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1

Microcredit, Women’s Groups, Control of Own Money: HIV-Related Negotiation Among Partnered Dominican Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 356 members of women’s groups, aged 18–49, in the Dominican Republic were interviewed by trained female interviewers.\\u000a Data among 273 partnered women were analyzed. The dependent variable, a measure of HIV-related negotiation, was examined for\\u000a associations with control of own money, level of women’s group participation, and ever having received a loan through a micro-credit\\u000a program. Findings

Kim Ashburn; Deanna Kerrigan; Michael Sweat

2008-01-01

2

Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.  

PubMed

In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms. PMID:12347555

Badiani, R; Becker, J

1995-11-01

3

Group versus individual sessions delivered by a physiotherapist for female urinary incontinence: an interview study with women attending group sessions nested within a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The aim was to explore the concerns and expectations of women invited to attend group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence and whether the experience changed their views; and to gather recommendations from women attending group sessions on the design and delivery of these sessions Methods An interview study nested within a randomised controlled trial in five British NHS physiotherapy departments, including 22 women who had expressed a preference for an individual physiotherapy session but were randomised to, and attended, group sessions. Results Embarrassment was woven throughout women's accounts of experiencing urinary incontinence and seeking health care. Uncertainty about the nature of group sessions was a source of concern. Attending the first session was seen as a big hurdle by many women. However, a sense of relief was common once the session started, with most women describing some benefit from attendance. Recommendations for design and delivery of the sessions from women focused on reducing embarrassment and uncertainty prior to attendance. Conclusion Taking account of women's embarrassment and providing detailed information about the content of group sessions will enable women to benefit from group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence. Trial Registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN 16772662

Griffiths, Frances; Pepper, Jo; J?rstad-Stein, Ellen C; Smith, Jan Fereday; Hill, Lesley; Lamb, Sarah (Sallie) E

2009-01-01

4

Morphological changes of the ovarian surface epithelium in women with ovarian polycystic disease or endometrial carcinoma and a control group.  

PubMed

The ovarian surface epithelium and that of related inclusion cysts were studied in 50 women with ovarian polycystic disease and they were compared with our preceding observations performed on women with endometrial carcinoma (n = 50) and on women without any hyperplastic or neoplastic genital tract pathology (n = 50). In 16 women (32%) the ovarian epithelium with normal aspect was found on the surface of the ovary and in inclusion cysts. In the remaining 34 women (68%) surface papillomatosis, hyperplastic and metaplastic changes were present on the ovarian surface and/or in the inclusion cysts. These findings were similar to those observed in the group of women with endometrial adenocarcinoma, while the surface epithelium was often normal in the control group. Our observations confirm the hypothesis of a hormonal influence in the hyperplastic and metaplastic modifications of the ovarian epithelium and in the related common epithelial tumors of the ovary. PMID:2917579

Resta, L; Scordari, M D; Colucci, G A; Faggiano, C; Loizzi, P; Di Gesù, A; Borraccino, V; Conte, R; Milillo, F

1989-01-01

5

Effect of a participatory intervention with women's groups on birth outcomes in Nepal: cluster-randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods We pair-matched 42 geopolitical clusters in Makwanpur district, Nepal, selected 12 pairs randomly, and randomly assigned one of each pair to intervention or control. In each intervention cluster (average population 7000), a female facilitator convened nine women's group meetings every month. The facilitator supported groups through an action-learning cycle in which they identified local perinatal problems and formulated strategies

Dharma S Manandhar; David Osrin; Bhim Prasad Shrestha; Natasha Mesko; Joanna Morrison; Kirti Man Tumbahangphe; Suresh Tamang; Sushma Thapa; Dej Shrestha; Bidur Thapa; Jyoti Raj Shrestha; Angie Wade; Josephine Borghi; Madan Manandhar

2004-01-01

6

Group session teaching of behavioral modification program (BMP) for urinary incontinence: a randomized controlled trial among incontinent women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine effectiveness of Group BMP in managing female urinary incontinence (UI), using a standardized protocol taught\\u000a to adult incontinent women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Forty-four adult women with slight to severe UI had baseline parameters collected (UI questionnaires, 3-day voiding diary,\\u000a pelvic floor muscle strength testing, 24-h pad test, and cough stress test) and were randomized to a control group (CG)

Ananias C. Diokno; Manuel S. Ocampo Jr; Ibrahim A. Ibrahim; Cindy R. Karl; Michelle J. Lajiness; Susan A. Hall

2010-01-01

7

Group cognitive behavioural therapy for women with depression: pilot and feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial using mixed methods  

PubMed Central

Background Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) may provide a means of improving mental health among people with depression but few studies have explored its effectiveness. Our aim was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a randomised controlled trial of a group intervention based on CBT principles for women with depression in primary care. Methods Women aged 30 to 55 years were recruited and randomly assigned to either 12 weeks of the group intervention or usual care (control). The group intervention was based on a manual and used CBT and problem solving principles with weekly topics including raising activity levels, spotting and catching negative thoughts, problem solving and relaxation. Women were recruited from deprived areas of Bristol. The groups were run by facilitators with some experience and background in group work and one weeks training in use of the course manual. Assessments of mental health were made using measures including the PHQ-9. Follow-up was at 3 and 6 months after the intervention. Qualitative methods were used to support the design of the intervention and to help understand issues of acceptability and feasibility. Interviews were conducted with all participants at baseline and at 3 and 6 months although detailed qualitative analysis was based on a purposive sample of 20 participants at the 3 time points. Results Of the 86 participants assessed for eligibility, 52 were allocated to the intervention arm and 21 to the control group. The intervention was delivered according to the manual despite the limited training of the facilitators. The intervention was received favourably by participants and facilitators, with good attendance at sessions for those who engaged with the intervention. Follow up rates at 3 and 6 months for women in both the intervention and control arms were also good. The trial methodology used was appropriate and feasible. Conclusions This study showed that a randomised controlled trial of group CBT for women with depression is feasible and the intervention is acceptable, and may possibly prove to be effective in a larger trial. The cost effectiveness of group CBT for depression should be explored further in a full trial. Trial registration NCT00663078

2011-01-01

8

Efficacy of a Single-Session HIV Prevention Intervention for Black Women: A Group Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

SisterLove Inc., a community-based organization (CBO) in Atlanta, Georgia, evaluated the efficacy of its highly interactive,\\u000a single-session HIV prevention intervention for black women, the Healthy Love Workshop (HLW). HLW is delivered to pre-existing\\u000a groups of women (e.g., friends, sororities) in settings of their choosing. Eligible groups of women were randomly assigned\\u000a to receive the intervention (15 groups; 161 women) or

Dázon Dixon Diallo; Trent Wade Moore; Paulyne M. Ngalame; Lisa Diane White; Jeffrey H. Herbst; Thomas M. Painter

2010-01-01

9

The efficacy of a mind-body-spirit group for women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of women with breast cancer are seeking alternatives to standard group support in coping with their illness. This study examines outcomes for 181 women with breast cancer randomized to either a 12-week standard group support or a 12-week complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) support intervention. Participants in the CAM group were taught the use of meditation, affirmation, imagery

Elizabeth F. Targ; Ellen G. Levine

2002-01-01

10

Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

2005-01-01

11

Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

2005-01-01

12

Group medical visits in the follow-up of women with a BRCA mutation: design of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background BRCA mutation carriers have a 40-80% life-time risk of developing breast cancer. They may opt for yearly breast cancer surveillance or for prophylactic mastectomy. Both options show increased survival rates. It is a complex choice to be made between these two options. As a result most women experience high levels of distress and high needs for information. To fulfill the needs for psychosocial support and information we have introduced group medical consultations (GMCs). A GMC provides individual medical visits conducted within a group. This 90 minute group-visit with 8-12 patients gives patients the opportunity to spend more time with their clinician and a behavioral health professional and learn from other patients experiencing similar topics. However, it should be noted that group sessions may increase fear in some patients or influence their decision making. Methods/design In this randomized controlled trial, 160 BRCA mutation carriers diagnosed maximally 2 years ago are recruited from the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either the GMC intervention group (onetime participation in a GMC instead of a standard individual visit) or to a usual care control group. Primary outcome measures are empowerment and psychological distress (SCL 90). Secondary outcome measures are fear of cancer, information needs before the consultation and the received information, self-examination of the breasts, patient satisfaction, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Data are collected via self-reported questionnaires 1 week before the visit, and at 1 week and at 3 months follow-up. A pilot study was conducted to test all procedures and questionnaires. Discussion The possibility for interaction with other BRCA mutation carriers within a medical visit is unique. This study will assess the effectiveness of GMCs for BRCA mutation carriers to improve empowerment and decrease distress compared to individual visits. If GMCs prove to be effective and efficient, implementation of GMCs in regular care for BRCA mutation carriers will be recommended. Trial registration The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01329068)

2011-01-01

13

Trunk motion and gait characteristics of pregnant women when walking: report of a longitudinal study with a control group  

PubMed Central

Background A longitudinal repeated measures design over pregnancy and post-birth, with a control group would provide insight into the mechanical adaptations of the body under conditions of changing load during a common female human lifespan condition, while minimizing the influences of inter human differences. The objective was to investigate systematic changes in the range of motion for the pelvic and thoracic segments of the spine, the motion between these segments (thoracolumbar spine) and temporospatial characteristics of step width, stride length and velocity during walking as pregnancy progresses and post-birth. Methods Nine pregnant women were investigated when walking along a walkway at a self-selected velocity using an 8 camera motion analysis system on four occasions throughout pregnancy and once post birth. A control group of twelve non-pregnant nulliparous women were tested on three occasions over the same time period. The existence of linear trends for change was investigated. Results As pregnancy progresses there was a significant linear trend for increase in step width (p?=?0.05) and a significant linear trend for decrease in stride length (p?=?0.05). Concurrently there was a significant linear trend for decrease in the range of motion of the pelvic segment (p?=?0.03) and thoracolumbar spine (p?=?0.01) about a vertical axis (side to side rotation), and the pelvic segment (p?=?0.04) range of motion around an anterio-posterior axis (side tilt). Post-birth, step width readapted whereas pelvic (p?=?0.02) and thoracic (p?

2013-01-01

14

The effect of participatory women's groups on birth outcomes in Bangladesh: does coverage matter? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Progress on neonatal survival has been slow in most countries. While there is evidence on what works to reduce newborn mortality, there is limited knowledge on how to deliver interventions effectively when health systems are weak. Cluster randomized trials have shown strong reductions in neonatal mortality using community mobilisation with women's groups in rural Nepal and India. A similar trial in Bangladesh showed no impact. A main hypothesis is that this negative finding is due to the much lower coverage of women's groups in the intervention population in Bangladesh compared to India and Nepal. For evidence-based policy making it is important to examine if women's group coverage is a main determinant of their impact. The study aims to test the effect on newborn and maternal health outcomes of a participatory women's group intervention with a high population coverage of women's groups. Methods A cluster randomised trial of a participatory women's group intervention will be conducted in 3 districts of rural Bangladesh. As we aim to study a women's group intervention with high population coverage, the same 9 intervention and 9 control unions will be used as in the 2005-2007 trial. These had been randomly allocated using the districts as strata. To increase coverage, 648 new groups were formed in addition to the 162 existing groups that were part of the previous trial. An open cohort of women who are permanent residents in the union in which their delivery or death was identified, is enrolled. Women and their newborns are included after birth, or, if a woman dies during pregnancy, after her death. Excluded are women who are temporary residents in the union in which their birth or death was identified. The primary outcome is neonatal mortality in the last 24 months of the study. A low cost surveillance system will be used to record all birth outcomes and deaths to women of reproductive age in the study population. Data on home care practices and health care use are collected through interviews. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN01805825

2011-01-01

15

Outcomes from a randomized controlled trial of a group intervention for HIV positive men and women coping with AIDS-related loss and bereavement.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention or to an individual therapy on request comparison condition. Measures assessing grief and psychiatric distress were administered at baseline and 2 weeks post-intervention period. Although a strong gender effect was observed in outcome, both men and women participating in the group intervention demonstrated significantly more reduction in psychiatric distress than controls. Further, women in the group intervention demonstrated significant reductions in grief and depressive symptoms over men in both conditions and women in the comparison condition. Brief cognitive-behavioral group interventions for coping with grief have a positive impact on the psychiatric functioning of HIV-positive participants. This appears to be especially true for HIV-positive women; a group not previously focused on in clinical research related to AIDS bereavement. PMID:15053030

Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B; Kochman, Arlene; Tate, David C; Difranceisco, Wayne

16

Women's Experiences of Group Prenatal Care  

PubMed Central

Group prenatal care (GPNC) is an innovative alternative to individual prenatal care. In this longitudinal study we used ethnographic methods to explore African American and Hispanic women’s experiences of receiving GPNC in two urban clinics. Methods included individual, in-depth, semistructured interviews of women and group leaders in GPNC, participant observation of GPNC sessions, and medical record review. GPNC offered positive experiences and met many of the women’s expressed preferences regarding prenatal care. Six themes were identified, which represented separate aspects of women’s experiences: investment, collaborative venture, a social gathering, relationships with boundaries, learning in the group, and changing self. Taken together, the themes conveyed the overall experience of GPNC. Women were especially enthusiastic about learning in groups, about their relationships with group leaders, and about having their pregnancy-related changes and fears normalized. There were also important boundaries on relationships between participants, and some women wished for greater privacy during physical examinations.

Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Cohen, Sally S.; Groce, Nora E.; Knafl, Kathleen A.

2011-01-01

17

European survey of fertility and pregnancy in women with Crohn's disease: a case control study by European collaborative group.  

PubMed Central

Two hundred and seventy five patients with Crohn's disease from five countries were interviewed. Each patient was matched with a control of the same age. Of the 275 women with Crohn's disease 224 had been married at some time compared with 208 controls. The mean age at marriage was 23 years. Diagnosis of Crohn's disease was made five years later and the survey was conducted on average 16 years after marriage. Cases and controls had a similar obstetric study before diagnosis. After diagnosis there was a significant reduction in the number of children born to patients (0.4) compared with controls (0.7). Crohn's disease did not increase the rate of miscarriage or Caesarean section but prematurity was more common in patients (16%) than controls (7%). The site of disease at diagnosis did not affect these findings. Medical advice against pregnancy may be partly responsible for this reduction in fertility, but patients practised contraception less than controls and a significantly greater proportion of these (42%) failed to become pregnant compared with controls (28%). Crohn's disease results in subfertility.

Mayberry, J F; Weterman, I T

1986-01-01

18

Association between group A beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women: a case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guidelines for the management of vaginal discharge mention Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as causes and do not recommend full microbiological culture. The role of non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci in vaginal\\u000a cultures is unclear, except for group A streptococci that are known to cause vulvovaginitis in children. In a case–control\\u000a study, we investigated the

M. J. Bruins; R. A. M. J. Damoiseaux; G. J. H. M. Ruijs

2009-01-01

19

Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…

Forester-Miller, Holly

1999-01-01

20

Where women take control.  

PubMed

On the Philippines island of Panay, south of Luzon and Mindoro in the province of Capiz, women's development projects were supported by the Philippine Agriculture Department, the Manila office of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and funded by the UN Population Fund. The island population survives mostly on the fishing industry, which has suffered from chronic overfishing and devastation of mangrove swamps by development of fish farms. The population is very poor, with little opportunity to raise the living standards of the next generation. Access to maternal and child health care and family planning is limited or nonexistent; fertility is 4-6 children per woman. The Governor of Capiz's program has contributed to the formation of 30 women's groups of 829 women, who play central roles in village development efforts. Their investments have generated over 200,000 pesos or $7700 in savings. The approach was to concentrate on basic development first, followed by family planning. In Libas village, near the capital of Capiz Province, the first women's group formed in 1990. There were 34 members, who were trained in community organization, small business development, financing, and family welfare (nutrition, health, and family planning). The initial loans were for $75 and were to be repaid within the year. Many invested in fish vending of their husband's catches, or vegetable gardens, or the raising of pigs, ducks, and chickens. All loans were repaid, and the women were able to save about 20-30 pesos a month. Many have invested their savings in maintaining the education of their children. Family planning has been accepted by all members, who before the group's formation did not practice any family planning. The president of the Libas Group, Rose Antion, reported that the group was strong as a unit and gained influence over the family and the community; the women's status has increased, and confidence has been gained. The next project will be the construction of a fish processing plant, which will help the economy of the entire region. PMID:12287490

Hinrichsen, D

1994-01-01

21

Evaluating Culturally Responsive Group Work with Black Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a culturally congruent group treatment model, entitled "Claiming Your Connections" (CYC) aimed at reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress, and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black women. Method: A total of 58 Black women recruited from…

Jones, Lani V.; Warner, Lynn A.

2011-01-01

22

Executive Committee Working Group Women in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Working Group was created at the 25th IAU General Assembly in Sydney, Australia, in July 2003 by the IAU Executive Council as a Working Group of IAU Executive. The aims of the Working Group are to evaluate the status of women in astronomy through the collection of statistics over all countries where astronomy research is carried out; and to establish strategies and actions that can help women to attain true equality as research astronomers, which will add enormous value to all of astronomy.

Maddison, Sarah; Primas, Francesca; Aerts, Conny; Clayton, Geoffery; Combes, Françoise; Dubner, Gloria; Feretti, Luigina; Green, Anne; Griffin, Elizabeth; Liang, Yanchun; Motizuki, Yuko; Nordström, Birgitta

2012-04-01

23

Interpersonal Group Therapy for Women Experiencing Bulimia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…

Choate, Laura

2010-01-01

24

ABO blood group, secretor state, and susceptibility to recurrent urinary tract infection in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABO blood group and secretor state was determined in 319 women with recurrent urinary tract infection and compared with those of a control group of 334 women of similar age ranges. Women of blood groups B and AB who are non-secretors of blood group substances showed a significant relative risk of recurrent urinary tract infection of 3.12 (95% confidence limits,

D F Kinane; C C Blackwell; R P Brettle; D M Weir; F P Winstanley; R A Elton

1982-01-01

25

Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women.  

PubMed

As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development sponsored by the UN, an expert group met in June 1992 in Botswana to consider issues related to population and women. Particular attention was devoted to gender equality, population, and development; reproductive health and the health of families; adolescent fertility, marriage, and reproductive health; family planning (FP) and FP programs; education of girls and women and the relationship of education to fertility, health, and welfare; women's economic activity and its relationship to demographic factors; and the relationship between women, population, and the environment. While both developed and developing countries were considered, the emphasis was on the latter. 32 recommendations for action were addressed primarily to governments and other social institutions and also to funding agencies. The recommendations call for a recognization that health and education are particularly critical for women. They ask for the development of gender-based analysis and assessment of development policies to discover their impact on women. Service delivery to women should be culturally appropriate, and women should be integrated into development initiatives and into management and policy-making levels of social institutions. Responsible parenthood should be promoted as should the assumption of familiar responsibilities by men. Women should have access to safe abortion services. Adolescents should receive the education necessary to protect their reproductive health, and a minimum marriage age should be adopted. FP programs should be appropriate to their clients and should provide safe methods of fertility regulation. Improved and safe contraceptives and pharmaceuticals which will protect against sexually transmitted diseases should be developed, with renewed emphasis placed on new contraceptives for men. Safe sex measures should be promoted. The health of girls and women should receive priority attention, and female genital mutilation should end. Special efforts, both formal and informal, should be made to provide proper education for women. Equal rights in sexual relationships should be promoted. Women should have increased access to productive and renumerative employment free from gender discrimination or discrimination due to familiar responsibilities and safe from exposure to hazardous substances. All remaining barriers to women's rights should be removed. The crucial role women play in protecting the environment should be acknowledged, and women should receive training in sustainable development. Adequate social security and medical care systems should be developed for all women, and women and children should be protected against all forms of violence. Women refugees are in special need of protection and health and FP services. Finally, data collection should give priority to information-deficient topics, research on women's status and demographic processes should occur, and statistical systems should represent the full diversity of women's economic activities and publish indicators on a gender-disaggregated basis. PMID:12287716

1993-01-01

26

African American Muslim Women: An Invisible Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is written about Islam and African American women or men from a psychosocial perspective. Most of the literature is on the historical and political development of the Nation of Islam, and the differences among the male leaders. This focus obscures the fact that the majority of African Americans Muslims belong to traditional Islamic groups. Drawing upon a variety of

Karen Fraser Wyche

2004-01-01

27

Interpersonal Group Therapy for Women Experiencing Bulimia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT–G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT–G, an outline of the group model, and provides considerations for using IPT–G

Laura Choate

2010-01-01

28

Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV Positive Men and Women Coping with AIDS-Related Loss and Bereavement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention…

Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Tate, David C.; DiFranceisco, Wayne

2004-01-01

29

Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV Positive Men and Women Coping with AIDS-Related Loss and Bereavement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention…

Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Tate, David C.; DiFranceisco, Wayne

2004-01-01

30

OUTCOMES FROM A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF A GROUP INTERVENTION FOR HIV POSITIVE MEN AND WOMEN COPING WITH AIDS-RELATED LOSS AND BEREAVEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race\\/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention or to an individual therapy on

KATHLEEN J. SIKKEMA; NATHAN B. HANSEN; ARLENE KOCHMAN; DAVID C. TATE; WAYNE DIFRANCEISCO

2004-01-01

31

Women's health groups to improve perinatal care in rural Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal mortality rates are high in rural Nepal where more than 90% of deliveries are in the home. Evidence suggests that death rates can be reduced by interventions at community level. We describe an intervention which aimed to harness the power of community planning and decision making to improve maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Methods The development of 111 women's groups in a population of 86 704 in Makwanpur district, Nepal is described. The groups, facilitated by local women, were the intervention component of a randomized controlled trial to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. Through participant observation and analysis of reports, we describe the implementation of this intervention: the community entry process, the facilitation of monthly meetings through a participatory action cycle of problem identification, community planning, and implementation and evaluation of strategies to tackle the identified problems. Results In response to the needs of the group, participatory health education was added to the intervention and the women's groups developed varied strategies to tackle problems of maternal and newborn care: establishing mother and child health funds, producing clean home delivery kits and operating stretcher schemes. Close linkages with community leaders and community health workers improved strategy implementation. There were also indications of positive effects on group members and health services, and most groups remained active after 30 months. Conclusion A large scale and potentially sustainable participatory intervention with women's groups, which focused on pregnancy, childbirth and the newborn period, resulted in innovative strategies identified by local communities to tackle perinatal care problems.

Morrison, Joanna; Tamang, Suresh; Mesko, Natasha; Osrin, David; Shrestha, Bhim; Manandhar, Madan; Manandhar, Dharma; Standing, Hilary; Costello, Anthony

2005-01-01

32

Enabling older homeless minority women to overcome homelessness by using a life management enhancement group intervention.  

PubMed

This paper describes the importance of a life management enhancement (LME) group intervention for older minority women in developing personal control and self-confidence in social relationships as they overcome homelessness. Women in the treatment group showed significantly greater personal control and higher levels of self-confidence following the six-week intervention than women in the control group. Increasing personal control and developing self-confidence in social relationships can help individuals achieve desired outcomes as a result of their actions, efforts, and abilities. These attributes can help women increase and sustain appropriate coping methods and overcome homelessness. PMID:19212866

Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y

2009-02-01

33

Predictors of participation in a smoking cessation intervention group among low-income women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predictors of participation in a smoking cessation group among low-income women were examined. Fifty smokers were recruited from a Midwestern community primary care setting serving an uninsured, underinsured, and Medicaid population. Participants completed a questionnaire before the intervention, and eleven women chose to participate in the 6-week sessions. There were few differences between the control group (nonparticipants) and the

Joanne M. Pohl; Angela Martinelli; Cathy Antonakos

1998-01-01

34

Women’s Employment among Blacks, Whites, and Three Groups of LatinasDo More Privileged Women Have Higher Employment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During much of U.S. history, Black women had higher employment rates than white women. But by the late twentieth century, women in more privileged racial\\/ethnic, national origin, and education groups were more likely to work for pay. The authors compare the employment of white women to Blacks and three groups of Latinas—Mexicans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans—and explain racial\\/ethnic group differences.

Paula England; Carmen Garcia-Beaulieu; Mary Ross

2004-01-01

35

Postural control in women with breast hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The consequences of breast hypertrophy have been described based on the alteration of body mass distribution, leading to an impact on psychological and physical aspects. The principles of motor control suggest that breast hypertrophy can lead to sensorimotor alterations and the impairment of body balance due to postural misalignment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postural control of women with breast hypertrophy under different sensory information conditions. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 14 women with breast hypertrophy and 14 without breast hypertrophy, and the mean ages of the groups were 39±15 years and 39±16 years, respectively. A force platform was used to assess the sensory systems that contribute to postural control: somatosensory, visual and vestibular. Four postural conditions were sequentially tested: eyes open and fixed platform, eyes closed and fixed platform, eyes open and mobile platform, and eyes closed and mobile platform. The data were processed, and variables related to the center of pressure were analyzed for each condition. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the conditions between the groups for the area of center of pressure displacement and the velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The alpha level error was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Women with breast hypertrophy presented an area that was significantly higher for three out of four conditions and a higher velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior direction under two conditions: eyes open and mobile platform and eyes closed and mobile platform. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast hypertrophy have altered postural control, which was demonstrated by the higher area and velocity of center of pressure displacement.

Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Raggi, Gabriela Cristina; dos Santos Cardoso Sa, Cristina; Costa, Marcio Paulino; de Lima, Jonas Eraldo; Tanaka, Clarice

2012-01-01

36

Characteristics of Midlife Women Recruited Through Internet Communities/Groups  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics of a specific online population, midlife women recruited through Internet communities (ICs) or groups, and to provide future direction for Internet research among midlife women. Using a feminist perspective, the study focused on ethnic variations in the characteristics of the midlife women. A total of 192 midlife women were recruited through ICs. The Internet survey included questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health/illness status. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that midlife women recruited through ICs tended to be Caucasian, young, married, and affluent. The findings also indicated significant ethnic differences in sociodemographic characteristics. The findings suggest that researchers need to consider that midlife women recruited from ICs tend to be a specific group of midlife women.

Im, Eun-ok

2008-01-01

37

Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

2011-01-01

38

Men, Women, and Leadership Centralization in Groups Over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a model for predicting the emergence of group norms from the demographic composition of groups. They use this model to study gender and leadership centralization in groups over time. Results from 2 longitudinal studies were consistent with their predictions: (a) Women, more than men, preferred equality norms in groups; (b) all-male and majority-male groups had relatively centralized

Jennifer L. Berdahl; Cameron Anderson

2005-01-01

39

Behaviour change in perinatal care practices among rural women exposed to a women's group intervention in Nepal [ISRCTN31137309  

PubMed Central

Background A randomised controlled trial of participatory women's groups in rural Nepal previously showed reductions in maternal and newborn mortality. In addition to the outcome data we also collected previously unreported information from the subgroup of women who had been pregnant prior to study commencement and conceived during the trial period. To determine the mechanisms via which the intervention worked we here examine the changes in perinatal care of these women. In particular we use the information to study factors affecting positive behaviour change in pregnancy, childbirth and newborn care. Methods Women's groups focusing on perinatal care were introduced into 12 of 24 study clusters (average cluster population 7000). A total of 5400 women of reproductive age enrolled in the trial had previously been pregnant and conceived during the trial period. For each of four outcomes (attendance at antenatal care; use of a boiled blade to cut the cord; appropriate dressing of the cord; not discarding colostrum) each of these women was classified as BETTER, GOOD, BAD or WORSE to describe whether and how she changed her pre-trial practice. Multilevel multinomial models were used to identify women most responsive to intervention. Results Among those not initially following good practice, women in intervention areas were significantly more likely to do so later for all four outcomes (OR 1.92 to 3.13). Within intervention clusters, women who attended groups were more likely to show a positive change than non-group members with regard to antenatal care utilisation and not discarding colostrum, but non-group members also benefited. Conclusion Women's groups promoted significant behaviour change for perinatal care amongst women not previously following good practice. Positive changes attributable to intervention were not restricted to specific demographic subgroups.

Wade, Angie; Osrin, David; Shrestha, Bhim Prasad; Sen, Aman; Morrison, Joanna; Tumbahangphe, Kirti Man; Manandhar, Dharma S; de L Costello, Anthony M

2006-01-01

40

Sexual Enhancement Groups for Dysfunctional Women: An Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three groups of women with sexual dysfunction were evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment. Two groups did not involve partner participation, while the third group included partners on two occasions. Results for all groups were similar. The question of whether orgasm through coitus alone is a reasonable goal is raised and challenged. (Author)|

Leiblum, Sandra R.; Ersner-Hershfield, Robin

1977-01-01

41

Women with Childhood ADHD: Comparisons by Diagnostic Group and Gender  

PubMed Central

This study compared adult women with childhood ADHD to adult women without childhood ADHD and to adult men with childhood ADHD. The participants, all from a larger longitudinal study, included 30 women and 30 men (approximately age 23 to 24) with childhood ADHD, and 27 women without ADHD. Women with childhood ADHD were matched to comparison women on age, ethnicity, and parental education, and to men with childhood ADHD on age, ethnicity, and IQ. Self- and parent-reports of internalizing, interpersonal, academic, and job impairment, as well as substance use and delinquency indicated group differences on measures of self-esteem, interpersonal and vocational functioning, as well as substance use. Follow-up planned comparison tests revealed that almost all of these differences emerged by diagnostic status, and not by gender. This study adds to research on the negative adult outcomes of ADHD and demonstrates that the outcomes of men and women with childhood ADHD are relatively similar.

Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Yu, Jihnhee; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita

2011-01-01

42

Self Control in Peer Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with a self-control problem often seek relief through social interactions rather than binding commitments. Thus, in self-help groups like Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous etc, members are said to achieve better personal outcomes by mainly sharing their experiences. In other settings, however, peer influences can severely aggravate individual tendencies towards immediate gratification, as is often the case with interactions among

Marco Battaglini; Roland Bénabou; Jean Tirole

2002-01-01

43

Persuasive technology for shaping social beliefs of rural women: Development of group based health information kiosk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents, the Group Based Information Kiosk (GIK), which was designed to influence health behaviours of rural women. The objective of the kiosk is to offer health information to rural women to increase their awareness about menses and maternal health. The design and development process of a GIK followed social cues of persuasive technology to increase perceived behaviour control

Vikram Parmar

44

Factors associated with breastfeeding at six months postpartum in a group of Australian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite high levels of breastfeeding initiation in Australia, only 47 percent of women are breastfeeding (exclusively or partially) six months later, with marked differences between social groups. It is important to identify women who are at increased risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. METHODS: Data from the three arms of a randomised controlled trial were pooled and analysed as

Della A Forster; Helen L McLachlan; Judith Lumley

2006-01-01

45

Midlife Transition and Women's Spirituality Groups: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe midlife transition, spirituality, and healing of relationships for members of women's spirituality groups. Ten women completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (R. Paloutzian & C. Ellison, 1982) and a 45-minute interview about spirituality, religion, life transitions, relationships, and…

Geertsma, Elisabeth J.; Cummings, Anne L.

2004-01-01

46

Efficacy of patient-controlled analgesia in women cholecystectomy patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this comparative study was to examine differences in pain intensity, sleep disturbance, sleep effectiveness, fatigue, and vigor between patients undergoing cholecystectomy who received either patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or intramuscular (IM) injections of narcotics for postoperative pain. The PCA group consisted of 16 women, aged 22–58; the IM group consisted of 10 women, aged 22–60. Data were collected

Adela Yarcheski

1995-01-01

47

Women's perceptions and experience of menopause: a focus group study.  

PubMed

Focus groups were used to investigate women's perception and experience of menopause, hormone replacement therapy, osteoporosis and doctor-patient relationships. Forty women aged between 45 and 55 years participated in seven focus groups. Most women thought that these topics were not widely or freely discussed in the community. Nevertheless they were able to share their experiences on this occasion. Lack of reliable, accessible and current information on menopause and related topics was identified as a problem. This was compounded by the contradictory nature of the information which was available. Hysterectomy and osteoporosis were identified as specific areas in which information was inadequate and not readily accessible. Solutions suggested by the women included distributing information pamphlets with contact numbers for further information to non-health-related settings such as hairdressing salons. The need to foster open discussion between women and their doctors was highlighted, with contributions required from both parties to develop a more equal partnership. A review of doctors' and women's surveillance practices with regard to hormone replacement therapy may also be warranted. We found focus groups a useful method for accessing women's experiences and perceptions. There was particular benefit in researchers being involved as moderators and scribes, and in an early post-focus group meeting to amplify and clarify records of the discussions. Small group size and an emphasis on confidentiality were, we believe, helpful strategies in encouraging discussion of intimate topics. PMID:8748997

Fox-Young, S; Sheehan, M; O'Connor, V; Cragg, C; Del Mar, C

1995-12-01

48

A Support Group for Women with Relationship Dependency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a support group for women with relationship dependency focusing on friendship, decision making, and feelings. Issues discussed include loneliness, coping with loss, anger, and self-esteem. Guidelines for counselors are provided. (Author)|

Pearson, Judith E.

1988-01-01

49

Group Prenatal Care and Perinatal Outcomes: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether group prenatal care improves pregnancy outcomes, psychosocial function, and patient satisfaction and to examine potential cost differences. METHODS: A multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted at two university-affiliated hospital prenatal clinics. Pregnant women aged 14-25 years (n1,047) were randomly assigned to either standard or group care. Women with medical conditions requiring individualized care were excluded from

Jeannette R. Ickovics; Trace S. Kershaw; Claire Westdahl; Urania Magriples; Zohar Massey; Heather Reynolds

2007-01-01

50

Effects of a marathon group on self-actualization and attitudes toward women.  

PubMed

This study investigated the impact of a 16-hour marathon session on levels of self-actualization and attitudes toward women both 1 day and 5 weeks after the group experience. Female undergraduates were assigned randomly to one of two marathon groups or to a no-treatment control group. Ss in both marathon groups experienced a significant shift toward increased independence or self-supportedness on both posttests. However, a differential group effect was found from separate comparisons of each marathon group with the control group reflected significantly shifts in attitudes toward women; Ss in one marathon group reflected significantly greater agreement with profeminist attitudes on the first posttest and experienced an even greater shift in that direction on the second posttest, while Ss in the other marathon group did not differ significantly from the control Ss on either posttest. PMID:765356

Kilmann, P R; Follingstad, D R; Price, M G; Rowland, K F; Robinson, E A

1976-01-01

51

Impact of group psychological interventions on pregnancy rates in infertile women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the efficacy of two different group psychological interventions on viable pregnancy rates in women experiencing infertility of less than 2 years’ duration.Design: Prospective, controlled, single-blind, randomized study.Setting: Large tertiary-care teaching hospital.Patient(s): One hundred eighty-four women who had been trying to get pregnant for 1 to 2 years.Intervention(s): Participants were randomized into a 10-session cognitive-behavioral group, a standard

Alice D Domar; Diane Clapp; Ellen A Slawsby; Jeffery Dusek; Bruce Kessel; Melissa Freizinger

2000-01-01

52

The Vaginal Bacterial Communities of Japanese Women Resemble Those of Women in Other Racial Groups  

PubMed Central

To determine if different racial groups shared common types of vaginal microbiota we characterized the composition and structure of vaginal bacterial communities in asymptomatic and apparently healthy Japanese women in Tokyo, Japan and compared them with those of White and Black women from North America. The composition of vaginal communities was compared based on community profiles of terminal restriction fragments of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences of the numerically dominant bacterial populations. The types of vaginal communities found in Japanese women were similar to those of Black and White women. As with White and Black women, most vaginal communities were dominated by lactobacilli, and only four species of Lactobacillus (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. gasseri) were commonly found. Communities dominated by multiple species of lactobacilli were common in Japanese and White women, but rare in Black women. The incidence in Japanese women of vaginal communities with several non-Lactobacillus species at moderately high frequencies was intermediate between Black women and White women. The limited number of community types found among women in different ethnic groups suggests that host genetic factors, including the innate and adaptive immune systems, may be more important in determining the species composition of vaginal bacterial communities than are cultural and behavioral differences.

Zhou, Xia; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Davis, Catherine C.; Suzuki, Haruo; Brown, Celeste J.; Schutte, Ursel; Pierson, Jacob D.; Forney, Larry J.

2009-01-01

53

Psychiatric Symptom Improvement in Women Following Group Substance Abuse Treatment: Results from the Women's Recovery Group Study  

PubMed Central

The Women’s Recovery Group study was a Stage I randomized clinical trial comparing a new manual-based group treatment for women with substance use disorders with Group Drug Counseling. Data from this study were examined to determine whether co-occurring symptoms of depression and anxiety would improve with treatment and whether these improvements would demonstrate durability over the follow-up period. The sample consisted of 36 women (29 WRG, 7 GDC) who were administered self-report and clinician-rated measures of anxiety, depression, and general psychiatric symptoms. Although there were no group differences in psychiatric symptom improvement, analyses demonstrated significant within-subject improvement in depression, anxiety, and general psychiatric symptoms. Symptom reduction was not mediated by changes in substance use. This study demonstrated significant psychiatric symptom reduction that remained durable through 6 month follow-up for women receiving group therapy focused on substance abuse relapse prevention. Reduction in psychiatric symptoms may be an additional benefit of substance abuse group therapy for women.

McHugh, R. Kathryn; Greenfield, Shelly F.

2010-01-01

54

Estimating coverage of a women's group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention coverage in resource and data poor settings is rarely documented. This paper describes four different methods, and their underlying assumptions, to estimate coverage of a community mobilisation women’s group intervention for maternal and newborn health among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. Methods Primary and secondary data sources were used to estimate the intervention’s coverage among pregnant women. Four methods were used: (1) direct measurement of a proxy indicator using intervention survey data; (2) direct measurement among intervention participants and modelled extrapolation based on routine longitudinal surveillance of births; (3) direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on cross-sectional measurements and national data; and (4) direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on published national data. Results The estimated women’s group intervention’s coverage among pregnant women ranged from 30% to 34%, depending on method used. Differences likely reflect differing assumptions and methodological biases of the various methods. Conclusion In the absence of complete and timely population data, choice of coverage estimation method must be based on the strengths and limitations of available methods, capacity and resources for measurement and the ultimate end user needs. Each of the methods presented and discussed here is likely to provide a useful understanding of intervention coverage at a single point in time and Methods 1 and 2 may also provide more reliable estimates of coverage trends. Footnotes 1Unpublished data from three focus group discussions with women’s group members and facilitators participating in the Women’s Groups intervention.

