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1

Effect of a participatory intervention with women's groups on birth outcomes in Nepal: cluster-randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods We pair-matched 42 geopolitical clusters in Makwanpur district, Nepal, selected 12 pairs randomly, and randomly assigned one of each pair to intervention or control. In each intervention cluster (average population 7000), a female facilitator convened nine women's group meetings every month. The facilitator supported groups through an action-learning cycle in which they identified local perinatal problems and formulated strategies

Dharma S Manandhar; David Osrin; Bhim Prasad Shrestha; Natasha Mesko; Joanna Morrison; Kirti Man Tumbahangphe; Suresh Tamang; Sushma Thapa; Dej Shrestha; Bidur Thapa; Jyoti Raj Shrestha; Angie Wade; Josephine Borghi; Madan Manandhar

2004-01-01

2

Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

2008-01-01

3

Cognitive–Behavioral Group Therapy Versus a Wait-List Control in the Treatment of African American Women with Panic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the efficacy of group Panic Control Therapy (PCT; D. H. Barlow & M. G. Craske, 1994) for African Americans. Twenty-five African American women were assigned to either a treatment or wait-list control (WLC). Treatment was 11 group sessions, and wait-list participants did not receive any treatment for the same duration. At pretreatment, both groups were moderately anxious

Michele M. Carter; Tracy Sbrocco; Kristie L. Gore; Nancy Watt Marin; Evelyn L. Lewis

2003-01-01

4

Women’s Experiences of Group Prenatal Care  

PubMed Central

Group prenatal care (GPNC) is an innovative alternative to individual prenatal care. In this longitudinal study we used ethnographic methods to explore African American and Hispanic women’s experiences of receiving GPNC in two urban clinics. Methods included individual, in-depth, semistructured interviews of women and group leaders in GPNC, participant observation of GPNC sessions, and medical record review. GPNC offered positive experiences and met many of the women’s expressed preferences regarding prenatal care. Six themes were identified, which represented separate aspects of women’s experiences: investment, collaborative venture, a social gathering, relationships with boundaries, learning in the group, and changing self. Taken together, the themes conveyed the overall experience of GPNC. Women were especially enthusiastic about learning in groups, about their relationships with group leaders, and about having their pregnancy-related changes and fears normalized. There were also important boundaries on relationships between participants, and some women wished for greater privacy during physical examinations. PMID:20693516

Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Cohen, Sally S.; Groce, Nora E.; Knafl, Kathleen A.

2011-01-01

5

Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…

Forester-Miller, Holly

1999-01-01

6

The Group Treatment of Battered Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes some problems encountered in therapy groups of battered women and reviews several studies of these groups reported in recent literature. The five basic needs of battered women and a list of specific strategies developed to meet these needs are presented in an initial section. Three common goals of the group counseling strategy…

Lewis, Elissa M.

7

Evaluating Culturally Responsive Group Work with Black Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a culturally congruent group treatment model, entitled "Claiming Your Connections" (CYC) aimed at reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress, and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black women. Method: A total of 58 Black women recruited from health…

Jones, Lani V.; Warner, Lynn A.

2011-01-01

8

Comparison of the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy young women  

PubMed Central

Background: The maintenance of balance is an essential requirement for the performance of daily tasks and sporting activities and muscular fatigue is a factor to impair postural control, so this study was done to compare the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Fifteen healthy female students (24.3 ± 2.6 years) completed three testing session with a break period of at least 2 days. During each session, postural control was assessed during two 30-s trials of bipedal stance with eyes close before and after the fatigue protocol. Fatigue protocols were performed by 60% of their unfatigued Maximum Voluntary Contraction of unilateral ankle plantar flexors, bilateral lumbar extensors and bilateral neck extensors. One of the three fatigue protocols was performed on each session. Results: The result showed that fatigue had a significant effect on COP velocity and it increase COP velocity but there was not found any difference in postural sway between muscle groups. Conclusion: Localized muscle fatigue caused deficits in postural control regardless of the location of fatigue. Authors suggest the possibility of the contributions of central mechanisms to postural deficits due to fatigue and it seems that difference was not between muscle groups due to central fatigue. PMID:24403706

Shirazi, Zahra Rojhani; Jahromi, Fatemeh Nikhalat

2013-01-01

9

General practitioner notes as a source of information for case-control studies in young women. UK National Case-Control Study Group.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The UK National Case-Control Study was carried out to investigate the relationship between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk. This study investigates whether general practitioner notes could be used as the sole data source for epidemiological studies of young women and what the effect would be on non-response and recall bias. DESIGN--Case-control study with data on gynaecological, obstetric, and contraceptive history collected at interview and from general practitioners' notes. Information from these two sources was compared. SETTING--This was a population-based study. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 755 women with breast cancer aged under 36 years at diagnosis, each with an age-matched control, participated in the study. Response rates at interview were 72% and 89% for cases and controls but GP data were available for 90% of the 1049 case and first-selected control pairs. MAIN RESULTS--There was generally good agreement between the two data sources with respect to obstetric history and gynaecological procedures (hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and tubal ligation). The use of intra-uterine devices, or diaphragm, and partner's vasectomy were not reliably recorded in the GP's notes. The overall results of the UK study would have been qualitatively the same with respect to the relationship between oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk if GP notes only had been used, in spite of the fact that only about half of all oral contraceptive usage was recorded in the notes. Response rates would have been higher, recall bias eliminated, and the cost of the study halved. CONCLUSIONS--When planning case-control studies in young women, the possibility of using GP notes as the primary data source should be considered. Lack of data on potential confounding factors is a possible drawback to such use. The practice of destroying GP's notes shortly after the death of patients seriously restricts the possibility of using these notes when studying rapidly fatal conditions. PMID:8138777

Chilvers, C E; Pike, M C; Taylor, C N; Hermon, C; Crossley, B; Smith, S J

1994-01-01

10

Postmenopausal women with osteopenia and a healed wrist fracture have reduced physical function and quality of life compared to a matched, healthy control group with no fracture  

PubMed Central

Background Fractures lead to reduced physical function and quality of life (QOL), but little is known about postmenopausal women with osteopenia and a healed wrist fracture. The purpose was to evaluate physical function in terms of quadriceps strength, dynamic balance, physical capacity and QOL in postmenopausal women with osteopenia and a healed wrist fracture compared to a matched, healthy control group with no previous fracture. Methods Eighteen postmenopausal women with osteopenia (patients) (mean age 59.1 years, range 54 – 65) and a healed wrist fracture were matched to 18 healthy control subjects on age (mean age 58.5 years, range 51 – 65), height, weight and body mass index (BMI). We measured quadriceps strength at 60°/sec and at 180°/sec with Biodex 6000, dynamic balance with the Four Square Step Test (FSST), physical capacity with the six-minute walk test (6MWT) followed by the Borg’s scale (BS), and QOL with the Short Form 36 (SF-36), bone mineral density (BMD) with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and physical activity level with the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Results The patients had 17.6% lower quadriceps strength at 60°/sec (p?=?0.025) at left limb and 18.5% at 180°/sec (p?=?0.016) at right limb, and 21% lower at 180°/sec (p?=?0.010) at left limb compared to the controls. Impaired performance for the patients was found with 2.4 seconds (p?=?0.002) on the FSST, 74 metres (p?controls. The patients scored lower on the sub-scales on the SF-36 role limitations-physical (p?=?0.014), bodily pain (p?=?0.025) and vitality (p?=?0.015) compared to the controls. Conclusions The patients with osteopenia and a healed wrist fracture scored significantly lower on quadriceps strength, dynamic balance, physical capacity and QOL compared to the matched controls. Greater focus should be put on this patient group in terms of rehabilitation and early prevention of subsequent fractures. PMID:25086601

2014-01-01

11

Interpersonal Group Therapy for Women Experiencing Bulimia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…

Choate, Laura

2010-01-01

12

BREAST CANCER GROUP WOMEN'S HEALTH INTERDISCIPLINARY  

E-print Network

BREAST CANCER GROUP May 2009 WOMEN'S HEALTH INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH CENTER [WHIRC] #12;2 Table: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 4 Basic/Translational Research Carcinogenesis and Signaling Group 5R) Signaling in Breast Cancer 6 NF-B Family of Transcription Factors in Breast Cancer 7 Transgenic Mouse

Spence, Harlan Ernest

13

From Coping to Creating Change: The Evolution of Women's Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides overview of the types of women's groups that have developed since the initiation of consciousness-raising groups in the 1960s. Documents the important historical processes in women's group work and reviews literature conducted with women's groups, including self-help groups and informal support groups. Concludes that the absence of…

Horne, Sharon

1999-01-01

14

Themes in Reminiscence Groups with Older Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined use of themes in reminiscence therapy groups for older women. Themes used in protocols for three research studies were analyzed. Results revealed that, for one of the three studies, the female participants' (n=67) most-discussed themes were favorite holiday, first pet, and first job. (Author/NB)

Burnside, Irene

1993-01-01

15

Smoking cessation for weight-concerned women: Group vs. individually tailored, dietary, and weight-control follow-up sessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postcessation weight gain is of concern to many female cigarette smokers. A multidisciplinary treatment combining psychological, dietary, and exercise components followed a 2-week smoking cessation program. Participants were randomly assigned to receive six follow-up relapse prevention sessions (in a group format or in an individually tailored format) directed by trained representatives from clinical psychology, dietary counseling, and exercise physiology. As

Amy L. Copeland; Pamela D. Martin; Paula J. Geiselman; Carla J. Rash; Darla E. Kendzor

2006-01-01

16

Enabling Older Homeless Minority Women to Overcome Homelessness by Using a Life Management Enhancement Group Intervention  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the importance of a life management enhancement (LME) group intervention for older minority women in developing personal control and self-confidence in social relationships as they overcome homelessness. Women in the treatment group showed significantly greater personal control and higher levels of self-confidence following the six-week intervention than women in the control group. Increasing personal control and developing self-confidence in social relationships can help individuals achieve desired outcomes as a result of their actions, efforts, and abilities. These attributes can help women increase and sustain appropriate coping methods and overcome homelessness. PMID:19212866

Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.

2010-01-01

17

What I need to know about Bladder Control for WomenBladder Control for Women  

E-print Network

What I need to know about Bladder Control for WomenBladder Control for Women NATIONAL INSTITUTES and Human Services #12;#12;What I need to know about Bladder Control for Women NATIONAL INSTITUTES of bladder control Urine Leakage: A Common Health Problem for Women of All Ages

Baker, Chris I.

18

Women's health groups to improve perinatal care in rural Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Neonatal mortality rates are high in rural Nepal where more than 90% of deliveries are in the home. Evidence suggests that death rates can be reduced by interventions at community level. We describe an intervention which aimed to harness the power of community planning and decision making to improve maternal and newborn care in rural Nepal. Methods The development of 111 women's groups in a population of 86 704 in Makwanpur district, Nepal is described. The groups, facilitated by local women, were the intervention component of a randomized controlled trial to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. Through participant observation and analysis of reports, we describe the implementation of this intervention: the community entry process, the facilitation of monthly meetings through a participatory action cycle of problem identification, community planning, and implementation and evaluation of strategies to tackle the identified problems. Results In response to the needs of the group, participatory health education was added to the intervention and the women's groups developed varied strategies to tackle problems of maternal and newborn care: establishing mother and child health funds, producing clean home delivery kits and operating stretcher schemes. Close linkages with community leaders and community health workers improved strategy implementation. There were also indications of positive effects on group members and health services, and most groups remained active after 30 months. Conclusion A large scale and potentially sustainable participatory intervention with women's groups, which focused on pregnancy, childbirth and the newborn period, resulted in innovative strategies identified by local communities to tackle perinatal care problems. PMID:15771772

Morrison, Joanna; Tamang, Suresh; Mesko, Natasha; Osrin, David; Shrestha, Bhim; Manandhar, Madan; Manandhar, Dharma; Standing, Hilary; Costello, Anthony

2005-01-01

19

Third generation oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolic disorders: an international case-control study. Transnational Research Group on Oral Contraceptives and the Health of Young Women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To test whether use of combined oral contraceptives containing third generation progestogens is associated with altered risk of venous thromboembolism. DESIGN--Matched case-control study. SETTING--10 centres in Germany and United Kingdom. SUBJECTS--Cases were 471 women aged 16-44 who had a venous thromboembolism. Controls were 1772 women (at least 3 controls per case) unaffected by venous thromboembolism who were matched with corresponding case for age and for hospital or community setting. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Odds ratios derived with stratified analyses and unconditional logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding variables. RESULTS--Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for venous thromboembolism were: for any oral contraceptives versus no use, 4.0 (3.1 to 5.3); for second generation products (low dose ethinyl-oestradiol, no gestodene or desogestrel) versus no use, 3.2 (2.3 to 4.3); for third generation products (low dose ethinyloestradiol, gestodene or desogestrel) versus no use, 4.8 (3.4 to 6.7); for third generation products versus second generation products, 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1); for products containing gestodene versus second generation products, 1.5 (1.0 to 2.2); and for products containing desogestrel versus second generation products, 1.5 (1.1 to 2.2). Probability of death due to venous thromboembolism for women using third generation products is about 20 per million users per year, for women using second generation products it is about 14 per million users per year, and for non-users it is five per million per year. CONCLUSIONS--Risk of venous thromboembolism was slightly increased in users of third generation oral contraceptives compared with users of second generation products. PMID:8555935

Spitzer, W. O.; Lewis, M. A.; Heinemann, L. A.; Thorogood, M.; MacRae, K. D.

1996-01-01

20

Women's groups hold up the introduction of Norplant in Nicaragua.  

