:25781181

  9. Oestrogen receptor polymorphisms are an associated risk factor for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease in women APOE ?4 carriers: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Martínez, Manuel; Elcoroaristizabal Martín, Xabier; Blanco Martín, Elisa; Galdos Alcelay, Luis; Ugarriza Serrano, Iratxe; Gómez Busto, Fernando; Álvarez-Álvarez, Maite; Molano Salazar, Ana; Bereincua Gandarias, Rocio; Inglés Borda, Sandra; Uterga Valiente, Juan María; Indakoetxea Juanbeltz, Begoña; Gómez Beldarraín, María Ángeles; Moraza López, Josefa; Barandiarán Amillano, Myriam; M de Pancorbo, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Examine the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the oestrogen receptor (ER) genes: rs9340799, rs2234693, rs2228480 (in the ESR1 gene) and rs4986938 (in the ESR2 gene) as a risk factor for amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCIa) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its possible association with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene. Design We have investigated the independent and combined association of different alleles of the oestrogen receptor genes and APOE*?4 allele with cognitive impairment using a case–control design. Setting Participants were prospectively recruited from the neurology departments of several Basque Country hospitals. Participants This study comprised 816 Caucasian participants who were aged 50?years and older: 204 MCIa, 350 sporadic patients with AD and 262 healthy controls. Primary and secondary outcome measures Clinical criteria and neuropsychological tests were used to establish the diagnostic groups (MCIa, AD and healthy controls). A dichotomous variable was used for each allele and genotype and the association with MCIa and AD was established using Logistic Regression Models. Results Neither alleles nor genotypes of SNPs rs9340799, rs2234693, rs2228480 and rs4986938 of oestrogen receptor genes (ESR1 and ESR2) are independently associated with the risk of MCIa or AD. However, the genetic profile created with the combination of the less represented alleles of these SNPs (expressed as XPAA) was associated with an increased risk for MCIa (OR=3.30, 95% CI 1.28 to 8.54, p=0.014) and AD (OR=5.16, 95% CI 2.19 to 12.14, p<0.001) in women APOE*?4 allele carriers. Conclusions The less represented alleles of SNPs studied are associated with MCIa and AD in APOE*E4 carriers. In particular, the genetic profile created with the less represented alleles of ESR1 and ESR2 SNPs are associated with an increased risk for MCIa and AD in women APOE?4 allele carriers. PMID:24052609

  10. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  11. Intercontinental haptic control and advanced supervisory interfaces for groups of multiple UAVs

    E-print Network

    Intercontinental haptic control and advanced supervisory interfaces for groups of multiple UAVs transitions). We utilized a touch-based device to interface several Core instances during UAV group experiments. This device visualizes the UAV pose in a rendered 3D scene and allows for the online inspection

  12. Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

  13. Group therapy for adolescents with repeated self harm: randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Green; A J Wood; M J Kerfoot; G Trainor; C Roberts; J Rothwell; A Woodham; E Ayodeji; B Barrett; S Byford; R Harrington

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of group therapy for self harm in young people.Design Two arm, single (assessor) blinded parallel randomised allocation trial of a group therapy intervention in addition to routine care, compared with routine care alone. Randomisation was by minimisation controlling for baseline frequency of self harm, presence of conduct disorder, depressive disorder, and severity of

  14. Experimental study of effectiveness of nonpoint source water pollution control group contract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen N. Pushkarskaya; Hal Arkes; Jason Pieratt; Ibrahim Bamba

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this experimental study was to test an effectiveness of a group contract designed to control nonpoint source water pollution from farms' runoff (Pushkarskaya 2003). In particular, the regulator pays for pollution reduction credits earned by the group of the farmers, who voluntary enter the contract, and is concerned only with the total level of the abatement achieved,

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy as an Early Intervention for Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Jansson; Steven J. Linton

    2005-01-01

    A randomized controlled design was used with a 1-yr follow-up. The purpose was to compare the effects of two early interventions, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention and a self-help information package, in patients with insomnia. In sum, 165 individuals seeking care for insomnia of 3–12 months duration were randomized to either a group receiving a CBT intervention or a group receiving

  16. The Geometry of Optimal Control Solutions on some Six Dimensional Lie Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Biggs; William Holderbaum