2012-01-01

55

Women's Participation in Physics Internationally: the IUPAP Working Group on Women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1999 the General Assembly of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) voted to establish a Working Group on Women in Physics with the following charge: to survey the situation for women in physics in IUPAP member countries; to analyze and report the data collected along with suggestions on how to improve the situation; to suggest ways that women can become more involved in IUPAP, including the Liaison Committees, the Commissions, the Council, and the General Assemblies; and to report all findings at the next General Assembly in 2002. The Working Group was established in 2000 with 11 members representing North and South America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East/Africa. The Group has been gathering data on women in physics and is planning to hold an International Conference on Women in Physics at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris in March, 2002. I will discuss some of the findings and the plans for the future.

Franz, Judy

2001-04-01

56

Gaining agency through healthy embodiment in groups for depressed women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the effect of group participation on depressed women's ‘doing depression’ and ‘doing pleasure’ in Finland over three time periods. Quantitative data and qualitative data are analysed. To assess statistically the differences between the time periods, the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks z-test is applied to the quantitative data. Coping with emotions through self-focused attention, depressed women are reluctant to

Irmeli Laitinen; Elizabeth Ettorre; Carole Sutton

2007-01-01

57

Does Group Prenatal Care Affect Satisfaction And Prenatal Care Utilization in Iranian Pregnant Women?  

PubMed Central

Background: The need to provide high quality prenatal care services, which take account of women’s views and specifically address their need for information, support and communication, has been advocated and group prenatal care, had been suggested as one of the ways to achieve this objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of group versus individual prenatal care on satisfaction and prenatal care use. Methods: This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with the health center as the randomization unit that conducted in 2007. Satisfaction was measured through a standardized questionnaire, and the Kotelchuck Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index was used to measure prenatal care utilization. Results: We recruited 678 women (group prenatal care, (N= 344) and individual prenatal care, (N=334) in the study. Women in group prenatal care model were more satisfied than women in individual prenatal care model in all areas evaluated, including information, communication, co-ordination and quality of care. Group care women were significantly more likely to have adequate prenatal care than individual care women were (OR=1.35 95% CI=1.26–1.44). Conclusions: Group prenatal care was associated with a significant improvement in client satisfaction and prenatal care utilization. This model of care has implications for the planning and provision of prenatal services within public health system, which is moving toward a better quality health care, and increasing use of services.

Jafari, F; Eftekhar, H; Mohammad, K; Fotouhi, A

2010-01-01

58

Effect of women's groups and volunteer peer counselling on rates of mortality, morbidity, and health behaviours in mothers and children in rural Malawi (MaiMwana): a factorial, cluster-randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Women’s groups and health education by peer counsellors can improve the health of mothers and children. We assessed their effects on mortality and breastfeeding rates in rural Malawi. Methods We did a 2×2 factorial, cluster-randomised trial in 185 888 people in Mchinji district. 48 equal-sized clusters were randomly allocated to four groups with a computer-generated number sequence. 24 facilitators guided groups through a community action cycle to tackle maternal and child health problems. 72 trained volunteer peer counsellors made home visits at five timepoints during pregnancy and after birth to support breastfeeding and infant care. Primary outcomes for the women’s group intervention were maternal, perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates (MMR, PMR, NMR, and IMR, respectively); and for the peer counselling were IMR and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered as ISRCTN06477126. Findings We monitored outcomes of 26 262 births between 2005 and 2009. In a factorial model adjusted only for clustering and the volunteer peer counselling intervention, in women’s group areas, for years 2 and 3, we noted non-significant decreases in NMR (odds ratio 0·93, 0·64–1·35) and MMR (0·54, 0·28–1·04). After adjustment for parity, socioeconomic quintile, and baseline measures, effects were larger for NMR (0·85, 0·59–1·22) and MMR (0·48, 0·26–0·91). Because of the interaction between the two interventions, a stratified analysis was done. For women’s groups, in adjusted analyses, MMR fell by 74% (0·26, 0·10–0·70), and NMR by 41% (0·59, 0·40–0·86) in areas with no peer counsellors, but there was no effect in areas with counsellors (1·09, 0·40–2·98, and 1·38, 0·75–2·54). Factorial analysis for the peer counselling intervention for years 1–3 showed a fall in IMR of 18% (0·82, 0·67–1·00) and an improvement in EBF rates (2·42, 1·48–3·96). The results of the stratified, adjusted analysis showed a 36% reduction in IMR (0·64, 0·48–0·85) but no effect on EBF (1·18, 0·63–2·25) in areas without women’s groups, and in areas with women’s groups there was no effect on IMR (1·05, 0·82–1·36) and an increase in EBF (5·02, 2·67–9·44) . The cost of women’s groups was US$114 per year of life lost (YLL) averted and that of peer counsellors was $33 per YLL averted, using stratified data from single intervention comparisons. Interpretation Community mobilisation through women’s groups and volunteer peer counsellor health education are methods to improve maternal and child health outcomes in poor rural populations in Africa. Funding Saving Newborn Lives, UK Department for International Development, and Wellcome Trust.

Lewycka, Sonia; Mwansambo, Charles; Rosato, Mikey; Kazembe, Peter; Phiri, Tambosi; Mganga, Andrew; Chapota, Hilda; Malamba, Florida; Kainja, Esther; Newell, Marie-Louise; Greco, Giulia; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Vergnano, Stefania; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony

2013-01-01

59

Cervical cancer screening and chinese women: insights from focus groups.  

PubMed

Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N?=?12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes.Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing.Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed. PMID:23423547

Chang, S C H; Woo, J S T; Yau, V; Gorzalka, B B; Brotto, L A

2013-02-15

60

Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups  

PubMed Central

Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N?=?12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.

Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.

2012-01-01

61

Not Far Enough: Women vs. Smoking. A Workshop for Women's Group and Women's Health Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Highlights from a series of papers on the role of smoking in women's disease and death, women's smoking behavior, and the role of the tobacco industry are included in this document. Conference participants included public health and women's organizations. Brief summaries of the papers introduce the document. An outline of network strategies…

National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

62

Group Counseling for Overweight and Depressed College Women: A Comparative Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral group programs for weight control were effective among 32 college women in reducing weight and alleviating depressed mood, fear of negative evaluations, and social avoidance and distress. Addition of cognitive restructuring component failed to improve efficacy of behavioral weight control program even on…

McNamara, Kathleen

1989-01-01

63

Family Therapy in a Women's Group: Integrating Marriage and Family Therapy and Group Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a family therapy perspective can be integrated into group as a treatment modality. Concepts from family therapy are illustrated through a description of a specific women's group and case study. Techniques from family therapy applied in group are derived from multigenerational, experiential/humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral…

Getz, Hildy G.

2002-01-01

64

Neuromuscular control of childbirth-prepared women during the first stage of labor.  

PubMed

To evaluate the neuromuscular control of Lamaze-prepared women during the first stage of labor and to identify the factors which influenced control, 94 women were studied. The women were categorized into two groups: class-taught and self-taught. A tool was devised to evaluate neuromuscular control. The study revealed that class-taught women exhibited a significantly higher degree of neuromuscular control, more frequent practice patterns, and a greater ability to make goal-directed statements about their labor than the self-taught women. The data also demonstrated an association between practice and control and goal directedness and control. PMID:6551540

Bernardini, J Y; Maloni, J A; Stegman, C E

65

Quality Control in Small Groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The smallness of some groups in a set up to control the quality of a service using questionnaires limits the size of the samples, this limitation has several consequences. Indeed the common approach used for relatively large groups, based on the central limit theorem and the law of large numbers, cannot be used anymore to construct estimators for the parameters of the model. Using an inverse probability will lift these restrictions. A questionnaire is a collection of items. In an item the respondent indicates on a Likert scale his or her agreement with a statement. Dimensions are a set of items dealing with one aspect of the service. In a questionnaire several dimensions are addressed but usually the items are presented in a random sequence. The model for an item is hierarchical with following components: a multivariate hypergeometric model takes the sampling in a finite population into account, the multinomial serves as a prior for the sampling and the Dirichlet-distribution serves as a prior for the multinomials. The composition of dimensions allows to use the posterior for one of the items as a prior for another item of that dimension and so on. After analysis of several questionnaires using this model, the reliability of the responses from some respondents turned out to be a key-problem, in the sense the responses can be classified into at least two classes and a decision rule had to be developed to neglect some of them. The influence of rejecting some answers, on the confidence for the most plausible statement can be estimated. This leads often to the result that there is only minimal evidence for the most probable statement.

Lemmens, L. F.

2008-11-01

66

Safety and acceptability of vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride in HIV infected pregnant women in west Africa: ANRS 049b phase II randomized, double blinded placebo controlled trial. DITRAME Study Group  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To study the tolerance and acceptability in Africa of a perinatal intervention to prevent vertical HIV transmission using benzalkonium chloride disinfection. DESIGN: A randomized, double blinded phase II trial. SETTING: Prenatal care units in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). PATIENTS: Women accepting testing and counselling who were seropositive for HIV-1 and under 37 weeks of pregnancy were eligible. A total of 108 women (54 in each group) enrolled from November 1996 to April 1997, with their informed consent. INTERVENTION: Women self administered daily a vaginal suppository of 1% benzalkonium chloride or matched placebo from 36 weeks of pregnancy, and a single intrapartum dose. The neonate was bathed with 1% benzalkonium chloride solution or placebo within 30 minutes after birth. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse events were recorded weekly, with a questionnaire and speculum examination in women through delivery, and examination of the neonate through day 30. The incidence of genital signs and symptoms in the women and cutaneous or ophthalmological events in newborns were compared between groups on an intent to treat basis. RESULTS: The median duration of prepartum treatment was 21 days (range 0-87 days). Compliance was 87% for prepartum and 69% for intrapartum treatment, and 88% for the neonatal bath, without differences between the two groups. In women, the most frequent event was leucorrhoea; the incidence of adverse events did not differ between treatment groups. In children, the incidence of dermatitis and conjunctivitis did not differ between the benzalkonium chloride and placebo groups (p = 0.16 and p = 0.29, respectively). CONCLUSION: Vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride is a feasible and well tolerated intervention in west Africa. Its efficacy in preventing vertical HIV transmission remains to be demonstrated. ???

Msellati, P.; Meda, N.; Leroy, V.; Likikouet, R.; Van de Perre, P.; Cartoux, M.; Bonard, D.; Ouangre, A.; Combe, P.; Gautier-Charpenti..., L.; Sylla-Koko, F.; Lassalle, R.; Dosso, M.; Welffens-Ekra, C.; Dabis, F.; Mandelbrot, L.

1999-01-01

67

Women and Wasta: The Use of Focus Groups for Understanding Social Capital and Middle Eastern Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social capital is the use of informal networking to secure access to resources and opportunities. Often identified as an asset for offsetting deficiencies in societies, research on the phenomena is limited. This paper describes a qualitative study using focus groups with young adult Emeriti women representing three social-economic groups who were…

Bailey, Deborah C.

2012-01-01

68

Birth outcomes across ethnic groups of women in Nepal.  

PubMed

This study was conducted at the Western Regional Hospital (WRH), Pokhara, Nepal. We investigated the relationship between selected socioeconomic variables, pregnancy indices, birth weight, and maternal health in women of different ethnic origins. In our cross-sectional data set, 29.8% of infants were born with a low birth weight. Our data analysis showed Indo-Aryan and lower caste ethnic groups had significantly lower weight babies than Tibeto-Burman and Newar groups. Further analysis showed that the Tibeto-Burman group received better care during pregnancy. Similarly, the Newar groups had significantly better nutritional intake than the Indo-Aryan and lower caste groups. The outcome of food restriction and antenatal care during pregnancy in specific ethnic groups has important implications for the health care delivery system. Health policymakers should target those ethnic groups and develop culturally based policies to reduce the incidence of low birth weight in Nepal. PMID:14742109

Acharya, Pratima Poudel; Alpass, Fiona

2004-01-01

69

A Qualitative Assessment of Weight Control Among Rural Kansas Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore weight control beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and practices among rural Kansas women, and to characterize the relationship of these women with their primary care providers around weight control. Design Qualitative research using focus groups. Setting and Participants Six focus groups among 31 women from 3 separate communities of rural Kansas during the fall, 2006. Intervention Two focus groups in each community, each of two-hour duration. A focus group moderator’s guide was used to explore the roles of individuals, primary care practice teams, and communities around weight control. Main Outcome Measures and Analysis This study used a qualitative analysis with an iterative process and standard techniques. The analysis team summarized central findings, descriptive topic areas, and general themes. Results There were five broad themes that emerged from these focus groups. These are lack of support from primary care providers, primary care offices as community resources, lack of resources for promoting dietary change but adequate resources for physical activity, the importance of group support and inclusiveness, and a need for more intensive interventions for weight control. Conclusions and Implications Rural populations have an above-average prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities. Rural communities need better approaches for addressing the obesity epidemic.

Ely, Andrea C.; Befort, Christie; Banitt, Angela; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra

2009-01-01

70

Eating problems and interpersonal functioning among several groups of women.  

PubMed

This paper examines the relationship between eating disorders and problems in interpersonal functioning. Questionnaires that measure eating problems, interpersonal adjustment, and general neuroticism were completed by several groups of women: anorexic patients, persons whose interests or occupations involved a concern about bodily shape or condition (dancers, models, and athletes), and members of the general public. A substantial and significant relationship was found between eating symptomatology and interpersonal functioning in all groups. However, this association survived only in the anorexic patient group when general neuroticism was partialled out. We take this to imply that psychosocial difficulties are unlikely to play a strong role in the initial development of eating problems. PMID:7560134

O'Mahony, J F; Hollwey, S

1995-05-01

71

Armed with a Yellow Mimosa: Women's Defence and Assistance Groups in Italy, 1943-45  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Italian Resistance of 1943-45, over 70,000 Italian women participated in Women's Defence and Assistance Groups, begun by women activists in Milan in November 1943. While they aided the partisans and assisted families in need, these women also planned a role for women in postwar Italian society. Based on oral and written information from Group leaders Ada Gobetti, Bianca

Jomarie Alano

2003-01-01

72

78 FR 46851 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REG-114122-12] RIN 1545-BK96 Controlled Group Regulation Examples AGENCY: Internal...revisions to examples that illustrate the controlled group rules related to regulated investment...revisions resolve an issue with how the controlled group rules should be applied in...

2013-08-02

73

Efficacy of therapeutic group by telephone for women with breast cancer.  

PubMed

A pilot study was conducted to test the efficacy of a therapeutic group by telephone conference call for women with breast cancer. Sixty-six women with stage I or stage II breast cancer consented to participate in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to a usual psychosocial care or intervention group, using a permuted block method. Only 2 of 68 patients dropped out of the study, which included 27% African Americans. Assessments at 3 time periods (pretest, immediately after the intervention, and 3 months after the group ended) included evaluation of quality of life (QOL), mood, and immune function. ttests were performed to determine if differences on important variables existed at pretest. The intervention group had worse QOL and mood scores than did the control group on the pretests. A mixed-model repeated-measures procedure controlling for pretest differences was used to analyze data. A significant Group by Time interaction was found for spiritual well-being and mood. These differences were not in the expected direction. The intervention group showed improvement in QOL and mood during the intervention, but showed decompensation following the intervention. Conversely, the control group demonstrated stable or declining scores. This intervention is feasible and practical for women with breast cancer, especially African American participants. The puzzling results suggest several areas for future research, including a better conceptual fit with outcome measures, increasing dosage, and exploration of the value of emotional expression. PMID:15022975

Heiney, Sue P; McWayne, Janis; Hurley, Thomas G; Lamb, Lawrence S; Bryant, Lisa H; Butler, William; Godder, Kamar

2003-12-01

74

BIRTH OUTCOMES ACROSS ETHNIC GROUPS OF WOMEN IN NEPAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted at the Western Regional Hospital (WRH), Pokhara, Nepal. We investigated the relationship between selected socioeconomic variables, pregnancy indices, birth weight, and maternal health in women of different ethnic origins. In our cross-sectional data set, 29.8% of infants were born with a low birth weight. Our data analysis showed Indo-Aryan and lower caste ethnic groups had significantly

Pratima Poudel Acharya; Fiona Alpass

2004-01-01

75

Promoting urinary continence in women after delivery: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test the effectiveness of a physiotherapist delivered intervention designed to prevent urinary incontinence among women three months after giving birth. Design Prospective randomised controlled trial with women randomised to receive the intervention (which entailed training in pelvic floor exercises and incorporated strategies to improve adherence) or usual postpartum care. Setting Postpartum wards of three tertiary teaching hospitals in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Participants Women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or whose babies had a high birth weight (?4000 g), or both—676 (348 in the intervention group and 328 in the usual care group) provided endpoint data at three months. Main outcome measures Urinary incontinence at three months measured as a dichotomous variable. The severity of incontinence was also measured. Self report of the frequency of performance of pelvic floor exercises was recorded. Results At three months after delivery, the prevalence of incontinence in the intervention group was 31.0% (108 women) and in the usual care group 38.4% (125 women); difference 7.4% (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 14.6%, P=0.044). At follow up significantly fewer women with incontinence were classified as severe in the intervention group (10.1%) v (17.0%), difference 7.0%, 1.6% to 11.8%). The proportions of women reporting doing pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels was 84% (80% to 88%) for the intervention group and 58% (52% to 63%) for the usual care group (P=0.001). Conclusions The intervention promoting urinary continence reduced the prevalence of urinary incontinence after giving birth, particularly its severity, and promoted the performance of pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels; both continence and adherence to the programme were measured at three months after delivery in women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or babies weighing 4000 g or more. What is already known on this topicIntensive pelvic floor exercise programmes can reduce urinary incontinence in selected groups of female patientsThe effectiveness of interventions promoting continence in reducing urinary incontinence in the female population overall has not been investigatedPelvic floor exercises are widely held to be an important component of continence promotion programmesWhat this study addsContinence promotion programmes delivered to a selected population are able to prevent urinary incontinence in that populationFew studies have examined the efficacy of compliance aiding strategies in helping women adhere to prescribed pelvic floor exercise programmes

Chiarelli, Pauline; Cockburn, Jill

2002-01-01

76

Update on cancer control in women.  

PubMed

The global cancer burden in women appears to have stabilized according to the most recent estimates available although the distribution of cancer types appears to be changing with a sharp contrast between the increase in the absolute numbers of breast cancers and a decline in cervix cancers. Prospects for cancer control in women appear to be good within our current knowledge and deserve close attention. Rates of lung cancer in women are increasing substantially in many countries and seem set to overtake breast cancer as the commonest form of cancer death in women in many parts of the world. These changes are due to the effects of cigarette smoking, a habit which women widely embraced during the second half of the last century. The high levels of smoking currently in young women, which have yet to have their full impact on death rates, constitute an important hazard not only for future cancer risks but for several other important causes of death. There is strong and consistent evidence that increased consumption levels of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of many common forms of cancer including breast cancer. Although the breast is the commonest form of cancer in women in most western countries, the etiology of this disease remains elusive and preventable causes remain to be identified. Endogenous hormones also appear to have a role in cancer risk in women: oral contraceptives seem to increase slightly the risk of breast cancer in users in the use and in the immediate post-use period, but 10 years after cessation the risk again returns to that of never users. Oral contraceptive usage also appears to be protective against ovarian and endometrial cancer. The use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) appears to increase the risk of endometrial cancer and a positive association with breast cancer risk appears to exist. Within our current knowledge of the epidemiology of cancer in women, the most important preventive strategies would appear to be the prevention of cigarette smoking and increased dietary intake of vegetables and fruits. Screening has also shown to be effective in reducing incidence and mortality of cervix cancer and mortality from breast cancer. Although more work is needed, it is becoming clear that there could be an important role of HPV testing to further enhance cervix cancer screening. There are important variations in survival from a variety of cancers which are due to factors unrelated to the tumor behavior and that there are significant variations in survival from cancer. Reduction of these gaps could lead to a reduction in cancer mortality and contribute towards increased prospects for cancer control in women. PMID:10960611

Boyle, P; Maisonneuve, P; Autier, P

2000-08-01

77

"Mind control" and the battering of women.  

PubMed

This paper describes one variation in the battering phenomenon which was initially observed among low-income women. The strategies of coercion and deception utilized by the abusive male in these relationships are described and compared with similar strategies of "mind control" utilized in more traditional "cultic" systems. The debilitating effects of these techniques on the battered female are described, as is the battering male's own separation reaction, and the probable dynamics of the men and women involved in this pathological family system. Some preliminary assessment and treatment guidelines are offered. PMID:4075768

Boulette, T R; Andersen, S M

1985-01-01

78

Group Cognitive—Behavioral Therapy and Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Nonpurging Bulimic Individual A Controlled Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of group cognitive—behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating. Fifty-six women with nonpurging bulimia were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: CBT, IPT, or a wait-list control (WL). Treatment was administered in small groups that met for 16 weekly sessions. At posttreatment, both group CBT and group IPT treatment conditions

Denise E. Wilfley; Christy F. Telch; Elise M. Rossiter; John A. Schneider; LuAnn Sifford; Susan D. Raeburn

2000-01-01

79

Selective Sexual Harassment: Differential Treatment of Similar Groups of Women Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

If male workers categorize different groups of women coworkers and, subsequently, treat them differently, the experiences of women from one of these groups would not be indicative of the experiences of women from another group. When this different treatment involves hostile environment sexual harassment of one group, but not the other, then the law must recognize the possibility of “selective

Elizabeth A. Hoffmann

2004-01-01

80

Locus of control differences among stress groups.  

PubMed

To assess among 3 groups differing in stress significance of differences in their scores on locus of control scales (Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance), 2 groups of college undergraduates (123 and 160 subjects) were tested. In both samples analysis indicated significant differences among the 3 groups in scores on the Powerful Others and Chance (external) scales, with the severely stressed group scoring higher than the milder stress groups. No significant differences were found on the Internality scale. PMID:7870555

Gadzella, B M

1994-12-01

81

Cardiovascular Control in Men and Women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women, primarily young women, have a greater incidence of orthostatic intolerance than agematched men. This difference is especially dramatic in the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS, also called Chronic Orthostatic Intolerance, in which patients are unable to stand or remain upright for prolonged periods of time due to intolerable light headedness, weakness, and near-syncope). However, the mechanisms underlying this gender difference are still not completely understood. It is likely that certain gender-specific factors such as the normal menstrual cycle, differences in some hormonal levels which may affect the neurohumoral regulation of blood pressure, or physical characteristics such as a smaller and less "distensible" heart may influence orthostatic blood pressure control. The authors review what has been done on the effects of gender and the menstrual cycle on sympathetic neural control of hemodynamics during shortand long-term orthostasis in healthy young individuals and in female patients with POTS. In addition, the role of cardiac size and function, a non-neural mechanism, in gender differences in orthostatic tolerance is also reviewed. It is suggested that sympathetic neural control and vasoconstrictor responses during orthostasis are comparable between healthy men and women, and are enhanced but not impaired in POTS patients. There is a gender-specific difference in cardiac size even in the healthy population, while this difference is exaggerated in female patients with POTS.

Fu, Qi

82

Women with Childhood ADHD: Comparisons by Diagnostic Group and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared adult women with childhood ADHD to adult women without childhood ADHD and to adult men with childhood\\u000a ADHD. The participants, all from a larger longitudinal study, included 30 women and 30 men (approximately age 23 to 24) with\\u000a childhood ADHD, and 27 women without ADHD. Women with childhood ADHD were matched to comparison women on age, ethnicity,

Dara E. Babinski; William E. Pelham Jr; Brooke S. G. Molina; Daniel A. Waschbusch; Elizabeth M. Gnagy; Jihnhee Yu; Margaret H. Sibley; Aparajita Biswas

83

Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group  

PubMed Central

Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a protective role, regardless age and weight. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the potential deleterious effect of lipid metabolism-related components, including fat intake and body fatness and worse lipid profile, on bone mass and metabolism in healthy women.

2012-01-01

84

Religious women's groups help promote child survival and development.  

PubMed

Indonesia faces the 2 major problems of high infant mortality and high child mortality at present. To improve the situation, the government urges the participation of all community members, especially those already organized in the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Because religion has a strong influence on people's daily lives in Indonesia, a special project called the Child Survival Project was established in 1986 as a joint undertaking of the government and UNICEF. Initially 12 religious NGOs (8 Islamic, 1 Hindu, 1 Protestant, and 2 Catholic) were involved as implementing agencies. The majority of members of these NGOs are women. The strategy used has been to establish, in cooperation with the 12 NGOs, a communication network through which child survival messages would be disseminated to help generate increased use of Posyandu services, especially immunization, oral rehydration therapy, and growth monitoring. Messages are incorporated into the normal activities of these religious groups, such as Al-Quran reading classes, Sunday schools, and Bible classes. In addition, guidelines for a reporting and feedback system have been prepared for use at village, subdistrict, district, and provincial levels for project monitoring. Religious women's NGOs can serve with their specific characteristics can serve as motivators, facilitators, and catalysts of child survival and development programs for their community target groups. NGOs should be considered as partners of the government in mobilizing the community to achieve a common goal. All endeavors undertaken so far in relation to child survival and development are expected to be institutionalized. PMID:12282140

Munir, L Z

1989-07-01

85

The effectiveness of men and women in problem-solving groups as a function of group gender composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that the fewer women in a group, the less likely their ideas will be considered. The present study was designed to test the effect of gender composition on women's influence. Thirty groups were asked to solve two problems, first as individuals, then as groups. Composition and gender of the subject receiving a helpful clue were varied. Subjects

Jane M. Craig; Carolyn W. Sherif

1986-01-01

86

Variations in Career Cognition Measures among Groups of College Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Only the College Major Questionnaire distinguished between women who had different career plans. Women planning to pursue graduate or law school were more intuitive. Women planning to practice nursing were more analytic. The measures discriminated among women at different years in school. (Author)|

Ware, Mark E.; Apprich, Robert V.

1980-01-01

87

Symptomatic treatment of premenstrual mastalgia in premenopausal women with lisuride maleate: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the therapeutic effect of lisuride maleate on premenstrual mastalgia in premenopausal women.Design: Double-blind randomized prospective study.Setting: Department of obstetrics and gynecology at a university hospital.Patient(s): Sixty women with premenstrual mastalgia were included in the study. Study and control groups consisted of 30 women each.Intervention(s): Women enrolled in the study and control group were given one tablet daily

Semih Kaleli; Yavuz Ayd?n; Cemal Tamer Erel; Umur Çolgar

2001-01-01

88

Epidemiology of group B streptococcus in Korean pregnant women.  

PubMed

Between January 2006 and May 2008, 2624 pregnant S. Korean women between 35-37 weeks gestation were screened for group B streptococcus (GBS). Resistance to antimicrobials was tested by disk diffusion and serotype determined using co-agglutination assays and microarray methods. Overall, 8% of pregnant women were colonized. Serotype III was the predominant serotype (43.8%), followed by serotypes V (20.3%), Ia (12.1%), and Ib (9.5%). GBS was frequently resistant to clindamycin (54.0%) and erythromycin (25.6%); 3.7% were resistant to cefazolin. More than three-quarters of serotype V were resistant to clindamycin or erythromycin or both, and 71% of serotype III were resistant to clindamycin but only 12% were resistant to erythromycin. GBS prevalence exceeded earlier reports by one-third. This is the first report of cefazolin resistance in Korea. These results underscore the need to establish screening measures and chemoprophylaxis guidelines regarding GBS infections in Korea. PMID:19781117

Lee, B K; Song, Y R; Kim, M Y; Yang, J H; Shin, J H; Seo, Y S; Oh, K Y; Yoon, H R; Pai, S Y; Foxman, B; Ki, M

2009-09-28

89

Early onset of breast cancer in a group of British black women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since there are no published data on breast cancer in British black women, we sought to determine whether, like African-American women, they present at a younger age with biologically distinct disease patterns. The method involved a retrospective review of breast cancer to compare age distributions and clinicopathological features between black women and white women in the UK, while controlling for

R L Bowen; S W Duffy; D A Ryan; I R Hart; J L Jones

2008-01-01

90

Mutual Support Groups to Reduce Alcohol Consumption by Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study of social support and alcohol consumption of 153 women during pregnancy. The majority of women changed their alcohol intake patterns during pregnancy because of concern for the health of the fetus. Most women decreased the amount and frequency of drinking and changed their beverage of choice. Social support was found to be significantly related

Martha A. Coleman; Nathan C. Coleman; Joyce P. Murray

1990-01-01

91

Elevator Group Control with Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this report a novel control that optimizes passenger service in an elevator group is described. Fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence are applied in the control when,allocating landing calls to the elevators. Fuzzy logic is used to recognize the traffic pattern and the traffic peaks from statistical forecasts. In order to form the statistical forecasts, the passenger traffic flow

Marja-Liisa Siikonen

1997-01-01

92

Elevator Group Control with Artificial Intelligence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report a novel control that optimizes passenger service in an elevator group is described. Fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence are applied in the control when allocating landing calls to the elevators. Fuzzy logic is used to recognize the traf...

M. L. Siikonen

1997-01-01

93

Evaluation of a Grief Group for Women in Residential Substance Abuse Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most women in substance abuse treatment have experienced significant losses. This preliminary study examined the effectiveness of a therapy group addressing grief and loss among women enrolled in a gender-specific residential substance abuse treatment program. The intervention group consisted of 24 grief group participants and the comparison group consisted of 31 nonparticipants. Qualitative analysis revealed a pattern: participants identified traumatic

Judith Fry McComish; Rivka Greenberg; Jennifer Kent-Bryant; Heather L. Chruscial; Joel Ager; Florice Hines; Scott B. Ransom

1999-01-01

94

Women’s Experiences of Appearance Concern and Body Control across the Lifespan: Challenging accepted wisdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study adopted a lifespan approach to women’s experiences of appearance concern and body control. Thirty-two women (aged 16 to 77) were interviewed about their exercise and food regulation. Results of the grounded theory analysis challenge social constructions of appearance concern as associated principally with the reproductive years, and of the body as malleable, and highlight the complexity of the

Olwyn Johnston; Jacqueline Reilly; John Kremer

2004-01-01

95

Control of complex physically simulated robot groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actuated systems such as robots take many forms and sizes but each requires solving the difficult task of utilizing available control inputs to accomplish desired system performance. Coordinated groups of robots provide the opportunity to accomplish more complex tasks, to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and to survive individual failures. Similarly, groups of simulated robots, represented as graphical characters, can test the design of experimental scenarios and provide autonomous interactive counterparts for video games. The complexity of writing control algorithms for these groups currently hinders their use. A combination of biologically inspired heuristics, search strategies, and optimization techniques serve to reduce the complexity of controlling these real and simulated characters and to provide computationally feasible solutions.

Brogan, David C.

2001-10-01

96

Lower genital tract infections in infertile Nigerian women compared with controls.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possibility that infertile Nigerian women have a higher rate of cervical colonisation with pathogenic and facultative organisms than fertile controls. DESIGN--The prevalence of common microorganisms in the vagina and endocervical canals of infertile women was compared with that of pregnant controls. SETTING--The Obafemi Awolowo University Hospital Maternity Centre. SUBJECTS--92 infertile women were compared with 86 pregnant controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--rates of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms in cases and controls. RESULTS--The rate of isolation of Neisseria gonorrheae was 17.4% among infertile women compared with 10.5% in the group of pregnant women (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in the rate of isolation of Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms. High rates of isolation of microorganisms were observed in both groups. However, women with secondary infertility had higher rate of carriage of Neisseria gonorrheae, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as compared with women with primary infertility. Nearly 15% of infertile women had previous episodes of pelvic inflammatory disease and 26% had had induced abortions. A positive history of vaginal discharge was a poor predictor of vagina and endocervical carriage of microorganisms. CONCLUSIONS--High rates of pathogenic organisms exist in the lower genital tract of infertile women and controls. Women with secondary infertility are more likely to have pathogenic organisms than women with primary infertility. A policy of routinely screening women for lower genital tract infections should be pursued in this population because of the high rate of infection.

Okonofua, F E; Ako-Nai, K A; Dighitoghi, M D

1995-01-01

97

Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to

J. G. Schenker; V. H. Eisenberg

1997-01-01

98

Young Women's Accounts of Instrumental Drug Use for Weight Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of drug use for weight control remains largely undocumented. This research addresses young women's accounts concerning instrumental substance use and management of the body. Although instrumental users faced the potential for stigma, the nature of their lines of action was insulating from many negative social consequences, as women remained largely private about their deviant behaviors. Although women were

Katherine Sirles Vecitis

2011-01-01

99

Dimensions of self-control in a sample of depressed women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrelationships between factors that emerged from three self-control instruments in a sample of depressed women were examined. Empirical dimensions corresponded fairly well to dimensions described by self-control theoreticians. For example, groups of items reflecting various facets of planning and systematic problem solving clustered together regardless of the particular instrument from which they were drawn, as did item groups that reflected

Stephanie S. Rude

1989-01-01

100

Immunization of pregnant women with group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To determine the safety and immunogenicity of group B streptococcal (GBS) type III CPS-TT conjugate vaccine in pregnant women. Methods: Prospective, randomized (2:1, vaccine:placebo), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in women at 30–32 weeks’ gestation and their infants. Immune responses were measured with IgG-specific ELISA assays; killing of III GBS by 1- and 2-month infant sera was assessed by opsonophagocytosis. Results:

Carol J. Baker; Marcia A. Rench; Pamela McInnes

2003-01-01

101

Predictors of plasma concentrations of DDE and PCBs in a group of U.S. women.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated predictors of plasma concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a group of 240 women, controls from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study. We considered personal attributes such as age, serum cholesterol, region of residence, adiposity, lactation, and dietary intake. DDE levels increased 0.17 ppb/year of age (p = 0.0003), and PCBs increased 0.08 ppb (p = 0.0001). DDE and PCBs increased 0.20 (p = 0.02) and 0.13 ppb (p = 0.001), respectively, per 10 mg/dl serum cholesterol. Women living in the western United States had higher levels of DDE (mean = 11.0 ppb; p = 0.003), and women in the Northeast and Midwest had higher levels of PCBs (mean = 5.6 ppb; p = 0.0002) as compared to women from other parts of the country (mean DDE = 6.3; mean PCBs = 4. 5 ppb). Levels of DDE could not be predicted from consumption of meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and grains. There was a positive association between fish consumption and PCB concentrations among women in the Northeast and Midwest. Using data from the cases in the nested case-control study to assess the predictive ability of the models, we confirmed that the most reliable predictors of DDE were age and serum cholesterol, and the most important predictors of PCBs were age, serum cholesterol, and residence in the Midwest or Northeast. The null results for the majority of the food variables suggest that specific dietary factors, other than fish, are not currently a substantial contributor to human exposure to DDE and PCBs.

Laden, F; Neas, L M; Spiegelman, D; Hankinson, S E; Willett, W C; Ireland, K; Wolff, M S; Hunter, D J

1999-01-01

102

Preventing Depression: Culturally Relevant Group Work with Black Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent estimates indicate that 10% to 25% of women in the United States report clinically significant depressive symptoms and that Black women are less likely to obtain care for depression and to receive appropriate treatment when they do seek care. Current mental and social health services necessitate a search for strength-based treatment models…

Jones, Lani V.

2008-01-01

103

Assessing phytochemical intake in a group of Mexican women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Identify the content of selected phytochemi- cals (PHYs) in Mexican foods and evaluate the reliability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in assessing PHYs intake among Mexican women. Material and Methods. Values for PHYs content were obtained from four different data sets. PHYs intake was assessed in 50 women of repro- ductive age enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study.

Marcia V Galvan-Portillo; Mary S Wolff; Luisa E Torres-Sánchez; Malaquías López-Cervantes; Lizbeth López-Carrillo

2007-01-01

104

Nonfatal occupational injuries among African American women by industrial group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined characteristics of nonfatal work-related injuries treated in emergency departments (EDs) among African American women by industry in the U.S. in 1996. Method: Injury data were from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Employment data were from the Current Population Survey (CPS). Results: In 1996, African American women, age 16 or older, were treated in EDs

Guang-Xiang Chen; Kitty J. Hendricks

2001-01-01

105

Optimal health and well-being for women: definitions and strategies derived from focus groups of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women participating in focus groups were asked how they define health and well-being, and what strategies they would suggest for health optimization. Women defined health and well-being largely in terms of relationships. Their strategies for improving health involved enhancement of the quality of relationships with families, partners, and community. These proposed strategies included: creating a context for resilience; valuing and

Shelley Kasle; Mari S Wilhelm; Kathryn L Reed

2002-01-01

106

Reclaiming the Maiden: Use of Archetypes in a 6-Week Women's Empowerment Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to describe a 6-week, semi-structured group counseling experience for university women students (undergraduate and graduate) from diverse backgrounds exploring archetypes and using group empowerment skills. Theoretical perspectives on women's empowerment groups and the use of archetypes in counseling are discussed…

Singh, Anneliese; Hofsess, Christy D.

2011-01-01

107

A sexual-enhancement workshop: Beyond group systematic desensitization for women's sexual anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether six women who previously had received 15 sessions of group systematic desensitization (SD) for their sexual anxiety would report additional treatment gains from participation in a sexual-enhancement workshop with their partners. After group SD six couples participated in six, 1½ hour weekly group sessions. The women reported a significant increase in marital adjustment and a significant

Wayne M. Sotile; Peter R. Kilmann; Diane R. Follingstad

1977-01-01

108

A qualitative study of an internet-based support group for women with sexual distress due to gynecologic cancer.  

PubMed

Internet-based support groups for cancer patients have been studied extensively; very few have focused on gynecologic cancer. We pilot-tested a web-based support group for gynecologic cancer patients and assessed women's perceptions of the intervention. Twenty-seven gynecologic cancer patients were randomized to an immediate intervention or a waitlist control group. Women participated in a 12-week, web-based support group focusing on sexuality-related topics. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of the intervention. Women reported benefits to participating in the intervention, including receiving support from group members and moderators, increased emotional well-being, improved feelings of body image and sexuality, and comfort in discussing sexuality online. Web-based support groups are both feasible and accepted by gynecologic cancer patients with psychosexual distress. The online format provided women with easy access to the support group and anonymity in discussing psychosexual concerns. Women with gynecologic cancer may benefit from participating in online support groups which provide an environment of relative anonymity to discuss psychosexual concerns. PMID:21594587

Wiljer, David; Urowitz, Sara; Barbera, Lisa; Chivers, Meredith L; Quartey, Naa Kwarley; Ferguson, Sarah E; To, Matthew; Classen, Catherine C

2011-09-01

109

Design of Modern Elevator Group Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide good transportation services for passengers in modern buildings, a good elevator group control system (EGCS) is inevitably necessary. The viewpoint of designing the EGCS is very important. The passenger-based viewpoint proposed provides a new way to think about this system. The capacity constraint following consideration for the passengers is utilized to make the performance better. Details of elevator

Tsung-che Chiang; Li-chen Fu

2002-01-01

110

False Discovery Rate Control With Groups.  