PubMed

Women's groups met in Managua, Nicaragua on International Women's Day to discuss new reproductive technologies and population policies, with an emphasis on reproductive rights. This event postponed introduction of Norplant by the Minister of Health (MINSA), fulfilling the prediction of Carme Clavel of Servicios Integrales para la Mujer, one of the event's organizers, who stated that MINSA would be unable to introduce Norplant quietly. Three days later, Carlos Jarquin, director of Salud Integral at MINSA, denied the alleged approval. However, this was disputed by Maria Hamlin, director of the Centro de Informacion y Servicios de Asesoria en la Salud (CISAS) and one of the event's organizers, who said the procedure had been under consideration for testing since the year before with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Population Council. Ana Maria Pizarro, director of Si Mujer, suggested that tests focused on overcoming resistance and acceptance of irregularities in menstrual bleeding. It was suggested at the meeting that Norplant should be studied at alternative women's centers with their full participation and from the user's perspective. Ana Maria Pizarro insisted that the wishes and needs of the user be met. Ana Quiros from CISAS stated that women must have control of the method used. Maria Hamlin was optimistic about future cooperation among the groups and their impact on Nicaraguan population and health policies. PMID:12318717

Bank, A

1994-01-01

21

Personal Transformation: A Group Therapy Program for Saudi Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A personal transformation group therapy program was designed to help Saudi women function more effectively in their daily lives. The major cognitive idea of these groups was to enable women to better understand their thinking patterns so that they could learn techniques to change. Personal transformation group topics included: Self-Esteem;…

Pharaon, Nora Alarifi

22

Characteristics of Midlife Women Recruited Through Internet Communities/Groups  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics of a specific online population, midlife women recruited through Internet communities (ICs) or groups, and to provide future direction for Internet research among midlife women. Using a feminist perspective, the study focused on ethnic variations in the characteristics of the midlife women. A total of 192 midlife women were recruited through ICs. The Internet survey included questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health/illness status. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that midlife women recruited through ICs tended to be Caucasian, young, married, and affluent. The findings also indicated significant ethnic differences in sociodemographic characteristics. The findings suggest that researchers need to consider that midlife women recruited from ICs tend to be a specific group of midlife women. PMID:18091620

Im, Eun-ok

2008-01-01

23

5-HT1A Receptor Binding is Increased After Recovery from Bulimia Nervosa Compared to Control Women and is Associated with Behavioral Inhibition in Both Groups  

PubMed Central

Objective Because altered serotonin (5-HT) function appears to persist after recovery from bulimia nervosa (RBN), we investigated the 5-HT1A receptor, which could contribute to regulation of appetite, mood, impulse control, or the response to antidepressants. Method Thirteen RBN individuals were compared to 21 healthy control women (CW) using positron emission tomography and [carbonyl-11C]WAY100635 ([11C]WAY). Results RBN had a 23–34% elevation of [11C]WAY binding potential (BP)P in subgenual cingulate, mesial temporal, and parietal regions after adjustments for multiple comparisons. For CW, [11C]WAY BPP was related negatively to novelty seeking, whereas for RBN, [11C]WAY BPP was related positively to harm avoidance and negatively related to sensation seeking. Discussion Alterations of 5-HT1A receptor function may provide new insight into efficacy of 5-HT medication in BN, as well as symptoms such as the ability to inhibit or self-control the expression of behaviors related to stimulus seeking, aggression, and impulsivity. PMID:20872754

Bailer, Ursula F.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Frank, Guido K.; Price, Julie C.; Meltzer, Carolyn C.; Mathis, Chester A.; Geyer, Mark A.; Wagner, Angela; Becker, Carl R.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Kaye, Walter H.

2014-01-01

24

From the inside Out: Group Work with Women of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will present two models for conducting group work with Women of Color (WOC): the SisterCircle Approach and the Group Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of group work that can assist group workers to conduct individual and group-level…

Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.

2014-01-01

25

Group cognitive-behavioral therapy for women with PTSD and substance use disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD). The need for specialized treatment derives from the high incidence of these comorbid disorders among women as well as from their particular clinical presentation and treatment needs. The treatment educates patients about the two disorders, promotes self-control skills

Lisa M Najavits; Roger D Weiss; Bruce S Liese

1996-01-01

26

The "Comadre" Group Approach: A Wellness-Based Group Model for Monolingual Mexican Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "comadre" approach to group counseling with immigrant Mexican women creates an environment of sisterhood, trust, support, and education. This article describes a wellness-based, comadre pilot group designed to support monolingual Spanish-speaking, Mexican-born women who recently immigrated to the United States. The need for the group and group

Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Sand, Jennifer K.; Brucato, Toni; Ortega, Jessica

2006-01-01

27

Women's employment and fertility control.  

PubMed

In India today, there is greater aspiration among women for improved social status within the family and the community and an equal socioeconomic role in society. Between 1964 and 1968, the number of women seeking employment rose 81% as compared to an increase of only 14% among men. Much of the increase in female job-seekers was among women with higher education. Modern economic conditions and rapid urbanization have speeded this trend toward increased female employment. Studies from various countries are cited to show that female employment is associated with smaller family norms. However, only those types of employment which involve work outside the home (i.e., not agricultural or physical labor jobs) will have an impact on family sizes. As women work, they gain a sense of their importance and they have a role other than motherhood. PMID:12309144

Grewal, S

1978-09-01

28

The Effect of Support Group Method on Quality of Life in Post-menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Background Quality of life in post-menopausal women and menopausal symptoms are closely related concepts. Influence health education policy in order to promote health and adopt a menopause lifestyle requires alternative strategies, including health training programs with community – based interventions. The current study aims to survey the effects of support groups on quality of life of post-menopausal women. Methods: A blind field trial (2010) was conducted at Saadatmandii Clinical Center (Robat Karim, Iran). 110 women were selected randomly divided into test and control groups (consisting of 55 ones). Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL) was used for evaluation of life quality before and three months after intervention; there was no intervention in the control group. Data were analyzed by using SPSS/16. Qualitative variables were analyzed using chi-square tests and quantitative variables were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon test, paired T-test and independent t-test. Results: There was significant difference between vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, sexual aspects and life quality of this group pf women (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the quality of life of women in control group. Conclusion: According to the results method of support group can lead to improved quality of life for post-menopausal ones and it can be appropriate healthcare policy to promote health and improve life quality of this group of women. PMID:23304680

Yazdkhasti, M; Keshavarz, M; Khoei, ES Merghaati; Hosseini, AF; ESmaeilzadeh, S; Pebdani, M Amiri; Jafarzadeh, H

2012-01-01

29

Group B streptococci in women fitted with intrauterine devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was made of group B streptococcal carriage at various sites in 100 women attending a clinic for the insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). Twenty-three women carried streptococci at one or more sites at the preinsertion visit, the vaginal carriage rate being 16%. Six months after insertion changes in carrier status were noted and there was evidence

R G Mitchell; J Guillebaud; D G Day

1977-01-01

30

The vaginal bacterial communities of Japanese women resemble those of women in other racial groups.  

PubMed

To determine whether different racial groups shared common types of vaginal microbiota, we characterized the composition and structure of vaginal bacterial communities in asymptomatic and apparently healthy Japanese women in Tokyo, Japan, and compared them with those of White and Black women from North America. The composition of vaginal communities was compared based on community profiles of terminal restriction fragments of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences of the numerically dominant bacterial populations. The types of vaginal communities found in Japanese women were similar to those of Black and White women. As with White and Black women, most vaginal communities were dominated by lactobacilli, and only four species of Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus gasseri) were commonly found. Communities dominated by multiple species of lactobacilli were common in Japanese and White women, but rare in Black women. The incidence, in Japanese women, of vaginal communities with several non-Lactobacillus species at moderately high frequencies was intermediate between Black women and White women. The limited number of community types found among women in different ethnic groups suggests that host genetic factors, including the innate and adaptive immune systems, may be more important in determining the species composition of vaginal bacterial communities than are cultural and behavioral differences. PMID:19912342

Zhou, Xia; Hansmann, Melanie A; Davis, Catherine C; Suzuki, Haruo; Brown, Celeste J; Schütte, Ursel; Pierson, Jacob D; Forney, Larry J

2010-03-01

31

One Dozen Considerations When Working with Women in Substance Abuse Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women and men have different histories, presentations, and behaviors in substance abuse groups. Twelve considerations are offered for the beginning group leader when encountering women with substance abuse issues. These include understanding sexism, what brings women to treatment, and how women behave in group treatment. Implications for clinical practice with women in single-gender and mixed-gender groups are included.

Charlotte Lyn Bright; Victoria A. Osborne; Geoffrey L. Greif

2011-01-01

32

Group mindfulness-based therapy significantly improves sexual desire in women.  

PubMed

At least a third of women across reproductive ages experience low sexual desire and impaired arousal. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental present moment awareness, may improve women's sexual functioning. The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy, either immediately or after a 3-month waiting period, in women seeking treatment for low sexual desire and arousal. Women participated in four 90-min group sessions that included mindfulness meditation, cognitive therapy, and education. A total of 117 women were assigned to either the immediate treatment (n = 68, mean age 40.8 yrs) or delayed treatment (n = 49, mean age 42.2 yrs) group, in which women had two pre-treatment baseline assessments followed by treatment. A total of 95 women completed assessments through to the 6-month follow-up period. Compared to the delayed treatment control group, treatment significantly improved sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, sexual satisfaction, and overall sexual functioning. Sex-related distress significantly decreased in both conditions, regardless of treatment, as did orgasmic difficulties and depressive symptoms. Increases in mindfulness and a reduction in depressive symptoms predicted improvements in sexual desire. Mindfulness-based group therapy significantly improved sexual desire and other indices of sexual response, and should be considered in the treatment of women's sexual dysfunction. PMID:24814472

Brotto, Lori A; Basson, Rosemary

2014-06-01

33

Not Far Enough: Women vs. Smoking. A Workshop for Women's Group and Women's Health Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights from a series of papers on the role of smoking in women's disease and death, women's smoking behavior, and the role of the tobacco industry are included in this document. Conference participants included public health and women's organizations. Brief summaries of the papers introduce the document. An outline of network strategies…

National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

34

Women's Experiences of Participation in a Feminist Group for Women with Complex Mental Health Issues.  

PubMed

A sample of women (n = 5) participated in a qualitative service evaluation concerning an open-ended, therapeutic group for women only. Data analysis followed suggestions by Halcomb and Davidson (2006). Main themes derived from the evaluation included: 'Groups are different from individual work', 'Belonging/ not being alone', 'Performance in the group', 'The group as a safety net', 'Life improvements and hope for the future' and 'The extent of emotional despair felt'. In this paper, several sub-themes within the main themes and relevant theories and implications for theory and service provision are discussed. PMID:25517122

Clements Eaton, Emma Catherine; Cox, Rachel

2015-01-01

35

The Effects of 16 Hour Long Marathon Groups on the Ways that Female Drug Users Perceive Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the effectiveness of three 16-hour-long unstructured marathon groups composed of female illicit drug users in a woman's prison (N=78), using evaluative adjective pairs of the semantic differential concept Women. Marathon groups rated women as more successful and more pleasurable than did controls. (JAC)

Page, Richard C.

1984-01-01

36

Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups  

PubMed Central

Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N?=?12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed. PMID:23423547

Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.

2012-01-01

37

Community mobilisation with women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to improve maternal and newborn health in underserved areas of Jharkhand and Orissa: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Around a quarter of the world's neonatal and maternal deaths occur in India. Morbidity and mortality are highest in rural areas and among the poorest wealth quintiles. Few interventions to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes with government-mandated community health workers have been rigorously evaluated at scale in this setting. The study aims to assess the impact of a community mobilisation intervention with women's groups facilitated by ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes among rural tribal communities of Jharkhand and Orissa. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial and will be implemented in five districts, three in Jharkhand and two in Orissa. The unit of randomisation is a rural cluster of approximately 5000 population. We identified villages within rural, tribal areas of five districts, approached them for participation in the study and enrolled them into 30 clusters, with approximately 10 ASHAs per cluster. Within each district, 6 clusters were randomly allocated to receive the community intervention or to the control group, resulting in 15 intervention and 15 control clusters. Randomisation was carried out in the presence of local stakeholders who selected the cluster numbers and allocated them to intervention or control using a pre-generated random number sequence. The intervention is a participatory learning and action cycle where ASHAs support community women's groups through a four-phase process in which they identify and prioritise local maternal and newborn health problems, implement strategies to address these and evaluate the result. The cycle is designed to fit with the ASHAs' mandate to mobilise communities for health and to complement their other tasks, including increasing institutional delivery rates and providing home visits to mothers and newborns. The trial's primary endpoint is neonatal mortality during 24 months of intervention. Additional endpoints include home care practices and health care-seeking in the antenatal, delivery and postnatal period. The impact of the intervention will be measured through a prospective surveillance system implemented by the project team, through which mothers will be interviewed around six weeks after delivery. Cost data and qualitative data are collected for cost-effectiveness and process evaluations. Study registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN31567106 PMID:21787392

2011-01-01

38

Efficacy of Group Logotherapy on Decreasing Anxiety in Women with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most incident cancer and the fifth cause of death due to malignancies among Iranian women. A strong breast cancer patients' sense of meaning and purpose in life appears to decrease anxiety in their life. The present study has investigated the effectiveness of group Logotherapy on the reduction of anxiety in women with breast cancer. Methods The research was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control group. For this purpose, 30 patients with breast cancer were randomly divided into two experimental group and control group. Then, all patients completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The experimental group received Logotherapy-based group counseling for eight sessions; however, the control group did not receive any specific training. In the end, both groups were tested again. After collecting the questionnaires, data was analyzed by the statistic software SPSS version 18 and using analysis of covariance. Results The research results showed that group Logotherapy was effective in reducing anxiety in women with breast cancer (p<0.005). In other words, this intervention could reduce anxiety in the experimental group. Conclusion The results suggest that in line with current medical treatment, psychosocial interventions can be used to reduce anxiety in the breast cancer patients. PMID:25250168

Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Golzari, Mahmoud; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaiel

2014-01-01

39

Erythrocyte group antigens and women's reproductive system organs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of a possible association between breast and uterus cancer with blood ABO groups in women of reproductive, menopausal and post-menopausal age. Following information was recorded: patient age, stage of cancer, ABO blood group. In diseased population (120 subject) was investigated for ABO red cell blood groups antigens. Immunoserological methods have been used to identify the antigens. The obtained results were statistically processed. High frequency of A antigen is found in uterus cancer diseased, on the thirst stage, in the reproduction age (65±10,6%). High frequency of O antigen was found on the first stage, of the aid in the post-reproductive (55±11,1%) and in the postmenopausal periods (60±10,9%). ABO blood group antigens have been studied in breast cancer diseased, on the second and third stages, postmenopausal women, in which high frequency of A antigen is found. PMID:22573743

Nakashidze, I I; Diasamidze, A O; Nagervadze, M A

2012-03-01

40

A Qualitative Analysis of Women’s Experiences in Single-Gender versus Mixed-Gender Substance Abuse Group Therapy  

PubMed Central

The present study of women with substance use disorders used grounded theory to examine women’s experiences in both the Women’s Recovery Group (WRG) and a mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC). Semi-structured interviews were completed in 2005 by twenty-eight women in a U.S. metropolitan area. Compared to GDC, women in WRG more frequently endorsed feeling safe, embracing all aspects of one’s self, having their needs met, feeling intimacy, empathy, and honesty. Additionally, group cohesion and support allowed women to focus on gender-relevant topics supporting their recovery. These advantages of single gender group therapy can increase treatment satisfaction and improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23607675

Greenfield, Shelly F.; Cummings, Amanda M.; Kuper, Laura E.; Wigderson, Sara B.; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

2013-01-01

41

Eating problems and interpersonal functioning among several groups of women.  