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines optimal solutions of control systems with drift defined on the orthonormal frame bundle of particular Riemannian manifolds of constant curvature. The manifolds considered here are the space forms Euclidean space E3, the spheres S3and hyperboloids H3with the corresponding frame bundles equal to the Euclidean group of motions SE(3), the rotation group SO(4) and the Lorentz group SO

  17. Environmental, personal, and behavioral factors are related to body mass index in a group of multi-ethnic, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-12-01

    Environmental, personal, and behavioral determinants of body mass index (BMI) are not well understood in the low-income demographic. To investigate these factors, a cross-sectional survey was developed using Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), utilizing formative data from focus groups and measured environmental, personal, and behavioral constructs, in addition to food-related self-identity, food security, and heights and weights. Participants were urban women (n=330) who qualified for a food and nutrition assistance program. Data collection occurred at sites within the community, including homeless shelters, food pantries, libraries, and community centers. The outcome of interest was BMI and the relationship to environmental, personal, and behavioral constructs, and food-related self-identity. All three SCT construct models were significant, but the personal construct regression model predicted the greatest variance in BMI among the women (31%). Decreased BMI was associated with SCT and self-identity variables indicating preventative behaviors, while increased BMI was associated with SCT and self-identity emotional eating variables. Overall results suggest that personal, behavioral, and self-identity factors can help to explain some weight variation observed among women living in similar obesogenic, low-income environments. Although additional research is needed, results suggest interventions with this population should address eating healthy to prevent disease, exercising for health, and shaping health-promoting self-identities. PMID:24119531

  18. Mountain gorilla tug-of-war: Silverbacks have limited control over reproduction in multimale groups

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Brenda J.; Robbins, Martha M.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Steklis, H. Dieter; Steklis, Netzin Gerald; Eckhardt, Nadin; Boesch, Christophe; Vigilant, Linda

    2005-01-01

    To determine who fathers the offspring in wild mountain gorilla groups containing more than one adult male silverback, we genotyped nearly one-fourth (n = 92) of the mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) living in the Virunga Volcanoes region of Africa. Paternity analysis of 48 offspring born into four groups between 1985 and 1999 revealed that, although all infants were sired by within-group males, the socially dominant silverback did not always monopolize reproduction within his group. Instead, the second-ranking male sired an average of 15% of group offspring. This result, in combination with previous findings that second-ranking males fare best by not leaving the group but by staying and waiting to assume dominance even if no reproduction is possible while waiting, is not consistent with expectations from a reproductive skew model in which the silverback concedes controllable reproduction to the second-ranking male. Instead, the data suggest a “tug-of-war” scenario in which neither the dominant nor the second-ranking male has full control over his relative reproductive share. The two top-ranked males were typically unrelated and this, in combination with the mixed paternity of group offspring, means that multimale gorilla groups do not approximate family groups. Instead, as long-term assemblages of related and unrelated individuals, gorilla groups are similar to chimpanzee groups and so offer interesting possibilities for kin-biased interactions among individuals. PMID:15964984

  19. High Intake of Energy and Fat in Southwest Chinese Women with PCOS: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaofang; Xu, Liangzhi; Zhou, Lingling; Tang, Liulin; Zhuang, Jing; Guo, Wenqi; Hu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinological disease with heterogeneous phenotype. Obesity contributes to the increased prevalence and severity of PCOS. Whether the intakes of major nutrients are higher in Chinese PCOS patients is still unknown. Objectives To study the intakes of total energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate in Southwest Chinese PCOS patients. Methods 1854 women were included in the cross-sectional study. A population-based case-control study was conducted. The dietary habits and nutrients intake status of 169 PCOS patients and 338 age-matched controls were investigated by the method of semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results The actual intake of total energy (P = 0.01) and fat (P = 0.01) were higher, but carbohydrate was lower (P = 0.01) in PCOS patients as compared with the controls. The energy percentage supplied by protein (12.33%±2.27% vs. 19.26%±5.91%, P<0.001) and carbohydrate (48.72%±6.41% vs. 68.31%±8.37%, P<0.001) were lower in Southwest Chinese PCOS patients than those of control, however, the energy percentage supplied by fat was higher (38.95%±5.71% vs. 12.42%±5.13%, P<0.001) in PCOS. Conclusions Limit the intake of total energy and fa