PubMed

In the context of large-scale multiple hypothesis testing, the hypotheses often possess certain group structures based on additional information such as Gene Ontology in gene expression data and phenotypes in genome-wide association studies. It is hence desirable to incorporate such information when dealing with multiplicity problems to increase statistical power. In this article, we demonstrate the benefit of considering group structure by presenting a p-value weighting procedure which utilizes the relative importance of each group while controlling the false discovery rate under weak conditions. The procedure is easy to implement and shown to be more powerful than the classical Benjamini-Hochberg procedure in both theoretical and simulation studies. By estimating the proportion of true null hypotheses, the data-driven procedure controls the false discovery rate asymptotically. Our analysis on one breast cancer dataset confirms that the procedure performs favorably compared with the classical method. PMID:21931466

Hu, James X; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhou, Harrison H

2010-09-01

111

False Discovery Rate Control With Groups  

PubMed Central

In the context of large-scale multiple hypothesis testing, the hypotheses often possess certain group structures based on additional information such as Gene Ontology in gene expression data and phenotypes in genome-wide association studies. It is hence desirable to incorporate such information when dealing with multiplicity problems to increase statistical power. In this article, we demonstrate the benefit of considering group structure by presenting a p-value weighting procedure which utilizes the relative importance of each group while controlling the false discovery rate under weak conditions. The procedure is easy to implement and shown to be more powerful than the classical Benjamini–Hochberg procedure in both theoretical and simulation studies. By estimating the proportion of true null hypotheses, the data-driven procedure controls the false discovery rate asymptotically. Our analysis on one breast cancer dataset confirms that the procedure performs favorably compared with the classical method.

Hu, James X.; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhou, Harrison H.

2011-01-01

112

Talking “Among Us”: How Women From Different Racial–Ethnic Groups Define and Discuss Menopause  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against a backdrop of scant literature on commonalities and differences among diverse groups of menopausal women within the United States, and little attempt by scholars in any country to study the ways in which both privilege and oppression can shape women's ideas and experiences of menopause, in this study, 61 menopausal women of varied racial–ethnic and class locations in a

Heather Dillaway; Mary Byrnes; Sara Miller; Sonica Rehan

2008-01-01

113

Stressors Influencing Middle Eastern Women's Perceptions of the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Focus Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand Australia-dwelling Middle Eastern women's lack of service utilization in cardiovascular health, we undertook a study to investigate their understandings and meanings of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors. Eight focus groups were conducted in community settings with Turkish, Persian, and Arab women. We found that the women understated their risk of CVD, faced many barriers in

Leila Gholizadeh; Michelle DiGiacomo; Yenna Salamonson; Patricia M. Davidson

2011-01-01

114

Ethnic-Specific Perceptions of Altered Control Among American Women: Implications for Health Promotion Programs After Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes some ethnically diverse psychosocial and behavioral contexts that influence low-income postpartum women's ability to focus on their health. Content analysis was conducted on data from ethnically concordant focus groups of low-income American Anglo, African American, and Hispanic women 12 to 24 months postpartum. All women described altered sense of “perceived control” as the context contributing to their

Bobbie Sterling; Eileen Fowles; Sunghun Kim; Lara Latimer; Lorraine O. Walker

2010-01-01

115

The Impact of Choice and Control on Women's Childbirth Experiences  

PubMed Central

Women’s choice and control impact birthing experiences. This study used a qualitative, descriptive approach to explore how women develop their initial birth plan and how changes made to the plan affect overall birth experiences. Narrative, semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 women who had given birth in Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada, and data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Findings showed that women relied on many resources when planning a birth and that changes made to a woman’s initial birth plan affected her recollection of the birth experience. Conclusions are that women’s positive and negative recollections of their birth experiences are related more to feelings and exertion of choice and control than to specific details of the birth experience.

Cook, Katie; Loomis, Colleen

2012-01-01

116

Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in a group of women weavers in South Africa.  

PubMed

Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in 97 women carpet weavers in a hand-made carpet weaving industry in Umtata, Transkei, South Africa. The controls were from a bottling plant in the same city. Both groups were Black Africans from the Xhosa-speaking population. The population we studied were non-smokers and there was no significant difference in age, race or height between the groups. The exposed weavers had significantly lower forced expiratory indices than the control group. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF 25-75%), forced expiratory flow between 200 ml and 1200 ml of forced vital capacity (FEF 200-1200), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were: 26.0%, 39.0%, 36.4% and 28.5% lower respectively in the exposed group compared with the controls. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC x 100) were 22.0% and 6.6% lower respectively in the exposed group compared with the controls. The percentage predicted (%pred) values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, FEF 25-75%, FEF 200-1200, and PEF in the exposed group were 82.9%, 77.1%, 95.6%, 64.6%, 72.2% and 82.8%, respectively. The prevalence of FEV1/FVC ratio less than 70% in the exposed group was 37.2%, while in the controls it was 12%. The exposed group reported a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms compared to the control. The prevalence of nasal symptoms and cough was 62.8% and 58.1%, respectively in the weavers. Weavers who reported cough, breathlessness, and wheezing had significantly (p < 0.01) lower pulmonary function than those who did not report these symptoms. The present study demonstrates that the continual exposure to dust in weavers in this industry is associated with significantly lower pulmonary function, higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and weavers show signs of airway obstruction compared to workers not exposed to this type of dust. Women in the weaving industry have a significant occupationally related respiratory impairment. PMID:9239435

Shamssain, M H; Shamsian, N

117

Psychometric Evaluation of the Midlife Women's Symptom Index (MSI) in Multiethnic Groups  

PubMed Central

The Midlife Women’s Symptom Index (MSI) was designed to measure menopausal symptoms specifically in a multiethnic sample of midlife women. This study is a psychometric property test to evaluate MSI among 512 multiethnic groups of midlife women (White, Hispanic, African American, and Asian American). Across the ethnic groups, MSI had an adequate internal consistency in all subdomains except psychosomatic symptoms. The item-to-total correlation coefficients of “lost weight” and “nosebleeds” were less than 0.20 among all ethnic groups. The discriminant validity was confirmed among all ethnic groups except Asian Americans. Overall, MSI may work better for Whites and not as well for Asian Americans, compared with other ethnic groups. Additional studies with diverse groups of multiethnic midlife women are needed, however, to confirm MSI psychometric properties.

Lee, Bokim; Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

2011-01-01

118

Bladder Control Problems in Women: Lifestyle Strategies for Relief  

MedlinePLUS

... health /bladder-control-problem /WO00122 ">Bladder control problems in women: Lifestyle strategies for relief Guidelines for sites linking to MayoClinic.com Advertisement Mayo Clinic Store Check out these best-sellers ...

119

Longitudinal Treatment Effectiveness Outcomes of a Group Intervention for Women and Children Exposed to Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social support can moderate negative effects of domestic violence for exposed women and children. Also, interventions targeting exposed women and children simultaneously have been shown to be more effective than those focused on children only. Since group interventions can provide such support, our study examined the effectiveness of a 10-week community-based psycho-educational group intervention for women and children. Mothers' (n?=?36)

Archana Basu; Johanna C. Malone; Alytia A. Levendosky; Stacie Dubay

2009-01-01

120

Selected Factors Affecting the Performance of Women's Self-Help Groups in Western Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women frequently encounter greater limitations and fewer opportunities than men, especially in regards to income-generating activities. They may face social and economic constraints that perpetuates poverty and spans generations. However, significant opportunities exist in the informal, small-scale enterprise sector for which women may be advantaged. Community groups are popular institutions in Kenya's rural areas; groups help provide services that the

Billy A. Jivetti; M. Craig Edwards

2009-01-01

121

Measurement of Attitudes of Rural Women towards Self-Help Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's…

Meena, M. S.; Jain, Dilip; Meena, H. R.

2008-01-01

122

The Status of the Women Physicists and Working Group Activities in China-Taipei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Working Group on Women in Physics in China-Taiwan (WGWP-CT) was established in 1999 and has been active since then. In this brief report, we will introduce the progress of WGWP-CT and the current status of women physicists in China-Taipei. Based on solid data, we demonstrate a rapid development of group support.

Ming-Fong Tai; Ching Cheng; Jauyn Grace Lin; Li-Ling Tsai; Mon-Shu Ho; Fu-Jen Kao; Maw-Kuen Wu; J. Raynien Kwo

2009-01-01

123

Acupuncture to Treat Primary Dysmenorrhea in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

We examined the effectiveness of acupuncture to reduce the severity and intensity of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized controlled trial compared acupuncture with control acupuncture using a placebo needle. Eligible women were aged 14–25 years with a diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea. Women received nine sessions of the study treatment over 3 months. The primary outcomes were menstrual pain intensity and duration, overall improvement in dysmenorrhea symptoms and reduced need for additional analgesia, measured at 3, 6 and 12 months from trial entry. A total of 92 women were randomly assigned to the intervention (acupuncture n = 46 and control n = 46). At 3 months although pain outcomes were lower for women in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, there was no significant difference between groups. Women receiving acupuncture reported a small reduction in mood changes compared with the control group, relative risk (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53–1.00, P = .05. Follow-up at 6 months found a significant reduction in the duration of menstrual pain in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, mean difference –9.6, 95% CI –18.9 to –0.3, P = .04, and the need for additional analgesia was significantly lower in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49–0.96, P = .03, but the follow-up at 12 months found lack of treatment effect. To conclude, although acupuncture improved menstrual mood symptoms in women with primary dysmenorrhea during the treatment phase, the trend in the improvement of symptoms during the active phase of treatment, and at 6 and 12 months was non-significant, indicating that a small treatment effect from acupuncture on dysmenorrhea may exist. In the study, acupuncture was acceptable and safe, but further appropriately powered trials are needed before recommendations for clinical practice can be made.

Smith, Caroline A.; Crowther, Caroline A.; Petrucco, Oswald; Beilby, Justin; Dent, Hannah

2011-01-01

124

Women Entering the Elite Group: A Limited Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on studies of literature and the freshman admission data from 1978 to 2005 in Peking University, the research reveals how female student enrollments grew from nil to a considerable size, and how the exclusion of women college admission was overcome to achieve gender balance. However, the paper argues that this progress is limited in that…

Liu, Yunshan; Wang, Zhiming

2009-01-01

125

Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…

Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

2010-01-01

126

76 FR 19907 - Clarification of Controlled Group Qualification Rules  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...9522] RIN 1545-BG94 Clarification of Controlled Group Qualification Rules AGENCY: Internal...a final regulation that applies to a controlled group of corporations. The regulation...that a corporation that satisfies the controlled group rules for stock ownership...

2011-04-11

127

76 FR 22336 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REG-118761-09] RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses AGENCY...exchange of property between members of a controlled group. These proposed regulations affect members of a controlled group and their shareholders....

2011-04-21

128

The relationship between stress and weight-control behavior in African-American women.  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a problem for African-American women across all socioeconomic strata. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight is 48.5% among African-American women compared with 21% among white women. An exploratory field was designed to examine selected psychosocial factors that influence the weight-control behavior of middle-income African-American women. A triangulation methodology was used in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. First, semistructured interviews were held with 36 African-American women between the ages of 25 and 75. Second, a Global Stress Scale was administered to measure perceived stress. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a positive correlation between body weight and stress in that women who were more overweight were experiencing more stress. Ethnographic analysis of the data showed that more than 50% of the women thought that stress negatively affected their weight-control behavior. Additionally, occupational stressors related to racism, sexism, and workload were major stressors for this group of women. Recognition of factors that influence weight-control health practices will enable health professionals to assist African-American women to manage their weight.

Walcott-McQuigg, J. A.

1995-01-01

129

How did formative research inform the development of a women's group intervention in rural Nepal?  

PubMed Central

Inability to reduce neonatal and maternal mortality in poor countries is sometimes blamed on a lack of contextual knowledge about care practices and care-seeking behavior. There is a lack of knowledge about how to translate formative research into effective interventions to improve maternal and newborn health. We describe the findings of formative research and how they were used to inform the development of such an intervention in rural Nepal. Formative research was carried out in four parts. Part 1 involved familiarization with the study area and literature review, and parts 2, 3 and 4 involved community mapping, audit of health services, and qualitative and quantitative studies of perinatal care behaviors. Participatory approaches have been successful at reducing neonatal mortality and may be suitable in our context. Community mapping and profiling helped to describe the community context, and we found that community-based organizations often sought to involve the Female Community Health Volunteer in community mobilization. She was not routinely conducting monthly meetings and found them difficult to sustain without support and supervision. In health facilities, most primary care staff were in post, but doctors and staff nurses were absent from referral centers. Mortality estimates reflected under-reporting of deaths and hygiene and infection control strategies had low coverage. The majority of women give birth at home with their mother-in-law, friends and neighbors. Care during perinatal illness was usually sought from traditional healers. Cultural issues of shyness, fear and normalcy restricted women’s behavior during pregnancy, birth and the postpartum period, and decisions about her health were usually made after communications with the family and community. The formative research indicated the type of intervention that could be successful. It should be community-based and should not be exclusively for pregnant women. It should address negotiations within families, and should tailor information to the needs of local groups and particular stakeholders such as mothers-in-law and traditional healers. The intervention should not only accept cultural constructs but also be a forum in which to discuss ideas of pollution, shame and seclusion. We used these guidelines to develop a participatory, community-based women’s group intervention, facilitated through a community action cycle. The success of our intervention may be because of its acceptability at the community level and its sensitivity to the needs and beliefs of families and communities.

Morrison, J; Osrin, D; Shrestha, B; Tumbahangphe, KM; Tamang, S; Shrestha, D; Thapa, S; Mesko, N; Manandhar, DS; Costello, A

2012-01-01

130

Mediterranean diet and bone mineral density in two age groups of women.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that adherence to the Mediterranean diet measured as a Mediterranean diet score (MDS) has a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD). For the purposes of this study, a sample of healthy women from Southern Spain was chosen. Subjects were grouped into two major groups: a first group consisted of women of reproductive age (premenopausal, pre-M) and a second group consisted of postmenopausal women (pos-M). The consumption of vegetables and fruit was found to be significantly related to BMD in both groups of subjects studied. In the pre-M group, the lipid ratio was positively associated with BMD and in pos-M women nuts intake was also associated with BMD. After implementing the analysis of covariance analysis, significant linear trends between the MDS and BMD were observed in all subjects studied. Our results indicate that a varied diet based on Mediterranean diet patterns may be beneficial in the prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:22946650

Rivas, Ana; Romero, Antonio; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Monteagudo, Celia; Feriche, Belen; Lorenzo, Maria Luisa; Olea, Fatima

2012-09-05

131

Change in Emotion-Regulation Strategy for Women With Metastatic Breast Cancer Following Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four relatively independent emotion-regulation constructs (suppression of negative affect, restraint, repression, and emotional self-efficacy) were tested as outcomes in a randomized trial of supportive-expressive group therapy for women with metastatic breast cancer. Results indicate that report of suppression of negative affect decreased and restraint of aggressive, inconsiderate, impulsive, and irresponsible behavior increased in the treatment group as compared with controls

Janine Giese-Davis; Cheryl Koopman; Lisa D. Butler; Catherine Classen; Matthew Cordova; Pat Fobair; Jane Benson; Helena C. Kraemer; David Spiegel

2002-01-01

132

Prevalence of HIV among childbearing women and women having termination of pregnancy: multidisciplinary steering group study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women, in particular those whose behaviour or that of their partners put them at "low risk" of infection. DESIGN--Voluntary named or anonymous HIV testing of pregnant women during 21 months (November 1988 to July 1990). SUBJECTS AND SETTING--All women who planned to continue their pregnancy and attended clinics serving the antenatal populations of Edinburgh and Dundee. All women admitted for termination of pregnancy to gynaecology wards serving the pregnant populations of Dundee and outlying rural areas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Period prevalence of HIV antibody positivity. RESULTS--91% of antenatal clinic attenders and 97% of women having termination of pregnancy agreed to HIV testing on a named or anonymous basis. HIV period prevalences for antenatal clinic attenders and women having termination of pregnancy tested in Dundee were 0.13% and 0.85% respectively, and for antenatal clinic attenders tested in Edinburgh 0.26%. For those at "low risk" rates for antenatal clinic attenders and women having termination of pregnancy in Dundee were 0.11% and 0.13%, and for antenatal clinic attenders in Edinburgh 0.02%. In Dundee HIV prevalence among women having a termination of pregnancy (0.85%) was significantly greater than that among antenatal clinic attenders (0.13%). CONCLUSIONS--HIV infection is undoubtedly occurring among women at "low risk," and it is clear that a policy of selective testing of those at only "high risk" is inadequate for pregnant women living in areas of high prevalence such as Edinburgh and Dundee. Moreover, when studying pregnant populations in such areas there is the need to include those having a termination of pregnancy.

Goldberg, D. J.; MacKinnon, H.; Smith, R.; Patel, N. B.; Scrimgeour, J. B.; Inglis, J. M.; Peutherer, J. F.; Urquhart, G. E.; Emslie, J. A.; Covell, R. G.

1992-01-01

133

The Impact of Trauma-Focused Group Therapy upon HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network "Women and Trauma" Multi-Site Study  

PubMed Central

Women in drug treatment struggle with co-occurring problems, including trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can heighten HIV risk. This study examines the impact of two group therapy interventions on reduction of unprotected sexual occasions (USO) among women with substance use disorders (SUD) and PTSD. Participants were 346 women recruited from and receiving treatment at six community-based drug treatment programs participating in NIDA’s Clinical Trials Network. Participants were randomized to receive 12-sessions of either seeking safety (SS), a cognitive behavioral intervention for women with PTSD and SUD, or women’s health education (WHE), an attention control psychoeducational group. Participants receiving SS who were at higher sexual risk (i.e., at least 12 USO per month) significantly reduced the number of USO over 12-month follow up compared to WHE. High risk women with co-occurring PTSD and addiction may benefit from treatment addressing coping skills and trauma to reduce HIV risk.

Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Killeen, Therese; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hansen, Cheri; Jiang, Huiping; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Miele, Gloria M.; Cohen, Lisa R.; Gan, Weijin; Resko, Stella M.; DiBono, Michele; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Nunes, Edward V.

2009-01-01

134

Improving Control of High Blood Pressure among Middle-aged Turkish Women of Low Socioeconomic Status through Public Health Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results. Overall, the initial high blood pressure and obesity ratio in the intervention and control group were 20.0% and 31.7%, respectively. After 6 months of the intervention program, the number of women within the optimal weight range significantly increased in the intervention group compared with control group (p=0.009). After the intervention program, the number of women with normal weight and

Ahmet Nesimi Kisioglu; Banu Aslan; Mustafa Ozturk; Mualla Aykut

2004-01-01

135

Improved neonatal survival after participatory learning and action with women's groups: a prospective study in rural eastern India  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine whether a women’s group intervention involving participatory learning and action has a sustainable and replicable effect on neonatal survival in rural, eastern India. Methods From 2004 to 2011, births and neonatal deaths in 36 geographical clusters in Jharkhand and Odisha were monitored. Between 2005 and 2008, these clusters were part of a randomized controlled trial of how women’s group meetings involving participatory learning and action influence maternal and neonatal health. Between 2008 and 2011, groups in the original intervention clusters (zone 1) continued to meet to discuss post-neonatal issues and new groups in the original control clusters (zone 2) met to discuss neonatal health. Logistic regression was used to examine neonatal mortality rates after 2008 in the two zones. Findings Data on 41?191 births were analysed. In zone 1, the intervention’s effect was sustained: the cluster-mean neonatal mortality rate was 34.2 per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval, CI: 28.3–40.0) between 2008 and 2011, compared with 41.3 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 35.4–47.1) between 2005 and 2008. The effect of the intervention was replicated in zone 2: the cluster-mean neonatal mortality rate decreased from 61.8 to 40.5 per 1000 live births between two periods: 2006–2008 and 2009–2011 (odds ratio: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57–0.83). Hygiene during delivery, thermal care of the neonate and exclusive breastfeeding were important factors. Conclusion The effect of participatory women’s groups on neonatal survival in rural India, where neonatal mortality is high, was sustainable and replicable.

Roy, Swati Sarbani; Mahapatra, Rajendra; Rath, Shibanand; Bajpai, Aparna; Singh, Vijay; Rath, Suchitra; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Gope, Raj Kumar; Sinha, Rajesh; Costello, Anthony; Pagel, Christina

2013-01-01

136

A sexual-enhancement workshop: beyond group systematic desensitization for women's sexual anxiety.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether six women who previously had received 15 sessions of group systematic desensitization (SD) for their sexual anxiety would report additional treatment gains from participation in a sexual-enhancement workshop with their partners. After group SD six couples participated in six, 1 1/2 hour weekly group sessions. The women reported a significant increase in marital adjustment and a significant decrease in sexual anxiety. A significant decrease was found in the women's sexual nonresponsiveness as perceived by their partners. Future studies should (1) contrast the effects of group SD with women alone versus couple group treatment, (2) determine which treatment components are most influential for defined subject types, and (3) obtain data on men's sexual functioning. PMID:22764

Sotile, W M; Kilmann, P; Follingstad, D R

1977-01-01

137

The Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women: Report to the President and the Commission for Women--Recommendation Package #4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents partial recommendations of a Pennsylvania State University Study Group on the Status of Women at the University. Recommendations concern: special populations, sexual harassment in the workplace, sexual violence against women, women's athletics, and health services for women students. Among specific recommendations are the…

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

138

Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite a recent surge in tobacco advertising and the recent advertising ban (pending enforcement at the time of this study), there are few studies describing current cigarette marketing in India. This study sought to assess cigarette companies' marketing strategies in Mumbai, India. Methods: A two week field study was conducted in Mumbai in September 2003, observing, documenting, and collecting cigarette advertising on billboards, storefronts and at point of sale along two major thoroughfares, and performing a content analysis of news, film industry, and women's magazines and three newspapers. Results: Cigarette advertising was ubiquitous in the environment, present in news and in film magazines, but not in women's magazines or the newspapers. The four major advertising campaigns all associated smoking with aspiration; the premium brands targeting the higher socioeconomic status market utilised tangible images of westernisation and affluence whereas the "bingo" (low priced) segment advertisements invited smokers to belong to a league of their own and "rise to the taste" using intangible images. Women were not depicted smoking, but were present in cigarette advertisements—for example, a woman almost always accompanied a man in "the man with the smooth edge" Four Square campaign. Advertisements and product placements at low heights and next to candies at point of sale were easily accessible by children. In view of the iminent enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertisements, cigarette companies are increasing advertising for the existing brand images, launching brand extensions, and brand stretching. Conclusion: Cigarette companies have developed sophisticated campaigns targeting men, women, and children in different socioeconomic groups. Many of these strategies circumvent the Indian tobacco advertising ban. Understanding these marketing strategies is critical to mimimise the exploitation of loopholes in tobacco control legislation.

Bansal, R; John, S; Ling, P

2005-01-01

139

Honoring the Ways of American Indian Women: A Group Therapy Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A culturally grounded group intervention for a typically underserved population of urban American Indian women is described. The intervention is designed to increase interpersonal connection, improve inter-tribal acceptance and trust, and enhance psychological well being of marginalized urban American Indian women. Topics used to structure the…

McWhirter, Paula T.; Robbins, Rockey; Vaughn, Karen; Youngbull, Natalie; Burks, Derek; Willmon-Haque, Sadie; Schuetz, Suzan; Brandes, Joyce A.; Nael, Andrea Zainab Omidy

2010-01-01

140

Contextual Factors Influencing the Eating Behaviours of African American Women: A Focus Group Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: African American women suffer disproportionately from many chronic diseases, and it is well acknowledged that eating patterns and habits are important contributory factors. Our goal was to describe and understand how personal and contextual factors among African American women contribute to food choices that increase the risk for chronic disease. Design: Focus groups were conducted with 40 African American

Margaret K. Hargreaves; David G. Schlundt; Maciej S. Buchowski

2002-01-01

141

Therapeutic Group Programme for Women with Postnatal Depression in Rural Victoria: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a therapeutic group programme, provided by community health workers, in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms associated with postnatal depression (PND) among women living in a rural setting.Method: A prospective repeated measures design was used. Women reporting difficulties in the postnatal period were recruited through community health services. Training

Elizabeth Craig; Fiona Judd; Gene Hodgins

2005-01-01

142

An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

2010-01-01

143

Herbal medicine use during pregnancy in a group of Australian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a

Della A Forster; Angela Denning; Gemma Wills; Melissa Bolger; Elizabeth McCarthy

2006-01-01

144

Social Identity, Modern Sexism, and Perceptions of Personal and Group Discrimination by Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of gender-related discrimination against the self and group were examined in women and men, with a focus on the predictive utility of modern sexism and 3 dimensions of social identification (ingroup ties, centrality, and ingroup affect). Questionnaires were completed by 321 undergraduates (206 women and 115 men), of whom 78% self-identified as White and 10% as Asian. Higher levels

James E. Cameron

2001-01-01

145

An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

2010-01-01

146

Iron supplementation for unexplained fatigue in non-anaemic women: double blind randomised placebo controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the subjective response to iron therapy in non-anaemic women with unexplained fatigue. Design Double blind randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting Academic primary care centre and eight general practices in western Switzerland. Participants 144 women aged 18 to 55, assigned to either oral ferrous sulphate (80 mg/day of elemental iron daily; n=75) or placebo (n=69) for four weeks. Main outcome measures Level of fatigue, measured by a 10 point visual analogue scale. Results 136 (94%) women completed the study. Most had a low serum ferritin concentration; ? 20 ?g/l in 69 (51%) women. Mean age, haemoglobin concentration, serum ferritin concentration, level of fatigue, depression, and anxiety were similar in both groups at baseline. Both groups were also similar for compliance and dropout rates. The level of fatigue after one month decreased by -1.82/6.37 points (29%) in the iron group compared with -0.85/6.46 points (13%) in the placebo group (difference 0.95 points, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 1.62; P=0.004). Subgroups analysis showed that only women with ferritin concentrations ? 50 ?g/l improved with oral supplementation. Conclusion Non-anaemic women with unexplained fatigue may benefit from iron supplementation. The effect may be restricted to women with low or borderline serum ferritin concentrations.

Verdon, F; Burnand, B; Stubi, C-L Fallab; Bonard, C; Graff, M; Michaud, A; Bischoff, T; de Vevey, M; Studer, J-P; Herzig, L; Chapuis, C; Tissot, J; Pecoud, A; Favrat, B

2003-01-01

147

Lifelong Legacy of Early Maternal Loss: A Women's Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early maternal loss is a traumatic event with lifelong impact on a woman's sense of self and on her subsequent development. Feelings of isolation, confusion, and anxiety are common and normal life-cycle milestones and transitions are particularly difficult. This paper describes the use of short-term groups with this population and suggests that this approach fosters personal growth. The group experience

Cynthia J. Pill; Judith L. Zabin

1997-01-01

148

Effects of risedronate 5 mg\\/d on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in late-postmenopausal women with osteopenia: A multinational, 24-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase III trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Randomized clinical trials have shown that risedronate reduces the risk for both ver- tebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (bone mineral density [BMD] T-score, <-2.5). If left untreated, osteopenia (T-score, between -1 and -2.5) may progress to osteo- porosis. Risedronate sodium, a pyridinyl bisphospho- nate, is an antiresorptive drug approved by the US Food and Drug

Matti J. Välimäiki; Jordi Farrerons-Minguella; Johan Halse; Heikki Kröger; Marilyn Maroni; Henk Mulder; Manuel Muñoz-Torres; Maria Sääf; Erik Snorre Øfjord

2007-01-01

149

Bilateral deficits in fine motor control ability and manual dexterity in women with fibromyalgia syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to investigate fine motor control ability and manual dexterity women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) without symptoms in the upper extremity compared to healthy women. Subtests of the Purdue Pegboard Test (one-hand, bilateral and assembly) and of the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test (writing, turning cards, picking up small, light and large heavy objects, simulated feeding and stacking checkers) were evaluated bilaterally in 20 women with FMS (aged 35-55 years) without symptoms in the upper limb and 20 age- and hand dominance-matched healthy women. Differences between sides and groups were analysed with several analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA revealed significant differences between groups (P < 0.001) and sides (P = 0.007) for one-hand pin placement subtest: women with FMS showed bilateral worse scores than controls. Patients also exhibited significantly lower scores in bilateral pin placement and assembly subtests when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). The ANOVA also revealed significant differences between groups for writing, turning over cards, picking up small objects, stacking checkers, picking up large light objects and picking up large heavy objects (all, P < 0.001): women with FMS needed more time for these subtests than healthy women with both hands. No difference for simulated feeding was found between groups. Our findings revealed bilateral deficits in fine motor control ability and manual dexterity in patients with FMS without symptoms in the upper extremity. These deficits are not related to the clinical features of the symptoms supporting an underlying central mechanism of altered motor control. PMID:23354668

Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres, Marta; Martínez-Piédrola, Rosa M; Cigarán-Méndez, Margarita; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

2013-01-26

150

Strategies developed and implemented by women's groups to improve mother and infant health and reduce mortality in rural Malawi.  

PubMed

We evaluated the strategies to tackle maternal and infant health problems developed by women's groups in rural Malawi. Quantitative data were analyzed on strategies developed by 184 groups at two of the meetings in the community action cycle (attended by 3365 and 3047 women). Data on strategies implemented was collected through a survey of the 197 groups active in January 2010. Qualitative data on the identification and implementation of strategies was collected through 17 focus group discussions and 12 interviews with men and women. To address the maternal and child health problems identified the five most common strategies identified were: health education sessions, bicycle ambulances, training of traditional birth attendants, wetland vegetable garden (dimba garden) cultivation and distribution of insecticide treated bednets (ITNs). The five most common strategies actually implemented were: dimba garden cultivation, health education sessions, ITN distribution, health programme radio listening clubs and clearing house surroundings. The rationale behind the strategies and the factors facilitating and hindering implementation are presented. The potential impact of the strategies on health is discussed. Women's groups help communities to take control of their health issues and have the potential to reduce neonatal, infant and maternal mortality and morbidity in the longer term. PMID:24029397

Rosato, M; Malamba, F; Kunyenge, B; Phiri, T; Mwansambo, C; Kazembe, P; Costello, A; Lewycka, S

2012-09-01

151

Adapted Motivational Interviewing for Women With Binge Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this randomized controlled trial, 108 women with binge-eating disorder (BED) recruited from the community were assigned to either an adapted motivational interviewing (AMI) group (1 individual AMI session + self-help handbook) or control group (handbook only). They were phoned 4, 8, and 16 weeks following the initial session to assess binge eating and associated symptoms (depression, self-esteem, quality of

Stephanie E. Cassin; Kristin M. von Ranson; Kenneth Heng; Joti Brar; Amy E. Wojtowicz

2008-01-01

152

The Relationship between Objectified Body Consciousness and Wellness in a Group of College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectified body consciousness theory provides a framework for understanding young women's negative body experiences and their impact on well-being. This study examined the impact of body surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs, the 3 components of objectified body consciousness, on wellness in college women. Data indicated a…

Sinclair, Stacey L.; Myers, Jane E.

2004-01-01

153

Improving Participation Rates for Women of Color in Health Research: The Role of Group Cohesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies\\u000a show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine\\u000a whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community\\u000a physical activity program for women

Renae L. Smith-Ray; Scherezade Mama; Jacqueline Y. Reese-Smith; Paul A. Estabrooks; Rebecca E. Lee

154

Enhancing women's lives: The role of support groups among breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two decades of research indicate that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. Group therapy has been effective at reducing mood disturbance, improving quality of life, enhancing physiological functioning, and increasing survival time. In particular, Supportive-Expressive group psychotherapy has been effective in assisting breast cancer patients in reducing anxiety related to death

Cheryl Gore-felton; David Spiegel

1999-01-01

155

Multiple primary tumours in women with vulvar neoplasms: a case-control study.  

PubMed

We sought to determine whether women with in situ or invasive squamous cell vulvar cancer were more likely than other women to have had a previous or concurrent tumour at other anogenital sites. One hundred and fifty-eight women with vulvar cancer were identified who were first diagnosed during 1980-1985, were ages 18-79 years at that time, and were residents of one of three counties in western Washington. Two control groups were selected: (1) from records of hospital pathology departments, a sample of 113 women with certain benign conditions of the vulva; (2) through random digit dialing, a sample of 212 women from the general population of these counties. Information on a history of other cancers, and on sexual, reproductive, medical, and demographic characteristics was collected from cases and controls in at-home interviews. Cases were more likely to report a history of other anogenital cancers than were controls, with relative risks of 3.5-29.8, depending on the type of case group and type of control. These associations were not explained by case-control differences in demographic characteristics or frequency of cervical screening. On the other hand, prior or concurrent non-anogenital cancers were equally common in cases and controls. These results support the hypothesis that the different anogenital cancers have at least one aetiology in common. PMID:3390379

Sherman, K J; Daling, J R; Chu, J; McKnight, B; Weiss, N S

1988-04-01

156

Prevention of Urinary Incontinence by Behavioral Modification Program: A Randomized, Controlled Trial Among Older Women in the Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe determined whether a behavioral modification program (BMP) taught to groups of continent older women would decrease the incidence of urinary incontinence, increase pelvic muscle strength and improve voiding control.

ANANIAS C. DIOKNO; CAROLYN M. SAMPSELLE; A. REGULA HERZOG; T. E. RAGHUNATHAN; SANDRA HINES; KASSANDRA L. MESSER; CINDY KARL; MARIA CLAUDIA A. LEITE

2004-01-01

157

The Meaning of "Control" for Childbearing Women in the US  

PubMed Central

Childbearing women, healthcare providers, and commentators on birth broadly identify control as an important issue during childbirth; however, control is rarely defined in literature on the topic. Here we seek to deconstruct the term control as used by childbearing women to better understand the issues and concepts underpinning it. Based on qualitative interviews with 101 parous women in the United States, we analyze meanings of control within the context of birth narratives. We find these meanings correspond to five distinct domains: self-determination, respect, personal security, attachment, and knowledge. We also find ambivalence about this term and concept, in that half our sample recognizes “you cannot control birth”. Together, these findings call into question the usefulness of the term for measuring quality or improving maternity care and highlight other concepts which may be more fruitfully explored.

Namey, Emily E; Lyerly, Anne D

2010-01-01

158

Command control group behaviors. Objective 1: A methodology for and identification of command control group behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report provides the results of the first year's research of a three-year effort to identify the individual and multi-individual non-procedural skills exhibited by battalion command control group members and the commander/staff as a whole. In this project a model of command control group behavior was applied to identify and quantify four general categories of behavior. A methodology was developed for use at the Combined Arms Tactical Training Simulator (CATTS) at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas. Extensive recordings were made of battalion commanders and their staffs as they underwent training at the facility fighting a highly realistic computer-assisted war game. The methodology was effective in distinguishing between groups in three of the four areas. Preliminary results show that both procedural and nonprocedural, individual, and team behaviors contribute to overall team performance.

Reaser, J. M.; Stewart, S.; Tiede, R. V.

1984-08-01

159

Substance abuse and mental health disparities: comparisons across sexual identity groups in a national sample of young Australian women.  

PubMed

A growing body of research amply documents health disparities related to substance abuse among sexual minority women. However, relatively little research has examined risk factors or predictors of substance use in this population and even less has explored differences among sexual minority subgroups. Using data from 8850 women aged 25-30 years in the 2003 survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health Survey (ALSWH) we compared rates of substance use (alcohol, marijuana and other illicit drugs) and potential predictors (e.g., depression, anxiety, perceived stress, lower levels of social support) across four sexual identity groups-exclusively heterosexual, mainly heterosexual, bisexual and lesbian. Using statistical weighting of the sample and controlling for demographic characteristics we fitted logistic regression models to estimate adjusted odds ratios for substance use. Compared with exclusively heterosexual women sexual minority women reported significantly higher levels of substance use-but there was notable variation among the three sexual minority subgroups. Women who identified as mainly heterosexual were significantly more likely than exclusively heterosexual women to report at-risk drinking and those who identified as bisexual were more likely to report marijuana use. Mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were also more likely to report binge drinking. Findings implicate stress as an important predictor of substance use and emphasize the need for research that more systematically examines the relationships between minority stress and substance use in sexual minority women. Findings of variations in risk across sexual minority subgroups suggest prevention and intervention strategies aimed at reducing health disparities should be targeted toward specific sexual minority subgroups. PMID:20579794

Hughes, Tonda; Szalacha, Laura A; McNair, Ruth

2010-05-25

160

Effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial risk in pregnancy: Results from a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Few interventions have succeeded in reducing psychosocial risk among pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine whether an integrated group prenatal care intervention already shown to improve perinatal and sexual risk outcomes can also improve psychosocial outcomes compared to standard individual care. This randomised controlled trial included pregnant women ages 14–25 from two public hospitals (N = 1047) who were randomly assigned to standard individual care, group prenatal care or integrated group prenatal care intervention (CenteringPregnancy Plus, CP+). Timing and content of visits followed obstetrical guidelines, from 18-week gestation through birth. Each 2-h group prenatal care session included physical assessment, education/skills building and support via facilitated discussion. Using intention-to-treat models, there were no significant differences in psychosocial function; yet, women in the top tertile of psychosocial stress at study entry did benefit from integrated group care. High-stress women randomly assigned to CP+ reported significantly increased self-esteem, decreased stress and social conflict in the third trimester of pregnancy; social conflict and depression were significantly lower 1-year postpartum (all p-values <0.02). CP+ improved psychosocial outcomes for high-stress women. This ‘bundled’ intervention has promise for improving psychosocial outcomes, especially for young pregnant women who are traditionally more vulnerable and underserved.

Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Magriples, Urania; Westdahl, Claire; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Kershaw, Trace S.

2012-01-01

161

Contraceptive Attitudes and Behavior of Several Groups of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a progress report on a large-scale five-year longitudinal predictive study of contraceptive success and failure, begun in November, 1973. Subjects were a randomly selected goup of 646 patients at a Planned Parenthood Clinic. An interview and several brief questionnaires were administered to each subject. A sub-group was selected…

Oskamp, Stuart; And Others

162

Unleashing the Power of Young Women through Peer Helping Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the application of the Positive Peer Culture (PPC) treatment methodology to a population of troubled girls in a residential setting. The peer group utilizes naturally occurring problems as vehicles to teach girls about errors in behavior and thinking. Community activities are used to practice newly obtained prosocial behaviors. (LSR)

Quigley, Richard; Steiner, Mary E.