PubMed

This paper examines the relationship between eating disorders and problems in interpersonal functioning. Questionnaires that measure eating problems, interpersonal adjustment, and general neuroticism were completed by several groups of women: anorexic patients, persons whose interests or occupations involved a concern about bodily shape or condition (dancers, models, and athletes), and members of the general public. A substantial and significant relationship was found between eating symptomatology and interpersonal functioning in all groups. However, this association survived only in the anorexic patient group when general neuroticism was partialled out. We take this to imply that psychosocial difficulties are unlikely to play a strong role in the initial development of eating problems. PMID:7560134

O'Mahony, J F; Hollwey, S

1995-05-01

42

Lower genital tract infections in infertile Nigerian women compared with controls.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possibility that infertile Nigerian women have a higher rate of cervical colonisation with pathogenic and facultative organisms than fertile controls. DESIGN--The prevalence of common microorganisms in the vagina and endocervical canals of infertile women was compared with that of pregnant controls. SETTING--The Obafemi Awolowo University Hospital Maternity Centre. SUBJECTS--92 infertile women were compared with 86 pregnant controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--rates of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms in cases and controls. RESULTS--The rate of isolation of Neisseria gonorrheae was 17.4% among infertile women compared with 10.5% in the group of pregnant women (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in the rate of isolation of Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms. High rates of isolation of microorganisms were observed in both groups. However, women with secondary infertility had higher rate of carriage of Neisseria gonorrheae, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as compared with women with primary infertility. Nearly 15% of infertile women had previous episodes of pelvic inflammatory disease and 26% had had induced abortions. A positive history of vaginal discharge was a poor predictor of vagina and endocervical carriage of microorganisms. CONCLUSIONS--High rates of pathogenic organisms exist in the lower genital tract of infertile women and controls. Women with secondary infertility are more likely to have pathogenic organisms than women with primary infertility. A policy of routinely screening women for lower genital tract infections should be pursued in this population because of the high rate of infection. PMID:7635492

Okonofua, F E; Ako-Nai, K A; Dighitoghi, M D

1995-01-01

43

Perceived Control and Hot Flashes in Treatment-seeking Breast Cancer Survivors and Menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Background Lower perceived control over hot flashes has been linked to fewer coping strategies, more catastrophizing, and greater hot flash severity and distress in midlife women; yet, this important concept has not yet been studied in breast cancer survivors. Objective To explore perceived control over hot flashes and hot flashes in breast cancer survivors compared to midlife women without cancer. Methods 99 survivors and 138 midlife women completed questionnaires and a prospective, electronic hot flash diary. All data were collected at a baseline assessment prior to randomization in a behavioral intervention study. Results Both groups had moderate perceived control over hot flashes. Control was not significantly related to hot flash frequency, but was significantly related to hot flash severity, bother, and interference in both groups. A significantly stronger association between control and hot flash interference was found for survivors than for mid-life women. Survivors using hot flash treatments perceived less control than survivors not using hot flash treatments, whereas the opposite was true in midlife women. Conclusions Findings extend our knowledge of perceived control over hot flashes in both survivors and midlife women. Implications for Practice Findings emphasize the importance of continued menopausal symptom assessment and management, support the importance of continuing nursing care even for survivors who are already using hot flash treatment, and suggest that nursing interventions aimed at improving perceived control over hot flashes may be more helpful for survivors than for midlife women. PMID:21946903

Carpenter, Janet S.; Wu, Jingwei; Burns, Debra S.; Yu, Menggang

2011-01-01

44

Women’s groups practising participatory learning and action to improve maternal and newborn health in low-resource settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Maternal and neonatal mortality rates remain high in many low-income and middle-income countries. Different approaches for the improvement of birth outcomes have been used in community-based interventions, with heterogeneous effects on survival. We assessed the effects of women’s groups practising participatory learning and action, compared with usual care, on birth outcomes in low-resource settings. Methods We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials undertaken in Bangladesh, India, Malawi, and Nepal in which the effects of women’s groups practising participatory learning and action were assessed to identify population-level predictors of effect on maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, and stillbirths. We also reviewed the cost-effectiveness of the women’s group intervention and estimated its potential effect at scale in Countdown countries. Findings Seven trials (119 428 births) met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses of all trials showed that exposure to women’s groups was associated with a 37% reduction in maternal mortality (odds ratio 0·63, 95% CI 0·32–0·94), a 23% reduction in neonatal mortality (0·77, 0·65–0·90), and a 9% non-significant reduction in stillbirths (0·91, 0·79–1·03), with high heterogeneity for maternal (I2=58·8%, p=0·024) and neonatal results (I2=64·7%, p=0·009). In the meta-regression analyses, the proportion of pregnant women in groups was linearly associated with reduction in both maternal and neonatal mortality (p=0·026 and p=0·011, respectively). A subgroup analysis of the four studies in which at least 30% of pregnant women participated in groups showed a 55% reduction in maternal mortality (0·45, 0·17–0·73) and a 33% reduction in neonatal mortality (0·67, 0·59–0·74). The intervention was cost effective by WHO standards and could save an estimated 283 000 newborn infants and 41 100 mothers per year if implemented in rural areas of 74 Countdown countries. Interpretation With the participation of at least a third of pregnant women and adequate population coverage, women’s groups practising participatory learning and action are a cost-effective strategy to improve maternal and neonatal survival in low-resource settings. Funding Wellcome Trust, Ammalife, and National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for Birmingham and the Black Country programme. PMID:23683640

Prost, Audrey; Colbourn, Tim; Seward, Nadine; Azad, Kishwar; Coomarasamy, Arri; Copas, Andrew; Houweling, Tanja A J; Fottrell, Edward; Kuddus, Abdul; Lewycka, Sonia; MacArthur, Christine; Manandhar, Dharma; Morrison, Joanna; Mwansambo, Charles; Nair, Nirmala; Nambiar, Bejoy; Osrin, David; Pagel, Christina; Phiri, Tambosi; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Rosato, Mikey; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Saville, Naomi; More, Neena Shah; Shrestha, Bhim; Tripathy, Prasanta; Wilson, Amie; Costello, Anthony

2013-01-01

45

UN Women Executive Director's Global Civil Society Advisory Group: Terms of Reference Introduction  

E-print Network

and a channel for our ongoing collaboration." 3. UN Women Strategic Plan 2011-2013: "UN Women will work networks, women's organizations, academia as well as other non-governmental and grass roots organizations 1 UN Women Executive Director's Global Civil Society Advisory Group: Terms of Reference

46

Poor glycemic control in younger women attending Malaysian public primary care clinics: findings from adults diabetes control and management registry  

PubMed Central

Background Women of reproductive age are a group of particular concern as diabetes may affect their pregnancy outcome as well as long-term morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the clinical profiles and glycemic control of reproductive and non-reproductive age women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in primary care settings, and to determine the associated factors of poor glycemic control in the reproductive age group women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using cases reported by public primary care clinics to the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry from 1st January to 31st December 2009. All Malaysian women aged 18 years old and above and diagnosed with T2D for at least 1 year were included in the analysis. The target for glycemic control (HbA1c < 6.5%) is in accordance to the recommended national guidelines. Both univariate and multivariate approaches of logistic regression were applied to determine whether reproductive age women have an association with poor glycemic control. Results Data from a total of 30,427 women were analyzed and 21.8% (6,622) were of reproductive age. There were 12.5% of reproductive age women and 18.0% of non-reproductive age women that achieved glycemic control. Reproductive age group women were associated with poorer glycemic control (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.8). The risk factors associated with poor glycemic control in the reproductive age women were being of Malay and Indian race, longer duration of diabetes, patients on anti-diabetic agents, and those who had not achieved the target total cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion Women with T2D have poor glycemic control, but being of reproductive age was associated with even poorer control. Health care providers need to pay more attention to this group of patients especially for those with risk factors. More aggressive therapeutic strategies to improve their cardiometabolic control and pregnancy outcome are warranted. PMID:24325794

2013-01-01

47

Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups  

PubMed Central

Background According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women’s experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. Results A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Conclusion Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern. PMID:24148317

2013-01-01

48

Low-dose dexamethasone as a treatment for women with heavy menstrual bleeding: protocol for response-adaptive randomised placebo-controlled dose-finding parallel group trial (DexFEM)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) diminishes individual quality-of-life and poses substantial societal burden. In HMB endometrium, inactivation of cortisol (by enzyme 11? hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?HSD2)), may cause local endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency and hence increased angiogenesis and impaired vasoconstriction. We propose that ‘rescue’ of luteal phase endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency could reduce menstrual bleeding. Methods and analysis DexFEM is a double-blind response-adaptive parallel-group placebo-controlled trial in women with HMB (108 to be randomised), with active treatment the potent oral synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, which is relatively resistant to 11?HSD2 inactivation. Participants will be aged over 18?years, with mean measured menstrual blood loss (MBL) for two screening cycles ?50?mL. The primary outcome is reduction in MBL from screening. Secondary end points are questionnaire assessments of treatment effect and acceptability. Treatment will be for 5?days in the mid-luteal phases of three treatment menstrual cycles. Six doses of low-dose dexamethasone (ranging from 0.2 to 0.9?mg twice daily) will be compared with placebo, to ascertain optimal dose, and whether this has advantage over placebo. Statistical efficiency is maximised by allowing randomisation probabilities to ‘adapt’ at five points during enrolment phase, based on the response data available so far, to favour doses expected to provide greatest additional information on the dose–response. Bayesian Normal Dynamic Linear Modelling, with baseline MBL included as covariate, will determine optimal dose (re reduction in MBL). Secondary end points will be analysed using generalised dynamic linear models. For each dose for all end points, a 95% credible interval will be calculated for effect versus placebo. Ethics and dissemination Dexamethasone is widely used and hence well-characterised safety-wise. Ethical approval has been obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee (12/SS/0147). Trial findings will be disseminated via open-access peer-reviewed publications, conferences, clinical networks, public lectures, and our websites. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01769820; EudractCT 2012-003405-98. PMID:25588784

Warner, P; Weir, C J; Hansen, C H; Douglas, A; Madhra, M; Hillier, S G; Saunders, P T K; Iredale, J P; Semple, S; Walker, B R; Critchley, H O D

2015-01-01

49

Pilot early intervention antenatal group program for pregnant women with anxiety and depression.  