1996-01-01

163

Support Groups, Marriage, and the Management of Ambiguity among HIV-Positive Women in Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

In the context of the African HIV epidemic, support groups are not simply spaces for discussions of social and health well-being; neither are they institutions functioning solely to cultivate self-responsible and economically empowered patients. HIV-positive women in northern Nigeria have appropriated a support group to facilitate their marriage arrangements. In this group, women negotiate the threats of stigma and the promises of respectable marriage through what I call the management of ambiguity surrounding their HIV status. I further argue that the practice of support group matchmaking reveals the local political economic dynamics that shape social and illness trajectories in resource-poor settings.

Rhine, Kathryn A.

2013-01-01

164

Women's status and family planning: results from a focus group survey.  

PubMed

Focus group discussions were conducted in China's Pingluo County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Sihui County, Guangdong Province among reproductive age women with only daughters, mothers-in-law, unmarried women aged 23 years and older, and women business persons and cadres. The topic of discussion was the status of women, gender differences in employment, education, marriage, family life, childbearing, and elderly care in counties that have above average fertility rates. There were also several groups of men, mixed gender groups with husbands working away from home, local family planning workers, and rural intellectuals. The findings showed that there is more access to education for girls and a higher employment rate for young women. Daughters receive education to the highest level affordable. Enrollments are equal for boys and girls. Women's employment is not challenged by husbands, and work is available in a variety of locations. Business ownership and operation is encouraged. By middle age, women generally do not work in enterprises, but at home or on contracted farmland. Equal rights within the family are generally accepted. Husbands turn over their salary to wives for family expenses. Girls receive the same care after birth as boys. Women's status is improving. Improvements in social status have also involved sacrifices. Women complained that the workload on the farm has increased with adult males away working in cities. Women bear the burden of family planning, including in some cases side effects from oral pills and recovery from sterilizations. One women remarked that there were burdens in bearing children, taking oral pills, having IUD insertions, and having induced abortions; men should bear 50% of the responsibility. The burden of women without sons is harder, and women may also feel inferior as the last in their family line. One family with 6 daughters accepted the fine of RMB 7000 yuan for having another child, which turned out to be a son. One commented that even a stupid son is better than a daughter. Many with only daughters have not tried for a son because the fine was too expensive. Support in old age was a reason for desiring sons. There were positive opinions expressed about family planning. Economic gains for women were considered important in raising women's status. PMID:12318705

Gu, B; Xie, Z

1994-02-01

165

Comparison of two group counseling approaches to enhancing confidence in planning careers by undecided Taiwanese college women.  

PubMed

This is a report of research comparing two approaches to enhance the career confidence of undecided female college students. 30 women who requested enrollment in career counseling were assigned to two counseling groups (a cognitive reconstructing intervention group and a career decision-making skills training group) and one no-treatment control group based on time of request. After participating in the two career counseling groups for eight sessions in a month, the female college students rated their mean confidence as increased over that of the no-treatment group. Analysis indicated that the indecisive female college students benefitted from career group counseling with an emphasis on self-efficacy and that the cognitive reconstructing intervention was more effective. PMID:11086620

Peng, H

2000-10-01

166

Hyperinsulinemia in glucose-tolerant women with preeclampsia A controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential hypertension is associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. To assess whether hyperinsulinemia is also present in hypertensive disease induced by pregnancy, we studied the plasma glucose and insulin responses to 50 g of oral glucose in 10 women with definite, severe preeclampsia but normal glucose tolerance, and compared them with the responses observed in a well-matched control group of

Esperanza Martinez Abundis; Manuel Gonzalez Ortiz; Alfredo Quiñones Galvan; Ele Ferrannini

1996-01-01

167

Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

2010-01-01

168

Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence Among Women in Pakistan: Findings From a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic violence. Nearly one third of the 23,430

Neil Andersson; Anne Cockcroft; Umaira Ansari; Khalid Omer; Noor M. Ansari; Amir Khan; Ubaid Ullah Chaudhry

2010-01-01

169

Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

2010-01-01

170

Ethnic variation in the activity of lipid desaturases and their relationships with cardiovascular risk factors in control women and an at-risk group with previous gestational diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Lipid desaturase enzymes mediate the metabolism of fatty acids to long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and their activities are related to metabolic risk factors for Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD). There are marked ethnic differences in risks of CHD and T2DM but little is known about ethnic differences in desaturase activities. Methods Samples from a study of CVD risk in women with previous gestational diabetes were analysed for percentage fatty acids in plasma free fatty acid, triglyceride, cholesterol ester and phospholipid pools for 89 white European, 53 African Caribbean and 56 Asian Indian women. The fatty acid desaturase activities, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, calculated separately for C16 and C18 fatty acids), delta 6 desaturase (D6D) and delta 5 desaturase (D5D) were estimated from precursor-to-product ratios and their relationships with adiposity, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and insulin sensitivity explored. Ethnic differences in desaturase activities independent of ethnic variation in risk factor correlates of desaturase activities were then identified. Results There was significant ethnic variation in age, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol concentrations and insulin resistance. Desaturase activities showed significant correlations, independent of ethnicity, with BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Independent of ethnic variation in BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol, SCD-16 activity, calculated from each of the four lipid pools measured, was 18–35 percent higher in white Europeans than in African Caribbeans or Asian Indians (all p?

2013-01-01

171

Possible psychosocial strategies for controlling violence against women  

PubMed Central

Women, the fair sex, are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. Violence against women and girls continues to be a global epidemic. It is present in every country, cutting across boundaries of culture, class, education, income, ethnicity and age. A growing body of research studies indicates that 20% to 50% (varying from country to country) of women have experienced domestic violence. A multilayered strategy that addresses the structural causes of violence against women is needed. Strategies and interventions attempting to address violence against women should be guided by 5 underlying principles: Prevention, protection, early intervention, rebuilding the lives of victims/survivors and accountability. When planning interventions, there are a variety of stakeholders who should be borne in mind. Key areas for intervention include encouraging women empowerment; advocacy and awareness raising; education for building a culture of nonviolence; encouraging active participation of women in political system; resource development; direct service provision to victims, survivors and perpetrators; networking and community mobilization; direct intervention to help victims/survivors rebuild their lives; legal reform; monitoring interventions and measures; early identification of ‘at risk’ families, communities, groups and individuals; and data collection and analysis.

Kumari, Sapna; Priyamvada, Richa; Chaudhury, S.; Singh, A. R.; Verma, A. N.; Prakash, J.

2009-01-01

172

Possible psychosocial strategies for controlling violence against women.  

PubMed

Women, the fair sex, are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. Violence against women and girls continues to be a global epidemic. It is present in every country, cutting across boundaries of culture, class, education, income, ethnicity and age. A growing body of research studies indicates that 20% to 50% (varying from country to country) of women have experienced domestic violence. A multilayered strategy that addresses the structural causes of violence against women is needed. Strategies and interventions attempting to address violence against women should be guided by 5 underlying principles: Prevention, protection, early intervention, rebuilding the lives of victims/survivors and accountability. When planning interventions, there are a variety of stakeholders who should be borne in mind. Key areas for intervention include encouraging women empowerment; advocacy and awareness raising; education for building a culture of nonviolence; encouraging active participation of women in political system; resource development; direct service provision to victims, survivors and perpetrators; networking and community mobilization; direct intervention to help victims/survivors rebuild their lives; legal reform; monitoring interventions and measures; early identification of 'at risk' families, communities, groups and individuals; and data collection and analysis. PMID:21180492

Kumari, Sapna; Priyamvada, Richa; Chaudhury, S; Singh, A R; Verma, A N; Prakash, J

2009-07-01

173

Effects of soy isoflavone supplementation on cognitive function in Chinese postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate whether soy-derived isoflavone extract improves performance in cognitive function and quality of life in Chinese postmenopausal women. Design: The study was a 6-month double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial. Participants were community-dwelling women aged 55 to 76 years; 191 eligible women were randomly assigned to receive a daily oral intake of 80 mg soy-derived isoflavones or an

Suzanne C. Ho; Agnes S. Y. Chan; Yee Ping Ho; Edwin K. F. So; Aprille Sham; Benny Zee; Jean L. F. Woo

2007-01-01

174

Self-Efficacy and Substance Use Outcomes for Women in Single-Gender Versus Mixed-Gender Group Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined baseline self-efficacy as a moderator of outcomes comparing women assigned to either the Women's Recovery Group (WRG), a new manualized group treatment for substance use disorders combining single-gender group composition and women-focused content, or Group Drug Counseling (GDC), an empirically supported mixed-gender group treatment. To understand the relationship of baseline scores of abstinence self-efficacy measured by the

Amanda M. Cummings; Robert J. Gallop; Shelly F. Greenfield

2010-01-01

175

Herbal medicine use during pregnancy in a group of Australian women  

PubMed Central

Background There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a public tertiary maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Secondary aims were to explore why women took the herbal medicine, where they received advice, what form the supplements took and if they perceived the supplements to be helpful. Methods Consecutive pregnant women were approached in the antenatal clinic and the birth centre at around 36–38 weeks gestation. A questionnaire was developed and self-administered in English, as well as being translated into the four most common languages of women attending the hospital: Cantonese, Vietnamese, Turkish and Arabic. Back translation into English was undertaken by different professional translators to verify accuracy of both words and concepts. Data collected included demographic information, model of pregnancy care and herbal supplement use. Descriptive statistics were used initially, with stratified and regression analysis to compare sub-groups. Results Of 705 eligible women, 588 (83%) agreed to participate. Of these, 88 (15%) completed the questionnaire in a language other than English. Thirty-six percent of women took at least one herbal supplement during the current pregnancy. The most common supplements taken were raspberry leaf (14%), ginger (12%) and chamomile (11%). Women were more likely to take herbal supplements if they were older, tertiary educated, English speaking, non-smokers and primiparous. Conclusion Use of herbal supplements in pregnancy is likely to be relatively high and it is important to ascertain what supplements (if any) women are taking. Pregnancy care providers should be aware of the common herbal supplements used by women, and of the evidence regarding potential benefits or harm.

Forster, Della A; Denning, Angela; Wills, Gemma; Bolger, Melissa; McCarthy, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

176

A program of group counseling for men who accompany women seeking legal abortions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Couseling in legal abortions have previously focused only on the women who seek such abortions and has neglected their partners. A program of group counseling for these men was developed at an abortion clinic. The program was influenced by two major theoretical approaches: crisis intervention and group psychotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to propose a foundation for further

Robert H. Gordon; Cheryl A. Kilpatrick

1977-01-01

177

Enhancing Women's Lives: The Role of Support Groups among Breast Cancer Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews research indicating that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. States that Supportive-Expressive group therapy has been effective in assisting patients in reducing anxiety related to death and dying, strengthening interpersonal relationships, and improving the quality of…

Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Spiegel, David

1999-01-01

178

Feminist Group Counseling with South Asian Women Who Have Survived Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is…

Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.

2008-01-01

179

Health care utilization patterns of Russian-speaking immigrant women across age groups.  

PubMed

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 substantially increased the numbers of refugees and immigrants to the United States from the former Soviet Union. Little research has been conducted with this population although studies found that immigrant's access to health care services are based on patterns of utilization in their countries of origin. The purpose of this study was to learn about the experiences of immigrant women from three former Soviet Republics (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine) with women's health care services. Three focus groups of women were formed; ages 20-30, 37-46, and 60 and above. A focus-group guide was used to learn about their health care experiences. These immigrant women did access health care services based on patterns of utilization in their countries of origin. Greater understanding of immigrant populations' cultural patterns of health care utilization is needed to improve access and delivery of health care services to these populations. PMID:16228751

Ivanov, L Louise; Buck, K

2002-01-01

180

Conducting qualitative research on cervical cancer screening among diverse groups of immigrant women  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the research lessons learned in the process of conducting qualitative research on cervical cancer screening perspectives among multiple ethnolinguistic groups of immigrant women and to provide guidance to family medicine researchers on methodologic and practical issues related to planning and conducting focus group research with multiple immigrant groups. DESIGN Observations based on a qualitative study of 11 focus groups. SETTING Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Women from 1 of 5 ethnolinguistic immigrant groups and Canadian-born women of low socioeconomic status. METHODS We conducted 11 focus groups using interactive activities and tools to learn about women’s views of cervical cancer screening, and we used our research team reflections, deliberate identification of preconceptions or potential biases, early and ongoing feedback from culturally representative field workers, postinterview debriefings, and research team debriefings as sources of information to inform the process of such qualitative research. MAIN FINDINGS Our learnings pertain to 5 areas: forming effective research teams and community partnerships; culturally appropriate ways of accessing communities and recruiting participants; obtaining written informed consent; using sensitive or innovative data collection approaches; and managing budget and time requirements. Important elements included early involvement, recruitment, and training of ethnolinguistic field workers in focus group methodologies, and they were key to participant selection, participation, and effective groups. Research methods (eg, recruitment approaches, inclusion criteria) needed to be modified to accommodate cultural norms. Recruitment was slower than anticipated. Acquiring signed consent might also require extra time. Novel approaches within focus groups increased the likelihood of more rich discussion about sensitive topics. High costs of professional translation might challenge methodologic rigour (eg, back-translation). CONCLUSION By employing flexible and innovative approaches and including members of the participating cultural groups in the research team, this project was successful in engaging multiple cultural groups in research. Our experiences can inform similar research by providing practical learning within the context of established qualitative methods.

Karwalajtys, Tina L.; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda J.; Fowler, Nancy C.; Lohfeld, Lynne H.; Howard, Michelle; Kaczorowski, Janusz A.; Lytwyn, Alice

2010-01-01

181

Group interpersonal psychotherapy for low-income women with posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for low-income women with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to interpersonal trauma. Non-treatment-seeking predominantly minority women were recruited in family planning and gynecology clinics. Individuals with interpersonal trauma histories (e.g., assault, abuse, and molestation) who met criteria for current PTSD (N=48) were randomly assigned

Janice L. Krupnick; Bonnie L. Green; Patricia Stockton; Jeanne Miranda; Elizabeth Krause; Mihriye Mete

2008-01-01

182

Measurement of Social Support Across Women from Four Ethnic Groups: Evidence of Factorial Invariance  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether a multidimensional social support instrument can be used for comparative research in four diverse ethnic\\u000a groups of women (African American, Latina, Chinese, non-Latina White). The social support instrument was administered as part\\u000a of a larger survey to 1,137 women. We tested the reliability and validity of this instrument. A confirmatory factor analytic\\u000a (CFA) framework was used to

Sabrina T. Wong; David Nordstokke; Steven Gregorich

2010-01-01

183

Empowering WomenA Critique of the Blueprint for Self-help Groups in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development agencies have increasingly regarded ‘empowerment’ as an essential objective to improve the well-being of marginalised women in India. The perceived success of self-help group (SHG) programmes in this project has encouraged their widespread application across India, becoming the primary mechanism to empower women. However, this success has often been assumed rather than proven, with evaluations generally lacking a conceptualisation

Tanya Jakimow; Patrick Kilby

2006-01-01

184

Evaluation of vasomotor reactivity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients and its comparison with the control group  

PubMed Central

Background: Neuropsychiatric abnormalities are among the most common manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). They have been proposed to be associated with impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF). Cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR) is a hemodynamic parameter effective in the autoregulation of CBF. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare the VMR of women with stable SLE and normal women. Materials and Methods: According to the study criteria 60 women in each group entered the study. VMR was evaluated with Transcranial Doppler (TCD) at rest and after one minute of breath holding. Results: There was no significant difference in the mean of age between two groups (31.76 ± 7.50 years in the SLE group versus 32.43 ± 4.55 years in the control group, P value: 0.64). The mean duration of SLE in the case group was 5.40 ± 3.60 years. The means of the Breath-Holding Index (BHI) in the SLE and control groups were 0.842 ± 0.72% and 0.815 ± 0.26%, respectively, which was not significantly different (P value: 0.82). Conclusion: This study indicates that the VMR of women with stable SLE is not significantly different from the age- and sex-matched normal population. However, further investigations on patients with longer SLE duration and more neuropsychological abnormality rates are suggested.

Khorvash, Fariborz; Shirani, Elham; Askari, Gholam Reza; Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Sayedbonakdar, Zahra; Fatemi, Alimohammad

2013-01-01

185

A Band of Sisters: The Impact of Long-Term Small Group Participation--Forty Years in a Women's Prayer and Bible Study Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a case study of a women's prayer and Bible study group that has met for over forty years. The report focuses on factors contributing to the group's longevity and vitality over time, how it changed over the years, and its impact on the lives of the women who participated in it. It also addresses how this long-term group

Lawson, Kevin E.

2006-01-01

186

Aerobic microbiological study in term pregnant women with premature rupture of the membranes: a case-control study.  

PubMed

To determine the aerobic microorganisms related to premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) in term pregnant women, a case-controlled study was performed on pregnant women delivered at Rajavithi Hospital between November 1, 1996 and July 30, 1997. Two hundred and twenty pregnant women with PROM and 220 pregnant women without PROM were recruited by simple random sampling. The diagnosis of rupture of the membrane was made by history and by positive microscopic ferning and pH testing performed during speculum examination. The demographic characteristics were not statistically significantly different between both groups. We could not isolate any organisms (35.9% in the study group and 49.5% in the control group). Candida albicans and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the only two significant differences demonstrated between the study and control group (p<0.05). Candida albicans, the most prevalent organism in the study group, demonstrated significant difference between the study and control group (14.5% and 7.7% respectively) (p<0.05). Klebsiella pneumoniae demonstrated significant difference between the study and control group (7.30% and 4.10% respectively) (p<0.05). Gardnerella vaginalis, the most prevalent organism in the control group, showed no significant difference between the control and study group (16.40% and 14.10% respectively) (p=0.547). PMID:11281495

Kovavisarach, E; Sermsak, P; Kanjanahareutai, S

2001-01-01

187

The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enormous HIV\\/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African American women participating in an HIV prevention intervention. Participants

Faye Z. Belgrave; Maya Corneille; Kristina Hood; Julia Foster-Woodson; Angela Fitzgerald

2010-01-01

188

Psychometric Properties of the KPAS in Diverse Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women  

PubMed Central

Although the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) was a potential instrument for cross cultural research of midlife women, little information is available on its reliability and validity among multi-ethnic groups of midlife women. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the KPAS in estimating physical activity among 341 diverse ethnic women. Internal consistency was adequate for all ethnic groups except N-H African Americans. The construct validity was identified through group comparisons and factor analysis. In group comparisons, physical activity differences among diverse ethnic groups were similar to results of previous studies using the KPAS. Eight factors were extracted among all ethnic groups except N-H Asian Americans. In the convergent validity test, N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans showed particular patterns. Overall, the KPAS was a reliable instrument and was reasonably accurate in assessing physical activities for any multi-ethnic groups of midlife women. However, cultural sensitivity among N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans need to be further examined.

Lee, Bokim; Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

2011-01-01

189

Between Political Fad and Political Empowerment: A Critical Evaluation of the National Muslim Women's Advisory Group (NMWAG) and Governmental Processes of Engaging Muslim Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Established in 2008 and launched by the then Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, the National Muslim Women's Advisory Group (NMWAG) brought together 19 British Muslim women to advise Government on ways to empower Muslim women and increase their participation in civic, economic and social life. This article critically considers the NMWAG as a vehicle for improving how government sought to engage

Chris Allen; Surinder Guru

2012-01-01

190

Support group processes: Perspectives from HIV-infected women in South Africa  

PubMed Central

This study examined the experiences and perceived benefits of support group participation among HIV-infected women in South Africa. From a qualitative analysis of responses, key psychological processes through which support groups are potentially beneficial were identified. These processes included: identification; modeling; acceptance; and empowerment. The participants’ consequent life changes were explored in order to associate these processes with the positive outcomes of support group participation. Through understanding the relationship between the psychological processes within a support group setting and the potential benefits, and by targeting these processes in the development and implementation of future support group interventions, a framework is provided for achieving positive outcomes associated with support group participation.

Mundell, J.P.; Visser, M.J.; Makin, J.D.; Forsyth, B.W.; Sikkema, K.J.

2012-01-01

191

Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15

192

A controlled evaluation of a health education programme for pregnant women in rural areas.  

PubMed Central

A controlled evaluation of health education for pregnant women was implemented from 1983 to 1985 in the French north alpine rural area with a quasi-experimental design. Altogether 116 villages (88,983 inhabitants) constituted the pilot zone where the programme took place. This was matched with a control zone of 114 villages (78,800 inhabitants) where routine antenatal surveillance was not changed. The programme involved a large group of health and social workers and institutions and several educational devices. There was a total of 3143 births to the study women during the programme. In all the 45 maternity clinics of the region the mothers were questioned as to their pregnancy history and delivery outcome. The programme succeeded in increasing, in the pilot zone, the proportion of women who benefited from a monthly antenatal visit, whereas no positive trend was shown in the control zones, even when controlling for some identified potential confounders (age and distance to health care providers). Similarly, women in the pilot zone were more likely to attend delivery preparation sessions than women in the control zone. However, many conditions revealed no differential modification in the two study zones. Perinatal morbidity is lower in the north alpine rural area than in the whole country. These results favour further development of social policies for pregnancy and of prenatal care, complemented by better information and training for health and social workers; they also favour better information as to medical monitoring, hygiene, and social rights related to pregnancy.

Zmirou, D; Charrel, M; Veyre, C

1988-01-01

193

The Intersection of Everyday Life and Group Prenatal Care for Women in Two Urban Clinics  

PubMed Central

Women from vulnerable populations encounter challenging circumstances that generate stress and may adversely affect their health. Group prenatal care (GPNC) incorporates features which address social stressors, and has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes and prenatal care experiences. In this qualitative study, we describe the complex circumstances in the lives of women receiving care in two urban clinics and how GPNC attenuated them. Stressors included problems with transportation and child care, demanding jobs, poverty, homelessness, difficult relationships with partners, limited family support, and frustrating health care experiences. Receiving prenatal care in groups allowed women to strengthen relationships with significant others, gain social support, and develop meaningful relationships with group leaders. By eliminating waits and providing the opportunity to participate in care, GPNC also offered sanctuary from frustrations encountered in receiving individual care. Reducing such stressors may help improve pregnancy outcomes; however, more evidence is needed on mechanisms underlying these effects.

Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Groce, Nora Ellen; Kennedy, Holly Powell

2013-01-01

194

Averaging and Motion Control of Systems on Lie Groups.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this dissertation, the author studies motion control problems in the framework of systems on finite-dimensional Lie groups. Nonholonomic motion control problems are challenging because nonlinear controllability theory does not provide an explicit proce...

N. E. Leonard

1994-01-01

195

Linking Beauty and Health Among African American Women: Using Focus Group Data to Build Culturally and Contextually Appropriate Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American women suffer a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality compared to Caucasian women. Addressing racial\\/ethnic disparities in health requires the engagement of African-American women in the development of interventions that are culturally and contextually appropriate. Three age groups of African-American women who attend beauty salons (18-29; 30-49; 50+) were recruited into six focus groups. Participants reviewed a series of

Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Laura Linnan; Noel Kulik; Veronica Carlisle; Zoe Enga; Margaret Bentley

2007-01-01

196

Impulse control disorders in women with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared symptom patterns, severity of illness, and comorbidity in individuals with eating disorders with and without impulse control disorders (ICD), and documented the temporal pattern of illness onset. Lifetime ICD were present in 16.6% of 709 women with a history of eating disorders. The most common syndromes were compulsive buying disorder and kleptomania. ICD occurred more in individuals with

Fernando Fernández-Aranda; Andréa Poyastro Pinheiro; Laura M. Thornton; Wade H. Berrettini; Scott Crow; Manfred M. Fichter; Katherine A. Halmi; Allan S. Kaplan; Pamela Keel; James Mitchell; Alessandro Rotondo; Michael Strober; D. Blake Woodside; Walter H. Kaye; Cynthia M. Bulik

2008-01-01

197

Control groups appropriate for behavioral interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are 4 sources of bias in clinical trials: investigator bias, patient expectation (placebo response), ascertainment bias (inadvertent selection of an unrepresentative sample), and nonspecific effects such as the normal waxing and waning of symptoms over time and the quality of the doctor-patient relationship. In drug trials, these biases are adequately controlled by comparing active to inert pills, randomly assigning

William E Whitehead

2004-01-01

198

Control Group Design: Enhancing Rigor in Research of Mind-Body Therapies for Depression  

PubMed Central

Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research.

Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

2013-01-01

199

Randomized controlled study of 12 week training on abdominal region by neuromuscular electrical stimulation in women with simple ventral obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate the efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the abdominal region in women with simple abdominal obesity in order to offer experimental clues for lowering the health hazard of abdomen obesity.\\u000aMethod:Thirty women with simple abdominal obesity, 50±5.88 years old, volunteered to participate in the experiment. The participants were randomly divided into training group and control group? each 15

Yongjun Wang; Liping Huang; Qiang Tian; Shi Zhou

2008-01-01

200

Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures.

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok

2008-01-01

201

Informal and Formal Support Groups Retain Women and Minorities in Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of ``acceptable'' appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of ``accruing capital.'' Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.

Ong, Maria

2005-10-01

202

Women's evaluation of abuse and violence care in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial (weave)  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner abuse (IPA) is a major public health problem with serious implications for the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of women, particularly women of child-bearing age. It is a common, hidden problem in general practice and has been under-researched in this setting. Opportunities for early intervention and support in primary care need to be investigated given the frequency of contact women have with general practice. Despite the high prevalence and health consequences of abuse, there is insufficient evidence for screening in primary care settings. Furthermore, there is little rigorous evidence to guide general practitioners (GPs) in responding to women identified as experiencing partner abuse. This paper describes the design of a trial of a general practice-based intervention consisting of screening for fear of partner with feedback to GPs, training for GPs, brief counselling for women and minimal practice organisational change. It examines the effect on women's quality of life, mental health and safety behaviours. Methods/Design weave is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Approximately 500 women (16-50 years) seen by the GP in the previous year are mailed a short lifestyle survey containing an item to screen for IPA. Women who indicate that they were afraid of a partner/ex-partner in the last year and provide contact details are invited to participate. Once baseline data are collected, GPs are randomly assigned to either a group involving healthy relationship and responding to IPA training plus inviting women for up to 6 sessions of counselling or to a group involving basic education and usual care for women. Outcomes will be evaluated by postal survey at 6 and 12 months following delivery of the intervention. There will be an economic evaluation, and process evaluation involving interviews with women and GPs, to inform understanding about implementation and outcomes. Discussion The weave trial responds to an urgent need for more evidence on what can be achieved in primary care with regard to responding to women who experience IPA. It will provide important knowledge about the effectiveness of a brief method of screening, professional IPA training program and brief counselling for women. Trail Registration [ACTRN12608000032358

2010-01-01

203

Group Work at the University: A Psychoeducational Sexual Assault Group for Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes an innovative psychoeducational support group for female survivors of sexual assault. The intervention model takes place in a University setting and is free, confidential and easily accessible. The psychoeducational format allows survivors at various levels of healing to gain information about common sexual assault effects, rape myths, and coping strategies, and to explore their feelings and thoughts

Karen M. VanDeusen; Joetta L. Carr

2005-01-01

204

Group Therapy for Women Sexually Abused as Children: Mental Health before and after Group Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-five female outpatients sexually abused in childhood were offered a 2-year phase-divided group therapy. Before and after treatment and at 12 months follow-up, they answered questionnaires designed to elicit responses concerning psychological symptoms (Symptom Checklist; SCL-90) and sense of coherence (SOC). Symptoms for posttraumatic stress…

Lundqvist, Gunilla; Svedin, Carl Goran; Hansson, Kjell; Broman, Inger

2006-01-01

205

Pain expression in the perioperative period: insights from a focus group of Somali women.  

PubMed

In recent years, the number of Somali persons treated in the U.S. has increased significantly. Understanding the concepts of pain and pain expression is an important aspect of nursing care. However, pain expression within this specific cultural group has not been extensively studied. This study, guided by core concepts from Margaret Newman's theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness used a focus group design to evaluate the concepts of pain expression within this population. The results of this study provide insight into how Somali women express pain, using verbal and nonverbal communication, and reveal other dynamics that are interconnected with the pain experience. The results show that pain expression for Somali women include verbal expressions that may be unique to the Somali culture. The results are helpful in developing a tool that can be used by others working with Somali women who are experiencing pain. Implications for improving transcultural nursing care, including pain assessment, management, and patient education are summarized. PMID:19481045

Ness, Sheryl M

2008-12-27

206

Scalable Hierarchical Access Control in Secure Group Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many group communications require a security infrastructure that ensures multiple levels of access privilege for group members. Access control in hierarchy is prevalent in multimedia applications, which consist of users that subscribe to different quality levels or different sets of data streams. In this paper, we present a multi-group key management scheme that achieves such a hierarchical access control by

Yan Sun; K. J. Ray Liu

2004-01-01

207

Auricular acupuncture for chemically dependent pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial of the NADA protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of maternal drug use during pregnancy in North America has been estimated to be as high as 6-10%. The consequences for the newborn include increased risk for perinatal mortality and ongoing physical, neurobehavioral, and psychosocial problems. Methadone is frequently used to wean women off street drugs but is implicated as a cause of adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes itself. The purpose of our study was to test the ability of maternal acupuncture treatment among mothers who use illicit drugs to reduce the frequency and severity of withdrawal symptoms among their newborns. Methods We randomly assigned chemically dependent pregnant women at BC Women’s Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia to daily acupuncture treatments versus usual care. By necessity, neither our participants nor acupuncturists were blinded as to treatment allocation. Our primary outcome was days of neonatal morphine treatment for symptoms of neonatal withdrawal. Secondary neonatal outcomes included admission to a neonatal ICU and transfer to foster care. Results We randomized 50 women to acupuncture and 39 to standard care. When analyzed by randomized groups, we did not find benefit of acupuncture; the average length of treatment with morphine for newborns in the acupuncture group was 2.7 (6.3) compared to 2.8 (7.0) in the control group. Among newborns of women who were compliant with the acupuncture regime, we observed a reduction of 2.1 and 1.5 days in length of treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome compared to the non-compliant and control groups, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Acupuncture may be a safe and feasible treatment to assist mothers to reduce their dosage of methadone. Our results should encourage ongoing studies to test the ability of acupuncture to mitigate the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome among their newborns. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov registry: W05-0041

2012-01-01

208

Bodily pain and coping styles among four geriatric age groups of women.  

PubMed

No research is available regarding the association between coping styles and bodily pain by age-specific sub-groups in non-clinical older populations. To address this research gap, we recruited 317 older women (age 55-105, mainly from minority ethnic backgrounds) and divided our sample into sub-groups by decade. Regression analyses on the total sample and the age group of 65-74 demonstrated that denial and venting were inversely related to pain. Findings for the age groups 55-64 and 75-84 were non-significant. Among women age 85 or older, seeking emotional support was inversely associated with pain, while active coping was related to higher pain reports. PMID:21948111

Laganà, Luciana; Hassija, Christina Marie

2011-09-26

209

Empowering rural women's groups for strengthening economic linkages: some Indian experiments.  

PubMed

Through organizing informal self-help groups (SHGs), rural women in India are provided credit and extension support for various production-oriented income-generating activities. These activities usually include garment-making, embroidery, food processing, bee-keeping, basketry, gem cutting, weaving, and knitting. SHGs are self-governed, with decisions about production and marketing taken collectively, although the group leader is responsible for identifying potential marketing centers and consumers. These groups represent a new culture in rural development, breaking with traditional bureaucracy and top-down management. Informal groups empower rural women to manage rural industries and make decisions collectively for their common economic interests. Experience with SHGs in Orissa, lessons from nongovernmental organization intervention, and a model for empowering poor people in a small town in Kerala are discussed. PMID:12295206

Rajagopal

1999-05-01

210

BICULTURAL RESYNTHESIS: TAILORING AN EFFECTIVENESS TRIAL FOR A GROUP OF URBAN AMERICAN INDIAN WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative study of a 6 week effectiveness trial was to describe among a group of urban American Indian women, the process of successful traditionalism in the form of bicultural resynthesis. Bicultural resynthesis represents a major current attempt on the part of the participants to integrate traditional and contemporary demands in a positive, culturally-consistent manner. The themes

Linda Napholz

211

Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

2002-01-01

212

Use of Granada Medium To Detect Group B Streptococcal Colonization in Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct inoculation onto Granada medium (GM) in plates and tubes was compared to inoculation into a selective Todd-Hewitt broth (with 8 mg of gentamicin per ml and 15 mg of nalidixic acid per ml) for detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in pregnant women with 800 vaginal and 450 vaginoanorectal samples. Com- paratively, GM was found to be as sensitive

MANUEL ROSA-FRAILE; JAVIER RODRIGUEZ-GRANGER; MARINA CUETO-LOPEZ; ANTONIO SAMPEDRO; ENRIQUE BIEL GAYE; JOSEMANUEL HARO; ANTONIA ANDREU

1999-01-01

213

Deconstructing the Mirror's Reflection: Narrative Therapy Groups for Women Dissatisfied with Their Body  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Women facing middle age and beyond are pressured by a cultural ideal of slimness. The authors review literature pertaining to the factors affecting the societal perceptions of body image and address relevant counseling interventions, specifically, group therapy based on narrative theory, that are aimed at this population.|

Duba, Jill D.; Kindsvatter, Aaron; Priddy, Constance J.

2010-01-01

214

The Experience of Low Back Pain in Iranian Women: A Focus Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic low back pain (CLBP) often proves resistant to treatment because there are different biological, psychological, and social factors that can affect its treatment. In this study, we explored Iranian women's beliefs regarding the cause of their LBP. Findings are based on four focus groups (N = 24 participants) with LBP patients. Participants articulated their causation beliefs (Explanatory Models) about

Sedigheh Sadat Tavafian; David Gregory; Ali Montazeri

2008-01-01

215

Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

2002-01-01

216

Quilting in Self-Efficacy Group Work With Older African American Women Leaving Homelessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of quilting as an art therapy intervention in a self-efficacy group of African American women who were leaving homelessness is examined in this article. Two quilting workshops (n = 8; n = 12) contributed to a larger parent project (N = 530 over a 10-year period), entitled the “Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project,” conducted in a U.S. Midwestern

David P. Moxley; Holly R. Feen-Calligan; Olivia G. M. Washington; Lois Garriott

2011-01-01

217

Empowerment through group support: Adult women who are survivors of incest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the need for professional recognition of the magnitude of the problem of incest and the long-term effects on the lives of survivors. It suggests that women can be empowered to make positive lifestyle changes through long-term support. The educational opportunity provided for graduate students is also addressed. The intake process and the three phases of the group

Marhelen Cole Kreidler; Diane Burns England

1990-01-01

218

Carriage Rate of Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women in Three Teaching Hospitals in Shiraz, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The main goal of this study was to assess differences in the vaginal flora of pregnant women and provide a detailed evaluation of vaginal swabs for the presence of group B streptococcus (GBS) and other organisms in three teaching hospitals in Shiraz, southwest of Iran. Subjects and Methods: In a cross-sectional study from April 2006 to March 2007, 310

Parvin Hassanzadeh; Mohammad Motamedifar; Maral Namdari Gharaghani

2011-01-01

219

Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Group. RD Database Focus Group. 1996 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to guidance from the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Group (NPAC TWG), the Proliferation Modeling Focus Group (PMFG) formulated objectives and terms of reference from which to conduct its activities. A major recommendation...

1996-01-01

220

THE AUXILIARY TREATMENT OF PSYCHOTIC WOMEN--Group Therapy for Their Husbands  

PubMed Central

Group therapy for the husbands of hospitalized psychotic women relieved the anxiety and feeling of guilt of the husbands and led to better communication between husband and wife. It was particularly helpful just before and after the wife came home from the hospital. The group meetings saved various members of the hospital staff considerable time which they otherwise would have had to devote to the husbands individually.

Gordon, Gene; Bowman, Karl M.

1953-01-01

221

Decisions about prenatal testing for chromosomal disorders: perceptions of a diverse group of pregnant women.  

PubMed

We conducted a study to elucidate factors influencing women's decisions regarding prenatal genetic screening for and diagnosis of chromosomal disorders and to learn about their experiences with these tests and with the medical system. Using focus group interviews and questionnaire assessments, we obtained detailed impressions of a diverse group of 75 pregnant women. Participants varied with respect to race/ethnicity, religious background, and reproductive history, as well as in their decisions about use of prenatal screening and diagnostic testing. Substantial variation surfaced in attitudes toward testing. Factors influencing women's views included available resources, feelings about having a child with Down syndrome, moral beliefs, family and social influences, perceptions of one's own health, the difficulty of becoming pregnant, and willingness to put the fetus at elevated miscarriage risk. Such findings indicate that age-based policies regarding access to prenatal diagnoses that, among other reasons, are based on the balance of risks between bearing a child with a chromosomal abnormality versus procedure-related loss are incompatible with the range of concerns that women bring to this decision and the weight individual women may assign to the outcomes. PMID:10839707

Moyer, A; Brown, B; Gates, E; Daniels, M; Brown, H D; Kuppermann, M

1999-05-01

222

Alexithymia and its impact on quality of life in a group of Brazilian women with migraine without aura  

PubMed Central

Background Migraine is a type of primary headache widely known for its impact on quality of life of patients. Although the psychological aspects of the disease are receiving increasing attention in current research, some of them, as alexithymia, are still seldom explored. This study aimed to provide evidence on the relationships between markers of depression, anxiety, alexithymia, self-reflection, insight and quality of life in migraine. Methods Forty female outpatients from a Brazilian specialized headache hospital service and a paired control group were compared. Results The results revealed that women with migraine had higher levels of depression, anxiety and alexithymia, and lower levels of quality of life, self-reflection and insight, compared to controls. Quality of life in women with migraine was predicted by levels of depression and one alexithymia factor (ability to express emotions and fantasies). A binary regression analysis between clinical and control groups revealed the migraine group to comprise individuals with high anxiety, low quality of life in the physical domain and the presence of a concrete thinking style. Conclusions The results highlight the relevance of considering psychological variables in the routine healthcare practices for migraine patients in general, while keeping steady attention to individual case features.

2013-01-01

223

Group Versus Individual Phone-Based Obesity Treatment for Rural Women  

PubMed Central

Rural women have among the highest rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyle, yet few studies have examined strategies for delivering state-of-the-art obesity treatment to hard-to-reach rural areas. The purpose of this pilot trial was to examine the impact and cost-effectiveness of a 6-month behavioral weight loss program delivered to rural women by phone either one-on-one with a counselor or to a group via conference call. Thirty-four rural women (mean BMI=34.4, SD=4.6) were randomized to group phone-based treatment or individual phone-based treatment. Completers analysis showed that weight loss was greater in the group condition (mean=14.9 kg=, SD=4.4) compared to the individual condition (mean=9.5 kg, SD=5.2; p=.03). Among the total sample, 62% of participants in the group condition achieved the 10% weight loss goal compared to 50% in the individual condition, and group treatment was found to be more cost-effective. Future research is warranted to examine the benefits of group phone-based treatment for long-term management of obesity among rural populations.

Befort, Christie A.; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Perri, Michael G.

2010-01-01

224

Motion Control for Nonholonomic Systems on Matrix Lie Groups.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this dissertation we study the control of nonholonomic systems defined by invariant vector fields on matrix Lie groups. We make use of canonical constructions of coordinates and other mathematical tools provided by the Lie group setting. An approximate...

H. K. Struemper

1998-01-01

225

Autonomic regulation across phases of the menstrual cycle and sleep stages in women with premenstrual syndrome and healthy controls.  

PubMed

To investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the presence of severe premenstrual symptoms on cardiac autonomic control during sleep, we performed heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep in 12 women with severe premenstrual syndrome and 14 controls in the mid-follicular, mid-luteal, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Heart rate was higher, along with lower high frequency (HF) power, reflecting reduced vagal activity, and a higher ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency power, reflecting a shift to sympathetic dominance, in REM sleep compared with NREM sleep in both groups of women. Both groups of women had higher heart rate during NREM and REM sleep in the luteal phase recordings compared with the mid-follicular phase. HF power in REM sleep was lowest in the mid-luteal phase, when progesterone was highest, in both groups of women. The mid-luteal phase reduction in HF power was also evident in NREM sleep in control women but not in women with PMS, suggesting some impact of premenstrual syndrome on autonomic responses to the hormone environment of the mid-luteal phase. In addition, mid-luteal phase progesterone levels correlated positively with HF power and negatively with LF/HF ratio in control women in NREM sleep and with the LF/HF ratio during REM sleep in both groups of women. Our findings suggest the involvement of female reproductive steroids in cardiac autonomic control during sleep in women with and without premenstrual syndrome. PMID:23850226

de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Nicholas, Christian L; Colrain, Ian M; Trinder, John A; Baker, Fiona C

2013-07-10

226

Women's perceptions of the relationship between recent life events, transitions, and diet in midlife: findings from a focus group study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that history and early life events and trajectories influence women's dietary behaviors. Yet, the social context in which recent life changes occur requires greater understanding, particularly regarding changes that embody the interconnectedness of women and their families, and how those changes affect women's dietary decisions and behaviors. The data presented here were the product of eight focus groups

Natasha A. Brown; Katherine Clegg Smith; Elizabeth Edsall Kromm

2012-01-01

227

Using Focus Groups To Develop a Heart Disease Prevention Program for Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focus groups with diverse low-income women generated ideas about cardiovascular disease interventions. Women preferred programs that: addressed multiple risk factors; emphasized staying healthy for themselves; taught skills for adopting heart-healthy behaviors; and offered choices in effecting behavior change. Women stressed the need for health…

Gettleman, Lynn; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

2000-01-01

228

Women's groups practising participatory learning and action to improve maternal and newborn health in low-resource settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Maternal and neonatal mortality rates remain high in many low-income and middle-income countries. Different approaches for the improvement of birth outcomes have been used in community-based interventions, with heterogeneous effects on survival. We assessed the effects of women’s groups practising participatory learning and action, compared with usual care, on birth outcomes in low-resource settings. Methods We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials undertaken in Bangladesh, India, Malawi, and Nepal in which the effects of women’s groups practising participatory learning and action were assessed to identify population-level predictors of effect on maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, and stillbirths. We also reviewed the cost-effectiveness of the women’s group intervention and estimated its potential effect at scale in Countdown countries. Findings Seven trials (119 428 births) met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses of all trials showed that exposure to women’s groups was associated with a 37% reduction in maternal mortality (odds ratio 0·63, 95% CI 0·32–0·94), a 23% reduction in neonatal mortality (0·77, 0·65–0·90), and a 9% non-significant reduction in stillbirths (0·91, 0·79–1·03), with high heterogeneity for maternal (I2=58·8%, p=0·024) and neonatal results (I2=64·7%, p=0·009). In the meta-regression analyses, the proportion of pregnant women in groups was linearly associated with reduction in both maternal and neonatal mortality (p=0·026 and p=0·011, respectively). A subgroup analysis of the four studies in which at least 30% of pregnant women participated in groups showed a 55% reduction in maternal mortality (0·45, 0·17–0·73) and a 33% reduction in neonatal mortality (0·67, 0·59–0·74). The intervention was cost effective by WHO standards and could save an estimated 283 000 newborn infants and 41 100 mothers per year if implemented in rural areas of 74 Countdown countries. Interpretation With the participation of at least a third of pregnant women and adequate population coverage, women’s groups practising participatory learning and action are a cost-effective strategy to improve maternal and neonatal survival in low-resource settings. Funding Wellcome Trust, Ammalife, and National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for Birmingham and the Black Country programme.

Prost, Audrey; Colbourn, Tim; Seward, Nadine; Azad, Kishwar; Coomarasamy, Arri; Copas, Andrew; Houweling, Tanja A J; Fottrell, Edward; Kuddus, Abdul; Lewycka, Sonia; MacArthur, Christine; Manandhar, Dharma; Morrison, Joanna; Mwansambo, Charles; Nair, Nirmala; Nambiar, Bejoy; Osrin, David; Pagel, Christina; Phiri, Tambosi; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Rosato, Mikey; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Saville, Naomi; More, Neena Shah; Shrestha, Bhim; Tripathy, Prasanta; Wilson, Amie; Costello, Anthony

2013-01-01

229

Effect of a primary health-care-based controlled trial for cardiorespiratory fitness in refugee women  

PubMed Central

Background Refugee women have a high risk of coronary heart disease with low physical activity as one possible mediator. Furthermore, cultural and environmental barriers to increasing physical activity have been demonstrated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of an approximate 6-month primary health care- and community-based exercise intervention versus an individual written prescription for exercise on objectively assessed cardiorespiratory fitness in low-active refugee women. Methods A controlled clinical trial, named "Support for Increased Physical Activity", was executed among 243 refugee women recruited between November 2006 and April 2008 from two deprived geographic areas in southern Stockholm, Sweden. One geographic area provided the intervention group and the other area the control group. The control group was on a higher activity level at both baseline and follow-up, which was taken into consideration in the analysis by applying statistical models that accounted for this. Relative aerobic capacity and fitness level were assessed as the two main outcome measures. Results The intervention group increased their relative aerobic capacity and the percentage with an acceptable fitness level (relative aerobic capacity > 23 O2ml·kg·min-1) to a greater extent than the control group between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.020). Conclusions A combined primary health-care and community-based exercise programme (involving non-profit organizations) can be an effective strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among low-active refugee women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00747942

2010-01-01

230

Moderate aerobic training improves autonomic cardiovascular control in older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The decline in the cardiovascular autonomic regulation in advanced age is considered a risk factor for several cardiovascular\\u000a diseases. We tested, on eleven healthy untreated women aged 60–70 years, whether a six-month period of group-based training\\u000a exerts positive effects on this age-associated decline.\\u000a \\u000a Before and after training, ECG and arterial pressure (Finapres) were recorded in supine position. We calculated

Giosuè Gulli; Antonio Cevese; Paola Cappelletto; Gianpaolo Gasparini; Federico Schena

2003-01-01

231

Adapted motivational interviewing for women with binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

In this randomized controlled trial, 108 women with binge-eating disorder (BED) recruited from the community were assigned to either an adapted motivational interviewing (AMI) group (1 individual AMI session + self-help handbook) or control group (handbook only). They were phoned 4, 8, and 16 weeks following the initial session to assess binge eating and associated symptoms (depression, self-esteem, quality of life). Postintervention, the AMI group participants were more confident than those in the control group in their ability to change binge eating. Although both groups reported improved binge eating, mood, self-esteem, and general quality of life 16 weeks following the intervention, the AMI group improved to a greater extent. A greater proportion of women in the AMI group abstained from binge eating (27.8% vs. 11.1%) and no longer met the binge frequency criterion of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) for BED (87.0% vs. 57.4%). AMI may constitute a brief, effective intervention for BED and associated symptoms. PMID:18778135

Cassin, Stephanie E; von Ranson, Kristin M; Heng, Kenneth; Brar, Joti; Wojtowicz, Amy E

2008-09-01

232

A mindful eating group intervention for obese women: a mixed methods feasibility study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this mixed methods study was to: 1) describe the effect of an 8-week mindful eating intervention on mindful eating, weight loss self-efficacy, depression, and biomarkers of weight in urban, underserved, obese women; and 2) identify themes of the lived experience of mindful eating. A convenience sample of 12 obese women was recruited with data collected at baseline and 8weeks followed by a focus group. Only self-efficacy for weight loss significantly increased over 8weeks (t=-2.63, P=.04). Qualitative findings of mindful eating supported quantitative findings and extended understanding about the effect of the intervention. PMID:24070988

Kidd, Lori I; Graor, Christine Heifner; Murrock, Carolyn J

2013-06-12

233

Group counseling for overweight and depressed college women: A comparative evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral group programs for weight control were effective in producing weight reductions, as well as alleviating depressed mood, fear of negative evaluations, and social avoidance and distress. Results are discussed in terms of the need to evaluate group process variables in weight control groups

Kathleen McNamara

1989-01-01

234

Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group  

PubMed Central

Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG) or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG) incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70) completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ? .05) within each group with a mean (± standard deviation) weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35) vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35). Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat) ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG). Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG). There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (? 10%), cholesterol (<200 mg/day), and sodium (< 2400 mg/day), with increased total servings/day of fruits and vegetables (4.0 ± 2.2, TFG vs 4.6 ± 3.2, MRG). However, the TFG had a significantly lower dietary intake of several vitamins and minerals compared to the MRG and was at greater risk for inadequate intake. Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy-restricted diet for weight loss.

Ashley, Judith M; Herzog, Holly; Clodfelter, Sharon; Bovee, Vicki; Schrage, Jon; Pritsos, Chris

2007-01-01

235

[Intake of selected nutrients by perceived control over life, over health and general control in men and women aged 45-64, residents of Kraków].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare mean intake of energy and selected nutrients in groups with high perceived control over life, over health, general control and the remaining part of population. The study sample was 3544 men and women aged 45-4, residents of Kraków, randomly selected by sex, age and districts. Data on perceived control was collected by using 9-items questionaire. Nutrient intake was assessed by 24-hour recall. After adjustment to age and education, in men with high perceived control over life mean intake of witamin C was higher (56.3 mg) than in the remaining men (49.0 mg). Compared with other women, women with high perceived control over health had lower mean intake of total energy (6403.9 kJ vs 6831.9 kJ), proteins (56.3 g vs 60.1 g), carbohydrates (217.4 g vs 229.6 g), fat (55.1 g vs 59.8 g) and sodium (1347.5 mg vs 1446.6 mg). In women with high general control, there was lower mean energy intake (6403.9 kJ vs 6773,9 kJ) and SFA intake (18.3 g vs 20.1 g) than in the remaining women. P/S ratio was higher in women with high general control (0.55) then in other women (0.49). In men with high general control mean intake of carbohydrates was lower (292.3 g vs 310.3 g) then in the remaining men. There was no difference in nutrient intake in men with high perceived control over health and in women with high perceived control over life than in remaining part of the sample. In the study sample, high perceived control was related to more favourable diet in women, less effect was observed in men. PMID:16786750

Biela, Urszula; Pajak, Andrzej

2005-01-01

236

Experiences of women with bulimia nervosa in a mindfulness-based eating disorder treatment group.  

PubMed

The experience of 6 college-age women with bulimia nervosa was examined after they participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based eating disorder treatment group. This phenomenological study used individual interview and pre- and post-treatment self-portraits. Participants described their experience of transformation from emotional and behavioral extremes, disembodiment, and self-loathing to the cultivation of an inner connection with themselves resulting in greater self-awareness, acceptance, and compassion. They reported less emotional distress and improved abilities to manage stress. This treatment may help the 40% of women who do not improve with current therapies and might be useful to prevent symptoms in younger women. PMID:18175233

Proulx, Kathryn

237

Serotype and surface protein gene distribution of colonizing group B streptococcus in women in Egypt.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. We determined the distribution of serotypes and surface protein encoding genes of GBS strains from pregnant and non-pregnant women in Egypt. Vaginal swabs from 364 women were screened by culture and 100 (27·4%) yielded GBS. Serotype V was the most predominant (33%), followed by serotypes II (17%), III (15%), Ia (14%), VI (12%), Ib (8%) and IV (1%). The most common surface protein genes were epsilon (27%), alp3 (26%), bca (18%), rib (16%) and alp2 (10%). Two isolates were negative for surface protein genes. The distribution of serotypes and surface proteins was similar to reports from other parts of the world but the relatively high frequency of serotype VI was a notable feature of the strains from women in Egypt. PMID:23561305

Shabayek, S; Abdalla, S; Abouzeid, A Mh

2013-04-01

238

Noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure control in normotensive pregnant women.  

PubMed

Twenty-four hour noninvasive, automatic and ambulatory control of blood pressure (BP) was carried out on 11 normotensive pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy with a Del Mar Avionics Model 1978 Pressurometer III System at 7.5 min intervals during 24 h. The patients kept a detailed record of their activities during those 24 h. BP increased from 9 AM to a peak between 7 and 10 PM. Mean (+/- SD) waking and sleeping values were 110.56 +/- 6.68 mm Hg and 96.5 +/- 10.01 mm Hg, respectively, for systolic BP, and 71.41 +/- 5.35 mm Hg and 62.82 +/- 5.47 mm Hg, respectively, for diastolic BP. There was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP between sleeping hours and waking hours. We believe that 24-h control of BP behavior in normotensive pregnant women allows us to adequately diagnose hypertensive disease in pregnancy. PMID:2610998

Margulies, M; Zin, C; Margulies, N D; Voto, L S

1989-12-01

239

Pelvic Static Magnetic Stimulation to Control Urinary Incontinence in Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the efficacy of non-invasive static magnetic stimulation (SMS) of the pelvic floor compared to placebo in the treatment of women aged 60 years and over with urinary incontinence for 6 months or more. Subjects and Methods A single-blinded randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Subjects were excluded if they had an implanted electronic device, had experienced a symptomatic urinary tract infection, or had commenced pharmacotherapy for the same in the previous 4 weeks, or if they were booked for pelvic floor or gynecological surgery within the next 3 months. Once written consent was obtained, subjects were randomly assigned to the active SMS group (n=50) or the placebo group (n=51). Treatment was an undergarment incorporating 15 static magnets of 800–1200 Gauss anterior, posterior, and inferior to the pelvis for at least 12 hours a day for 3 months. Placebo was the same protocol with inert metal disks replacing the magnets. Primary outcome measure was cessation of incontinence as measured by a 24-hour pad test. Secondary outcomes were frequency and severity of symptoms as measured by the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire (BFLUTS-SF), the Incontinence Severity Index, a Bothersomeness Visual Analog scale, and a 24-hour bladder diary. Data were collected at baseline and 12 weeks later. Results There were no statistically significant differences between groups in any of the outcome measures from baseline to 12 weeks. Initial evidence of subjective improvement in the treatment group compared to the placebo group was not sustained with sensitivity analysis. Conclusion This study found no evidence that static magnets cure or decrease the symptoms of urinary incontinence. Additional work into the basic physics of the product and garment design is recommended prior to further clinical trials research.

Wallis, Marianne C.; Davies, Elizabeth A.; Thalib, Lukman; Griffiths, Susan

2012-01-01

240

Knowledge of Down syndrome in pregnant women from different ethnic groups.  

PubMed

The uptake of any screening test is influenced by knowledge of the condition being screened for. In the present study, the knowledge and the source of knowledge of women offered antenatal screening for Down syndrome (DS) was assessed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to 300 consecutive women booking for antenatal care, of the 245 (82%) women who completed and returned the questionnaire, 117 (48%) were Caucasian, 85 (35%) were Asian born outside the UK, 32 (13%) were Asian born in the UK and ten (4%) belonged to other categories. Only 30% of the cohort had a good understanding of the condition. Racial groups other than Caucasian had a poorer understanding of DS. The factors which affected knowledge of DS included quality of spoken English, knowing an affected child, parity and religion. The most significant factor affecting acceptance of screening was the woman's knowledge of DS. The source of information for the condition varied widely: 42% from a general practitioners (GP), 24% from the hospital and 16% from midwives. The proportion with good knowledge was similar in those women whose source of information was the GP (45%) and the midwife (41%). These proportions were, however, higher (though not significantly) when the source of information was from magazines and newspapers (67%) and from friends (53%). Uptake of the screening test was best in those with good knowledge (53%) compared to those with poor knowledge (23%) (p<0.02). Between 28% and 66% (depending on the ethnic group) of women had a screening blood test "allegedly" without knowing why it had been performed. In order to improve uptake of the screening test for DS there is need for better education and counselling of women attending for antenatal care. PMID:11260600

Chilaka, V N; Konje, J C; Stewart, C R; Narayan, H; Taylor, D J

2001-03-01

241

Soy proteins and isoflavones affect bone mineral density in older women: a randomized controlled trial123  

PubMed Central

Background: Soy foods contain several components (isoflavones and amino acids) that potentially affect bone. Few long-term, large clinical trials of soy as a means of improving bone mineral density (BMD) in late postmenopausal women have been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the long-term effect of dietary soy protein and/or soy isoflavone consumption on skeletal health in late postmenopausal women. Design: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women aged >60 y. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. After a 1-mo baseline period, subjects were randomly assigned into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g) + isoflavone tablets (105 mg isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein + placebo tablets, control protein + isoflavone tablets, and control protein + placebo tablets. Results: Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone pills did not differ between groups, and compliance with the study powder and pills was 80–90%. No significant differences in BMD were observed between groups from baseline to 1 y after the intervention or in BMD change between equol and non-equol producers. However, there were significant negative correlations between total dietary protein (per kg) and markers of bone turnover (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Because soy protein and isoflavones (either alone or together) did not affect BMD, they should not be considered as effective interventions for preserving skeletal health in older women. The negative correlation between dietary protein and bone turnover suggests that increasing protein intakes may suppress skeletal turnover. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00668447.

Kenny, Anne M; Mangano, Kelsey M; Abourizk, Robin H; Bruno, Richard S; Anamani, Denise E; Kleppinger, Alison; Walsh, Stephen J; Prestwood, Karen M

2009-01-01

242

Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

243

Controlled Prospective Longitudinal Study of Women With Cancer: II. Psychological Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence and etiology of major life difficulties for women with survivable cancer were studied. Women with early stage cancer (n = 65) were assessed after their diagnosis but prior to treatment and then reassessed at 4,8, and 12 months posttreatment. Two matched comparison groups, women diagnosed and treated for benign disease (n = 22) and healthy women (n =

Barbara L. Andersen; Barrie Anderson; Charles deProsse

1989-01-01

244

Prototype for Internet support of pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes: focus group testing  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to pilot test a prototype website called MODIAB-web designed to support pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes. Method A focus group was undertaken and the results were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Eight subthemes were identified, comprising “blood glucose versus insulin,” “application for smart phones,” “the time aspect,” “interface and technology,” “forum,” “direct link to the diabetes midwife,” “ask the expert,” and “lack of contact information.” These subthemes were condensed into two main themes. The first theme was “easily understood interface, but in need of a more blood-glucose focused orientation” and the second theme was “forum for interaction with both equals and experts.” Conclusion The women in this study had positive impressions of several of the MODIAB-web functions, including a forum for pregnant mothers with type 1 diabetes and the possibility of being able to put their blood glucose levels into a diagram which could be sent directly to the diabetes midwife. Access to articles and information via the “fact” tab and the ability to ask questions of experts were also significantly helpful to women in the focus group. Pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes can gain support from such a Web-based self-help system.

Adolfsson, Annsofie; Jansson, Malin

2012-01-01

245

Benefits of Combining Massage Therapy with Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy in Prenatally Depressed Women  

PubMed Central

One hundred twelve pregnant women who were diagnosed depressed were randomly assigned to a group who received group Interpersonal Psychotherapy or to a group who received both group Interpersonal Psychotherapy and massage therapy. The group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (one hour sessions) and massage therapy (30 minute sessions) were held once per week for six weeks. The data suggested that the group who received psychotherapy plus massage attended more sessions on average, and a greater percentage of that group completed the six-week program. The group who received both therapies also showed a greater decrease in depression, depressed affect and somatic-vegetative symptom scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), a greater decrease in anxiety scale (STAI) scores and a greater decrease in cortisol levels. The group therapy process appeared to be effective for both groups as suggested by the increased expression of both positive and negative affect and relatedness during the group therapy sessions. Thus, the data highlight the effectiveness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy and particularly when combined with massage therapy for reducing prenatal depression.

Field, Tiffany; Deeds, Osvelia; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Gauler, Andy; Sullivan, Susan; Wilson, Donna; Nearing, Graciela

2009-01-01

246

Benefits of combining massage therapy with group interpersonal psychotherapy in prenatally depressed women.  

PubMed

One hundred and twelve pregnant women who were diagnosed depressed were randomly assigned to a group who received group Interpersonal Psychotherapy or to a group who received both group Interpersonal Psychotherapy and massage therapy. The group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (1h sessions) and massage therapy (20 min sessions) were held once per week for 6 weeks. The data suggested that the group who received psychotherapy plus massage attended more sessions on average, and a greater percentage of that group completed the 6-week program. The group who received both therapies also showed a greater decrease in depression, depressed affect and somatic-vegetative symptom scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), a greater decrease in anxiety scale (STAI) scores and a greater decrease in cortisol levels. The group therapy process appeared to be effective for both groups as suggested by the increased expression of both positive and negative affect and relatedness during the group therapy sessions. Thus, the data highlight the effectiveness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy and particularly when combined with massage therapy for reducing prenatal depression. PMID:19761951

Field, Tiffany; Deeds, Osvelia; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Gauler, Andy; Sullivan, Susan; Wilson, Donna; Nearing, Graciela

2009-01-31

247

Scalable Group Key Management with Partially Trusted Controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalable group key management solutions are crucial for supporting Internet applications that are based on a group communication model. Many solutions have been proposed and of these the most efficient and scalable ones are based on logical key hierarchies (LKH) with symmetric keys organized in a tree. However, these solutions centralize trust in the group controller and make it an

Himanshu Khurana; Rafael Bonilla; Adam J. Slagell; Raja Afandi; Hyung-seok Hahm; Jim Basney

2005-01-01

248

Evaluating Group-Based Interventions When Control Participants Are Ungrouped  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individually randomized treatments are often administered within a group setting. As a consequence, outcomes for treated individuals may be correlated due to provider effects, common experiences within the group, and\\/or informal processes of socialization. In contrast, it is often reasonable to regard outcomes for control participants as independent, given that these individuals are not placed into groups. Although this kind

Daniel J. Bauer; Sonya K. Sterba; Denise Dion Hallfors

2008-01-01

249

The use of group contingencies for behavioral control: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of group contingencies have been developed to control academic and disruptive behavior in the classroom, in which reinforcement is dependent on (a) a selected individual's or (b) the entire group's performance. Comparisons of group and individual contingencies have generally reported them to be equally effective, with some suggestion that individual Ss characteristics may be of importance. The sociometric

Louise A. Hayes

1976-01-01

250

Experimental determination of group flux control coefficients in metabolic networks  

SciTech Connect

Grouping of reactions around key metabolite branch points can facilitate the study of metabolic control of complex metabolic networks. This top-down Metabolic Control Analysis is exemplified through the introduction of group control coefficients whose magnitudes provide a measure of the relative impact of each reaction group on the overall network flux, as well as on the overall network stability, following enzymatic amplification. In this article, the authors demonstrate the application of previously developed theory to the determination of group flux control coefficients. Experimental data for the changes in metabolic fluxes obtained in response to the introduction of six different environmental perturbations are used to determine the group flux control coefficients for three reaction groups formed around the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate branch point. The consistency of the obtained group flux control coefficient estimates is systematically analyzed to ensure that all necessary conditions are satisfied. The magnitudes of the determined control coefficients suggest that the control of lysine production flux in Corynebacterium glutamicum cells at a growth base state resides within the lysine biosynthetic pathway that begins with the PEP/PYR carboxylation anaplorotic pathway.

Simpson, T.W.; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Stephanopoulos, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-04-20

251

Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study.  

PubMed

Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20-24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, 'green sheet' questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional 'gender-related violence' (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7) and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3). Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus. PMID:24142184

Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Cánovas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomaríz-Peñalver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E; Cárceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Martínez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

2013-10-17

252

Explaining the impact of a women's group led community mobilisation intervention on maternal and newborn health outcomes: the Ekjut trial process evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few large and rigorous evaluations of participatory interventions systematically describe their context and implementation, or attempt to explain the mechanisms behind their impact. This study reports process evaluation data from the Ekjut cluster-randomised controlled trial of a participatory learning and action cycle with women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in Jharkhand and Orissa, eastern India (2005-2008).

Suchitra Rath; Nirmala Nair; Prasanta K Tripathy; Sarah Barnett; Shibanand Rath; Rajendra Mahapatra; Rajkumar Gope; Aparna Bajpai; Rajesh Sinha; Anthony Costello; Audrey Prost

2010-01-01

253

Sexual Function in Nondepressed Women Using Escitalopram for Vasomotor Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate sexual function in midlife women using SSRIs for vasomotor symptoms. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) effectively treat vasomotor symptoms, but adversely affect sexual function in depressed populations. Information on sexual function in nondepressed midlife women using SSRIs for vasomotor symptoms is lacking - any treatments that might impair function are of concern. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial comparing 8 weeks of escitalopram compared to placebo in women ages 40-62 years with 28 or more bothersome vasomotor symptoms per week. Change in Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) composite score (ranges from 2 [not sexually active, no desire] to 36) and 6 sexual domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain); and the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), a single-question of sexually-related personal distress, were compared between groups. Results Among all women, median composite baseline FSFI score was 18.1 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.4, 26.5, n=200) and among sexually active women was 22.8 (IQR 17.4, 27.0, n=75) in the escitalopram group and 23.6 (IQR 14.9, 31.0, n=70) in the placebo group. Treatment with escitalopram did not affect composite Female Sexual Function Index score at follow-up compared to placebo (p=0.18 all women; p=0.47 sexually active at baseline). Composite mean Female Sexual Function Index change from baseline to week 8 was 0.1 (95% CI -1.5, 1.7) for escitalopram and 2.0 (95% CI 0.2, 3.8) for placebo. The Female Sexual Distress Scale results did not differ between groups (p=0.73), nor did adverse reports of sexual function. At week 8, among those women sexually active at baseline, there was a small difference between groups in Female Sexual Function Index domain mean score change in lubrication (p=0.02) and a marginal nonsignificant difference in orgasm (p=0.07). Conclusions Escitalopram, when used in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms, did not worsen overall sexual function among nondepressed midlife women.

Reed, Susan D.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Joffe, Hadine; Shifren, Jan L.; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Freeman, Ellen W.

2012-01-01

254

Late Life Attachment in Context: Patterns of Relating Among Men and Women from Seven Ethnic Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to develop the later life attachment literature by providing data contrasting patterns\\u000a of attachment among 616 older men and women (aged 50 to 70) from seven ethnic groups in the United States: African Americans,\\u000a English-speaking Caribbeans, Haitians, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, Eastern Europeans, and European Americans. A multivariate\\u000a analysis of the variance with ethnicity,

Katherine L. Fiori; Nathan S. Consedine; Carol Magai

2009-01-01

255

Experiences of Women with Bulimia Nervosa in a Mindfulness-Based Eating Disorder Treatment Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience of 6 college-age women with bulimia nervosa was examined after they participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based eating disorder treatment group. This phenomenological study used individual interview and pre- and post-treatment self-portraits. Participants described their experience of transformation from emotional and behavioral extremes, disembodiment, and self-loathing to the cultivation of an inner connection with themselves resulting in greater self-awareness,

Kathryn Proulx

2007-01-01

256

Stresses and Strengths of Working Women in a Divorce Support Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an explanatory-descriptive study of a sample of eight working women seeking a divorce from a union-based legal\\/social work program who participated in an eight week divorce support group. Questionnaires and scales were used to uncover the family characteristics of the clients who were predominantly African American. The lack of opportunities to learn job skills for promotions, the

Olga Molina

2000-01-01

257

Heterogeneity in the prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms in women of different ethnic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms in women of different ethnic groups and to relate these common mutations to plasma homocysteine, red cell folate, and serum folate. Design A one-time fasting blood sample was obtained for MTHFR genotype (C677T and A1298C) determinations (n=433). Serum folate, red cell folate, and homocysteine analyses were performed in nonfolic

Setareh Torabian Esfahani; Edward A Cogger; Marie A Caudill

2003-01-01

258

Savings and credit: women's informal groups as models for change in developing countries.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to examine the financial success of newly formed women's groups involved in Sri Lanka's Hambantota Integrated Rural Development Program (HIRDEP). The project was initiated in July 1986 with 20 trained social mobilizers, who were each assigned to a village community of about 100 families. Mobilizers were selected from village volunteers involved in development activities. The study population included 78 women's groups, with an average size of 7 persons, from 19 villages with populations under the poverty level and people receiving food stamps. Measures of group performance included the exchange of labor among group members, the collective purchase of raw materials and consumer goods, and collective marketing. Service use was differentiated by extension services, inputs, assets, and general benefits. Financial activity was measured as the rupee size of the fund and amounts of loans. 54 groups were engaged in nonfarm activity, and most groups had women social mobilizers. About 50% of women's groups had received all four service types. Funding ranged from Rs. 240 to Rs. 9500. The average of the credit loans per month was Rs. 408 per group. 85% of the loans were used for production, investment, or repayment of old loans. Younger age groups affected the slower growth of funds but were more efficient in loaning money, acquiring services, and marketing activities collectively. Young social mobilizers were associated with efficiency of credit disbursement. Diversity of collective activities was related to the size and growth rate of funds. Multivariate analysis revealed that the growth rate of funds was primarily related to the personal income of members and the level of training of social mobilizers. Members were able to obtain loans equal to about 50% of their monthly income at an average interest rate of about 5%, which was three to four times less than normally available. 47% of the variance in the size of the fund was explained by average income, average member age, average length of time in existence, and education, experience, and training of social mobilizers. PMID:12289881

Wickrama, K A; Keith, P M

1994-04-01

259

Design and implementation of a fuzzy elevator group control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevator group control systems (EGCSs) are the control systems that systematically manage three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport passengers. Most EGCSs have used the hall call assignment method to assign elevators in response to passengers' calls. This paper proposes a control strategy generation method, a hall call assignment method based on the fuzzy theory, and then the

Changbum Kim; Kyoung A. Seong; Hyung Lee-kwang; Jeong O. Kim

1998-01-01

260

Dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients by lactating women of different ethnic groups living in Yakutia  

PubMed Central

Background There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. Objective To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. Design A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. Results The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat – from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy – from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p=0.02) and in Yakutsk (p=0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p<0.03) in Native women living in Yakutsk compared with the intake of Native women living in rural settlements and small towns. Conclusions The dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit.

Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav

2013-01-01

261

Getting more than they realized they needed: a qualitative study of women's experience of group prenatal care  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnant women in Canada have traditionally received prenatal care individually from their physicians, with some women attending prenatal education classes. Group prenatal care is a departure from these practices providing a forum for women to experience medical care and child birth education simultaneously and in a group setting. Although other qualitative studies have described the experience of group prenatal care, this is the first which sought to understand the central meaning or core of the experience. The purpose of this study was to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for women who participated in CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada. Methods The study used a phenomenological approach. Twelve women participated postpartum in a one-on-one interview and/or a group validation session between June 2009 and July 2010. Results Six themes emerged: (1) "getting more in one place at one time"; (2) "feeling supported"; (3) "learning and gaining meaningful information"; (4) "not feeling alone in the experience"; (5) "connecting"; and (6) "actively participating and taking on ownership of care". These themes contributed to the core phenomenon of women "getting more than they realized they needed". The active sharing among those in the group allowed women to have both their known and subconscious needs met. Conclusions Women's experience of group prenatal care reflected strong elements of social support in that women had different types of needs met and felt supported. The findings also broadened the understanding of some aspects of social support beyond current theories. In a contemporary North American society, the results of this study indicate that women gain from group prenatal care in terms of empowerment, efficiency, social support and education in ways not routinely available through individual care. This model of care could play a key role in addressing women's needs and improving health outcomes.

2012-01-01

262

The Relationship Between Women's Body Satisfaction and Self-Image Across the Life Span: The Role of Cognitive Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-image across the life span. A sample of 106 women between the ages of 20 and 65 years completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, body importance, cognitive control over the body, self-concept, and self-esteem. The authors found that body dissatisfaction and body importance did not differ among the groups of women

Jessica Webster; Marika Tiggemann

2003-01-01

263

Food selection and preparation practices in a group of young low-income women in Montreal.  

PubMed

This paper presents results from an interview and focus group study of cooking practices in a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Overall, food choices appeared to be high in refined carbohydrates and relatively low in fresh vegetables and fruit. Participants prepared packaged noodle and sauce dishes often, as well as other packaged sauces, in part because of concern for food waste. Participants felt that the cost of spices was prohibitive. Results illustrate how individuals manage their resources under conditions of financial challenge, given other life circumstances. PMID:21145934

Engler-Stringer, Rachel

2010-12-09

264

Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:…

Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

2007-01-01

265

Isoflavone Soy Protein Supplementation and Atherosclerosis Progression in Healthy Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Although epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that dietary intake of soy may be cardioprotective, use of isoflavone soy protein (ISP) supplementation as a primary preventive therapy remains unexplored. We determined whether ISP reduces subclinical atherosclerosis assessed as carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 350 postmenopausal women 45–92 years of age without diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were randomized to 2 evenly divided daily doses of 25 g soy protein containing 91 mg aglycon isoflavone equivalents or placebo for 2.7-years. Results Overall, mean (95% confidence interval) CIMT progression rate was 4.77(3.39–6.16) ?m/year in the ISP group and 5.68(4.30–7.06) ?m/year in the placebo group. Although CIMT progression was reduced on average by 16% in the ISP group relative to the placebo group, this treatment effect was not statistically significant (p=0.36). Among the subgroup of women who were randomized within 5 years of menopause, ISP participants had on average a 68% lower CIMT progression rate than placebo participants 2.16(?1.10–5.43) vs. 6.79(3.56–10.01) ?m/year, p=0.05). ISP supplementation had a null effect on women who were >5 years beyond menopause when randomized. There were no major adverse events from ISP supplementation. Conclusion ISP supplementation did not significantly reduce subclinical atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women. Subgroup analysis suggest that ISP supplementation may reduce subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy young (median age, 53 years) women at low-risk for CVD who were <5 years postmenopausal. These first trial results of their kind warrant further investigation.

Hodis, Howard N.; Mack, Wendy J.; Kono, Naoko; Azen, Stanley P.; Shoupe, Donna; Hwang-Levine, Juliana; Petitti, Diana; Whitfield-Maxwell, Lora; Yan, Mingzhu; Franke, Adrian A.; Selzer, Robert H.

2011-01-01

266

Women's perceptions of the relationship between recent life events, transitions, and diet in midlife: findings from a focus group study  

PubMed Central

Research indicates that history and early life events and trajectories influence women’s dietary behaviors. Yet, the social context in which recent life changes occur requires greater understanding, particularly regarding changes that embody the interconnectedness of women and their families, and how those changes affect women’s dietary decisions and behaviors. The data presented here were the product of eight focus groups that we conducted in one Maryland county in the fall of 2009. Our participants were 43 women with limited financial resources aged 40–64 years. In this analysis, we focused on women’s perceptions of the relation of recent life transitions and events to the dietary decisions they made for themselves and their families. Our findings suggested that transitions and events related to household structure, health status, phases of motherhood, and shifts in financial and employment status all had the potential to have profound and immediate effects on women’s dietary decisions and resulting dietary behaviors. We used the focus group data to consider implications for developing intervention strategies designed to improve self-efficacy and negotiation skills around dietary issues as a means of promoting healthy decision-making among women in midlife, particularly in times of familial upheaval and in circumstances where financial resources are limited.

Brown, Natasha A.; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall

2012-01-01

267

Women's experiences in a community-based participatory research randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Integrating community-based participatory research (CBPR) into traditional study designs can enhance outcomes in studies with disadvantaged groups. Little is known, however, about study participants' experiences with these approaches, the underlying processes involved in creating more positive outcomes, and whether undesirable effects on study outcomes occur simultaneously. We conducted focus group interviews with 31 disadvantaged women who participated in a CBPR-driven randomized controlled trial (RCT) both to explore their study experiences and to obtain their interpretations of select study findings. Using dimensional analysis, we found the tailored health questionnaire, treatment by study staff members, and RCT participants' understandings of and responses to randomization were salient to what women described as transformative experiences that occurred over the course of the RCT. These findings have implications for understanding how CBPR and non-CBPR aspects of interventions and study designs have the potential to affect both process and endpoint study outcomes. PMID:23567297

Kneipp, Shawn M; Lutz, Barbara J; Levonian, Catherine; Cook, Christa; Hamilton, Jill B; Roberson, Dawne

2013-04-08

268

Do unto others as others have done unto you?: Perceiving sexism influences women's evaluations of stigmatized racial groups.  

PubMed

The present research examines how making discrimination salient influences stigmatized group members' evaluations of other stigmatized groups. Specifically, three studies examine how salient sexism affects women's attitudes toward racial minorities. White women primed with sexism expressed more pro-White (relative to Black and Latino) self-report (Studies 1 and 3) and automatic (Study 2) intergroup bias, compared with White women who were not primed with sexism. Furthermore, group affirmation reduced the pro-White/antiminority bias White women expressed after exposure to sexism (Study 3), suggesting the mediating role of social identity threat. Overall, the results suggest that making discrimination salient triggers social identity threat, rather than a sense of common disadvantage, among stigmatized group members, leading to the derogation of other stigmatized groups. Implications for relations among members of different stigmatized groups are discussed. PMID:22569223

Craig, Maureen A; Dehart, Tracy; Richeson, Jennifer A; Fiedorowicz, Luke

2012-05-08

269

The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.  

PubMed

Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

Dai, K

1991-03-01

270

77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group...Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force...SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply...

2012-11-26

271

Risk factors related to premature rupture of membranes in term pregnant women: a case-control study.  