PubMed

This study aims to examine the acceptability and effectiveness of an antenatal group intervention designed to reduce the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms and improve maternal attachment in pregnant women with current or emerging depression and anxiety. Women who participated in the program completed pre- and posttreatment measures of depression (Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and maternal attachment (Condon Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale). Participants also completed a satisfaction questionnaire and provided general feedback about the group intervention and experience. A total of 48 women (M?=?26 weeks of gestation) commenced and 37 (77 %) completed at least 80 % of the six session group intervention. Significant improvements with moderate to large effect sizes were observed for depression as measured on the Centre of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) (p?group program is an effective and acceptable intervention for a clinical sample of women and partners. It is a feasible addition or alternative treatment option to perinatal mental health care. Future directions could involve more comprehensive randomised controlled trials (RCT) to examine the effectiveness of the group intervention. PMID:25074561

Thomas, Naomi; Komiti, Angela; Judd, Fiona

2014-12-01

50

Health locus of control in Indonesian women with breast cancer: a comparison with healthy women.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to assess whether Indonesian women with breast cancer havea higher external health locus of control (HLC) than healthy women, and to explore the association between HLC and symptoms of anxiety and depression. In this study, 120 consecutive women with breast cancer were recruited at the outpatient surgical oncology clinic at the Hasan Sadikin Hospital in Bandung. One hundred and twenty two healthy women were recruited from the Bandung area as controls. A standard demographic form, Form C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and patients' medical records were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson's correlation, MANOVA and multiple linear regressions. Women with breast cancer had higher scores on all external HLC subscales, i.e. chance, doctor, powerful others and God, and lower internal HLC compared to healthy women. High God LHC scores were associated with a high level of anxiety (?=0.21, p<0.05), whereas none of the HLC subscales were associated with depression. Our results suggest that women with breast cancer tend to have high external HLC, while healthy women tend to have high internal HLC. A strong belief in an external source of control, i.e. God, might be negatively associated with patient emotional adjustment. Further research is needed to give an insight into the direction of this association. PMID:25422200

Iskandarsyah, Aulia; de Klerk, Cora; Suardi, Dradjat R; Sadarjoen, Sawitri S; Passchier, Jan

2014-01-01

51

Predictors of plasma concentrations of DDE and PCBs in a group of U.S. women.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated predictors of plasma concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a group of 240 women, controls from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study. We considered personal attributes such as age, serum cholesterol, region of residence, adiposity, lactation, and dietary intake. DDE levels increased 0.17 ppb/year of age (p = 0.0003), and PCBs increased 0.08 ppb (p = 0.0001). DDE and PCBs increased 0.20 (p = 0.02) and 0.13 ppb (p = 0.001), respectively, per 10 mg/dl serum cholesterol. Women living in the western United States had higher levels of DDE (mean = 11.0 ppb; p = 0.003), and women in the Northeast and Midwest had higher levels of PCBs (mean = 5.6 ppb; p = 0.0002) as compared to women from other parts of the country (mean DDE = 6.3; mean PCBs = 4. 5 ppb). Levels of DDE could not be predicted from consumption of meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and grains. There was a positive association between fish consumption and PCB concentrations among women in the Northeast and Midwest. Using data from the cases in the nested case-control study to assess the predictive ability of the models, we confirmed that the most reliable predictors of DDE were age and serum cholesterol, and the most important predictors of PCBs were age, serum cholesterol, and residence in the Midwest or Northeast. The null results for the majority of the food variables suggest that specific dietary factors, other than fish, are not currently a substantial contributor to human exposure to DDE and PCBs. PMID:9872720

Laden, F; Neas, L M; Spiegelman, D; Hankinson, S E; Willett, W C; Ireland, K; Wolff, M S; Hunter, D J

1999-01-01

52

The Use of the Courts by Women's Groups to Obtain Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how women's groups have made use of litigation strategy to gain favorable policy decisions from the U.S. Supreme Court. The litigation strategies associated with four groups are discussed in the major portion of the report. These groups are: (1) the National Women's Suffrage Association (NWSA), active from 1869 to 1875; (2) the…

O'Connor, Karen

53

The Effects of Menorrhagia on Women's Quality of Life: A Case-Control Study.  

PubMed

Objective. The purpose of this study is to identify menstruation characteristics of the women and the effects of menorrhagia on women's quality of life. Methods. The study was designed as a descriptive, case-control one. Results. Of the women in the case group, 10.9% stated that their menstrual bleeding was severe and very severe before complaints while 73.2% described bleeding as severe or very severe after complaints. Among those who complained about menorrhagia, 46.7% pointed that they used hygienic products that are more protective than regular sanitary pads. Women also stated that their clothes, bed linens, and furniture got dirty parallel to the severity of the bleeding. In all subscales of SF-36 scale, quality of life of the women in the menorrhagia group was significantly lower than the ones in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Menorrhagia has negative effects on women's quality of life. Therefore, quality of life of the women consulting the clinics with menorrhagia complaint should be investigated and effective approaches should be designed. PMID:23970973

Gokyildiz, Sule; Aslan, Ergul; Beji, Nezihe Kizilkaya; Mecdi, Meltem

2013-01-01

54

The Effects of Menorrhagia on Women's Quality of Life: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. The purpose of this study is to identify menstruation characteristics of the women and the effects of menorrhagia on women's quality of life. Methods. The study was designed as a descriptive, case-control one. Results. Of the women in the case group, 10.9% stated that their menstrual bleeding was severe and very severe before complaints while 73.2% described bleeding as severe or very severe after complaints. Among those who complained about menorrhagia, 46.7% pointed that they used hygienic products that are more protective than regular sanitary pads. Women also stated that their clothes, bed linens, and furniture got dirty parallel to the severity of the bleeding. In all subscales of SF-36 scale, quality of life of the women in the menorrhagia group was significantly lower than the ones in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Menorrhagia has negative effects on women's quality of life. Therefore, quality of life of the women consulting the clinics with menorrhagia complaint should be investigated and effective approaches should be designed. PMID:23970973

Gokyildiz, Sule; Aslan, Ergul; Beji, Nezihe Kizilkaya; Mecdi, Meltem

2013-01-01

55

Migraine aura or transient ischemic attacks? A five-year follow-up case-control study of women with transient central nervous system disorders in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Migraine aura may be difficult to differentiate from transient ischemic attacks and other transient neurological disorders in pregnant women. The aims of the present study were to investigate and diagnose all pregnant women with transient neurological disorders of suspected central nervous system origin, and to compare this group with a control group of pregnant women with regard to vascular

Janne Marit Ertresvg; Lars Jacob Stovner; Lene Ekern Kvavik; Hans-Jorgen Johnsen; John-Anker Zwart; Grethe Helde; Gunnar Bovim

2007-01-01

56

Impact of preconception health education on health locus of control and self-efficacy in women.  

PubMed

The preconception period is an ideal opportunity to optimize women's health. This study of women attending premarital clinics in the Islamic Republic of Iran aimed to evaluate the impact of a health education workshop on their health locus of control and self-efficacy in physical activity. The design was a randomized controlled trial with a questionnaire before and after the intervention. At post-intervention, there were significant increases in scores of internal health locus of control and self-efficacy in the experimental group (n = 109) compared to the control group (n = 101). It was concluded that a short-term health education may empower women to adopt healthy lifestyles. PMID:20795423

Bastani, F; Hashemi, S; Bastani, N; Haghani, H

2010-04-01

57

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interventions to Promote Cervical Cancer Screening Among Chinese Women in North America  

PubMed Central

Background North American Chinese women have lower levels of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing than other population subgroups. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two alternative cervical cancer screening interventions for Chinese women living in North America. Methods Four hundred and eighty-two Pap testing underutilizers were identified from community-based surveys of Chinese women conducted in Seattle, Washington, and Vancouver, British Columbia. These women were randomly assigned to one of two experimental arms or control status. Several Chinese-language materials were used in both experimental arms: an education-entertainment video, a motivational pamphlet, an educational brochure, and a fact sheet. Women in the first experimental group (outreach worker intervention) received the materials, as well as tailored counseling and logistic assistance, during home visits by trilingual, bicultural outreach workers. Those in the second experimental group (direct mail intervention) received the materials by mail. The control group received usual care. Follow-up surveys were completed 6 months after randomization to ascertain participants’ Pap testing behavior. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results A total of 402 women responded to the follow-up survey (83% response rate). Of these women, 50 (39%) of the 129 women in the outreach group, 35 (25%) of the 139 women in the direct mail group, and 20 (15%) of the 134 women in the control group reported Pap testing in the interval between randomization and follow-up data collection (P<.001 for outreach worker versus control, P = .03 for direct mail versus control, and P = .02 for outreach worker versus direct mail). Intervention effects were greater in Vancouver than in Seattle. Conclusion Culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions may improve Pap testing levels among Chinese women in North America. PMID:11983755

Taylor, Victoria M.; Hislop, T. Gregory; Jackson, J. Carey; Tu, Shin-Ping; Yasui, Yutaka; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Teh, Chong; Kuniyuki, Alan; Acorda, Elizabeth; Marchand, Ann; Thompson, Beti

2006-01-01

58

Influence of a support group for young women with disabilities on sense of belonging.  

PubMed

Women and girls with disabilities face obstacles to community participation and social acceptance. Consequently, as adolescent women with disabilities mature into adulthood, they may have difficulty feeling that they belong both in the general community and in the community of all women. The positive impact of peer support groups for young women with disabilities on their sense of belonging has been underinvestigated. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 9 members of a well-established empowerment support group for young women with disabilities to explore how the group might foster a sense of belonging to the general community as well as a sense of shared womanhood. Results revealed that self-confidence and disability pride stemming from participation in the group were essential in helping the women counteract exclusionary messages from the outside world. The group provided an opportunity to develop a positive disability identity and to gain new information regarding the ability and right to identify as women. Reciprocal bonds with other group members helped cultivate feelings of belonging. In turn, the women communicated their empowered identities and the disability rights information they learned in the group to their friends, family, and community members. The group offered the women various platforms to assert their right to belong and, therefore, to participate in the world as women and as independent members of their broader communities. These results show how peer support groups for young women with disabilities can positively influence their sense of belonging both within the group and in the world outside the group. PMID:24660692

Mejias, Norma J; Gill, Carol J; Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa

2014-04-01

59

Bilateral deficits in fine motor control ability and manual dexterity in women with fibromyalgia syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to investigate fine motor control ability and manual dexterity women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) without symptoms in the upper extremity compared to healthy women. Subtests of the Purdue Pegboard Test (one-hand, bilateral and assembly) and of the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test (writing, turning cards, picking up small, light and large heavy objects, simulated feeding and stacking checkers) were evaluated bilaterally in 20 women with FMS (aged 35-55 years) without symptoms in the upper limb and 20 age- and hand dominance-matched healthy women. Differences between sides and groups were analysed with several analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA revealed significant differences between groups (P < 0.001) and sides (P = 0.007) for one-hand pin placement subtest: women with FMS showed bilateral worse scores than controls. Patients also exhibited significantly lower scores in bilateral pin placement and assembly subtests when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). The ANOVA also revealed significant differences between groups for writing, turning over cards, picking up small objects, stacking checkers, picking up large light objects and picking up large heavy objects (all, P < 0.001): women with FMS needed more time for these subtests than healthy women with both hands. No difference for simulated feeding was found between groups. Our findings revealed bilateral deficits in fine motor control ability and manual dexterity in patients with FMS without symptoms in the upper extremity. These deficits are not related to the clinical features of the symptoms supporting an underlying central mechanism of altered motor control. PMID:23354668

Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres, Marta; Martínez-Piédrola, Rosa M; Cigarán-Méndez, Margarita; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

2013-04-01

60

HIV risk in a group of educated urban Black African women in South Africa: Private accounts of gendered power dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores HIV risk in a small group of Black African women school teachers in South Africa. We used a two-part questionnaire with inductive thematic analysis to explore their private and personal sexual attitudes, as well as their perceptions of male attitudes about sexuality. Key themes are: a desire for power over personal choices, submission to male control in

Duduzile Phindile Mashinini; Mary Pelton-Cooper

2012-01-01

61

Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Results Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p?groups. Conclusions Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted. PMID:24773615

2014-01-01

62

Preventing Depression: Culturally Relevant Group Work with Black Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent estimates indicate that 10% to 25% of women in the United States report clinically significant depressive symptoms and that Black women are less likely to obtain care for depression and to receive appropriate treatment when they do seek care. Current mental and social health services necessitate a search for strength-based treatment models…

Jones, Lani V.

2008-01-01

63

Early intervention in pregnant women with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms: efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program.  

PubMed

To examine whether a cognitive-behavioral group program among pregnant women with elevated levels of anxiety or depression may reduce anxious and depressive symptoms and has a positive impact on risk factors for anxiety disorders and depression. A total of 753 participants were recruited. After completion of the clinical standardized interview, 160 participants were randomized to an intervention group or a control condition. Psychometric assessments took place at T1 (preintervention), T2 (antenatal follow-up), and T3 (3 months postpartum). Analyses included women who took part in all 3 assessments (intervention group, N = 21; control group, N = 53). The subjective program evaluation by the participants was highly positive, but with the exception of a short-term effect on the quality of an intimate partnership (F1/67 = 4.056; P < .05], intervention effects on anxiety or depressive symptoms were not found. However, there was an intervention effect 3 months postpartum for participants with high depressive symptoms at T1 (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ?10) (F1/69 = 5.410; P < .05). The results argue against a general efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program for pregnant women with rather low levels of anxiety and depression. For women with higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy, a cognitive-behavioral group program may have a positive impact on the course of depressive symptoms during the postpartum period. PMID:25062520

Bittner, Antje; Peukert, Judith; Zimmermann, Cornelia; Junge-Hoffmeister, Juliane; Parker, Lisa S; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Weidner, Kerstin

2014-01-01

64

Model for crisis intervention through group therapy for women with breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a model for crisis intervention through group therapy for women with breast cancer. The group sessions, conducted by a multidisciplinary team, are part of the Linn Clinic's post-operative treatment. The discussions using a holistic approach, helped the women to cope more effectively with the disease, the trauma of the operation, and with the chemotherapy or radiation treatment.

Ora Gilbar

1991-01-01

65

Facilitated Group Mentoring Develops Key Career Competencies for University Women: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the effectiveness of a facilitated group mentoring program for university women. Content analysis across existing sources of data (questionnaires, a focus group, and interviews), collected over the five years of the program's operation (1999-2003), suggested the program helped women to develop three ways of knowing--"knowing…

McCormack, Coralie; West, Damian

2006-01-01

66

Measurement of Attitudes of Rural Women Towards Self-Help Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's SHGs and to develop their capabilities through training programmes for harnessing

M. S. Meena; Dilip Jain; H. R. Meena

2008-01-01

67

Development of structured support groups for HIV-positive women in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women living with HIV in a stigmatising community need support to cope with their HIV status. In a process of action research, a structured support group programme was designed to meet the needs of women to cope with their diagnosis and interpersonal relationships. The emphasis was on identifying their needs and developing programme material to address those needs through group

Maretha Visser; Jonathan Mundell; Annelize de Villiers; Kathleen Sikkema; Bridget Jeffery

2005-01-01

68

The internal control group in a register of antiepileptic drug use in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine how valid 68 first-trimester pregnancies of untreated epileptic women would prove as an internal control group for investigating foetal malformation rates in 709 simultaneously collected antiepileptic drug-exposed pregnancies in an Australian register of pregnancies in epileptic women. We carried out comparisons of values for parameters relating to personal details, obstetric aspects, and

Frank J. E. Vajda; Terrence O’Brien; Alison Hitchcock; Janet Graham; Cecilie Lander; Mervyn Eadie

2008-01-01

69

Cancer-Related Concerns among Women Newly Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancer: An Exploration of Age Group Differences  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aimed to characterize cancer-related concerns among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. The study compared degree of cancer-related concern between young women (? 45 years), middle age women (46–64 years), and older women (? 65 years). Methods/Materials Data from women (N =243) diagnosed with primary gynecological cancer who were participating in a randomized control trial were analyzed. Women completed a measure that assessed degree of concern in twelve cancer-related domains (physical functioning, cancer treatment, emotional functioning, sexual functioning, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, relationship with others, employment, and finances). Multivariate comparisons were made between the three age groups on the cancer-related concerns. Results There were age group differences in overall cancer-related concern and specific cancer-related domains. Young women reported the greatest cancer-related concern (p < .001). They reported greater concern over emotional functioning (p < .001) and sexual functioning (p < .001) compared to the middle and older age groups. Older women reported less concern over the impact of cancer on finances (p = 007). There were no differences between age groups in concern over physical impairment, cancer treatment, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, and relationship with others. Conclusions Age may play an important role in the impact of a gynecological cancer diagnosis in domains of functioning, specifically emotional functioning, sexual functioning, and finances. Other cancer-related areas may represent more universal degree of impact. Professionals may benefit form considering the impact of cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. PMID:24346489

Myers Virtue, Shannon; Manne, Sharon L.; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Rubin, Stephen; Heckman, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Norm; Graff, John J.

2014-01-01

70

Factors associated with breastfeeding at six months postpartum in a group of Australian women  

PubMed Central

Background Despite high levels of breastfeeding initiation in Australia, only 47 percent of women are breastfeeding (exclusively or partially) six months later, with marked differences between social groups. It is important to identify women who are at increased risk of early cessation of breastfeeding. Methods Data from the three arms of a randomised controlled trial were pooled and analysed as a cohort using logistic regression to identify which factors predicted women continuing to feed any breast milk at six months postpartum. The original trial included 981 primiparous women attending a public, tertiary, women's hospital in Melbourne, Australia in 1999–2001. The trial evaluated the effect of two mid-pregnancy educational interventions on breastfeeding initiation and duration. In the 889 women with six month outcomes available, neither intervention increased breastfeeding initiation nor duration compared to standard care. Independent variables were included in the predictive model based on the literature and discussion with peers and were each tested individually against the dependent variable (any breastfeeding at six months). Results Thirty-three independent variables of interest were identified, of which 25 qualified for inclusion in the preliminary regression model; 764 observations had complete data available. Factors remaining in the final model that were positively associated with breastfeeding any breast milk at six months were: a very strong desire to breastfeed; having been breastfed oneself as a baby; being born in an Asian country; and older maternal age. There was an increasing association with increasing age. Factors negatively associated with feeding any breast milk at six months were: a woman having no intention to breastfeed six months or more; smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day pre-pregnancy; not attending childbirth education; maternal obesity; having self-reported depression in the six months after birth; and the baby receiving infant formula while in hospital. Conclusion In addition to the factors commonly reported as being associated with breastfeeding in previous work, this study found a negative association between breastfeeding outcomes and giving babies infant formula in hospital, a high maternal body mass index, and self-reported maternal depression or anxiety in the six months after the baby was born. Interventions that seek to increase breastfeeding should consider focusing on women who wish to breastfeed but are at high risk of early discontinuation. PMID:17034645

Forster, Della A; McLachlan, Helen L; Lumley, Judith

2006-01-01

71

Attitude Control Working Group report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals were to establish the Attitude Control System (ACS) requirements, constraints, technology assessment, technology shortfalls, expected in the year 2000. These were based upon all missions, military and civil, for LEO and GEO. The critical ACS technology issues were identified and ACS programs developed to address these critical issues.

Reid, Daniel F.; Studer, Phillip A.

1986-01-01

72

Prevalence of HIV among childbearing women and women having termination of pregnancy: multidisciplinary steering group study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women, in particular those whose behaviour or that of their partners put them at "low risk" of infection. DESIGN--Voluntary named or anonymous HIV testing of pregnant women during 21 months (November 1988 to July 1990). SUBJECTS AND SETTING--All women who planned to continue their pregnancy and attended clinics serving the antenatal populations of Edinburgh and Dundee. All women admitted for termination of pregnancy to gynaecology wards serving the pregnant populations of Dundee and outlying rural areas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Period prevalence of HIV antibody positivity. RESULTS--91% of antenatal clinic attenders and 97% of women having termination of pregnancy agreed to HIV testing on a named or anonymous basis. HIV period prevalences for antenatal clinic attenders and women having termination of pregnancy tested in Dundee were 0.13% and 0.85% respectively, and for antenatal clinic attenders tested in Edinburgh 0.26%. For those at "low risk" rates for antenatal clinic attenders and women having termination of pregnancy in Dundee were 0.11% and 0.13%, and for antenatal clinic attenders in Edinburgh 0.02%. In Dundee HIV prevalence among women having a termination of pregnancy (0.85%) was significantly greater than that among antenatal clinic attenders (0.13%). CONCLUSIONS--HIV infection is undoubtedly occurring among women at "low risk," and it is clear that a policy of selective testing of those at only "high risk" is inadequate for pregnant women living in areas of high prevalence such as Edinburgh and Dundee. Moreover, when studying pregnant populations in such areas there is the need to include those having a termination of pregnancy. PMID:1586820

Goldberg, D. J.; MacKinnon, H.; Smith, R.; Patel, N. B.; Scrimgeour, J. B.; Inglis, J. M.; Peutherer, J. F.; Urquhart, G. E.; Emslie, J. A.; Covell, R. G.

1992-01-01

73

Centering as a Model for Group Visits Among Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain  

PubMed Central

Providing comprehensive care for chronic pelvic pain is impeded by time and resource constraints of the standard healthcare visit. To provide patient education, psychosocial support, and healthcare assessment, we developed group visits for women with chronic pelvic pain using an evidence-based, holistic nursing approach. In this article, we describe the structure of group visits, the process of conducting Centering group visits focused on empowerment, and the content of a holistic curriculum for women with chronic pelvic pain. PMID:22862426

Chao, Maria T.; Abercrombie, Priscilla D.; Duncan, Larissa G.

2012-01-01

74

Predictors of Weight Control Smoking in Caucasian College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To determine which weight- and dieting-related, social, and expectancy variables were significant in predicting smoking for weight control purposes.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of weight- and dieting-related, social, and expectancy variables in weight control smoking. Subjects were 86 normal-weight, Caucasian university women. Subjects were classified as weight control smokers and non-weight control smokers

L. M. Varner; E. T. Sturgis

1996-01-01

75

A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Breast Cancer Screening Among African American Women: The Black Cosmetologists Promoting Health Program  

PubMed Central

Background African American women have disproportionately higher rates of breast cancer (BC) mortality than all other ethnic groups, thus highlighting the importance of promoting early detection. Methods African American women (N = 984) from San Diego, California participated in a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of BC education sessions offered in beauty salons. Cosmetologists received ongoing support, training, and additional culturally aligned educational materials to help them engage their clients in dialogues about the importance of BC early detection. Posters and literature about BC early detection were displayed throughout the salons and cosmetologists used synthetic breast models to show their clients how BC lumps might feel. Participants in the control group received a comparable diabetes education program. Baseline and six month follow-up surveys were administered to evaluate changes in women’s BC knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors. Results This intervention was well received by the participants and their cosmetologists and did not interfere with, or prolong, the client’s salon visit. Women in the intervention group reported significantly higher rates of mammography compared to women in the control group. Training a single educator proved sufficient to permeate the entire salon with the health message and salon clients agreed that cosmetologists could become effective health educators. Conclusions Cosmetologists are in an ideal position to increase African American women’s BC knowledge and adherence to BC screening guidelines. PMID:22046851

Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine M.; Wu, Phillis; Alisangco, Jennifer; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Kelly, Colleen

2014-01-01

76

Possible psychosocial strategies for controlling violence against women.  

PubMed

Women, the fair sex, are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. Violence against women and girls continues to be a global epidemic. It is present in every country, cutting across boundaries of culture, class, education, income, ethnicity and age. A growing body of research studies indicates that 20% to 50% (varying from country to country) of women have experienced domestic violence. A multilayered strategy that addresses the structural causes of violence against women is needed. Strategies and interventions attempting to address violence against women should be guided by 5 underlying principles: Prevention, protection, early intervention, rebuilding the lives of victims/survivors and accountability. When planning interventions, there are a variety of stakeholders who should be borne in mind. Key areas for intervention include encouraging women empowerment; advocacy and awareness raising; education for building a culture of nonviolence; encouraging active participation of women in political system; resource development; direct service provision to victims, survivors and perpetrators; networking and community mobilization; direct intervention to help victims/survivors rebuild their lives; legal reform; monitoring interventions and measures; early identification of 'at risk' families, communities, groups and individuals; and data collection and analysis. PMID:21180492

Kumari, Sapna; Priyamvada, Richa; Chaudhury, S; Singh, A R; Verma, A N; Prakash, J

2009-07-01

77

Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…

Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

2010-01-01

78

Women Entering the Elite Group: A Limited Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on studies of literature and the freshman admission data from 1978 to 2005 in Peking University, the research reveals how female student enrollments grew from nil to a considerable size, and how the exclusion of women college admission was overcome to achieve gender balance. However, the paper argues that this progress is limited in that…

Liu, Yunshan; Wang, Zhiming

2009-01-01

79

An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

2010-01-01

80

Honoring the Ways of American Indian Women: A Group Therapy Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A culturally grounded group intervention for a typically underserved population of urban American Indian women is described. The intervention is designed to increase interpersonal connection, improve inter-tribal acceptance and trust, and enhance psychological well being of marginalized urban American Indian women. Topics used to structure the…

McWhirter, Paula T.; Robbins, Rockey; Vaughn, Karen; Youngbull, Natalie; Burks, Derek; Willmon-Haque, Sadie; Schuetz, Suzan; Brandes, Joyce A.; Nael, Andrea Zainab Omidy

2010-01-01

81

Women's Employment Patterns during Early Parenthood: A Group-Based Trajectory Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on women's employment and parenthood frequently focuses on the correlates and consequences of decisions at a particular time, such as a birth. This article applies a group-based trajectory method to examine women's employment trajectories across the period of early parenthood using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N=…

Hynes, Kathryn; Clarkberg, Marin

2005-01-01

82

A Pilot Randomized, Controlled Trial of Metformin versus Insulin in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus during Pregnancy.  

PubMed

Objective?Few studies support oral diabetic treatment in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective of this study was to compare the effects of metformin versus insulin on achieving glycemic control and improving maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with T2DM. Study Design?A pilot randomized, controlled trial was conducted of metformin versus insulin for the treatment of T2DM during pregnancy. The primary outcome was glycemic control measured with hemoglobin A1c?groups. Results?In this study, 8 women received metformin and 11 received insulin. All women in both groups achieved glycemic control by delivery (HgbA1c: metformin 5.96?±?5.88 vs. insulin 6.34?±?0.92%). There were similar rates of cesarean delivery, birth weights, neonatal intensive care unit admissions, respiratory distress syndrome, and neonatal dextrose treatment between groups. There was one case of fetal macrosomia in the insulin group, one case of shoulder dystocia in the metformin group and no cases of failed metformin therapy. Conclusion?In this pilot study, glycemic control was achieved in women who received metformin and insulin. Larger studies are needed to determine whether metformin can be considered a reasonable alternative to insulin in pregnant women with T2DM. PMID:24896141

Refuerzo, Jerrie S; Gowen, Rose; Pedroza, Claudia; Hutchinson, Maria; Blackwell, Sean C; Ramin, Susan

2015-02-01

83

Sex guilt and sexual control in women alcoholics in early sobriety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the degree to which alcoholic women in early sobriety report sex guilt and sexual control in comparison to a matched sample of non-alcoholic women. It was hypothesized that alcoholic women would report more sex guilt and less control over their sex lives than non-alcoholic women. Sex guilt and lack of sexual control add another

Valerie Pinhas

1980-01-01

84

Two hypotheses of dense breasts and viral infection for explaining incidence of breast cancer by age group in Korean women.  

PubMed

Breast cancer, the second leading type of cancer in Korean women, has shown increasing incidence over the past 10 years. However, the curves of incidence by age group cast doubt on the birth cohort effect hypothesis. To explain the curves, here I suggest two alternative hypotheses of breast density and viral infection based on pre-existing evidences. Evaluating these hypotheses would require important clues to find unknown risk factors of breast cancer and to plan more effective strategies for breast cancer control in Korean women. PMID:25266421

Bae, Jong-Myon

2014-01-01

85

Relationship between air pollution and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal death and disability worldwide. Its incidence in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 5%-12%. Air pollution has been reported to be one of the causative factors, and this case-control study determined its effect on pre-eclampsia in 195 pregnant women (65 with pre-eclampsia and 130 without) admitted to hospitals in Tehran. Women were divided into high and low exposure groups according to the mean density of exposure to pollutants during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant relationship between exposure to air pollutants including CO, particulate matter, SO2, NO2 and O3 and pre-eclampsia. The combined effect was also not significant. Air pollution is one of the problems of modern society and its avoidance is almost impossible for pregnant women. This study should reduce concern about pregnant women living in polluted cities. PMID:24995762

Nahidi, F; Gholami, R; Rashidi, Y; Majd, H Alavi

2014-01-01

86

Efficacy of a group intervention for adult women survivors of sexual abuse.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group intervention reduced psychological distress and consequences associated with sexual abuse and that gains were maintained at three-month follow- up. Analyses of potential factors related to differential gains indicated that abuse-related variables and concurrent individual interventions were not linked to outcomes. Exploratory analyses suggested that women experiencing severe physical partner violence showed greater gains with respect to self-blame/stigmatization, sexual anxiety, and anxiety related to assertiveness. PMID:18032245

Hébert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

2007-01-01

87

High mobility group protein B1: a new biomarker of obesity in pregnant women?  