PubMed

A case-control study of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) of full term pregnant women was undertaken between 1 November 1996 and 30 July 1997 at Rajavithi Hospital to determine the risk factors related to PROM. Two hundred and twenty pregnant women with PROM and 220 pregnant women without PROM were recruited by a simple random sampling. The diagnosis of rupture of membranes was made from history and from positive microscopic ferning and pH tests performed during a speculum examination. The demographic data was not significantly different between the two groups. The risk factors, such as a history of PROM in a previous pregnancy, a history of abortion in a previous pregnancy, and body mass index (BMI) < 20 were significantly different between the PROM group and the control group. However, on using multiple logistic regression analysis, we found that the residual significant risk factors were a history of PROM in a previous pregnancy and BMI < 20. PMID:10870775

Kovavisarach, E; Sermsak, P

2000-02-01

272

A CONTINUUM OF MALE CONTROLS AND VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN: A TEACHING MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and severity of violence against women is a critical issue for social work educators to address. This article describes a teaching model that educators can use to educate social work students and professionals about the widely existing, severe, subtle and overt forms of male controls and violence against women. Forms of male controls and violence against women discussed

Karen D. Stout

1991-01-01

273

Space, Agency and Withdrawal: Birth Control Choices of Women in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Withdrawal (WD) is not a reliable method to prevent unwanted pregnancies, yet still a very popular form of birth control in many societies, including Turkey. We look at the relationship between the women's agency and physical space in relationship to birth control choices of women in Turkey. Agency in our context refers to women's ability to resist domination and subordination

Ibrahim Sirkeci; Dilek Cindoglu

2012-01-01

274

An account of a time-limited therapeutic group in an NHS setting for women with a history of incest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group therapy may be a useful treatment modality for women who have been sexually abused as children. The group described here involved patients referred to the British NHS psychiatric service. This closed time-limited group was run by male and female cotherapists. Reasons are advanced for advocating a mixed-sex cotherapy team. The progress of the group is described. Issues of selection,

Anne R. Douglas; Ian C. Matson

1989-01-01

275

Exercise Training in Pregnancy for obese women (ETIP): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Both maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are increasing in prevalence and associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child. Observational studies regarding physical activity in pregnancy have found reduced weight gain in active mothers, as well as reduced risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is however a lack of high quality, randomized controlled trials on the effects of regular exercise training in pregnancy, especially those with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) at or above 30 kg/m2. Methods We are conducting a randomised, controlled trial in Norway with two parallel arms; one intervention group and one control group. We will enroll 150 previously sedentary, pregnant women with a pre-pregnancy BMI at or above 30 kg/m2. The intervention group will meet for organized exercise training three times per week, starting in gestation week 14 (range 12-16). The control group will get standard antenatal care. The main outcome measure will be weight gain from baseline to delivery. Among the secondary outcome measures are changes in exercise capacity, endothelial function, physical activity level, body composition, serum markers of cardiovascular risk, incontinence, lumbopelvic pain and cardiac function from baseline to gestation week 37 (range 36-38). Offspring outcome measures include anthropometric variables at birth, Apgar score, as well as serum markers of inflammation and metabolism in cord blood. Discussion The results of this trial will provide knowledge about effects of regular exercise training in previously sedentary, obese pregnant women. If the program proves effective in reducing gestational weight gain and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such programs should be considered as part of routine pregnancy care for obese women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01243554

2011-01-01

276

Study on Group Decision Making of Intelligent Traffic Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a group decision making of intelligent traffic control system based on multi-agent technique, in order to meet the urban traffic management actual demands of China. The model is designed to realize that several urban traffic managers and directors may taking part in decision at the same time based on the group decision theory and the multi-agent technique

Yin Zhu; Jun Ma; Junli Wang; Xuejun Niu

2007-01-01

277

Group Anger Control Training for junior high school delinquents  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Anger Control Training program was delivered in a group format for biweekly sessions at a public junior high school. Thirty-six adolescents were chosen from an inschool sample of 100 students in a behavior modification program for multisuspended delinquents, based on high rates of classroom and\\/or community disruptions. Students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups, or to

Eva L. Feindler; Suzanne A. Marriott; Margaret Iwata

1984-01-01

278

Evaluation of support groups for women with breast cancer: importance of the navigator role  

PubMed Central

Background At least some forms of breast cancer are increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness, where an emphasis is placed on meeting the various ongoing needs of people living with cancer, their families and other members of their social support networks. This commentary outlines some approaches to the evaluation of cancer-related support groups, with a particular emphasis on those designed to provide long-distance support, via the internet, for women with breast cancer. Discussion The literature on evaluations of community-based cancer support groups indicates that they offer a number of benefits, and that it is more reasonable to expect an impact of such interventions on psychosocial functioning and/or health-related quality of life than on survival. The literature on both face-to-face and online social support groups suggests that they offer many advantages, although evaluation of the latter delivery mechanism presents some ethical issues that need to be addressed. Many popular online support groups are peer-moderated, rather than professionally-moderated. In an evaluation of online support groups, different models of the role of the "navigator" need to be taken into account. Some conceptual models are outlined for the evaluation of the "navigator role" in meeting the informational, decisional and educational needs of women with breast cancer. The Breast-Cancer Mailing List, an example of an unmoderated internet-based peer-support group, is considered within the context of a Shared or Tacit Model of the navigator role. Conclusion Application of the concept of a "navigator role" to support groups in general, and to unmoderated online ones in particular, has received little or no attention in the research literature. The navigator role should be taken into account in research on this increasingly important aspect of cancer communication.

Till, James E

2003-01-01

279

The effect of food deprivation on alcohol consumption in bulimic and control women.  

PubMed

The effect of food deprivation on alcohol self-administration was examined in five women with bulimia nervosa and five healthy controls in a semi-naturalistic experimental design. In this within-subjects study, each individual underwent two food-deprived and two non-deprived sessions. The deprivation condition consisted of no food or caloric beverages for 19 hours prior to the experimental procedure. On each of the 4 days, subjects watched a 2-hour segment of an epic movie and were permitted to drink ad libitum. No differences were observed in the number of grams of alcohol consumed under deprived and non-deprived conditions for either group. Breath alcohol levels were significantly higher under the non-deprived condition despite equivalent amounts of alcohol consumed and similar ratings of the subjective sense of tipsiness. Bulimic women consumed equivalent calories due to alcohol as control women but significantly fewer calories due to non-alcoholic beverages. These results do not support the hypothesis that food deprivation leads to increased self-administration of alcohol in women. PMID:8287000

Bulik, C M; Brinded, E C

1993-11-01

280

Effect of dietary intervention on serum lignan levels in pregnant women - a controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Mother's diet during pregnancy is important, since plant lignans and their metabolites, converted by the intestinal microflora to enterolignans, are proposed to possess multiple health benefits. Aim of our study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention affects lignan concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. Methods A controlled dietary intervention trial including 105 first-time pregnant women was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity health clinics. The intervention included individual counseling on diet and on physical activity, while the controls received conventional care. Blood samples were collected on gestation weeks 8-9 (baseline) and 36-37 (end of intervention). The serum levels of the plant lignans 7-hydroxymatairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, cyclolariciresinol, and pinoresinol, and of the enterolignans 7-hydroxyenterolactone, enterodiol, and enterolactone, were measured using a validated method. Results The baseline levels of enterolactone, enterodiol and the sum of lignans were higher in the control group, whereas at the end of the trial their levels were higher in the intervention group. The adjusted mean differences between the baseline and end of the intervention for enterolactone and the total lignan intake were 1.6 ng/ml (p = 0.018, 95% CI 1.1-2.3) and 1.4 ng/mg (p = 0.08, 95% CI 1.0-1.9) higher in the intervention group than in the controls. Further adjustment for dietary components did not change these associations. Conclusion The dietary intervention was successful in increasing the intake of lignan-rich food products, the fiber consumption and consequently the plasma levels of lignans in pregnant women. Trial registration ISRCTN21512277, http://www.isrctn.org

2010-01-01

281

Iyengar yoga for distressed women: a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Distress is an increasing public health problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on perceived stress and psychological outcomes in distressed women and evaluated a potential dose-effect relationship. Seventy-two female distressed subjects were included into a 3-armed randomized controlled trial and allocated to yoga group 1 (n = 24) with twelve 90?min sessions over 3 months, yoga group 2 (n = 24) with 24 sessions over 3 months, or a waiting list control group (n = 24). The primary outcome was stress perception, measured by Cohen Stress Scale; secondary outcomes included state trait anxiety, depression, psychological and physical quality of life (QOL), profile of Mood States, well being, and bodily complaints. After three months, women in the yoga groups showed significant improvements in perceived stress (P = 0.003), state trait anxiety (P = 0.021 and P = 0.003), depression (P = 0.008), psychological QOL (P = 0.012), mood states being (P = 0.007), and bodily complaints well(P = 0.012) when compared to controls. Both yoga programs were similarly effective for these outcomes; however, compliance was better in the group with fewer sessions (yoga group 1). Dose effects were seen only in the analysis of group-independent effects for back pain, anxiety, and depression. These findings suggest that Iyengar yoga effectively reduces distress and improves related psychological and physical outcomes. Furthermore, attending twice-weekly yoga classes was not superior to once-weekly classes, as a result of limited compliance in the twice-weekly group. PMID:23049608

Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav; Kessler, Christian

2012-09-25

282

Iyengar Yoga for Distressed Women: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Distress is an increasing public health problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on perceived stress and psychological outcomes in distressed women and evaluated a potential dose-effect relationship. Seventy-two female distressed subjects were included into a 3-armed randomized controlled trial and allocated to yoga group 1 (n = 24) with twelve 90?min sessions over 3 months, yoga group 2 (n = 24) with 24 sessions over 3 months, or a waiting list control group (n = 24). The primary outcome was stress perception, measured by Cohen Stress Scale; secondary outcomes included state trait anxiety, depression, psychological and physical quality of life (QOL), profile of Mood States, well being, and bodily complaints. After three months, women in the yoga groups showed significant improvements in perceived stress (P = 0.003), state trait anxiety (P = 0.021 and P = 0.003), depression (P = 0.008), psychological QOL (P = 0.012), mood states being (P = 0.007), and bodily complaints well(P = 0.012) when compared to controls. Both yoga programs were similarly effective for these outcomes; however, compliance was better in the group with fewer sessions (yoga group 1). Dose effects were seen only in the analysis of group-independent effects for back pain, anxiety, and depression. These findings suggest that Iyengar yoga effectively reduces distress and improves related psychological and physical outcomes. Furthermore, attending twice-weekly yoga classes was not superior to once-weekly classes, as a result of limited compliance in the twice-weekly group.

Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Ludtke, Rainer; Bussing, Arndt; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav; Kessler, Christian

2012-01-01

283

Who we were and who we will be: the temporal context of women's in-group stereotype content.  

PubMed

Research has elaborated considerably on the dimensions of out-group stereotype content and on the origins and functions of different content combinations. Less attention has been given to the origins and functions of in-group stereotype content. We argue that in-group stereotypes are likely to serve different social identity functions, and thus attract different content, dependent on individual differences in in-group identification and on the temporal perspective of the perceiver. Two studies (Ns = 43 and 93) found that women's in-group stereotype content varied as a function of gender group identification and temporal perspective. When the past was primed, highly identified women generated stereotypes that emphasized the warmth (but not competence) of their group. When the future was primed, highly identified women generated stereotypes that emphasized the competence (as well as warmth) of their group. These results are discussed in terms of the use of stereotypes for social creativity versus social change. PMID:21410479

Morton, Thomas A; Rabinovich, Anna; Postmes, Tom

2011-03-15

284

Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD) rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. Methods The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group) were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age) were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999–2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR) of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15–44 years) were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami) and 23% (controls), respectively. Results Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded) ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94) or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82). Conclusions Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate.

Norum, Jan; Svee, Tove E.; Heyd, Anca; Nieder, Carsten

2013-01-01

285

Adiposity and postural balance control: Correlations between bioelectrical impedance and stabilometric signals in elderly Brazilian women  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between body adiposity and postural control in elderly women. INTRODUCTION: Aging and obesity account for a significant portion of healthcare spending. Life expectancy is increasing worldwide, and Rio de Janeiro has the largest proportion of elderly residents of all Brazilian states. METHODS: A total of 45 women underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis, waist circumference measurements, weight and height measurements, and stabilometric tests in eight different stance conditions (opened and closed bases with both eyes opened and closed and right and left tandem and unilateral stances with eyes opened). During unilateral stances, the number of hand or foot contacts was counted. RESULTS: Weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fat percentage, and fat mass showed statistically significant (p<0.05) and positive correlations with the number of contacts made during unilateral stances. The subjects with greater fat mass showed significantly higher anterior-posterior standard deviation and range when their eyes were closed. The sway area was also greater for this group in opened base when their eyes were closed. DISCUSSION: The results relating body adiposity and postural control can be explained by the difficulty of maintaining a greater quantity of body fat mass within the limits of the individual support base, especially while assuming a unilateral stance. CONCLUSION: The subjects with a greater fat mass exhibited poor balance control, indicating that body adiposity level was associated with postural control in the elderly women examined in the present study.

Mainenti, Miriam Raquel Meira; de Carvalho Rodrigues, Erika; de Oliveira, Juliana Flavia; de Sa Ferreira, Arthur; Dias, Cristina Marcia; dos Santos Silva, Andre Luis

2011-01-01

286

60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

60. Shock isolator at center, pneumatic control group panel at left, power distribution box at right, all at right of entrance to lcc. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

287

Serum proteins and paraproteins in women with silicone implants and connective tissue disease: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have suggested abnormalities of serum proteins, including paraproteins, in women with silicone implants but did not control for the presence of connective-tissue disease (CTD). This retrospective case–control study, performed in tertiary-care academic centers, assessed possible alterations of serum proteins, including paraproteins, in such a population. Seventy-four women with silicone implants who subsequently developed CTD, and 74 age-matched and CTD-matched women without silicone implants, were assessed in the primary study; other groups were used for additional comparisons. Routine serum protein determinations and high-sensitivity protein electrophoresis and immunofixation electrophoresis were performed for detection of paraproteins. Women with silicone implants, either with or without CTD, had significantly lower serum total protein and ?1-globulin, ?2-globulin, ?-globulin, ?-globulin, and IgG levels compared with those without silicone implants. There was no significant difference, however, in the frequency of paraproteinemia between women with silicone implants and CTD (9.5%) and age-matched and CTD-matched women without silicone implants (5.4%) (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.51–6.45). Paraprotein isotypes were similar in the two groups, and the clinical characteristics of the 13 women with paraproteinemia were comparable with an independent population of 10 women with silicone breast implants, CTD, and previously diagnosed monoclonal gammopathies. In summary, this first comprehensive study of serum proteins in women with silicone implants and CTD found no substantially increased risk of monoclonal gammopathy. Women with silicone implants, however, had unexpectedly low serum globulin and immunoglobulin levels, with or without the subsequent development of CTD. The causes and clinical implications of these findings require further investigation.

Csako, Gyorgy; Costello, Rene; Shamim, Ejaz A; O'Hanlon, Terrance P; Tran, Anthony; Clauw, Daniel J; Williams, H James; Miller, Frederick W

2007-01-01

288

Social difficulties influence group psychotherapy adherence in abused, suicidal African American women.  

PubMed

The social brain model emphasizes improving our understanding of the relational factors that influence treatment adherence. Consistent with this framework, which has been applied to medical adherence, it was hypothesized that insecure attachment styles, interpersonal hassles, and low levels of social support would explain group psychotherapy attendance. Results from 51 abused and suicidal low-income, African American women who attended at least 1 session of an empowerment group psychotherapy indicated that lower attendance was related to (a) insecure attachment styles (fearful) and (b) interpersonal hassles (perceived social differences, lack of social acceptability, social victimization). Perceived social support did not predict group therapy attendance. The value of addressing attachment styles and interpersonal factors to enhance treatment participation is underscored. PMID:19827103

Ilardi, Dawn L; Kaslow, Nadine J

2009-12-01

289

Academic detailing and adherence to guidelines for Group B streptococci prenatal screening: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) recommend universal prenatal screening for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) to identify candidates for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent early onset neonatal GBS infection. Interventions to promote physician adherence to these guidelines are imperative. This study examined the effectiveness of academic detailing (AD) of obstetricians, compared with CPG mailshot and no intervention, on the screening of pregnant women for GBS. Methods A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in the medical cooperative of Porto Alegre, Brazil. All obstetricians who assisted in a delivery covered by private health insurance managed by the cooperative in the 3 months preceding the study (n = 241) were invited to participate. The obstetricians were randomized to three groups: direct mail (DM, n = 76), AD (n = 76) and control (C, n = 89, no intervention). Those in the DM group were sent guidelines on GBS. The AD group received the guidelines and an educational visit detailing the guidelines, which was conducted by a trained physician. Data on obstetrician age, gender, time since graduation, whether patients received GBS screening during pregnancy, and obstetricians who requested screening were collected for all participant obstetricians for 3 months before and after the intervention, using database from the private health insurance information system. Results Three months post-intervention, the data showed that the proportion of pregnant women screened for GBS was higher in the AD group (25.4%) than in the DM (15.9%) and C (17.7%) groups (P = 0.023). Similar results emerged when the three groups were taken as a cluster (pregnant women and their obstetricians), but the difference was not statistically significant (Poisson regression, P = 0.108). Additionally, when vaginal deliveries were analyzed separately, the proportion screened was higher in the AD group (75%) than in the DM group (41.9%) and the C group (30.4%) (chi-square, P < 0.001). Conclusions The results suggest that AD increased the prevalence of GBS screening in pregnant women in this population.

2013-01-01

290

Evaluation of the Granada Agar Plate for Detection of Vaginal and Rectal Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granada medium was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in vaginal and rectal swabs compared with selective Columbia blood agar and selective Lim broth. From May 1996 to March 1998, 702 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation) participated in this three-phase study; 103 (14.7%) of these women carried GBS. In the first phase of the

E. GARCIA GIL; M. C. RODRIGUEZ; R. BARTOLOME; B. BERJANO; L. CABERO; A. ANDREU

1999-01-01

291

STD 105: Process Groups as an Instructional Medium for Re-entry Women at Paul D. Camp Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective team-based, group-oriented personal development from a woman's perspective course explores the effects of several issues on the re-entry woman: the role that society and culture play in influencing women's vocational choices; women's roles; the economic necessity of work; stress; and relationships. A team-based approach provides a…

Creamer, Elizabeth; Duggin, Molly; Kidd, Ronald

1999-01-01

292

Concerns and Misconceptions about Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Focus Group Evaluation with Low-Income Hispanic Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fivefocus groups were conducted with Hispanic women (primarily of Mexican American heritage) from low-income neighborhoods in San Jose, California, to learn about their knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CVD) riskfactors, the relative importance of risk factors, and ideas about effective CVD risk-reduction programs. Despite language barriers and economic disadvantages, women were highly aware of heart disease and described it as a

Sinda Mein; Marilyn A. Winkleby

1998-01-01

293

War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

Zaman, Riffat Moazam

294

Culture and sex education: the acquisition of sexual knowledge for a group of Vietnamese Australian young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This paper explores how a group of Vietnamese Australian young women acquire knowledge of sexual issues, and the impact the traditional Vietnamese culture has on the acquisition of this knowledge. It is based on a qualitative study that examined the factors which shape the sexual behaviour of Vietnamese Australian young women living in Australia.Methods. A Grounded Theory methodology was

Helen A. Rawson; Pranee Liamputtong

2010-01-01

295

Real-time PCR targeting the sip gene for detection of group B streptococcus colonization in pregnant women at delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important aetiological agent of serious neonatal infections. A rapid and sensitive method for the detection of GBS colonization in pregnant women at delivery could make intrapartum screening for GBS possible. A real-time PCR method targeting the sip gene of GBS in pregnant women at delivery has been evaluated. The performance of the real-time PCR

Hakon Bergseng; Lars Bevanger; Marite Rygg; Kare Bergh

2007-01-01

296

Pilot Investigation of the Circadian Plasma Melatonin Rhythm across the Menstrual Cycle in a Small Group of Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder  

PubMed Central

Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP) and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under “unmasked”, time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P?.03) worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P?=?.025) increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (P<.05) decreased melatonin at circadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed.

Shechter, Ari; Lesperance, Paul; Ng Ying Kin, N. M. K.; Boivin, Diane B.

2012-01-01

297

Group Interventions were not Effective for Female Turkish Migrants with Recurrent Depression - Recommendations from a Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

We tested group interventions for women with a Turkish migration background living in Austria and suffering from recurrent depression. N = 66 participants were randomized to: (1) Self-Help Groups (SHG), (2) Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) Groups, and (3) a Wait-List (WL) Control condition. Neither SHG nor CBT were superior to WL. On an individual basis, about one third of the participants showed significant improvements with respect to symptoms of depression. Younger women, women with a longer duration of stay in Austria and those who had encountered a higher number of traumatic experiences, showed increased improvement of depressive symptoms. The results suggest that individual treatment by ethnic, female psychotherapists should be preferred to group interventions.

Renner, Walter; Berry, John W.

2010-01-01

298

Action coordination in groups and individuals: learning anticipatory control.  

PubMed

When individuals act alone, they can internally coordinate the actions at hand. Such coordination is not feasible when individuals act together in a group. The present research examines to what extent groups encounter specific challenges when acting jointly and whether these challenges impede extending planning into the future. Individuals and groups carried out a tracking task that required learning a new anticipatory control strategy. The results show that groups face additional demands that are harder to overcome when planning needs to be extended into the future. Information about others' actions is a necessary condition for groups to effectively learn to extend their plans. Possible mechanisms for exerting and learning anticipatory control are discussed. PMID:14516231

Knoblich, Günther; Jordan, Jerome Scott

2003-09-01

299

Physical and psychologic effects of aromatherapy inhalation on pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives: Stress reduction care is important for pregnant women to decrease obstetric complications and children's health problems after birth. The aim of this study is to clarify the physical and psychologic effects of inhalation aromatherapy on pregnant women. Essential oils with high linalool and linalyl acetate content that may be used during pregnancy were selected and among these, and the one preferred by the participant was used. Design: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Settings/location: This trial was performed at a gynecology outpatient department in a hospital in Kyoto, Japan. Participants: The study included pregnant women in week 28 of a single pregnancy with a normal course. Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group and a control group. They were seated in the resting, seated position for 10 minutes. During the latter 5 minutes of each 10-minute session, aromatherapy inhalation was performed for the aromatherapy group. Outcome measures: Before and after the intervention, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was measured. During the trial, the heart-rate fluctuations were measured for the autonomic nervous system regulation. Results: A total of 13 pregnant women participated in the trial. Seven (7) participants were assigned to the aromatherapy group and 6 participants to the control group. The results of the POMS were such that based on an intragroup comparison, significant differences were observed in the Tension-Anxiety score (p<0.05) and the Anger-Hostility score (p<0.05), and the respective improvements observed were due to aromatherapy. The results of the autonomic nervous system regulation were such that based on an intragroup comparison within the aromatherapy group, the parasympathetic nerve activity increased significantly (p<0.05). Conclusions: Aromatherapy inhalation using essential oils containing linalyl acetate and linalool was found to be effective for the POMS and parasympathetic nerve activity, based on an intragroup comparison. However, based on a comparison between the groups, no substantial difference was observed; hence, further study is necessary in the future. PMID:23410527

Igarashi, Toshiko

2013-02-14

300

Depression among low-income women of color: qualitative findings from cross-cultural focus groups.  

PubMed

This article describes the experiences with depression of women with young children living in ethnically and culturally diverse, low-income communities. A qualitative ethnographic design using a focus group process was implemented in 15 communities. Despite great diversity in ethnic and cultural backgrounds, these women of color reported similar experiences with depression and described: a range of social risk factors, including domestic violence, isolation, language barriers, and difficulties with schools and other public systems; lack of access to high quality, culturally competent health and mental health services; reliance primarily on informal systems of care--relatives, friends, peers--in dealing with their depression, although many also reported good relationships with primary care practitioners. They identified: the specialty mental health sector as one to which they seldom turned for assistance, citing stigma, lack of insurance coverage, cultural beliefs, and attitudes of providers as barriers; a number of strategies for outreach and engagement with mental health providers; qualitative measures of maternal depression among women with young children; and, strategies for reaching and engaging culturally diverse mothers. PMID:18236157

Lazear, Katherine J; Pires, Sheila A; Isaacs, Mareasa R; Chaulk, Patrick; Huang, Larke

2008-04-01

301

Group Motivational Interviewing to Promote Adherence to Antiretroviral Medications and Risk Reduction Behaviors in HIV Infected Women  

PubMed Central

We present the results of a clinical trial that tested the efficacy of using motivational interviewing (MI) in a group format to promote adherence to antiretroviral medications and risk reduction behaviors (RRB) in 203 predominately African American HIV infected women. It was compared to a group health promotion program. Participants were followed for 9 months. Adherence was measured by MEMS®; and RRB by self-report. Controlling for recruitment site and years on ART, no significant group by time effects were observed. Attendance (?7/8 sessions) modified the effects. Higher MI attendees had better adherence at all follow-ups, a borderline significant group by time effect (p = 0.1) for % Doses Taken on Schedule, a significantly larger proportion who reported abstinence at 2 weeks, 6, and 9 months, and always used protection during sex at 6 and 9 months. Though not conclusive, the findings offer some support for using MI in a group format to promote adherence and some risk reduction behaviors when adequate attendance is maintained.

Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; DiIorio, Colleen; Kelley, Mary E.; Resnicow, Kenneth; Sharma, Sanjay

2011-01-01

302

Group therapy and its barriers for women suffering from postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data were collected to pilot-test the feasibility and the effects of the “Gruen” Postpartum Depression Group Therapy as an intervention for depression for a small treatment and control group of postpartum depressed mothers. Treatment was a ten-week group therapy consisting of four interacting aspects: (1) education and information, (2) stress reduction techniques,(3) development of support systems, and (4) cognitive restructuring.

Doris Noel Ugarriza

2004-01-01

303

Anthropometric predictors of geometric indices of hip bone strength in a group of Lebanese postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

The effects of anthropometric characteristics on hip bone strength in postmenopausal women are not completely elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of anthropometric characteristics on geometric indices of hip bone strength using the hip structure analysis (HSA) program in a group of Lebanese postmenopausal women. This study included 109 postmenopausal women (aged 64--84yr). Age and years since menopause were recorded. Body composition and bone mineral density were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). To evaluate hip bone strength, DXA scans were analyzed at the femoral neck (FN), the intertrochanteric (IT), and the femoral shaft (FS) by the HSA program. Cross-sectional area (CSA), an index of axial compression strength, section modulus (Z), an index of bending strength, and buckling ratio (BR), an estimate of cortical stability in buckling, were measured from bone mass profiles. Using univariate analysis, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), lean mass, and fat mass were positively correlated to CSA and Z of the FN, IT, and FS. Weight, BMI, fat mass, and fat mass percentage were negatively correlated to BR of the FN, IT, and FS. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that lean mass was a stronger determinant of FN CSA, FN Z, IT Z, and FS Z than fat mass, whereas fat mass was a stronger determinant of IT CSA, FS CSA, IT BR, and FS BR than lean mass. This study suggests that, in postmenopausal women, fat mass is a strong predictor of hip axial compression strength and cortical stability in buckling, and lean mass is a strong predictor of hip bending strength. PMID:22364926

El Hage, Rawad; Baddoura, Rafic

2012-02-23

304

Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramón Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4%) > levofloxacin (93.5%) > ciprofloxacin (64.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7%) was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 ?g/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women.

Quiroga, M.; Pegels, E.; Oviedo, P.; Pereyra, E.; Vergara, M.

2008-01-01

305

Moving beyond safe sex to women-controlled safe sex: A concept analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of a conceptual analysis of women-controlled safe sex. Background Women bear disproportionate burdens from sexually-related health compromising outcomes. Imbalanced societal gender and power positions contribute to high morbidities. The expression, women-controlled safe sex, aims to empower women to gain control of their sexual lives. Few researchers focus on contextualized socio-cultural definitions of sexual safety among women. Data Sources The sample included scientific literature from Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Sociological Abstracts. Papers were published 2000–2010. Review Methods Critical analyses of literature about women-controlled safe sex were performed using Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis methods. The search focused on social and cultural influences on sexual practices aimed at increasing women’s control over their sexual safety. Results The analysis uncovered five attributes of women-controlled safe sex: technology; access to choices; women at-risk; “condom migration” panic; and communication. Three antecedents included: male partner influence; body awareness; and self-efficacy. Consequences were categorized as positive or negative. Nine surrogate terms included: empowerment; gender power; female-controlled sexual barrier method; microbicides; diaphragm; sexual negotiation and communication; female condom; women-initiated disease transmission prevention; and spermicides. Finally, a consensus definition was identified: a socio- culturally influenced multilevel process for initiating sexual safety by women deemed at-risk for sexually-related dangers, usually sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV/AIDS. Conclusion This concept analysis described current significance, uses, and applications of women-controlled safe sex in the scientific literature. The authors clarified its limited nature and conclude that additional conceptual refinement in nursing is necessary to influence women’s health.

Alexander, Kamila A.; Coleman, Christopher L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Jemott, Loretta S.

2011-01-01

306

Prenatal depression: a randomized controlled trial in the emotional health of primiparous women.  

PubMed

The prevalence of postnatal depression (10%-15%) renders it a major public health problem not only for the depressed mother but also for the infant, who may suffer from behavioral disturbances and cognitive delays in later years. This study aimed at evaluating an educational intervention to alleviate postnatal depression and at generally measuring the prenatal and postnatal mood of primiparous women. A prospective, randomized controlled trial of an education intervention to reduce postnatal depression was conducted at three sites in Australia enrolling a total of 184 primiparous women. The intervention consisted of an information booklet on postnatal depression and an audiotape of one woman's journey through clinical postnatal depression. Mood was assessed once prenatally (12-28 weeks) and twice postnatally (8-12 weeks and 16-24 weeks) using the Scale for Assessment of Depression and Schizophrenia modified for pregnant and postnatal women (SADS-M). Demographic and social support data were also collected at enrollment. Comparisons between the control group and the intervention group revealed no differences; the educational intervention did not show any effect when women's mood was measured by the SADS-M. Overall, a general, significant, steady decrease of depressive tendencies was observed when the two postnatal assessments were compared to the prenatal measurements. Women were less depressed postnatally than prenatally. This overall improvement of mood was significant in most SADS-M items. The exceptions were discouragement, anxiety, anger, and irritability, which did not reach significance. Additional multivariate analyses revealed no relevant influence of social support or demographic variables on the changes in mood. The main results that the education intervention had no effect and women, overall, were more depressed prenatally than postnatally contributes further evidence to the view that the prenatal period is a separate entity from the postnatal period, with distinctive psychoneuro-endocrine pathways and, thus, suggesting different profiles of women's experience. This evidence indicates the necessity to screen, refer, and manage prenatal maternal mood as an entity in its own right, rather than as a window on the postnatal period. PMID:15553345

Hayes, Barbara A; Muller, Reinhold

307

Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of group psychoeducation versus group support in the maintenance of bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Non-didactically delivered curriculum based group psychoeducation has been shown to be more effective than both group support in a specialist mood disorder centre in Spain (with effects lasting up to five years), and treatment as usual in Australia. It is unclear whether the specific content and form of group psychoeducation is effective or the chance to meet and work collaboratively with other peers. The main objective of this trial is to determine whether curriculum based group psychoeducation is more clinically and cost effective than unstructured peer group support. Methods/design Single blind two centre cluster randomised controlled trial of 21 sessions group psychoeducation versus 21 sessions group peer support in adults with bipolar 1 or 2 disorder, not in current episode but relapsed in the previous two years. Individual randomisation is to either group at each site. The groups are carefully matched for the number and type of therapists, length and frequency of the interventions and overall aim of the groups but differ in content and style of delivery. The primary outcome is time to next bipolar episode with measures of the therapeutic process, barriers and drivers to the effective delivery of the interventions and economic analysis. Follow up is for 96 weeks after randomisation. Discussion The trial has features of both an efficacy and an effectiveness trial design. For generalisability in England it is set in routine public mental health practice with a high degree of expert patient involvement. Trial Registration ISRCTN62761948 Funding National Institute for Health Research, England.

2011-01-01

308

Influence of resistance exercise training on glucose control in women with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of acute and chronic resistance training on glucose and insulin responses to a glucose load in women with type 2 diabetes. Subjects consisted of type 2 diabetic women (n = 7) and age-matched controls (n = 8) with normal glucose tolerance. All subjects participated in 3 oral glucose tolerance tests: pretraining, 12 to 24 hours after the first exercise session (acute) and 60 to 72 hours after the final training session (chronic). Exercise training consisted of a whole body resistance exercise program using weight-lifting machines 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Resistance training was effective in increasing strength of all muscle groups in all subjects. Integrated glucose concentration expressed as area under the curve (AUC) was 3,355.0 +/- 324.6 mmol/L. min pretraining, improved significantly (P <.01) after the acute bout of exercise (2,868 +/- 324.0 mmol/L. min), but was not improved with chronic training (3,206.0 +/- 337.0 mmol/L. min) in diabetic subjects. A similar pattern of significance was observed with peak glucose concentration (pre: 20.2 +/-1.4 mmol/L; acute: 17.2 +/- 1.7 mmol/L; chronic: 19.9 +/- 1.7 mmol/L). There were no significant changes in insulin concentrations after any exercise bout in the diabetic subjects. There were no changes in glucose or insulin levels in control subjects. An acute bout of resistance exercise was effective in improving integrated glucose concentration, including reducing peak glucose concentrations in women with type 2 diabetes, but not age-matched controls. There were no significant changes in insulin concentrations for either group. Resistance exercise offers an alternative to aerobic exercise for improving glucose control in diabetic patients. To realize optimal glucose control benefits, individuals must follow a regular schedule that includes daily exercise. PMID:15015138

Fenicchia, L M; Kanaley, J A; Azevedo, J L; Miller, C S; Weinstock, R S; Carhart, R L; Ploutz-Snyder, L L

2004-03-01

309

A Stress Reduction and Self-Care Group for Homeless and Addicted Women: Meditation, Relaxation and Cognitive Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes groups at two residential settings for women with substance abuse problems, a shelter and a drug treatment center. The groups employed meditation exercises and cognitive restructuring techniques to teach meditation and relaxation, to help members identify and correct distortions causing stress, to provide positive and credible countering thoughts, and to improve social relationships. The groups and the

Beatrice R. Plasse

2002-01-01

310

Differences in appearance-related commentary, body dissatisfaction, and eating disturbance among college women of varying weight groups.  

PubMed

This study examined appearance-related commentary, body dissatisfaction, and eating disturbance in 924 undergraduate females. Significant group differences were found in type of appearance-related commentary received across weight groups. Overweight and obese women experienced negative weight and shape-related comments at greater frequencies and positive weight and shape-related comments at lower frequencies compared to underweight and normal weight women. A higher frequency of positive weight and shape-related commentary was associated with less body dissatisfaction for all women and less shape and weight concerns for obese women. These findings suggest that the weight status of young women likely influences the appearance-related commentary that they receive and the manner in which such commentary affects their body image and eating behaviors. PMID:23557821

Herbozo, Sylvia; Menzel, Jessie E; Thompson, J Kevin

2013-02-13

311

Black Women, Work, Stress, and Perceived Discrimination: The Focused Support Group Model as an Intervention for Stress Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study examined the use of two components (small and large groups) of a community-based intervention, the Focused Support Group (FSG) model, to alleviate employment-related stressors in Black women. Participants were assigned to small groups based on occupational status. Groups met for five weekly 3-hr sessions in didactic or small- and large-group formats. Two evaluations following the didactic session

Vickie M. Mays

1995-01-01

312

Polycomb group genes control pattern formation in plant seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcriptional activators of the Trithorax group (TRX-G) and repressors of the Polycomb group (Pc-G) are involved in multiple aspects of embryogenesis in Drosophila and the mouse [1, 2] and appear to have a conserved role in the zygotic control of the development of the anterior-posterior axis [3, 4, 5]. In the model plant Arabidopsis, three Pc-G genes have been isolated

Mikael Blom Sørensen; Abdul M. Chaudhury; Hélène Robert; Estelle Bancharel; Frédéric Berger

2001-01-01

313

Randomised, controlled walking trials in postmenopausal women: the minimum dose to improve aerobic fitness?  

PubMed Central

Background: The American College of Sports Medicine recommends 20–60 minutes of aerobic exercise three to five days a week at an intensity of 40/50–85% of maximal aerobic power (VO2MAX) reserve, expending a total of 700–2000 kcal (2.93–8.36 MJ) a week to improve aerobic power and body composition. Objective: To ascertain the minimum effective dose of exercise. Methods: Voluntary, healthy, non-obese, sedentary, postmenopausal women (n = 121), 48–63 years of age, were randomised to four low dose walking groups or a control group; 116 subjects completed the study. The exercise groups walked five days a week for 24 weeks with the following intensity (% of VO2MAX) and energy expenditure (kcal/week): group W1, 55%/1500 kcal; group W2, 45%/1500 kcal; group W3, 55%/1000 kcal; group W4, 45%/1000 kcal. VO2MAX was measured in a direct maximal treadmill test. Submaximal aerobic fitness was estimated as heart rates at submaximal work levels corresponding to 65% and 75% of the baseline VO2MAX. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and percentage of body fat (F%) estimated from skinfolds. Results: The net change (the differences between changes in each exercise group and the control group) in VO2MAX was 2.9 ml/min/kg (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 4.2) in group W1, 2.6 ml/min/kg (95% CI 1.3 to 4.0) in group W2, 2.4 ml/min/kg (95% CI 0.9 to 3.8) in group W3, and 2.2 ml/min/kg (95% CI 0.8 to 3.5) in group W4. The heart rates in standard submaximal work decreased 4 to 8 beats/min in all the groups. There was no change in BMI, but the F% decreased by about 1% unit in all the groups. Conclusions: Walking (for 24 weeks) at moderate intensity 45% to 55% of VO2MAX, with a total weekly energy expenditure of 1000–1500 kcal, improves VO2MAX and body composition of previously sedentary, non-obese, postmenopausal women. This dose of exercise apparently approaches the minimum effective dose.

Asikainen, T; Miilunpalo, S; Oja, P; Rinne, M; Pasanen, M; Uusi-Rasi, K; Vuori, I

2002-01-01

314

Men's controlling behaviors and women's experiences of physical violence in Malawi.  