PubMed

Abstract Obesity is associated with an increased risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum levels of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in obese pregnant women, to assess the role of this protein in the pathogenesis of this disease and to evaluate its possible function as a diagnostic marker for obesity-related complications in obese women. Study participants were randomly selected, from a cohort of pregnant women afferent to our department. A total of 120 women were enrolled in this study: 60 pregnant women had normal body mass index (BMI) and 60 women resulted obese. Pre-pregnancy BMI, weight increase and HMGB1 levels were evaluated for each pregnant woman enrolled. Matching serum HMGB1 levels in two groups, our data evidenced higher levels in the obese women, with a statistically significant difference (p?=?0.0023). A significant positive univariate correlation was observed between serum HMGB1 levels and BMI in obese women. HMGB1 serum levels may therefore represent a predictive marker of disease in pregnant women (r?=?20.9 and p?=?0.0001). Further studies are needed in order to validate the role of this cytokine, with the aim of making it possible to use in clinical practice not only for diagnostic purposes, but especially for the early recognition of complications related to it. PMID:25356847

Giacobbe, A; Grasso, R; Imbesi, G; Salpietro, C D; Grasso, L; Laganà, A S; Triolo, O; Di Benedetto, A

2015-02-01

88

Frequencies of erythrocyte blood groups alleles and haplotyphes in women with benign tumors of the uterus.  

PubMed

The erythrocyte blood groups antigens are associated with risk of certain malignancies though the correlation between blood groups and diseases is still unclear. The investigation is aimed at determining the correlation between benign tumors of the uterus and erythrocyte blood groups alleles and haplotyphes in patients of Adjara Oncology Centre. Blood of 60 women with benign tumors of the uterus and of 60 healthy women of reproductive age were investigated for ABO and Rh system alleles and haplotypes. Immunoserological methods have been used to identify the antigens. The obtained results were statistically processed. The ABO system gene alleles' frequency was computed by the formula proposed by F. Bernstein and used in investigation of three-allele genetic systems. The frequency of Rh-system genes, Rh-haplotypes is computed by the formula proposed by A. E. Mourant. According to ABO systems in women with benign tumors of the uterus high frequencies of p (0,12) and q (0,21) alleles are found. When studying individual alleles of the Rh system in women with benign tumors, high frequency of D was noticed (0.8). In women with benign tumor of the uterus RhD allele frequency is statistically different to healthy women. ABO systems gene alleles' significantly differ in healthy and diseased women. In women with benign tumor of the uterus only three Rh-system haplotypes have been found: CDe, cDe, cde haplotypes. PMID:22870829

Nakashidze, I; Diasamidze, A; Nagervadze, M

2012-05-01

89

Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok

2008-01-01

90

Effect of two jumping programs on hip bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . To determine the effect of two jumping programs on hip bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Design . Randomized controlled trial. Setting . Approximately 20 cities in the Mountain West. Subjects . Sixty premenopausal women, aged 25 to 50 years, completed the intervention. Intervention . Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group or one of two jumping groups. The Jump 10 group performed 10 jumps with 30 seconds rest between jumps, twice daily for 16 weeks, while the Jump 20 group performed the same protocol but with 20 jumps. Measures . Hip BMD was measured by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analysis . Analysis of variance and covariance. Results . At 8 weeks, unadjusted percentage change in hip BMD was significantly different among groups (F = 5.4, p = .0236). Specifically, compared with controls, the Jump 20 women had significantly greater gains in hip BMD and the Jump 10 women had marginally greater improvements. Following 16 weeks of jumping, differences between the Jump 10 and the Jump 20 groups compared with controls were significant (F = 4.2, p = .0444), especially after adjusting for the covariates (F = 7.3, p = .0092). Conclusion . After 16 weeks of high-impact jump training, hip BMD can be improved in premenopausal women by jumping 10 or 20 times, twice daily, with 30 seconds of rest between each jump, compared with controls. PMID:24460005

Tucker, Larry A; Strong, J Eric; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

2015-01-01

91

A randomized placebo-controlled study of tamoxifen after adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women with early breast cancer (National Cancer Institute of Canada—Clinical Trials Group Trial, MA.12)  

PubMed Central

Background: In the early 1990s, the role of adjuvant tamoxifen in premenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) was not established. Similarly, optimum timing relative to adjuvant chemotherapy and efficacy of tamoxifen in hormone receptor-negative tumors were unclear. Patients and methods: Premenopausal women with EBC, any hormone receptor status, after surgery received standard adjuvant chemotherapy [doxorubicin (adriamycin)/cyclophosphamide, cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5-fluorouracil, or cyclophosphamide/epirubicin/5-fluorouracil] followed by randomization to tamoxifen or placebo for 5 years. Outcomes were overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), toxicity, and compliance with therapy. Results: Median follow-up for 672 women was 9.7 years. Multivariate analysis showed improved DFS [78.2% versus 71.3% at 5 years; hazard ratio (HR) 0.77; P?=?0.056] and a trend for improved OS (86.6% versus 82.1% at 5 years; HR 0.78; P?=?0.12). There was no evidence of greater benefit for the receptor-positive subgroup. Compliance with treatment was suboptimal in both arms, with 103 (31%) women on tamoxifen and 70 (21%) on placebo-stopping therapy early because of toxicity, refusal, or other choices. Conclusions: Adjuvant tamoxifen, given after chemotherapy to premenopausal women with EBC, improved 5-year DFS. Poor compliance may have reduced treatment efficacy. PMID:19628570

Bramwell, V. H. C.; Pritchard, K. I.; Tu, D.; Tonkin, K.; Vachhrajani, H.; Vandenberg, T. A.; Robert, J.; Arnold, A.; O'Reilly, S. E.; Graham, B.; Shepherd, L.

2010-01-01

92

Improving Participation Rates for Women of Color in Health Research: The Role of Group Cohesion  

PubMed Central

Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community physical activity program for women of color. African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N=310) completed measurements at baseline and post-intervention and participated in a social cohesion intervention to improve physical activity and dietary habits. Women were assigned to a physical activity or fruit and vegetable intervention group. Social and task cohesion was measured using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGE-Q). Attendance was recorded at each of six intervention sessions. Women were generally middle-age (M age = 46.4 years, SD=9.1) and obese (M BMI = 34.4 kg/m2, SD=7.7). The estimate of the mediated effect was significant for all group cohesion constructs, indicating both task constructs—attraction to the group’s task (SE=0.096, CI: ?0.599 to ?0.221) and group integration around the task (SE=0.060, CI: ?0.092 to ?0.328)—and social constructs—attraction to the group’s social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: ?0.546 to ?0.366) and group integration around social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: ?0.546 to ?0.366)—significantly mediated the association between group assignment and attendance. Both task and social constructs are important to improve attendance in health promotion interventions for women of color. PMID:21826476

Mama, Scherezade; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Lee, Rebecca E.

2015-01-01

93

Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

2010-01-01

94

Auricular acupuncture for chemically dependent pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial of the NADA protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of maternal drug use during pregnancy in North America has been estimated to be as high as 6-10%. The consequences for the newborn include increased risk for perinatal mortality and ongoing physical, neurobehavioral, and psychosocial problems. Methadone is frequently used to wean women off street drugs but is implicated as a cause of adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes itself. The purpose of our study was to test the ability of maternal acupuncture treatment among mothers who use illicit drugs to reduce the frequency and severity of withdrawal symptoms among their newborns. Methods We randomly assigned chemically dependent pregnant women at BC Women’s Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia to daily acupuncture treatments versus usual care. By necessity, neither our participants nor acupuncturists were blinded as to treatment allocation. Our primary outcome was days of neonatal morphine treatment for symptoms of neonatal withdrawal. Secondary neonatal outcomes included admission to a neonatal ICU and transfer to foster care. Results We randomized 50 women to acupuncture and 39 to standard care. When analyzed by randomized groups, we did not find benefit of acupuncture; the average length of treatment with morphine for newborns in the acupuncture group was 2.7 (6.3) compared to 2.8 (7.0) in the control group. Among newborns of women who were compliant with the acupuncture regime, we observed a reduction of 2.1 and 1.5 days in length of treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome compared to the non-compliant and control groups, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Acupuncture may be a safe and feasible treatment to assist mothers to reduce their dosage of methadone. Our results should encourage ongoing studies to test the ability of acupuncture to mitigate the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome among their newborns. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov registry: W05-0041 PMID:23259913

2012-01-01

95

Autonomic regulation across phases of the menstrual cycle and sleep stages in women with premenstrual syndrome and healthy controls.  

PubMed

To investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the presence of severe premenstrual symptoms on cardiac autonomic control during sleep, we performed heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep in 12 women with severe premenstrual syndrome and 14 controls in the mid-follicular, mid-luteal, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Heart rate was higher, along with lower high frequency (HF) power, reflecting reduced vagal activity, and a higher ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency power, reflecting a shift to sympathetic dominance, in REM sleep compared with NREM sleep in both groups of women. Both groups of women had higher heart rate during NREM and REM sleep in the luteal phase recordings compared with the mid-follicular phase. HF power in REM sleep was lowest in the mid-luteal phase, when progesterone was highest, in both groups of women. The mid-luteal phase reduction in HF power was also evident in NREM sleep in control women but not in women with PMS, suggesting some impact of premenstrual syndrome on autonomic responses to the hormone environment of the mid-luteal phase. In addition, mid-luteal phase progesterone levels correlated positively with HF power and negatively with LF/HF ratio in control women in NREM sleep and with the LF/HF ratio during REM sleep in both groups of women. Our findings suggest the involvement of female reproductive steroids in cardiac autonomic control during sleep in women with and without premenstrual syndrome. PMID:23850226

de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Nicholas, Christian L; Colrain, Ian M; Trinder, John A; Baker, Fiona C

2013-11-01

96

Support Groups, Marriage, and the Management of Ambiguity among HIV-Positive Women in Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

In the context of the African HIV epidemic, support groups are not simply spaces for discussions of social and health well-being; neither are they institutions functioning solely to cultivate self-responsible and economically empowered patients. HIV-positive women in northern Nigeria have appropriated a support group to facilitate their marriage arrangements. In this group, women negotiate the threats of stigma and the promises of respectable marriage through what I call the management of ambiguity surrounding their HIV status. I further argue that the practice of support group matchmaking reveals the local political economic dynamics that shape social and illness trajectories in resource-poor settings. PMID:23946544

Rhine, Kathryn A.

2013-01-01

97

Women's status and family planning: results from a focus group survey.  

PubMed

Focus group discussions were conducted in China's Pingluo County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Sihui County, Guangdong Province among reproductive age women with only daughters, mothers-in-law, unmarried women aged 23 years and older, and women business persons and cadres. The topic of discussion was the status of women, gender differences in employment, education, marriage, family life, childbearing, and elderly care in counties that have above average fertility rates. There were also several groups of men, mixed gender groups with husbands working away from home, local family planning workers, and rural intellectuals. The findings showed that there is more access to education for girls and a higher employment rate for young women. Daughters receive education to the highest level affordable. Enrollments are equal for boys and girls. Women's employment is not challenged by husbands, and work is available in a variety of locations. Business ownership and operation is encouraged. By middle age, women generally do not work in enterprises, but at home or on contracted farmland. Equal rights within the family are generally accepted. Husbands turn over their salary to wives for family expenses. Girls receive the same care after birth as boys. Women's status is improving. Improvements in social status have also involved sacrifices. Women complained that the workload on the farm has increased with adult males away working in cities. Women bear the burden of family planning, including in some cases side effects from oral pills and recovery from sterilizations. One women remarked that there were burdens in bearing children, taking oral pills, having IUD insertions, and having induced abortions; men should bear 50% of the responsibility. The burden of women without sons is harder, and women may also feel inferior as the last in their family line. One family with 6 daughters accepted the fine of RMB 7000 yuan for having another child, which turned out to be a son. One commented that even a stupid son is better than a daughter. Many with only daughters have not tried for a son because the fine was too expensive. Support in old age was a reason for desiring sons. There were positive opinions expressed about family planning. Economic gains for women were considered important in raising women's status. PMID:12318705

Gu, B; Xie, Z

1994-02-01

98

Effect of a primary health-care-based controlled trial for cardiorespiratory fitness in refugee women  

PubMed Central

Background Refugee women have a high risk of coronary heart disease with low physical activity as one possible mediator. Furthermore, cultural and environmental barriers to increasing physical activity have been demonstrated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the combined effect of an approximate 6-month primary health care- and community-based exercise intervention versus an individual written prescription for exercise on objectively assessed cardiorespiratory fitness in low-active refugee women. Methods A controlled clinical trial, named "Support for Increased Physical Activity", was executed among 243 refugee women recruited between November 2006 and April 2008 from two deprived geographic areas in southern Stockholm, Sweden. One geographic area provided the intervention group and the other area the control group. The control group was on a higher activity level at both baseline and follow-up, which was taken into consideration in the analysis by applying statistical models that accounted for this. Relative aerobic capacity and fitness level were assessed as the two main outcome measures. Results The intervention group increased their relative aerobic capacity and the percentage with an acceptable fitness level (relative aerobic capacity > 23 O2ml·kg·min-1) to a greater extent than the control group between baseline and the 6-month follow-up, after adjusting for possible confounders (P = 0.020). Conclusions A combined primary health-care and community-based exercise programme (involving non-profit organizations) can be an effective strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among low-active refugee women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00747942 PMID:20678219

2010-01-01

99

USE OF FOCUS GROUPS IN MULTI-SITE, MULTI-ETHNIC RESEARCH PROJECTS FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH: A STUDY OF WOMEN ACROSS THE NATION (SWAN) EXAMPLE  

PubMed Central

Objective To outline the lessons learned about the use of focus groups for the multi-site, multi-ethnic longitudinal Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). Focus groups were designed to identify potential cultural differences in the incidence of symptoms and the meaning of transmenopause among women of diverse cultures, and to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies. Design Inductive and deductive focus groups for a multi-ethnic study. Setting Seven community research sites across the United States conducted focus groups with six ethnic populations: African American, Chinese American, Japanese American, Mexican American, non-Hispanic white, and Puerto Rican. Patients or Participants Community women from each ethnic group of color. Interventions A set of four/five focus groups in each ethnic group as the formative stage of the deductive, quantitative SWAN survey. Main Outcome Measures Identification of methodological advantages and challenges to the successful implementation of formative focus groups in a multi-ethnic, multi-site population-based epidemiologic study. Results We provide recommendations from our lessons learned to improve the use of focus groups in future studies with multi-ethnic populations. Conclusions Mixed methods using inductive and deductive approaches require the scientific integrity of both research paradigms. Adequate resources and time must be budgeted as essential parts of the overall strategy from the outset of study. Inductive cross-cultural researchers should be key team members, beginning with inception through each subsequent design phase to increase the scientific validity, generalizability, and comparability of the results across diverse ethnic groups, to assure the relevance, validity and applicability of the findings to the multicultural population of focus. PMID:19769020

Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Adler, Shelley R.; Mouton, Charles P.; Ory, Marcia; Underwood, Lynne G.

2010-01-01

100

Lumbar Spine Flexion and Extension Extremes of Motion in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups  

PubMed Central

Study Design Observational. Objective To provide normative values of lumbar flexion and extension for women of different age and racial groups. Summary of Background Data Spinal range of motion (ROM) is one of the AMA Guides criteria used to estimate level of impairment and subsequent compensation entitlement. Studies show that spinal ROM varies with age, gender, and possibly race/ethnicity, but adequate normative values for different age and racial/ethnic groups do not exist. Methods A cohort of free-living women was recruited for the Women's Injury Study at The Cooper Institute in Dallas. Originally, 917 women between the ages of 20 and 83 (M = 52 ± 13) underwent an orthopedic examination including lumbar spine flexion and extension measurement using an electronic inclinometer. Measurements were taken in the fully extended and flexed positions, respectively. This removes the influence of initial resting posture and is termed “extreme of motion” (EOM) as opposed to ROM. Age and racial groups were compared using a 2-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed with post hoc tests. Results Means (±SD) were calculated for racial (white, N = 619, African-American, N = 147) and age groups (young, 20–39 years, n = 126; middle, 40–59 years, n = 412; older, ?60 years, n = 228). Lumbar extension for African-American women (60.1°) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than for white women (52.6°), but flexion was not different (15.2° and 17.0°), respectively. Extension EOM for the young group (61.6°) was greater (P < 0.05) than the middle (56.6°) and older (50.8°) groups. Extension difference between the middle and older groups was significant. Flexion EOM for the young group (20.1°) was greater (P < 0.05) than the middle (15.2°) and older (12.8°) groups. The difference in flexion between the middle and older groups was not significant. Conclusion Normative values of lumbar extension are different for white and African-American women. Values for lumbar flexion and extension are different between age groups. Different criteria should be used to estimate impairment level in women of different racial and age groups. PMID:20072092

Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Fleisher, Lisa Ann; Borman, Nicole; Morrow, James R.; Frierson, Georita M.

2009-01-01

101

Safety and acceptability of vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride in HIV infected pregnant women in west Africa: ANRS 049b phase II randomized, double blinded placebo controlled trial. DITRAME Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To study the tolerance and acceptability in Africa of a perinatal intervention to prevent vertical HIV transmission using benzalkonium chloride disinfection. DESIGN: A randomized, double blinded phase II trial. SETTING: Prenatal care units in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) and Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). PATIENTS: Women accepting testing and counselling who were seropositive for HIV-1 and under 37 weeks of pregnancy were

P. Msellati; N. Meda; V. Leroy; R. Likikouet; P. Van de Perre; M. Cartoux; D. Bonard; A. Ouangre; P. Combe; L. Gautier-Charpentier; F. Sylla-Koko; R. Lassalle; M. Dosso; C. Welffens-Ekra; F. Dabis; L. Mandelbrot

1999-01-01

102

Feminist Group Counseling with South Asian Women Who Have Survived Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is presented.…

Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.

2008-01-01

103

Support Group Processes: Perspectives from HIV-Infected Women in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the experiences and perceived benefits of support group participation among HIV-infected women in South Africa. From a qualitative analysis of responses, key psychological processes through which support groups are potentially beneficial were identified. These processes included identification, modeling, acceptance, and empowerment. The participants' consequent life changes were explored in order to associate these processes with the positive

J. P. Mundell; M. J. Visser; J. D. Makin; B. W. Forsyth; K. J. Sikkema

2012-01-01

104

Conducting qualitative research on cervical cancer screening among diverse groups of immigrant women  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the research lessons learned in the process of conducting qualitative research on cervical cancer screening perspectives among multiple ethnolinguistic groups of immigrant women and to provide guidance to family medicine researchers on methodologic and practical issues related to planning and conducting focus group research with multiple immigrant groups. DESIGN Observations based on a qualitative study of 11 focus groups. SETTING Hamilton, Ont. PARTICIPANTS Women from 1 of 5 ethnolinguistic immigrant groups and Canadian-born women of low socioeconomic status. METHODS We conducted 11 focus groups using interactive activities and tools to learn about women’s views of cervical cancer screening, and we used our research team reflections, deliberate identification of preconceptions or potential biases, early and ongoing feedback from culturally representative field workers, postinterview debriefings, and research team debriefings as sources of information to inform the process of such qualitative research. MAIN FINDINGS Our learnings pertain to 5 areas: forming effective research teams and community partnerships; culturally appropriate ways of accessing communities and recruiting participants; obtaining written informed consent; using sensitive or innovative data collection approaches; and managing budget and time requirements. Important elements included early involvement, recruitment, and training of ethnolinguistic field workers in focus group methodologies, and they were key to participant selection, participation, and effective groups. Research methods (eg, recruitment approaches, inclusion criteria) needed to be modified to accommodate cultural norms. Recruitment was slower than anticipated. Acquiring signed consent might also require extra time. Novel approaches within focus groups increased the likelihood of more rich discussion about sensitive topics. High costs of professional translation might challenge methodologic rigour (eg, back-translation). CONCLUSION By employing flexible and innovative approaches and including members of the participating cultural groups in the research team, this project was successful in engaging multiple cultural groups in research. Our experiences can inform similar research by providing practical learning within the context of established qualitative methods. PMID:20393074

Karwalajtys, Tina L.; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda J.; Fowler, Nancy C.; Lohfeld, Lynne H.; Howard, Michelle; Kaczorowski, Janusz A.; Lytwyn, Alice

2010-01-01

105

Safety planning in focus groups of Malawian women living with HIV: helping each other deal with violence and abuse.  

PubMed

In this critical ethnography, 72 HIV-infected women in Southern Malawi participated in 12 focus groups discussing the impact of HIV and violence. Our analysis, informed by a postcolonial feminist perspective, revealed women's capacity to collectively engage in safety planning. We present our findings about women's experiences based on narratives detailing how women collectively strategized safety planning efforts to mitigate the impact of violence. This study helps to fill a gap in the literature on the intersection between HIV and violence in women's lives. Strategies discussed by the women could form a basis for safety planning interventions for women in similar circumstances. PMID:24322953

Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Stevens, Patricia E; Kako, Peninnah M; Dressel, Anne

2013-11-01

106

Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15

107

Tobacco Control Research Group Current Grants  

E-print Network

Tobacco Control Research Group Current Grants Gilmore A et al. TobaccoTactics.org: a dynamic model, Lewis S, McNeill A, Meier PS, Michie S, Munafo M, Parrot S, West R. UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol for cigarettes and tobacco and its association with smoking cessation. Cancer Research UK, (£48,000), September

Burton, Geoffrey R.

108

The Intersection of Everyday Life and Group Prenatal Care for Women in Two Urban Clinics  

PubMed Central

Women from vulnerable populations encounter challenging circumstances that generate stress and may adversely affect their health. Group prenatal care (GPNC) incorporates features which address social stressors, and has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes and prenatal care experiences. In this qualitative study, we describe the complex circumstances in the lives of women receiving care in two urban clinics and how GPNC attenuated them. Stressors included problems with transportation and child care, demanding jobs, poverty, homelessness, difficult relationships with partners, limited family support, and frustrating health care experiences. Receiving prenatal care in groups allowed women to strengthen relationships with significant others, gain social support, and develop meaningful relationships with group leaders. By eliminating waits and providing the opportunity to participate in care, GPNC also offered sanctuary from frustrations encountered in receiving individual care. Reducing such stressors may help improve pregnancy outcomes; however, more evidence is needed on mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:22643609

Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Groce, Nora Ellen; Kennedy, Holly Powell

2013-01-01

109

Young women with PD: a group work experience.  

PubMed

Parkinson's Disease (PD) prior to the age of 40 affects between 5-10% of the PD population. The psychosocial changes that patients with early PD encounter, may be more devastating and disabling than the actual motor disability. The paper describes a unique experience in groupwork with young female PD patients treated in the Movement Disorders Unit of the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. The paper focuses on the special issues which characterized this group's experience: stigma, body and sexual image, and personality traits. PMID:11291893

Posen, J; Moore, O; Tassa, D S; Ginzburg, K; Drory, M; Giladi, N

2000-01-01

110

Actions of the Burkina Faso women in physics working group at the University of Ouagadougou  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the University of Ouagadougou, the largest university in Burkina Faso, the percentage of female student enrollment in the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit was 5.1% (for all the levels) from 2006 to 2009-this rate was 2.3% for physics. For the same period, 22 women out of 455 students (4.8%) were enrolled in PhD (all the fields of the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit) and three women out of 180 students (1.7%) registered in physics PhD. During the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2008, the Burkina Faso Working Group proposed some strategies to attract more women to physics and all the sciences. Some actions were initiated at the University of Ouagadougou as well as in secondary schools. These actions and the feedback of female students are presented.

Kafando, Pétronille; Zerbo, Issa

2013-03-01

111

The Delivery of a Survivors' Group for Learning Disabled Women with Significant Learning Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People with learning disabilities are more likely to experience sexual things happening to them when they do not want them to. This is called sexual abuse. A group was started to help women who have been sexually abused. The group met once a week and lasted for 20 weeks. Women who were interested in attending this group were given information…

Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Corbett, Alan; Howlett, Susan; McKee, Alan; Pattison, Sue

2007-01-01

112

The equity impact of participatory women’s groups to reduce neonatal mortality in India: secondary analysis of a cluster-randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has been uneven. Inequalities in child health are large and effective interventions rarely reach the most in need. Little is known about how to reduce these inequalities. We describe and explain the equity impact of a women’s group intervention in India that strongly reduced the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) in a cluster-randomised trial. We conducted secondary analyses of the trial data, obtained through prospective surveillance of a population of 228 186. The intervention effects were estimated separately, through random effects logistic regression, for the most and less socio-economically marginalised groups. Among the most marginalised, the NMR was 59% lower in intervention than in control clusters in years 2 and 3 (70%, year 3); among the less marginalised, the NMR was 36% lower (35%, year 3). The intervention effect was stronger among the most than among the less marginalised (P-value for difference = 0.028, years 2-3; P-value for difference = 0.009, year 3). The stronger effect was concentrated in winter, particularly for early NMR. There was no effect on the use of health-care services in either group, and improvements in home care were comparable. Participatory community interventions can substantially reduce socio-economic inequalities in neonatal mortality and contribute to an equitable achievement of the unfinished MDG agenda. PMID:23509239

Houweling, Tanja AJ; Tripathy, Prasanta; Nair, Nirmala; Rath, Shibanand; Rath, Suchitra; Gope, Rajkumar; Sinha, Rajesh; Looman, Caspar W; Costello, Anthony; Prost, Audrey

2013-01-01

113

Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7) and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3). Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus. PMID:24142184

Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P.; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Cánovas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomaríz-Peñalver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E.; Cárceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Martínez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

2013-01-01

114

Women in Design, Graduate School of Design Women in Design (WiD) is a student group working to increase the visibility of practicing women designers and to further  

E-print Network

Women in Design, Graduate School of Design Women in Design (WiD) is a student group working to increase the visibility of practicing women designers and to further incorporate their experiences environment. Events and meetings are aimed at connecting the GSD community to the larger professional

115

Informal and Formal Support Groups Retain Women and Minorities in Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of "acceptable" appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of "accruing capital." Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.

Ong, Maria

2005-10-01

116

Bone status of Indian women from a low-income group and its relationship to the nutritional status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian women from low-income groups consume diets that have inadequate calcium coupled with too few calories, proteins and micronutrients. Hospital-based data suggest that these women have osteoporotic hip fractures at a much earlier age than Western women. Studies reporting bone parameters of the Indian population involving large sample sizes are not available. This study was therefore carried out with 289

Veena Shatrugna; Bharati Kulkarni; P. Ajay Kumar; K. Usha Rani; N. Balakrishna

2005-01-01

117

Sexual violence therapy group in a women's correctional facility: a preliminary evaluation.  