PubMed

In the feminist paradigm, intimate partner violence (IPV) among heterosexual couples is gender asymmetric and largely a tactic of male control. However, research on the relationship between men's controlling behavior and physical violence against women is limited. This study examines whether having a controlling partner is associated with women's reports of experiencing physical violence in Malawi. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using data from 8,385 women who completed the domestic violence module of the Malawi 2004 Demographic and Health Survey. About 18 % of women reported they had experienced moderately severe physical violence and 1 % experienced very severe violence in the past 12 months. A third of women reported their partners had ever been controlling. Results from multivariable ordinal logistic regression showed that women who had controlling partners were significantly more likely to report experiencing physical violence. Other factors significantly associated with women's experience of physical violence included women who reported initiating physical violence against their partners, women's work status, partners' lower education level, and partners' alcohol consumption. Women with controlling partners were at increased risk of experiencing physical violence in the past year. However, women who reported initiating physical violence in the past year were nearly four times more likely to experience partner violence in the same time period. Future research should attempt to elucidate these two important risk factors for IPV. PMID:22996380

Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J

2013-09-01

315

"I am not alone": a survey of women with peripartum cardiomyopathy and their participation in an online support group.  

PubMed

Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a devastating condition in which women without a previously identified heart condition experience heart failure in the ninth month of pregnancy or in the first 5 months after delivery of a baby. Online support groups are virtual communities for people affected by the same social or health issue. No literature exists on the benefits of women involved in an online support group for peripartum cardiomyopathy. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the benefits of participation in the online support group for peripartum cardiomyopathy based on a survey of active members of the group. All contacts between researchers and respondents were through e-mail. A survey of open-ended and Likert-type questions was used. Twelve women, aged 19 to 34 years, participated; all had a diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy. This online support group is a vital resource for women with peripartum cardiomyopathy. Benefits to participation in the online support group included getting and sharing information, exchanging stories, being understood by other women, and gaining hope. Nurse practice implications include referring patients to reputable Web sites and support groups and serving as a professional facilitator in an online group. PMID:20571373

Hess, Rosanna F; Weinland, Jo Ann; Beebe, Kelly

316

Outcome From a Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder: Comparing Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for Binge Eating to an Active Comparison Group Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder (DBT-BED) aims to reduce binge eating by improving adaptive emotion-regulation skills. Preliminary findings have been promising but have only compared DBT-BED to a wait-list. To control for the hypothesized specific effects of DBT-BED, the present study compared DBT-BED to an active comparison group therapy (ACGT). Men and women (n=101) meeting DSM-IV BED research

Debra L. Safer; Booil Jo

2010-01-01

317

Recycling of wastes as a strategy for environmental conservation in the Lake Victoria Basin: The case of women groups in Kisumu, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the roles, opportunities and challenges that women groups in Kisumu City face as they recycle polythene papers and water hyacinth plant materials to make various saleable products such as bags, mats and baskets. The study objectives were: To analyze the roles of women groups in environmental conservation; To examine the opportunities that the women groups had in

Wilfred K. Subbo; Margaret N. Moindi

2008-01-01

318

Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

2012-01-01

319

Altered Postural Control during the Luteal Phase in Women with Premenstrual Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate postural control in women with and without premenstrual symptoms (PMS) in three hormonally verified phases of the menstrual cycle. Thirty-two women were recruited to participate in the study and 25 of these women were included in the results. Menstrual cycle phases were determined by sex hormone analyses in serum and LH detection

Cecilia Fridén; Dan K. Ramsey; Torbjörn Bäckström; Daniel L. Benoit; Tönu Saartok; Angelica Lindén Hirschberg

2005-01-01

320

Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of…

Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

2010-01-01

321

Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. METHODS: Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg\\/m2) were randomized into

Judith M Ashley; Holly Herzog; Sharon Clodfelter; Vicki Bovee; Jon Schrage; Chris Pritsos

2007-01-01

322

Findings from Focus Groups Indicating what Chinese American Immigrant Women Think about Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Screening.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: To explore beliefs of Chinese American, immigrant women related to breast cancer and mammography. DESIGN: Qualitative description with semistructured focus groups. SETTING: Metropolitan Portland, Oregon. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty eight foreign-born Chinese women, age 40 and older, in five focus groups. METHODS: Focus group discussions in Chinese were audiotaped, transcribed, and translated into English. Using a process of directed content analysis, group transcripts were coded for themes based on the discussion guide. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged from the analysis: knowledge and beliefs; support, communication, and educational needs; and access to care. Subthemes included beliefs such as barriers and facilitators to screening and perceptions about personal breast cancer risk. Several women were profoundly affected by the negative breast cancer-related experiences of relatives and friends. Some common myths remain about causes and treatment of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Although Chinese American immigrant women share beliefs with other minority women in the United States, some culturally related barriers such as alienation due to cultural reasons for not sharing diagnosis with anyone and beliefs about the efficacy of Eastern versus Western medicine may affect adherence to screening and treatment. Facilitators included being told to get the test and getting screened for the sake of the family, whereas erroneous information about the cause of breast cancer such as diet and stress remained. Primary care providers such as advanced practice nurses should take into account culturally driven motivations and barriers to mammography adherence among Chinese American immigrant women. Provider/client interactions should involve more discussion about women's breast cancer risks and screening harms and benefits. Such awareness could open a dialogue around breast cancer that is culturally sensitive and nonthreatening to the patient. Information may need to be tailored to women individually or targeted to subethnic groups rather than using generic messages for all Asian immigrant women. PMID:22537294

Lee-Lin, Frances; Menon, Usha; Nail, Lillian; Lutz, Kristin F

2012-04-26

323

Cigarette smoking and benign proliferative epithelial disorders of the breast in women: a case-control study.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the possible association between cigarette smoking and benign proliferative epithelial disorders of the breast. DESIGN: This was a case-control study with two different control groups. SETTING: The study was community based and took place in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. SUBJECTS: 506 biopsy proven cases between 18 and 75 years were identified, of whom 39 could not be approached because of surgeon refusal, 66 would not be interviewed and 18 were untraceable, leaving 383 for inclusion in the study. Controls were 192 women who had had a negative breast biopsy, out of a possible 259 (17 surgeon refusals, 39 interview refusals, 11 untraceable); and a randomly selected group of women matched to the index group for age and area of residence (582 subjects were approached to enrol 383 controls). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All breast biopsies were examined by one pathologist and classified using a standard system. Sociodemographic and medical information was collected by trained interviewers using structured questionnaires. Overall, and within menopausal strata, risk of benign proliferative epithelial disease for women who had ever smoked and for current and ex-smokers was similar to that for women who had never smoked. In premenopausal women, using community controls as the comparison group, risk decreased with cigarette-years of exposure, but the trend was not statistically significant. Risk appeared to increase when biopsy controls were used. There was no trend in the association when examined by degree of cytological atypia. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that cigarette smoking is not related to the risk of benign proliferative epithelial breast disease.

Rohan, T E; Cook, M G; Baron, J A

1989-01-01

324

“OBTUSE WOMEN”: VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL POLICIES AND MAINTAINING A “FIT” NATION, 1920-1945  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health officials and social reformers grew concerned over the prevalence of gonorrhea and syphilis following World War I. The initiatives put in place by authorities to control the spread of venereal disease lacked any concern for women’s health and sought to control their newly found independence and mobility. This thesis examines public health policies related to venereal disease control

Evelyn Ashley Sorrell

2011-01-01

325

Experiences and Status of Chinese Rural Women: Differences among Three Age Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Old China, working women had no rights in such matters as politics, economy, culture, society, and family life. Women were governed by the Chinese feudal society tradition. When "new" China was founded in 1949, working women made up the 7.5 percent of the total work force. By 1983, the number of working women had increased to 36.5 percent. In…

Slimmer, Virginia M.; Kejing, Dai

326

Daughters of Abya Yala: Native Women Regaining Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book compiles testimonies of the struggles, everyday life, and accomplishments of Indian women from Central and South America. Following an introduction to the increasing role of Indian women in international forums and indigenous organizations, the words of individual women describe the problems that affect them and their determination to…

Alderete, Wara, Ed.; And Others

327

Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race.

Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

2011-01-01

328

Summary of beam quality diagnostics and control working group  

SciTech Connect

The working group on beam quality, diagnostics, and control at the 12th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. The generation of bright charged-particle beams (in particular electron and positron beams), along with state-of-the-art beam diagnostics and synchronization were discussed.

Lewellen, John; /Argonne; Piot, Philippe; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

2006-09-01

329

Control Strategy of Group Behavior for Internet of Things  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of the information techniques, Internet of Things has caused extensive concern. The burden of Internet of Things increases as the number of users rises. In order to ease the burden on Internet of Things and improve efficiency of user accessing the Internet of Things, this paper proposed a control strategy of group behavior. We count resources user

Qingkui Chen; He Jia

2011-01-01

330

26 CFR 1.382-8 - Controlled groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to a controlled group loss. (a) Public L owns all of the L stock, L and Public L1 own 30 percent and 70 percent, respectively, of the L1 stock, and L1 owns all of the corporation T stock. L1 has a net operating loss arising in Year...

2009-04-01

331

26 CFR 1.382-8 - Controlled groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to a controlled group loss. (a) Public L owns all of the L stock, L and Public L1 own 30 percent and 70 percent, respectively, of the L1 stock, and L1 owns all of the corporation T stock. L1 has a net operating loss arising in Year...

2010-04-01

332

Nuclear localization and characterization of alkaline phosphatase in neutrophils from normal controls and pregnant women.  

PubMed

There were controversial data concerning localization of alkaline phosphatase (AP) in neutrophil nuclei under physiological conditions. In this context, the AP pattern has been determined on nuclei preparations from normal human neutrophils. Blood cells were isolated from 10 healthy adults and from 3 women in the third trimester of an uncomplicated pregnancy. Purity of nuclear suspension was checked by electron microscopy and assay of organelle marker enzymes. Electron microscope cytochemistry and immunocytochemistry studies were carried out on WBC. Enzyme characterization was performed by the usual biochemical procedures. AP was found in nuclear preparations from four of ten normal controls. When present, AP was detected in approximately two-thirds of the nuclei examined, representing an average of 20% of the total cell activity. Conversely, a large amount of nucleus-bound enzyme (55% of total AP activity) was recognized in all pregnant women samples. Biochemical and immunological characteristics clearly differentiate AP forms in the two groups of subjects. Normal controls have an heterogeneous enzyme pattern. AP positive preparations contain a mixture of isoenzymes: a prominent heat labile form and a relatively heat stable minor component. The heat stable fraction displays some properties similar to those previously described in leukocyte AP. Pregnant women express a unique very heat labile isoenzyme identical in its main characteristics to the early placental type. PMID:1553953

Vergnes, H A; Brisson-Lougarre, A; Grozdea, J G; Blum, C J; Kihn, Y; Sevely, J

1992-04-01

333

Scaling up community mobilisation through women's groups for maternal and neonatal health: experiences from rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Program coverage is likely to be an important determinant of the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. Rigorous examination and documentation of methods to scale-up interventions and measure coverage are scarce, however. To address this knowledge gap, this paper describes the process and measurement of scaling-up coverage of a community mobilisation intervention for maternal, child and neonatal health in rural Bangladesh and critiques this real-life experience in relation to available literature on scaling-up. Methods Scale-up activities took place in nine unions in rural Bangladesh. Recruitment and training of those who deliver the intervention, communication and engagement with the community and other stakeholders and active dissemination of intervention activities are described. Process evaluation and population survey data are presented and used to measure coverage and the success of scale-up. Results The intervention was scaled-up from 162 women's groups to 810, representing a five-fold increase in population coverage. The proportion of women of reproductive age and pregnant women who were engaged in the intervention increased from 9% and 3%, respectively, to 23% and 29%. Conclusions Examination and documentation of how scaling-up was successfully initiated, led, managed and monitored in rural Bangladesh provide a deeper knowledge base and valuable lessons. Strong operational capabilities and institutional knowledge of the implementing organisation were critical to the success of scale-up. It was possible to increase community engagement with the intervention without financial incentives and without an increase in managerial staff. Monitoring and feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to successful scale-up and require programmatic and operational flexibility.

2012-01-01

334

Communication control and leadership in telecommunications by small groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experiment examined the effect of communication control on the telecommunications of four subject problem solving groups, and on the emergence of leaders within the groups. Sixteen four-subject teams solved four realistic problems, one on each of four days, by communicating over a closed-circuit television system with an added audio capacity. Teams were assigned to communication systems which either did or did not have centrally controlled switching so that only one person could talk at a time, and to systems in which either (1) one subject was appointed to perform some of the experimenter's tasks or (2) no group member was so designated. Four degrees of control over communication thus ranged from no control (communication was not centrally switched, no appointed helper) to absolute control (appointed helper who switched the communication). The subject who switched the communication and/or helped the experimenter was chosen at random by the experimenter prior to the start of the first experimental session and remained the same throughout the remaining sessions. Teams were paid a bonus of up to $2.60 for each problem solution. The size of a team's bonus depended on how well the team solved each problem as determined by comparing their solutions with criterion solutions. Dependent measures include the time to solution, a measure of the quality of solution based on the size of the bonus, measures of verbal communication, and questionnaire responses.

Pagerey, P. D.

1980-06-01

335

Culturally sensitive, preventive antenatal group cognitive-behavioural therapy for Chinese women with depression.  

PubMed

Postnatal depression (PND) affects 10-15% of postnatal women worldwide, yet it is poorly recognized and managed. Among the psychological interventions, which are used to manage PND, cognitive-behavioural therapy was found to be effective and promising. In the past decade, research efforts have focused on developing effective antenatal interventions to prevent PND. Strong antenatal predictors such as antenatal depressive symptoms have been identified for targeted early intervention or prevention to help reduce the risk of developing depression after childbirth. However, the findings regarding effectiveness of antenatal preventive interventions have been inconsistent. Based on the reports of previous studies, a brief group antenatal intervention using cognitive-behavioural approach is necessary, particularly one with sensitivity for Chinese woman. This paper reports the details of a nurse-led cognitive-behavioural programme developed and tested in, and for use with a sample of Hong Kong pregnant women. The trial run showed that the programme was feasible to be implemented and well received by the participants. PMID:23425377

Leung, Sharron S K; Lee, Antoinette M; Chiang, Vico C L; Lam, S K; Kuen, Yung Wai; Wong, Daniel F K

2013-02-01

336

Control of the upper body accelerations in young and elderly women during level walking  

PubMed Central

Background The control of the head movements during walking allows for the stabilisation of the optic flow, for a more effective processing of the vestibular system signals, and for the consequent control of equilibrium. In young individuals, the oscillations of the upper body during level walking are characterised by an attenuation of the linear acceleration going from pelvis to head level. In elderly subjects the ability to implement this motor strategy is reduced. The aim of this paper is to go deeper into the mechanisms through which the head accelerations are controlled during level walking, in both young and elderly women specifically. Methods A stereophotogrammetric system was used to reconstruct the displacement of markers located at head, shoulder, and pelvis level while 16 young (age: 24 ± 4 years) and 20 older (age: 72 ± 4 years) female volunteers walked at comfortable and fast speed along a linear pathway. The harmonic coefficients of the displacements in the medio-lateral (ML), antero-posterior (AP), and vertical (V) directions were calculated via discrete Fourier transform, and relevant accelerations were computed by analytical double differentiation. The root mean square of the accelerations were used to define three coefficients for quantifying the attenuations of the accelerations from pelvis to head, from pelvis to shoulder, and from shoulder to head. Results The coefficients of attenuation were shown to be independent from the walking speed, and hence suitable for group and subject comparison. The acceleration in the AP direction was attenuated by the two groups both from pelvis to shoulder and from shoulder to head. The reduction of the shoulder to head acceleration, however, was less effective in older women, suggesting that the ability to exploit the cervical hinge to attenuate the AP acceleration is challenged in this population. Young women managed to exploit a pelvis to shoulder attenuation strategy also in the ML direction, whereas in the elderly group the head acceleration was even larger than the pelvis acceleration. Conclusion The control of the head acceleration is fundamental when implementing a locomotor strategy and its loss could be one of the causes for walking instability in elderly women.

Mazza, Claudia; Iosa, Marco; Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Cappozzo, Aurelio

2008-01-01

337

Efficacy of supervised exercise combined with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in women with fibromyalgia: a prospective controlled study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the results of a supervised exercise with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in an exercise controlled study in women with fibromyalgia. Sixty-six women with fibromyalgia who admitted to the outpatient clinic of our hospital were randomized into two treatment groups. The patients in both groups participated in a supervised combined exercise program for 12 weeks. The women in first group had additional TENS in the first 3 weeks of the study. All subjects were analyzed at the baseline, at the end of the 3rd and 12th weeks. Outcome measures were tender point count (TPC), myalgic pain score (MPS), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) Health Survey. Sixty women with fibromyalgia completed the study. The patients in both groups showed improvement in terms of TPC, MPS, FIQ, physical and mental summary scores and total scores of SF-36 at the end of the 3rd and 12th weeks. The improvement in MPS at the third week was higher in the first group (p = 0.01). But there was no difference in terms of the improvement in MPS between the groups at the end of the 12th week control (p = 0.87). There was no significant difference between the improvement in the other outcome parameters of the two groups. As a result, supervised exercise program was successful to improve the myalgic pain, functional status and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia. Exercises combined with TENS might be useful due to quick myalgic pain relief in the treatment of fibromyalgia in everyday practice. PMID:22527135

Mutlu, B; Paker, N; Bugdayci, D; Tekdos, D; Kesiktas, N

2012-04-11

338

Impaired outcome of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in women with thyroid autoimmune disease.  

PubMed

Background: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is a crucial step of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) may negatively affect the outcome of ART, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate the respective role of ATD and thyroid function, as assessed by serum thyrotropin (TSH), on the early outcome of COH. Methods: In total, 262 (202 ATD-negative and 60 ATD-positive) euthyroid subfertile women underwent ART. Before COH, serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, and estradiol (E2) were measured at cycle day 3, and progesterone at cycle day 21. At oocyte pickup and at embryo transfer, we evaluated the performance of recombinant FSH (r-FSH), as assessed by serum E2 concentration/total administered r-FSH units (E2/r-FSH) ratio and by oocyte quality. Results: At both oocyte pickup and embryo transfer, the performance of r-FSH was significantly poorer in ATD-positive than in ATD-negative women. In the ATD-positive group, women with a TSH <2.5?mIU/L displayed a higher serum E2 concentration at oocyte pickup, a higher E2/r-FSH ratio, and a greater number of mature metaphase II oocytes than women with a TSH >2.5?mIU/L. When ATD-positive women were divided into quartiles according to their serum TSH level, both the ovarian response to r-FSH and the number of mature metaphase II oocytes significantly increased from the lowest to the highest quartiles of serum TSH concentration. Conclusions: ATD has a negative effect on the early outcome of COH, but this negative influence may be avoided with adequate levothyroxine therapy aimed at keeping TSH <2.5?mU/L. Thyroid antibodies and serum TSH should be checked in any woman undergoing ART. PMID:23556516

Magri, Flavia; Capelli, Valentina; Gaiti, Margherita; Brambilla, Emanuela; Montesion, Luisa; Rotondi, Mario; Spinillo, Arsenio; Nappi, Rossella E; Chiovato, Luca

2013-07-25

339

Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ESR-1) Associations with Psychological Traits in Women with PMDD and Controls  

PubMed Central

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a mood disorder affecting about 5% of women and is associated with substantial morbidity. Albeit inconsistently, PMDD is described as being characterized by heritable personality traits. Although PMDD is a heritable disorder, it is unclear whether any of the heritable susceptibility to PMDD resides in heritable personality traits. In groups of carefully characterized women with PMDD (n=68) and controls (n=56), we attempted to determine whether diagnosis-related traits could be confirmed, as well as to determine whether such traits were associated with SNPs in estrogen receptor alpha (ESR-1) that we previously demonstrated were associated with PMDD. We observed 7/25 traits to be significantly different in patients and controls and further showed that 11/12 significant associations observed between these 7 traits and 16 ESR-1 SNPs involved the intron 4 SNPs previously shown to be the locus of the association with PMDD. While several interactions between genotype and diagnosis were observed, the effect of genotype in most instances was in the same direction in patients and controls. These data demonstrate affective state-independent personality traits that distinguish patients with PMDD from controls and further support the relevance of ESR-1 polymorphic variants in the regulation of non-reproductive behaviors.

Miller, Alexandra; Vo, Hoa; Huo, Liang; Roca, Catherine; Schmidt, Peter J.; Rubinow, David R.

2010-01-01

340

Reductions in the Social Anxiety of Women Associated With Group Membership: Distraction, Anonymity, Security, or Diffusion of Evaluation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether social anxiety is diminished among women in the company of a group and, if so, whether it is associated with perceptions of anonymity, being distracted, feelings of security, or an expectation that any evaluation will be diffused across the members of the group. Two social scenarios were presented to 61 female undergraduate students: a physique-salient and

Albert V. Carron; Paul A. Estabrooks; Holly Horton; Harry Prapavessis; Heather A. Hausenblas

1999-01-01

341

Women of Courage: A Personal Account of a Wilderness-Based Experiential Group for Survivors of Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adventure-based therapy has grown in both scope and popularity. These groups are frequently utilized in the treatment of adolescents with behavioral or substance abuse issues. Less evident is the use of this modality with other populations. Described here is a personal account of the author's participation in a wilderness-based group for women.…

Kelly, Virginia A.

2006-01-01

342

Effects of two doses of tibolone on trabecular and cortical bone loss in early postmenopausal women: A two-year randomized, placebo-controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-year study is the first to evaluate the effect of 1.25 and 2.5 mg tibolone daily oral administration on trabecular and cortical bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Ninety-four healthy, normal weight, nonsmoking women participated 1–3 years following spontaneous menopause. Twenty-three subjects were randomized to the placebo group, 36 to the 1.25 mg\\/day tibolone group,

B. Berning; C. V. Kuijk; J. W. Kuiper; H. J. T. Coelingh Bennink; P. M. Kicovic; B. C. J. M. Fauser

1996-01-01

343

Psychoeducational group increases vaginal dilation for younger women and reduces sexual fears for women of all ages with gynecological carcinoma treated with radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The association between radiotherapy for gynecological carcinoma and sexual dysfunction is well established. Regular vaginal dilation is widely recommended to these women as a way for them to maintain vaginal health and good sexual functioning. However, the compliance rate with this recommendation is low. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a group psychoeducational program

John W Robinson; Peter D Faris; Carol B Scott

1999-01-01

344

The Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women: Report to the President and the Commission for Women--Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report of the Pennsylvania State University Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women describes activities and presents recommendations concerned with the broad areas of leadership share, structure and quality of University worklife, and structure and quality of the academic environment. Recommendations address the following specific…

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

345

Weight Loss Goals among African American Women with Type 2 Diabetes in a Behavioral Weight Control Program  

PubMed Central

African American women with type 2 diabetes experience limited weight loss in behavioral weight control programs. Some research suggests overly ambitious weight loss expectations may negatively affect weight losses achieved but it is unknown whether they affect weight loss among African American women. The current study examined personal weight loss goals and expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss among African American women with type 2 diabetes starting a behavioral obesity treatment. We also explored associations among these factors and weight loss treatment outcomes. Self-identified African American women (N= 84) in a 24-session group program were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow up. At baseline, women indicated weight loss goals of 14.1 ± 6.6 kg (14% of initial weight). They also reported relatively high expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss (7–10%). On average, participants lost 3.0 ± 3.9 kg (3% of initial weight) and attended 73 ± 21% of group sessions. Neither weight loss goals nor expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss was correlated with either actual weight loss outcome or attendance. Having higher personal weight loss goals was associated with lower expectations of satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss. This suggests African American women with type 2 diabetes enter treatment hoping to lose far more weight than they are likely to achieve. It is important to understand the psychosocial sequelae of failing to reach these goals on subsequent weight maintenance and future weight loss attempts within this population.

White, D.B.; Bursac, Z.; DiLillo, V.; West, D.S.

2011-01-01

346

Nonproliferation and arms control technology working group. RD database focus group. 1996 annual report. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

In response to guidance from the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Group (NPAC TWG), the Proliferation Modeling Focus Group (PMFG) formulated objectives and terms of reference from which to conduct its activities. A major recommendation of this group in its report last year was that NPAC TWG needed to establish a separate focus group to develop and implement communications and data sharing within the larger NPAC TWG and among its various focus groups. The need was recognized for communicating and data sharing at both classified and unclassified levels. In response to this recommendation, the NPAC TWG established the Research and Development Database Focus Group. To facilitate our communication needs, it was decided to use a three-tier approach on three parallel communications networks: the Internet`s World Wide Web, Secret Internet Protocol Router Network`s (SIPRNET) INTELINK-S, and Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System`s (JWICS) INTELINK. Since all three networks at all classification levels use WEB browsers (Mosaic, Netscape, Microsoft`s Navigator, and others) and Internet tools to search and display data, and all networks are or could be made available to all members, it was propitious to use them as the infrastructure for NPAC TWG`s information sharing requirements.

NONE

1996-12-31

347

Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.|

Nanton, Carmela R.

2009-01-01

348

Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.

Nanton, Carmela R.

2009-01-01

349

Leukocyte Esterase Activity in Vaginal Fluid of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women With Vaginitis/Vaginosis and in Controls  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the leukocyte esterase (LE) activity in vaginal lavage fluid of women with acute and recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC and RVVC respectively), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and in pregnant and non-pregnant women without evidence of the three conditions. Also to compare the result of LE tests in women consulting at different weeks in the cycle and trimesters of pregnancy.The LE activity was correlated to vaginal pH, number of inflammatory cells in stained vaginal smears, type of predominating vaginal bacteria and presence of yeast morphotypes. Methods: One hundred and thirteen women with a history of RVVC, i.e. with at least four attacks of the condition during the previous year and who had consulted with an assumed new attack of the condition, were studied. Furthermore, we studied 16 women with VVC, 15 women with BV, and 27 women attending for control of cytological abnormalities, who all presented without evidence of either vaginitis or vaginosis. Finally, 73 pregnant women were investigated. The LE activity in vaginal fluid during different weeks in the cycle of 53 of the women was measured. Results: In the non-pregnant women, an increased LE activity was found in 96, 88, 73 and 56% of those with RVVC, VVC and BV and in the non-VVC/BV cases, respectively. In 73% of pregnant women in the second trimester, and 76% of those in the third, the LE test was positive. In all groups of non-pregnant women tested, the LE activity correlated with the number of leukocytes in vaginal smears, but it did not in those who were pregnant. There was no correlation between LE activity and week in cycle. The vaginal pH showed no correlation to LE activity in any of the groups studied. Conclusions: The use of commercial LE dipsticks has a limited value in the differential diagnosis of RVVC, VVCand BV. There is no correlation between the LE activity in vaginal secretion on one hand and vaginal pH, week in the menstrual cycle and trimester in pregnancy on the other. Women with BV often have signs of inflammation as evidenced by a positive LE test and inflammatory cells in genital smears.

Novikova, Natalia; Niklasson, Ola; Bekassy, Zoltan; Skude, Lennart

2003-01-01

350

Usual and Unusual Care: Existing Practice Control Groups In Randomized Controlled Trials of Behavioral Interventions  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the use of existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions, and the role of extrinsic healthcare services in the design and conduct of behavioral trials. Method Selective qualitative review. Results Extrinsic healthcare services, also known as nonstudy care, have important but under-recognized effects on the design and conduct of behavioral trials. Usual care, treatment as usual, standard of care, and other existing practice control groups pose a variety of methodological and ethical challenges, but they play a vital role in behavioral intervention research. Conclusion This review highlights the need for a scientific consensus statement on control groups in behavioral trials.

Freedland, Kenneth E.; Mohr, David C.; Davidson, Karina W.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

2011-01-01

351

Evaluating Group-Based Interventions When Control Participants Are Ungrouped  

PubMed Central

Individually randomized treatments are often administered within a group setting. As a consequence, outcomes for treated individuals may be correlated due to provider effects, common experiences within the group, and/or informal processes of socialization. In contrast, it is often reasonable to regard outcomes for control participants as independent, given that these individuals are not placed into groups. Although this kind of design is common in intervention research, the statistical models applied to evaluate the treatment effects are usually inconsistent with the resulting data structure, potentially leading to biased inferences. This article presents an alternative model that explicitly accounts for the fact that only treated participants are grouped. In addition to providing a useful test of the overall treatment effect, this approach also permits one to formally determine the extent to which treatment effects vary over treatment groups and whether there is evidence that individuals within treatment groups become similar to one another. This strategy is demonstrated with data from the Reconnecting Youth program for high school students at risk of school failure and behavioral disorders.

Bauer, Daniel J.; Sterba, Sonya K.; Hallfors, Denise Dion

2010-01-01

352

The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial: An inconvenient finding and the diet-heart hypothesis.  

PubMed

One goal of the US$700 million Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial was to determine whether post-menopausal women who adopted what was regarded as a 'heart healthy' low-fat diet, high in vegetables, fruits and grains, reduced their risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The trial substantially favoured the outcome in the intervention group, who also received an intensive nutritional and behaviour education programme not offered to the control group. These studies neatly disprove the diet-heart hypothesis since adoption of 'heart healthy' eating not only failed to influence future cardiac events in the healthy but it increased such events in the unhealthy and worsened diabetic control in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  PMID:24148164

Noakes, Timothy David

2013-09-30

353

Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity  

PubMed Central

Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products.

Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

2012-01-01

354

Controlling Images, Media, and Women's Development: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myths, stereotypes, and controlling images are embedded in the cultural textbook of cinema. Women are disempowered and marginalized by these images, and it is important to explore the existence and prevalence of these images in order to examine their effects on women's development. A review of the literature concerning controlling images and the media reveals the presence of stereotypes concerning

Tonya R. Hammer

2009-01-01

355

Interpersonal problem-solving skills in battered, counseling, and control women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to examine the interpersonal problem-solving skills of battered women, while controlling for the effects of depression and anxiety. Battered, Counseling, and Control women were administered an interpersonal problem-solving inventory and asked to generate as many behavioral options as possible for each problem and then to select the one option they would chose to use in

Margaret H. Launius; Bernard L. Jensen

1987-01-01

356

2007 Presidential Address: Fear of Losing Control--Power, Perfectionism, and the Psychology of Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anecdotal evidence and popular culture suggest that fear of losing control of oneself is common among North American women, yet there is little in the way of data or theory to show why so many women fear loss of control or how to help them to leave that fear behind. In this article a commonly accepted definition of self-regulation is examined…

Chrisler, Joan C.

2008-01-01

357

Serum folate, homocysteine and colorectal cancer risk in women: a nested case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence suggests that folate, which is plentiful in vegetables and fruits, may be protective against colorectal cancer. The authors have studied the relationship of baseline levels of serum folate and homocysteine to the subsequent risk of colorectal cancer in a nested case–control study including 105 cases and 523 matched controls from the New York University Women’s Health Study cohort.

I Kato; A M Dnistrian; M Schwartz; P Toniolo; K Koenig; R E Shore; A Akhmedkhanov; A Zeleniuch-Jacquotte; E Riboli

1999-01-01

358

Space, Agency, and Withdrawal: Birth Control Choices of Women in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Withdrawal (WD) is not a reliable method for preventing unwanted pregnancies, yet it is still a very popular form of birth control in many societies, including Turkey. We look at the relationship between women's agency and physical space in relation to birth control choices of women in Turkey. Agency in our context refers to a woman's ability to resist domination

Ibrahim Sirkeci; Dilek Cindoglu

2012-01-01

359

Effects of diet and exercise training on neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since neurovascular control is altered in obese subjects, we hypoth- esized that weight loss by diet (D) or diet plus exercise training (D + ET) would improve neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women. In a study with a dietary reduction of 600 kcal\\/day with or without exercise training for 4 months, 53 obese women were subdivided in D

A. C. Tonacio; I. C. Trombetta; M. U. P. B. Rondon; L. T. Batalha; F. H. S. Kuniyoshi; M. C. Laterza; P. H. Suzuki; M. M. G. Gowdak; A. C. P. Barretto; A. Halpern; S. M. F. Villares; C. E. Negrão

2006-01-01

360

Controlling Images, Media, and Women's Development: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Myths, stereotypes, and controlling images are embedded in the cultural textbook of cinema. Women are disempowered and marginalized by these images, and it is important to explore the existence and prevalence of these images in order to examine their effects on women's development. A review of the literature concerning controlling images and the…

Hammer, Tonya R.

2009-01-01

361

2007 Presidential Address: Fear of Losing Control--Power, Perfectionism, and the Psychology of Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anecdotal evidence and popular culture suggest that fear of losing control of oneself is common among North American women, yet there is little in the way of data or theory to show why so many women fear loss of control or how to help them to leave that fear behind. In this article a commonly accepted definition of self-regulation is examined…

Chrisler, Joan C.

2008-01-01

362

What are pregnant women eating? Nutrient and food group differences by race  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify foods that contributed most to nutrient and fiber intake in a sample of pregnant women in North Carolina. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective study of women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (n = 2247 women). Dietary information during the second trimester was collected with the use of a

Anna Maria Siega-Riz; Lisa M. Bodnar; David A. Savitz

2002-01-01

363

Improving the Livelihoods of Women in the Developing World: Selected Perceptions of Women's Self-Help Groups in Western Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development specialists agree that poverty in developing countries is a multidimensional phenomenon. The United Nations (2001) reported that the poorest of the world's poor are women. The Kenyan Government recognizes that poverty is area specific and interventions aimed at creating employment and reducing poverty must be localized. In Kenya, \\

Billy A. Jivetti; M. Craig Edwards

2008-01-01

364

Effects of isoflavone on the learning and memory of women in menopause: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.  

PubMed

Hormone decline is common to all women during aging and, associated with other factors, leads to cognitive impairment. Its replacement enhances cognitive performance, but not all women present a clinical and family or personal history that justifies its use, mainly women with a history of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether a daily oral dose of 80 mg of isoflavone extract for 4 months can produce benefits in women with low hormone levels, contributing to improvement in cognitive aspects. The sample comprised 50- to 65-year-old women whose menstruation had ceased at least 1 year before and who had not undergone hormone replacement. The volunteers were allocated to two groups of 19 individuals each, i.e., isoflavone and placebo. There was a weak correlation between menopause duration and low performance in the capacity to manipulate information (central executive). We observed an increase in the capacity to integrate information in the group treated with isoflavone, but no improvement in the capacity to form new memories. We did not observe differences between groups in terms of signs and symptoms suggestive of depression according to the Geriatric Depression Scale. Our results point to a possible beneficial effect of isoflavone on some abilities of the central executive. These effects could also contribute to minimizing the impact of memory impairment. Further research based on controlled clinical trials is necessary to reach consistent conclusions. PMID:20945036

Santos-Galduróz, R F; Galduróz, J C F; Facco, R L; Hachul, H; Tufik, S

2010-10-08

365

Group therapy in a general practice setting for frequent attenders: a controlled study of mothers with pre-school children  

PubMed Central

The frequent attendance of women suffering from anxiety and depression is a common problem in general practice and the problems are often externalized through the women's children. A small controlled study was carried out in a general practice surgery to see whether demand for medical attention by mothers of pre-school children would decrease after they attended a discussion group. Twenty women who fulfilled the study criteria of more than double the national average consultation rate for their age group and of having at least one pre-school child, were sequentially allocated to a treatment or control group. The group therapy was held over two terms of 10 sessions, each of 90 minutes, and was led by a psychologist and a general practitioner. Consultation rates (including surgery visits, house calls and prescription requests) were recorded for five consecutive six-month periods before and after the intervention. At follow-up six months after the end of the treatment a significant reduction in consultation rate had been achieved and maintained by the treated group compared with the controls (P<0.01). This study shows the value of attending to the cause of frequent consultation as well as to the complaints presented.

Benson, Pauline; Turk, Theresa

1988-01-01

366

Impulse control disorders in women with eating disorders.  

PubMed

We compared symptom patterns, severity of illness, and comorbidity in individuals with eating disorders with and without impulse control disorders (ICD), and documented the temporal pattern of illness onset. Lifetime ICD were present in 16.6% of 709 women with a history of eating disorders. The most common syndromes were compulsive buying disorder and kleptomania. ICD occurred more in individuals with binge eating subtypes, and were associated with significantly greater use of laxatives, diuretics, appetite suppressants and fasting, and with greater body image disturbance, higher harm avoidance, neuroticism, cognitive impulsivity, and lower self-directedness. In addition, individuals with ICD were more likely to have obsessive-compulsive disorder, any anxiety disorder, specific phobia, depression, cluster B personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and to use psychoactive substances. Among those with ICD, 62% reported the ICD predated the eating disorder and 45% reported the onset of both disorders within the same 3-year window. The presence of a lifetime ICD appears to be limited to eating disorders marked by binge eating and to be associated with worse eating-related psychopathology, more pathological personality traits, and more frequent comorbid Axis I and II conditions. Untreated ICD may complicate recovery from eating disorders. PMID:17961717

Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Pinheiro, Andréa Poyastro; Thornton, Laura M; Berrettini, Wade H; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; Mitchell, James; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M

2007-10-24

367

Responsivity to food cues in bulimic women and controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated responsivity to individualized food cues consisting of binge\\/favourite foods in 17 women with bulimic nervosa (BN) and 17 women with no history or current symptoms of eating disorders (C). The hypothesis that increasing cue salience would be associated with an increase in responsivity was tested by comparison of self reported urges, affective responses and salivation to

P. Staiger; S. Dawe; R. McCarthy

2000-01-01

368

Bhojpuri songs, women's work and social control in Northen India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis is concerned with the construction and reproduction of gender identity in women's work songs, specifically songs of the millstone, or jatsaars, in the Bhojpuri-speaking region. Sung as accompaniment to the daily grinding of grain and spices, the songs, rich in narrative content, cover a range of women's concerns including caste and patriarchal anxieties. As the songs also serve

Smita Tewari Jassal

2003-01-01

369

Educational attainment, perceived control and the quality of women's diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Data from the Southampton Women's Survey have established that women of lower educational attainment have poorer quality diets than those of higher educational attainment. This relationship is strong and graded such that for every increase in level of educational qualification, there is an increase in the likelihood that a woman will have a better quality diet. It is not

Mary Barker; Wendy Lawrence; Sarah Crozier; Siân Robinson; Janis Baird; Barrie Margetts; Cyrus Cooper

2009-01-01

370

Effect of two training regimens on bone mineral density in healthy perimenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of 18 months of calisthenics and endurance training regimens on bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal women. Clinically healthy sedentary female volunteers (n = 105) aged 52-53 years were randomly assigned to a calisthenics (n = 36), endurance (n = 34), or control (n = 35) group. The calisthenics training (2.6 times per week on average, 50 minutes per session) consisted of rhythmic strength-endurance exercises by large muscle groups, and the endurance training (3.2 times per week, 50 minutes) consisted of walking, stair climbing, ergometer cycling, and jogging at a controlled heart rate zone corresponding to 55-75% of the individual maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of the subjects. The control subjects performed a light stretching program once a week The BMD of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), right femoral neck, calcaneus, and distal radius was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 0, 4, 8, 10, 14, and 18 months, and the maximal isometric strength during trunk extension and flexion, leg extension, and arm flexion and the VO2max by ergospirometry were evaluated at 0, 8, 10, and 18 months of intervention. The VO2max improved significantly (p = 0.021) in the endurance group. The linear trend of the femoral neck BMD in the endurance group, as determined by generalized linear models, was significantly different (p = 0.043) from that of the control group, the trend indicating a maintenance of the prestudy BMD. In the calisthenics group, the training effect was not significant. However, the distal radius BMD of the endurance group showed a significant negative trend (p = 0.006). These results suggest that multiexercise endurance training maintains the BMD the clinically important femoral neck of perimenopausal women. This form of endurance training proved also to be feasible for healthy perimenopausal women. PMID:9525349

Heinonen, A; Oja, P; Sievänen, H; Pasanen, M; Vuori, I

1998-03-01

371

Health locus of control and assimilation of cervical cancer information in Deaf women.  

PubMed

This study assessed the relationship between Deaf women's internal health locus of control (IHLC) and their cervical cancer knowledge acquisition and retention. A blind, randomized trial evaluated Deaf women's (N = 130) baseline cancer knowledge and knowledge gained and retained from an educational intervention, in relation to their IHLC. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales measured baseline IHLC, and a cervical cancer knowledge survey evaluated baseline to post-intervention knowledge change. Women's IHLC did not significantly predict greater cervical cancer knowledge at baseline or over time. IHLC does not appear to be a characteristic that must be considered when creating Deaf women's cancer education programs. PMID:20229077

Wang, Regina; Aldridge, Arianna A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Choe, Sun; Branz, Patricia; Sadler, Georgia Robins

2010-03-06

372

Evaluation of a decision aid for women with breech presentation at term: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN14570598  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of a decision aid for women with a breech presentation compared with usual care. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Tertiary obstetric hospitals offering external cephalic version (ECV). Population Women with a singleton pregnancy were diagnosed antenatally with a breech presentation at term, and were clinically eligible for ECV. Methods Women were randomised to either receive a decision aid about the management options for breech presentation in addition to usual care or to receive usual care only with standard counselling from their usual pregnancy care provider. The decision aid comprised a 24-page booklet supplemented by a 30-minute audio-CD and worksheet that was designed for women to take home and review with a partner. Main outcome measures Decisional conflict (uncertainty), knowledge, anxiety and satisfaction with decision making, and were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Results Compared with usual care, women reviewing the decision aid experienced significantly lower decisional conflict (mean difference ?8.92; 95% CI ?13.18, ?4.66) and increased knowledge (mean difference 8.40; 95% CI 3.10, 13.71), were more likely to feel that they had enough information to make a decision (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.14, 1.47), had no increase in anxiety and reported greater satisfaction with decision making and overall experience of pregnancy and childbirth. In contrast, 19% of women in the usual care group reported they would have made a different decision about their care. Conclusions A decision aid is an effective and acceptable tool for pregnant women that provides an important adjunct to standard counselling for the management of breech presentation. Please cite this paper as: Nassar N, Roberts C, Raynes-Greenow C, Barratt A, Peat B, on behalf of the Decision Aid for Breech Presentation Trial Collaborators. Evaluation of a decision aid for women with breech presentation at term: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN14570598]. BJOG 2007;114:325–333.

Nassar, N; Roberts, CL; Raynes-Greenow, CH; Barratt, A; Peat, B

2007-01-01

373

The allelic distribution of -308 Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha gene polymorphism in South African women with cervical cancer and control women  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is due to infection with specific high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Although the incidence of genital HPV infection in various population groups is high, most of these regress without intervention. Investigating genetic host factors and cellular immune responses, particularly cytokines, could help to understand the association between genital HPV infection and carcinogenesis. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) cytokine plays an important role in all stages of cervical cancer and has the ability to induce the regression of human tumors. Therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the allelic distribution of -308 TNF-? gene polymorphism in South African women with cervical cancer compared to control women. Methods Included in our study were women with histologically proven cancer of the cervix (n = 244) and hospital-based controls (n = 228). All patients and controls were from mixed race and black population groups in South Africa. The detection of a bi-allelic -308 (A/G) polymorphism in the promoter region of TNF-? was investigated using the amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) technique. The distributions of the allelic frequencies were stratified in both patients and controls into two South African ethnic population groups. Results In this study we observed no association between the distribution of -308 TNF-? polymorphism and the risk of developing cervical cancer even after combining the data from the two ethnic populations (X2 = 2.26). In addition, using the chi-squared test we found no significant association between the known risk factors for cervical cancer and the allele distribution of -308 TNF-?. However, the frequency of the rare high-producing allele -308A of TNF-? was significantly lower in the South African population when compared to Caucasians and Chinese population groups. Conclusion We demonstrated no association between -308 TNF-? polymorphism and the risk of cervical cancer among two South African ethnic population groups. However, as the distribution of the -308A TNF-? was notably different between the control groups of South Africa and other population groups this result suggests that ethnic disparity may influence the levels of TNF-? produced.

Govan, Vandana A; Constant, Debbie; Hoffman, Margaret; Williamson, Anna-Lise

2006-01-01

374

Earlier Joint Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking and Low Perceived Self-control as Predictors of Later Poor Health for Women in their Mid-60s  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The current study was designed to assess the prospective relationship between the earlier joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and low perceived self-control (X¯ age = 40-48) and later health problems (X¯ age = 65.2) within a community sample of understudied females. Methods: The participants were given self-administered questionnaires. Results: The results of the growth mixture model suggested 5 joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and perceived self-control, which consisted of 1 at-risk group (chronic smoking and low perceived self-control), 1 low-risk group (infrequent or nonsmoking and high perceived self-control), and 3 intermediate groups (i.e., high on one factor and low on the other). The results from logistic regression analyses supported a model by which (a) women in the at-risk group, in comparison with the low-risk group, were more likely to report 5 or more diseases (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.81; p < .001) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 5.98; p < .001); (b) women in the at-risk group as compared with women in the intermediate groups were also more likely to report 5 or more diseases (AOR = 2.36; p < .05) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 2.86; p < .01); and (c) women in the intermediate group were more likely to report 5 or more diseases (AOR = 2.04; p < .05) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 2.09; p < .05) than women in the low-risk group. Conclusions: The findings highlight the significance of targeting dispositional factors (e.g., perceived self-control) in conjunction with smoking in designing programs for promoting the health of women in midlife.

Zhang, Chenshu; Finch, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

375

Randomised controlled trial of the effect of evidence based information on women's willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Study objectives: To assess whether providing women with additional information on the pros and cons of screening, compared with information currently offered by the NHS, affects their intention to attend for screening. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the control, (based on an NHS Cervical Screening Programme leaflet currently used), or the intervention leaflet (containing additional information on risks and uncertainties). Setting: Three general practices in Birmingham. Participants: 300 women aged 20 to 64 attending the practices during a one month period. Main outcome measures: Intention to attend for screening. Main results: 283 women (94.3%) completed the study. Fewer women in the intervention (79%) than the control group (88%) expressed intention to have screening after reading the information leaflet (difference between groups 9.2%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.2% to 21.7%). The crude odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI was 0.50 (0.26 to 0.97). After adjusting for other factors, the trend persisted (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.29). Having a previous Pap smear was the only significant predictor of intention to have screening (adjusted OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.03 to 6.21). Subgroup analysis showed no intervention effect in intended uptake between women at higher and lower risk of cervical cancer (p=0.59). Conclusions: Providing women with evidence based information on the risks, uncertainties, and the benefits of screening, is likely to deter some, but not differentially those at higher risk.

Adab, P; Marshall, T; Rouse, A; Randhawa, B; Sangha, H; Bhangoo, N

2003-01-01

376

Emergency caesarian section: a research study of the mother/child relationship of a group of women admitted expecting a normal vaginal delivery.  

PubMed

This study follows a group of women who had their first babies by emergency caesarian section under a general anaesthetic and compares them with a control group who had a normal vaginal delivery. The emergency caesarian sections were not done for a clear cut medical emergency but for reasons such as foetal distress, prolonged labour, suspected cephalopelvic disproportion--all criteria open to different clinical judgment. The mothers and babies were seen one month, one year and three years after delivery. Significant differences were found between the attitude and behaviour of the caesarian group of mothers and that of the control group of mothers. There must be serious doubts about the need for an emergency caesarian delivery in this sample. They were a problem group of women as difficult to follow up as to deliver. In their histories there was a trend toward more difficulties in their past and present relationships. Did they need more sensitive handling during delivery to avoid an emergency caesarian section? Professionals frequently find anxiety hard to bear and need to act rather than attempt to understand the origin of the pain. It is easy to overlook the subtle long term effects of the action when it appears to solve the immediate problem. PMID:6686790

Trowell, J A

1983-01-01

377

Controlled prospective longitudinal study of women with cancer: I. Sexual functioning outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence and etiology of sexual difficulties for women with survivable cancer were studied. Women with early stage gynecologic cancer (n = 47) were assessed after their diagnosis but prio r to treatment and then reassess~ at 4, 8, and 12 months posttreatment. Sexual and medical outcomes were compared with data from members of two matched comparison groups who were

Barbara L. Andersen; Barrie Anderson; Charles DeProsse

1989-01-01

378

Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control

Sherryl H. Goodman; Eileen L. Cooley; Daniel R. Sewell; Naomi Leavitt

1994-01-01

379

A randomised controlled trial comparing two autologous fascial sling techniques for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: short, medium and long-term follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

This randomised control trial compares full-length autologous slings (Group A: 81 women) with a modified “sling-on-a-string”\\u000a (Group B: 84 women) technique for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Primary outcomes are quality of life\\u000a (QoL) scores; Group A\\/Group B. The IIQ-7 scores decrease from 1.91\\/1.85 at baseline to 0.65\\/0.72 at 12 months and 0.85\\/0.92\\u000a at +5 years. The UDI-6 scores decrease

K. Guerrero; A. Watkins; S. Emery; K. Wareham; T. Stephenson; V. Logan; M. Lucas

2007-01-01

380

Time spent in home meal preparation affects energy and food group intakes among midlife women.  

PubMed

Time spent in meal preparation may be indicative of the healthfulness of meals and therefore with weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between amount of time spent preparing meals and meal food group and nutrient content by meal occasion (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) among 1036 midlife women. Participants completed a 1-day food record and eating occasion questionnaires for each meal occasion. ANCOVA was used to identify possible associations. Approximately half of the participants reported spending <5 min preparing breakfast and lunch, and <20 min preparing dinner. Less time spent preparing breakfast was associated with lower energy and fat intakes (p<0.0001), while less time spent preparing lunch and dinner was associated with lower vegetable and sodium intakes (p<0.0001). There were no apparent differences in the association between time spent preparing meals and meal content by weight status. Nutrition education should encourage home meal preparation while stressing the selection of healthier options. The differing associations by meal occasion suggest that interventions should be tailored according to meal type. PMID:22200413

Chu, Yen Li; Addo, O Yaw; Perry, Courtney D; Sudo, Noriko; Reicks, Marla

2011-12-16

381

Capsular serotype and antibiotic resistance of group B streptococci isolated from pregnant women in Ardabil, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Group B Streptococci (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal and maternal infections. The aim of this study was to determine the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance profile of GBS strains isolated from pregnant women in Ardabil. Materials and Methods Antibiotic resistance of 56 GBS isolates was investigated using E-test strips and disk-diffusion method. Serotyping was performed using capsular antiserum. Results The results of MIC tests showed all isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, vancomycin and penicillin. One isolate (1.7%) showed reduced susceptibility pattern to penicillin (MIC; 0.25 µg/ml). There were 3 (5.3%) isolates semi-sensitive (0.25-1 µg/ml) to erythromycin (2; 0.5 µg/ml and 1; 0.38 µg/ml) and 2 (3.5%) isolates to clindamycin (1; 0.5 µg/ml, 1; 0.38 µg/ml). Additionally, 2 (3.5%) isolates were resistant to clindamycin (1; 16 µg/ml, 1; 2 µg/ml). According to the disk diffusion test, 47 (83.9%), 8 (14.2%) and 7 (12.5%) isolates were resistant to Co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone respectively. Serotypes V (19.6%), II (12.5%) and IV (12.5%) were the most frequent followed by serotypes III (10.7%) and VI (10.7%), Ib (8.9%), Ia (7/1%), VII (5/3%) and VIII (5/3%); 7.1% of strains were nontypeable. Conclusions In this study, most isolates were sensitive to common antibiotics, but increased resistance to other antibiotics indicates the importance of monitoring of antibiotic resistance in group B streptococci over time.

Jannati, E; Roshani, M; Arzanlou, M; Habibzadeh, S; Rahimi, G; Shapuri, R

2012-01-01

382

Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine in Depressed Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) is a naturally occurring substance which is a major source of methyl groups in the brain and has been found in previous studies to be an effective anti-depressant. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of oral SAMe in the treatment of depressed postmenopausal women in a 30-day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. During the course

P. Salmaggi; G. M. Bressa; G. Nicchia; M. Coniglio; P. La Greca; C. Le Grazie

1993-01-01

383

Mindfulness Training Reduces the Severity of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Women: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:This prospective, randomized controlled trial explored the feasibility and efficacy of a group program of mindfulness training, a cognitive-behavioral technique, for women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The technique involves training in intentionally attending to present-moment experience and non-judgmental awareness of body sensations and emotions.METHODS:Seventy-five female IBS patients were randomly assigned to eight weekly and one half-day intensive sessions of

Susan A Gaylord; Olafur S Palsson; Eric L Garland; Keturah R Faurot; Rebecca S Coble; J Douglas Mann; William Frey; Karyn Leniek; William E Whitehead

2011-01-01

384

Factors Influencing Chronic Pain Intensity in Older Black Women: Examining Depression, Locus of Control, and Physical Health  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Chronic pain may function uniquely within a given race group, which may affect their physical health and psychological well-being. This is particularly relevant among women from diverse race populations. Methods Hierarchical multivariate regression analysis was used to examine pain intensity and its relationship to depressive symptoms, health locus of control, life satisfaction, and various health and demographic characteristics in a cross-sectional sample of 181 black women ?50 years old. Results Results from the multivariate model showed that age, depression, physical functioning, and locus of control explained unique variance in pain intensity (44%), suggesting that younger age, reporting more depressive symptoms, limited functional capacity, the belief that one has control over one's health, and the belief that one's health is not controlled by others were significant predictors of greater pain intensity among this sample. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of continued research on disease processes, as well as physical and mental health outcomes of older black women reporting chronic pain. Specifically, the study demonstrates the value of research focusing on withingroup factors impacting a single population, thereby understanding the myriad of factors that may explain the unique pain experience of older black women.

Buchanan, Nicole T.; Corson, Nicole

2008-01-01

385

Altered Perceptions of Personal Control About Retained Weight and Depressive Symptoms in Low-Income Postpartum Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum weight retention and depressive symptoms have a high prevalence among low income women. This qualitative study describes low-income women's experiences of weight changes and depressive symptoms during the late postpartum period. Women (n = 25) who were either overweight or had depressive symptoms, or both, at 12 months postpartum participated in an ethnically-congruent focus group. Women's experiences indicated altered

Bobbie Sue Sterling; Eileen R. Fowles; Alexandra A. Garcia; Sandra K. Jenkins; Susan Wilkinson; Minseong Kim; Sunghun Kim; Lara Latimer; Lorraine O. Walker

2009-01-01

386

The development of SisterTalk: a cable TV-delivered weight control program for black women.  

PubMed

Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with black women disproportionately affected. SisterTalk is a weight control program designed specifically for delivery to black women via cable TV. The theoretical and conceptual frameworks and formative research that guided the development and cultural tailoring of SisterTalk are described. Social Action Theory was applied in the development of SisterTalk along with a detailed behavioral analysis of the way that black women view weight and weight loss within the context of their cultural and social realities. The entire intervention development process was framed using this information, rather than by changing only superficial aspects of program delivery. Community networking and both qualitative and quantitative interview techniques from the fields of social marketing and cultural anthropology were used to involve black women from Boston in the design and implementation of a program that would be practical, appealing, and culturally sensitive. Also discussed are strategies for evaluating the program, and lessons learned that might have broader applicability are highlighted. The development of the SisterTalk program could provide a useful starting point for development of successful weight control programs for black women in other parts of the United States as well as for other ethnic and racial groups. PMID:14636799

Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Lovell, H Joan; Risica, Patricia M; Goldman, Roberta; Odoms-Young, Angela; Strolla, Leslie O; Decaille, Donna O; Caron, Colleen; Lasater, Thomas M

2003-12-01

387

Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for weight loss in midlife women: a controlled study with follow-up  

PubMed Central

Objective Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be effective in weight reduction. This study explores whether individual, 8-session CBT can promote weight loss in midlife women. Methods Anthropometric (weight, abdominal perimeter, and body mass index calculation), psychological (health-related and sexual quality of life, stress, anxiety, and depression), and behavioral measures (binge eating disorder and restrained, external, and emotional eating) were assessed at baseline (T1), posttreatment (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3), for a total of 21 women at baseline; the CBT group (n = 11) and the control group (n = 10; waiting list) were compared. Results Statistically significant effects that were dependent on the intervention were observed on weight (F = 4.402; P = 0.035; ?p2 = 0.404; ? = 0.652) and body mass index (F = 3.804; P = 0.050; ?p2 = 0.369; ? = 0.585); furthermore, marginally significant effects were observed on external eating (F = 2.844; P = 0.095; ?p2 = 0.304; ? = 0.461). At follow-up, women in the CBT group presented with lower weight, abdominal perimeter, body mass index, and external eating; higher health-related quality-of-life and restrained eating were also observed in this group. Most differences identified were at a marginally significant level. Moreover, at follow-up, none of the participants of the CBT group met the criteria for binge eating disorder, whereas the number of women with binge eating disorder in the control group remained the same through all three assessments. Conclusion An effective, though small, weight loss was achieved. Changes in quality of life were also observed. Moreover, changes in external eating behavior were successful.

Pimenta, Filipa; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, Joao; Ramos, Catarina

2012-01-01

388

Everyday Conflict and Stress among Older African American Women: Findngs from a Focus Group Study and Pilot Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three focus groups examined stress and conflict among 30 older African American women in Boston. Stress stemmed from worries about functional disability, accessing transportation, conflicts with family and peers, and grandchildren's lack of respect. Participants tended to use avoidant strategies to deal with stress and conflict. A training program…

Weitzman, Patricia Flynn; Dunigan, Robert; Hawkins, Robert L.; Weitzman, Eben A.; Levkoff, Sue E.

2002-01-01

389

Differential Therapeutic Outcomes of Community-Based Group Interventions for Women and Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two community-based group therapies, emotion focused versus goal oriented, are compared among women exposed to intimate partner violence (n = 46) and their children (n = 48) aged between 6 and 12 years. A series of repeated measures analyses are employed to evaluate the effects of time from baseline to postintervention following random…

McWhirter, Paula T.

2011-01-01

390

Women empowerment for biodiversity conservation through self help groups: a case from Periyar Tiger Reserve, Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enormous change has been observed since Self-help Groups (SHGs) were initiated and after their members started patrolling the forests to restrict illegal stem cutting, grazing, and other natural resource degradation process. In this paper, we demonstrate how the rural women pool money and run a microfinance system to tide over temporary financial stringencies arising from time to time. They conduct

K. Rajasekharan Pillai; B. Suchintha

2006-01-01

391

Comparison of different sampling techniques and of different culture methods for detection of group B streptococcus carriage in pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), followed by subculture on sheep blood

Nabil A El Aila; Inge Tency; Geert Claeys; Bart Saerens; Piet Cools; Hans Verstraelen; Marleen Temmerman; Rita Verhelst; Mario Vaneechoutte

2010-01-01

392

Quality of Life Across Population Groups: Women in the Workplace: Gender and Wage Differentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to clarify the real causes of gender wage differentials in Korea by analyzing changes over the period 1988–1999. The participation rate of women in the Korean labor force has gradually increased since 1963, reaching 47.4 percent as of 1999. This increase can be attributed to more active participation by women of all ages, except

Gyeongjoon Yoo

2003-01-01

393

Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape Concerns among a Group of College Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines three potential factors that might mediate the relationship between reading women's magazines and body shape and size concern. Finds that health and fitness magazine reading by college-aged women was linked directly to body shape concerns, indirectly through beliefs about men's thinness expectations. Explains that beauty and fashion…

Thomsen, Steven R.

2002-01-01

394

Body Image and Quality of Life in a Group of African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|African American (AA) women's preference for a larger body size and underestimation of their body weight may affect the relationship between their body weight and weight-related quality of life (QOL). We wanted to examine the relationship between weight-related QOL and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of overweight AA women. Thirty-three…

Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks; Thomas, Dana-Marie; Ard, Jamy D.

2010-01-01

395

Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD) loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength) are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks. Methods/Design A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen), bone formation (osteocalcin), and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16) to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal mechanical loads and postural control as mediators of fracture risk. Discussion Results of this study will provide preliminary evidence regarding the value of Tai Chi as an intervention for decreasing fracture risk in osteopenic women. They will also inform the feasibility, value and potential limitations related to the use of pragmatic designs for the study of Tai Chi and related mind-body exercise. If the results are positive, this will help focus future, more in-depth, research on the most promising potential mechanisms of action identified by this study. Trial registration This trial is registered in Clinical Trials.gov, with the ID number of NCT01039012.

2010-01-01

396

Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Cancer Incidence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) Randomized Controlled Trial evaluated the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on chronic disease incidence, with breast cancer and colorectal cancer as primary outcomes. The trial protocol also listed ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer as outcomes that may be favorably affected by the intervention. Methods A total of 48835 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned during 1993–1998 to a DM intervention (n = 19541) or comparison (usual diet; n = 29294) group and followed up for an average of 8.1 years. The intervention goal was to reduce total fat intake to 20% of energy and to increase consumption of vegetables, fruits, and grains. Cancer outcomes were verified by pathology report review. We used weighted log-rank tests to compare incidence of invasive cancers of the ovary and endometrium, total invasive cancer, and invasive cancers at other sites between the groups. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Ovarian cancer risk was lower in the intervention than in the comparison group (P = .03). Although the overall ovarian cancer hazard ratio (HR) was not statistically significantly less than 1.0, the hazard ratio decreased with increasing intervention duration (Ptrend = .01). For the first 4 years, the risk for ovarian cancer was similar in the intervention and control groups (0.52 cases per 1000 person-years in the intervention group versus 0.45 per 1000 person-years in the comparison group; HR = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 1.84); over the next 4.1 years, the risk was lower in the intervention group (0.38 cases per 1000 person-years in the intervention group versus 0.64 per 1000 person-years in the comparison group; HR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.96). Risk of cancer of the endometrium did not differ between the groups (P = .18). The estimated risk of total invasive cancer was slightly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.01; P = .10). Conclusions A low-fat dietary pattern may reduce the incidence of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women.

Prentice, Ross L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Caan, Bette; Hubbell, F. Allan; Anderson, Garnet L.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Pettinger, Mary; Lane, Dorothy S.; Lessin, Lawrence; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Singh, Baljinder; Khandekar, Janardan; Shikany, James M.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Chlebowski, Rowan T.

2009-01-01

397

A Body Image and Disordered Eating Intervention for Women in Midlife: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the outcome of a body image and disordered eating intervention for midlife women. The intervention was specifically designed to address risk factors that are pertinent in midlife. Method: Participants were 61 women aged 30 to 60 years (M = 43.92, SD = 8.22) randomly assigned to intervention (n = 32) or (delayed treatment) control (n =

Siân A. McLean; Susan J. Paxton; Eleanor H. Wertheim

2011-01-01

398

Breast cancer risk factors in Turkish women – a University Hospital based nested case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has been increased in developing countries, but there are limited data for breast cancer risk factors in these countries. To clarify the risk for breast cancer among the Turkish women, an university hospital based nested case-control study was conducted. METHODS: Between January 2000 and December 2006, a survey was prospectively conducted among women admitted to clinics of

Vahit Ozmen; Beyza Ozcinar; Hasan Karanlik; Neslihan Cabioglu; Mustafa Tukenmez; Rian Disci; Tolga Ozmen; Abdullah Igci; Mahmut Muslumanoglu; Mustafa Kecer; Atilla Soran

2009-01-01

399

Strategies and Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Domestic Violence against Women in Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence is highly prevalent in Pakistan. This paper proposes the strategies based on literature review, for the prevention and control of domestic violence. The reported causes for domestic violence against women include women's low educational levels, low empowerment, and least opportunities to indulge in political activities; wrong interpre- tations of religious, traditional and cultural norms in the soci- ety;

Tazeen Saeed Ali; Nasir Khan

2007-01-01

400

Supporting choice and control? Communication and interaction between midwives and women at the antenatal booking visit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on patterns of communication between midwives and pregnant women and their implications for information, choice and control as now advocated in UK government policy. An earlier casenote audit evaluation of a new organisation of maternity care where midwives carry a personal caseload indicated no difference in quality standards of midwifery care from conventional care, yet women using

Christine McCourt

2006-01-01

401

A combination of misoprostol and estradiol for preoperative cervical ripening in postmenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the impact of 1000 ?g of self-administered vaginal misoprostol versus self-administered vaginal placebo on preoperative cervical ripening after 2 weeks of pretreatment with estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women prior to day-care operative hysteroscopy. Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled sequential trial. Setting Norwegian university teaching hospital. Population Sixty-seven postmenopausal women referred for day-care operative hysteroscopy. Methods The women were randomised to receive either 1000 ?g of self-administered vaginal misoprostol or self-administered vaginal placebo on the evening before day-care operative hysteroscopy. All women had administered a 25-?g vaginal estradiol tablet daily for 14 days prior to the operation. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: preoperative cervical dilatation at hysteroscopy. Secondary outcomes: difference in dilatation at recruitment and before hysteroscopy, number of women who achieved a preoperative cervical dilatation of 5 mm or more, acceptability, complications and adverse effects. Results The mean cervical dilatation was 5.7 mm (SD, 1.6 mm) in the misoprostol group and 4.7 mm (SD, 1.5 mm) in the placebo group, the mean difference in cervical dilatation being 1.0 mm (95% CI, 0.2–1.7 mm). Self-administered vaginal misoprostol of 1000 ?g at home on the evening before day-care hysteroscopy is safe and highly acceptable, although a small proportion of women experienced lower abdominal pain. Conclusions One thousand micrograms of self-administered vaginal misoprostol, 12 hours prior to day-care hysteroscopy, after 14 days of pretreatment with vaginal estradiol, has a significant cervical ripening effect compared with placebo in postmenopausal women.

Oppegaard, KS; Lieng, M; Berg, A; Istre, O; Qvigstad, E; Nesheim, B-I

2010-01-01

402

Therapeutic Application of Groups: From Pratt's Thought Control Classes to Modern Group Psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic application of groups has a long and nonlinear history. Group psychotherapy, drawing on research and applications from diverse fields, covers an array of topics from psychoeducation to analysis (often blurring the boundary between group psychology and group psychotherapy). The efficacy of group psychotherapy has been established in the empirical literature. The progression of topics or themes in group

Sally H. Barlow; Gary M. Burlingame; Addie Fuhriman

2000-01-01

403

Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities), calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI) 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value <.001) of receiving a cervical screening test; an OR of 2.05 (CI 1.88 – 2.22; X2: 24.236; p.value <.001) of being ceased from screening; and an OR of 0.14 (CI 0.001 – 0.28; X2: 286.341; p.value <0.001 of being a non-responder compared to age and practice-matched women without learning disabilities. Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities.

Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter

2008-01-01

404

Changes in Body Mass Index across Age Groups in Iranian Women: Results from the National Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background. To investigate the associations between some factors with weight gain across age groups in Iranian women. Methods. Proportional odds model was used to estimate the probability of BMI categorized as a function of education, economic index, workforce, smoking, marital status, and place of residence adjusted for age, using data from the “National Health Survey in Iran” database. It included 14176 women aged 20–69 years. Results. For all covariates, age was directly associated with overweight and obesity before 60 years of age. Among women aged 20–40 years, the rates of change in probabilities of overweight and obesity were highest. Among women, being inactive, with high economic index, married, being nonsmoker, in an urban residence, with lower educational attainment, all increased the probabilities of overweight and obesity. Conclusions. Women aged 20–40 years gained weight faster than other groups. They may need additional information and more support on how to reduce their risk for weight gain through positive health behaviors.

Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Seifi, Behjat; Biglarian, Akbar; Mohammad, Kazem

2012-01-01

405

Coercive Control and Abused Women's Decisions About Their Pets When Seeking Shelter.  

PubMed

The importance of pets in families, especially during major life stressors, is well documented. Research suggests links between pet ownership and intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored abused women's decisions about pets when seeking help from a shelter. Interviews were conducted with 19 women who were pet owners. Using grounded theory methods, two patterns emerged surrounding abusers' treatment of pets, bonds to pets, women's decisions about pets upon seeking shelter, and future plans for pets. The presence of coercive control was central to these patterns. Women also discussed their experiences with and needs from shelter professionals and veterinarians with implications for practice. PMID:23670287

Hardesty, Jennifer L; Khaw, Lyndal; Ridgway, Marcella D; Weber, Cheryl; Miles, Teresa

2013-05-13

406

Age-group Differences in Human Papillomavirus Types and Cofactors for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 Among Women Referred to Colposcopy  

PubMed Central

Background Recommendations for high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing as an adjunct to cytology for cervical cancer screening differ by age group, because HR-HPV tests lack adequate specificity in women aged <30. Here, we assess age-group differences in HPV types and other risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) versus CIN0–2 in women from four colposcopy clinics. Methods Women ages 18–69 (n=1658) were enrolled and completed structured interviews to elicit data on behavioral risk factors prior to their examinations. HPV genotyping was performed on exfoliated cervical cell samples. We estimated relative risks (RR) for HPV types and cofactors for CIN3+, overall and stratified by age group. Results After 2 years of follow-up, we identified 178 CIN3+, 1305 CIN0–2, and 175 indeterminate outcomes. Non-vaccine HR-HPV types were only associated with CIN3+ among women ?30 (RR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.4; <30: RR=0.9). Among all HR-HPV positive women, adjusting for age, significant cofactors for CIN3+ included current smoking (RR=1.5), former smoking (RR=1.8), regular Pap screening (RR=0.7), current regular condom use (RR=0.5), and parity ?5 (RR=1.6, p-trend for increasing parity=.07). However, the parity association differed by age group (?30: RR=1.8, p-trend=.008; <30: RR=0.9, p-trend=.55). Conclusions Subgroup variation by age in the risk of CIN3+ points to the importance of the timing of exposures in relation to CIN3+ detection. Impact Future screening strategies need to consider natural history and secular trends in cofactor prevalence in the pursuit of appropriately sensitive and specific screening tools applied to appropriate age groups.

Gargano, Julia W.; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Lee, Daisy R.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Steinau, Martin; Horowitz, Ira R.; Flowers, Lisa C.; Tadros, Talaat S.; Birdsong, George; Unger, Elizabeth R.

2011-01-01

407

Disparities in mammographic screening for Asian women in California: a cross-sectional analysis to identify meaningful groups for targeted intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among the rapidly growing population of Asian Americans; it is also the most common cause of cancer mortality among Filipinas. Asian women continue to have lower rates of mammographic screening than women of most other racial\\/ethnic groups. While prior studies have described the effects of sociodemographic and other characteristics of women

Scarlett Lin Gomez; Susanna Tan; Theresa HM Keegan; Christina A Clarke

2007-01-01

408

Women's perceived internal control of future pregnancy outcomes and its related factors  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: With regards to the importance of women's beliefs in improving pregnancy outcomes, this study was performed to determine the perceived internal control on future pregnancy outcomes and its related factors in women who participated in pre-marital counseling. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, women's perceived internal control was investigated. The study population comprised the women in reproductive age of whom 400 were selected by random sampling. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of demographic, pre-conceptional care, and internal control questions. Two categories of favorite and not favorite levels of internal control were defined based on the total score. The validity of the questionnaire was determined via content validity method by use of experts’ opinion and its reliability was evaluated through the calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.76. Data were analyzed through frequency tables, correlation coefficient, and Chi-square test at the confidence level of 0.95. Results: Two hundred sixty-five (65%) women had a good perceived internal control and it was significantly associated with the age, educational level, and hearing about pre-conceptional care. The internal control score also showed a positive and significant correlation with both age and the subject knowledge about folic acid (r = 0.19 and r = 0.15, respectively). Conclusion: The majority of women had a favorite perceived internal control. Since age and educational level were the affecting factors on the perceived internal control of women, promoting the level of internal control in young women and those with low education in pre-marital counseling classes seems necessary.

Maleki, Azam; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh

2013-01-01

409

Weight Loss Maintenance in African–American Women: Focus Group Results and Questionnaire Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND  African-American women are disproportionately affected by obesity. Weight loss can occur, but maintenance is rare. Little\\u000a is known about weight loss maintenance in African-American women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVES  (1) To increase understanding of weight loss maintenance in African-American women; (2) to use the elicitation procedure from\\u000a the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to define the constructs of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral

Ann Smith Barnes; G. Kenneth Goodrick; Valory Pavlik; Jennifer Markesino; Donna Y. Laws; Wendell C. Taylor

2007-01-01

410

Married Iranian Women's Knowledge, Attitude and Sense of Self-efficacy about Oral Contraceptives: Focus Group Discussion  

PubMed Central

Background Oral contraceptive pills effectiveness is lower in actual use than in clinical trials. The views of a group of married Iranian women were sought as a step toward improving the enhanced use of contraceptive pills. Methods Two focus groups of current pill users (n=13) and two focus groups of women not currently taking the pills (n=14) were held. Leaders trained facilitators; themes were identified from line-by-line analysis of transcripts. Results The majority of the participants were primary school graduates with a mean age of 34 years. Knowledge about mechanisms of action was low; some women wanted more information. Both users and non-users recognized positive and negative characteristics of contraceptive pills. For non-users, physical and emotional side-effects were the most important; and anecdotal information from their social network was more important. They tended to trust more traditional methods. For users, their own experience and more reality-based understanding of side-effects mitigated concerns about side-effects. They also felt that health clinic staff had a negative attitude toward the pills. A stronger expression of self-efficacy seemed to be associated with more positive attitudes toward oral contraceptive pills. Conclusion Although Iran has had a government-funded family planning program since 1990, and pills are the single most popular modern contraceptive method, women who take OCPs can provide important information that could increase effective health education about their use.

Peyman, Nooshin; Oakley, Deborah

2011-01-01

411

Greater anterior insula activation during anticipation of food images in women recovered from anorexia nervosa versus controls.  

PubMed

Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict food consumption and become severely emaciated. Eating food, even thinking of eating food, is often associated with heightened anxiety. However, food cue anticipation in AN is poorly understood. Fourteen women recovered from AN and 12 matched healthy control women performed an anticipation task viewing images of food and object images during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing anticipation of food versus object images between control women and recovered AN groups showed significant interaction only in the right ventral anterior insula, with greater activation in recovered AN anticipating food images. These data support the hypothesis of a disconnect between anticipating and experiencing food stimuli in recovered AN. Insula activation positively correlated with pleasantness ratings of palatable foods in control women, while no such relationship existed in recovered AN, which is further evidence of altered interoceptive function. Finally, these findings raise the possibility that enhanced anterior insula anticipatory response to food cues in recovered AN could contribute to exaggerated sensitivity and anxiety related to food and eating. PMID:23993362

Oberndorfer, Tyson; Simmons, Alan; McCurdy, Danyale; Strigo, Irina; Matthews, Scott; Yang, Tony; Irvine, Zoe; Kaye, Walter

2013-08-28

412

Office of National Drug Control Policy Report to the White House Council on Women and Girls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Office of National Drug Control Policys (ONDCP) mission is to reduce overall drug use throughout the United States. There are an estimated 7.3 million adult women needing substance abuse treatment (drug and alcohol). Drug dependence or addiction significa...

2010-01-01

413

An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

Jeffries, Sherryl A. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Calgary Health Region Chronic Pain Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Robinson, John W. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Program in Clinical Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S. [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Keats, Melanie R. [Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

2006-06-01

414

Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with physical impairments and biologic changes in older adults. Weight loss combined with exercise may reduce inflammation and improve physical functioning in overweight, sedentary, older adults. This study tested whether a weight loss program combined with moderate exercise could improve physical function in obese, older adult women. Methods: Participants (N = 34) were generally healthy, obese, older adult women (age range 55–79 years) with mild to moderate physical impairments (ie, functional limitations). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups for 24 weeks: (i) weight loss plus exercise (WL+E; n = 17; mean age = 63.7 years [4.5]) or (ii) educational control (n = 17; mean age = 63.7 [6.7]). In the WL+E group, participants attended a group-based weight management session plus three supervised exercise sessions within their community each week. During exercise sessions, participants engaged in brisk walking and lower-body resistance training of moderate intensity. Participants in the educational control group attended monthly health education lectures on topics relevant to older adults. Outcomes were: (i) body weight, (ii) walking speed (assessed by 400-meter walk test), (iii) the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and (iv) knee extension isokinetic strength. Results: Participants randomized to the WL+E group lost significantly more weight than participants in the educational control group (5.95 [0.992] vs 0.23 [0.99] kg; P < 0.01). Additionally, the walking speed of participants in the WL+E group significantly increased compared with that of the control group (reduction in time on the 400-meter walk test = 44 seconds; P < 0.05). Scores on the SPPB improved in both the intervention and educational control groups from pre- to post-test (P < 0.05), with significant differences between groups (P = 0.02). Knee extension strength was maintained in both groups. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a lifestyle-based weight loss program consisting of moderate caloric restriction plus moderate exercise can produce significant weight loss and improve physical function while maintaining muscle strength in obese, older adult women with mild to moderate physical impairments.

Anton, Stephen D; Manini, Todd M; Milsom, Vanessa A; Dubyak, Pamela; Cesari, Matteo; Cheng, Jing; Daniels, Michael J; Marsiske, Michael; Pahor, Marco; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Perri, Michael G

2011-01-01

415

Whole-body vibration training increases muscle strength and mass in older women: a randomized-controlled trial.  

PubMed

To determine whether 10 weeks of whole-body vibration (WBV) training has a significant effect on strength, muscle mass, muscle power, and mobility in older women, 26 subjects were randomly assigned to a WBV training group (n=13; mean age 79 years) and a control (CON) group (n=13; mean age 76 years). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) increased 38.8% in the WBV group, without changes in the CON group. Electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis, and the biceps femoris (BF) did not change in either