PubMed

This pilot study was an evaluation of an 8-week exposure-based therapy group targeting sexual trauma in incarcerated women, an underserved population with high rates of trauma exposure. Preliminary findings from 14 female prisoners showed significant decreases in depressive and anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. Of the women who were above the screening cutoff for possible posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 13), depression (n = 12), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 12) at pretreatment, approximately 60% had recovered, meaning they had symptom reductions that placed them below the cutoff at posttreatment (n = 8 for PTSD; n = 8 for depression, and n = 9 for GAD). In addition, 85% of participants reported a clinically significant reduction in depressive symptoms and 50% in GAD symptoms. The findings show promise for successful group treatment of sexual violence sequelae in incarcerated women. PMID:24797176

Karlsson, Marie E; Bridges, Ana J; Bell, Jessica; Petretic, Patricia

2014-06-01

118

Looking for Celiac Disease in Italian Women with Endometriosis: A Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

In the last years, a potential link between endometriosis and celiac disease has been hypothesized since these disorders share some similarities, specifically concerning a potential role of oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunological dysfunctions. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease among Italian women with endometriosis with respect to general population. Consecutive women with a laparoscopic and histological confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis were enrolled; female nurses of our institution, without a known history of endometriosis, were enrolled as controls. IgA endomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies measurement and serum total IgA dosage were performed in both groups. An upper digestive endoscopy with an intestinal biopsy was performed in case of antibodies positivity. Presence of infertility, miscarriage, coexistence of other autoimmune diseases, and family history of autoimmune diseases was also investigated in all subjects. Celiac disease was diagnosed in 5 of 223 women with endometriosis and in 2 of 246 controls (2.2% versus 0.8%; P = 0.265). Patients with endometriosis showed a largely higher rate of infertility compared to control group (27.4% versus 2.4%; P < 0.001). Our results confirm that also in Italian population an increased prevalence of celiac disease among patients with endometriosis is found, although this trend does not reach the statistical significance. PMID:24804204

Campo, Sebastiano; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Gallo, Antonella; Campo, Vincenzo; Palombini, Guglielmo; Santoliquido, Angelo; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

2014-01-01

119

The Effect of Stationary Walking on the Quality of Life of the Elderly Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Aging has a profound effect on all the body organs and quality of life. One of the appropriate interventions is exercises such as walking. Nevertheless, the risk of falling and its complications are lower in stationary walking than walking on ground. Due to the higher life expectancy in women than men, the increasing number of elderly, and the low quality of life of women compared to men, this study aimed to assess the impact of stationary walking on the quality of life of the elderly women. Methods: In this clinical trial, 66 household elderly women covered by health centers of Maragheh were randomly selected and divided into experimental and control groups. Six weeks exercise intervention was conducted. The participants completed the quality of life questionnaire of the elderly, before and after the intervention. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Results: Mean scores of quality of life, in various aspects of the experimental group, before and after intervention, showed significant difference; there was no statistically significant difference in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in the mean and standard deviation of different aspects of quality of life in pre- and post-test of experiment and control groups. Conclusion: Using regular and constant exercise program such as stationary walking can increase the quality of life of the elderly women. It can improve healthy aging and having a healthy life at this age, too. Therefore, it is recommended to have stationary walking program in daily lives of the elderly. PMID:25276753

Dehi, Manijeh; Aghajari, Parvaneh; Shahshahani, Maryam; Takfallah, Leila; Jahangiri, Leila

2014-01-01

120

Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

2006-01-01

121

Deconstructing the Mirror's Reflection: Narrative Therapy Groups for Women Dissatisfied with Their Body  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women facing middle age and beyond are pressured by a cultural ideal of slimness. The authors review literature pertaining to the factors affecting the societal perceptions of body image and address relevant counseling interventions, specifically, group therapy based on narrative theory, that are aimed at this population.

Duba, Jill D.; Kindsvatter, Aaron; Priddy, Constance J.

2010-01-01

122

Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

2002-01-01

123

Quilting in Self-Efficacy Group Work With Older African American Women Leaving Homelessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of quilting as an art therapy intervention in a self-efficacy group of African American women who were leaving homelessness is examined in this article. Two quilting workshops (n = 8; n = 12) contributed to a larger parent project (N = 530 over a 10-year period), entitled the “Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project,” conducted in a U.S. Midwestern

David P. Moxley; Holly R. Feen-Calligan; Olivia G. M. Washington; Lois Garriott

2011-01-01

124

Exercise Training in Pregnancy for obese women (ETIP): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Both maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are increasing in prevalence and associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child. Observational studies regarding physical activity in pregnancy have found reduced weight gain in active mothers, as well as reduced risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is however a lack of high quality, randomized controlled trials on the effects of regular exercise training in pregnancy, especially those with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) at or above 30 kg/m2. Methods We are conducting a randomised, controlled trial in Norway with two parallel arms; one intervention group and one control group. We will enroll 150 previously sedentary, pregnant women with a pre-pregnancy BMI at or above 30 kg/m2. The intervention group will meet for organized exercise training three times per week, starting in gestation week 14 (range 12-16). The control group will get standard antenatal care. The main outcome measure will be weight gain from baseline to delivery. Among the secondary outcome measures are changes in exercise capacity, endothelial function, physical activity level, body composition, serum markers of cardiovascular risk, incontinence, lumbopelvic pain and cardiac function from baseline to gestation week 37 (range 36-38). Offspring outcome measures include anthropometric variables at birth, Apgar score, as well as serum markers of inflammation and metabolism in cord blood. Discussion The results of this trial will provide knowledge about effects of regular exercise training in previously sedentary, obese pregnant women. If the program proves effective in reducing gestational weight gain and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such programs should be considered as part of routine pregnancy care for obese women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01243554 PMID:21682869

2011-01-01

125

Taking Control: Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... is urinary incontinence (UI)? Taking Control (5-minute video) Click on the video above for an introduction ... Are there other women like me? (8-minute video) Urinary incontinence happens to women of all ages ...

126

Group Therapy for Incarcerated Women Who Experienced Interpersonal Violence: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated effectiveness of group therapy for incarcerated women with histories of childhood sexual and\\/or physical abuse. The intervention was based on a two-stage model of trauma treatment and included Dialectical Behavior Therapy skills and writing assignments. We randomly assigned 24 participants to group treatment (13 completed) and 25 to a no-contact comparison condition (18 completed). We evaluated treatment

Rebekah G. Bradley; Diane R. Follingstad

2003-01-01

127

An analysis of Time 4U, a therapeutic group for women with postnatal depression.  

PubMed

This article examines the effectiveness of the Time4U therapeutic group for women with postnatal depression, introduced seven years ago in Bury. The group is facilitated by a health visitor and primary care mental health nurse, and offers a combination of group therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy, peer support and social support. This paper analyses the scores and evaluations of the mothers who attended in 2012 and shows that the mothers' depression, anxiety and social functioning improved. The reasons for the group's success are discussed and include partnership working between community services, primary mental health services and children's centres. PMID:25286739

Hall, Kathy; Grundy, Sheila

2014-09-01

128

Group versus individual phone-based obesity treatment for rural women.  

PubMed

Rural women have among the highest rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyle, yet few studies have examined strategies for delivering state-of-the-art obesity treatment to hard-to-reach rural areas. The purpose of this pilot trial was to examine the impact and cost-effectiveness of a 6-month behavioral weight loss program delivered to rural women by phone either one-on-one with a counselor or to a group via conference call. Thirty-four rural women (mean BMI=34.4, SD=4.6) were randomized to group phone-based treatment or individual phone-based treatment. Completers analysis showed that weight loss was greater in the group condition (mean=14.9 kg=, SD=4.4) compared to the individual condition (mean=9.5 kg, SD=5.2; p=.03). Among the total sample, 62% of participants in the group condition achieved the 10% weight loss goal compared to 50% in the individual condition, and group treatment was found to be more cost-effective. Future research is warranted to examine the benefits of group phone-based treatment for long-term management of obesity among rural populations. PMID:19962115

Befort, Christie A; Donnelly, Joseph E; Sullivan, Debra K; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Perri, Michael G

2010-01-01

129

[Experiences, perceptions and self-management of gestational diabetes in a group of overweight multiparous women].  

PubMed

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a public health problem in Mexico and diet therapy is the main form of treatment. Self-management abilities are required to control the disease. Five women with GDM were studied to assess GDM risk perception and experiences related with self-management practices. Sociodemographic data were obtained and in-depth interviews were conducted and subsequently analyzed using Atlas ti V.5 software. The results revealed that women were conscious regarding the role of diet and physical activity in improving GDM control, and about the perinatal risks associated with the disease. Adherence to diet recommendations was partial, but gradual and positive lifestyle changes were observed. Emotionally, perception about having GDM was a key factor with respect to adhering to the diet. In conclusion, the medical and dietary treatment influences the cultural food behavior of women with GDM. Health professionals should consider sociocultural determinants when designing and implementing treatment strategies. PMID:24897466

Chávez-Courtois, Mayra; Graham, Chelsea; Romero-Pérez, Irma; Sánchez-Miranda, Georgina; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Perichart-Perera, Otilia

2014-06-01

130

A study of anticonvulsant medication on ovarian function in a group of women with epilepsy who have only ever taken one anticonvulsant compared with a group of women without epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of 105 women (54 of whom were, and had only ever been, taking valproate for at least a year, and 51 who had only ever taken either lamotrigine or carbamazepine, for at least a year) were compared with a group of 50 women who did not have epilepsy: any oral contraceptive taken at the time of testing was

TIM BETTS; HELEN YARROW; NICOLA DUTTON; LYN GREENHILL; TED ROLFE

2003-01-01

131

Predictors of Plasma DDT and DDE Concentrations among Women Exposed to Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB)  

PubMed Central

Background: Few studies have examined predictors of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels among residents in homes sprayed with DDT for malaria control with the aim of identifying exposure-reduction strategies. Methods: The present analysis included 381 women enrolled in the Study of Women and Babies (SOWB) during 2010–2011, from eight South African villages in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) occurred in half of the villages. Questionnaires regarding various demographic and medical factors were administered and blood samples were obtained. We classified the women into three exposure groups by type of residence: unsprayed village (n = 175), IRS village in household with a low likelihood of DDT use (non-DDT IRS household, n = 106), IRS village in household with a high likelihood of DDT use (DDT IRS household, n = 100). We used multivariable models of natural log-transformed DDT plasma levels (in micrograms per liter) and DDE (in micrograms per liter) to identify predictors for each group. Results: Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in unsprayed villages were 0.3 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.1–0.9] and 1.7 (IQR: 0.7–5.5), respectively. Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in DDT IRS households were 2.6 (IQR: 1.1–6.6) and 8.5 (IQR: 4.7–18.0), respectively. In unsprayed villages, women with water piped to the yard, rather than a public tap, had 73% lower DDT (95% CI: –83, –57%) and 61% lower DDE (95% CI: –74, –40%) levels. In DDT IRS households, women who reported taking more than six actions to prepare their home before IRS (e.g., covering water and food) had 40% lower DDT levels (95% CI: –63, –0.3%) than women who took fewer than four actions. Conclusion: The predictors of DDT and DDE plasma levels identified in the present study may inform interventions aimed at decreasing exposure. Among households where DDT is likely to be used for IRS, education regarding home preparations may provide an interventional target. Citation: Whitworth KW, Bornman RM, Archer JI, Kudumu MO, Travlos GS, Wilson RE, Longnecker MP. 2014. Predictors of plasma DDT and DDE concentrations among women exposed to indoor residual spraying for malaria control in the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB). Environ Health Perspect 122:545–552;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307025 PMID:24577839

Bornman, Riana M.S.; Archer, Janet I.; Kudumu, Mwenda O.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Wilson, Ralph E.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2014-01-01

132

Group A streptococcal vaginitis: an unrecognized cause of vaginal symptoms in adult women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Vaginal infection with group A streptococci (GAS) is an established cause of vaginitis amongst prepubescent girls, but largely\\u000a unrecognized in adult women and therefore often misdiagnosed as vulvovaginal candidosis. We sought to give an overview of\\u000a the epidemiology, risk factors, symptoms, signs, and treatment of GAS vaginitis in adult women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Systematic literature search.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We identified nine case reports covering 12

Hans Verstraelen; Rita Verhelst; Mario Vaneechoutte; Marleen Temmerman

2011-01-01

133

Physical and Psychologic Effects of Aromatherapy Inhalation on Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives Stress reduction care is important for pregnant women to decrease obstetric complications and children's health problems after birth. The aim of this study is to clarify the physical and psychologic effects of inhalation aromatherapy on pregnant women. Essential oils with high linalool and linalyl acetate content that may be used during pregnancy were selected and among these, and the one preferred by the participant was used. Design This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Settings/location This trial was performed at a gynecology outpatient department in a hospital in Kyoto, Japan. Participants The study included pregnant women in week 28 of a single pregnancy with a normal course. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group and a control group. They were seated in the resting, seated position for 10 minutes. During the latter 5 minutes of each 10-minute session, aromatherapy inhalation was performed for the aromatherapy group. Outcome measures Before and after the intervention, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was measured. During the trial, the heart-rate fluctuations were measured for the autonomic nervous system regulation. Results A total of 13 pregnant women participated in the trial. Seven (7) participants were assigned to the aromatherapy group and 6 participants to the control group. The results of the POMS were such that based on an intragroup comparison, significant differences were observed in the Tension-Anxiety score (p<0.05) and the Anger-Hostility score (p<0.05), and the respective improvements observed were due to aromatherapy. The results of the autonomic nervous system regulation were such that based on an intragroup comparison within the aromatherapy group, the parasympathetic nerve activity increased significantly (p<0.05). Conclusions Aromatherapy inhalation using essential oils containing linalyl acetate and linalool was found to be effective for the POMS and parasympathetic nerve activity, based on an intragroup comparison. However, based on a comparison between the groups, no substantial difference was observed; hence, further study is necessary in the future. PMID:23410527

2013-01-01

134

Evaluating psychosocial group counselling with afghan women: is this a useful intervention?  

PubMed

Data from 109 Afghan women participating in psychosocial counselling groups was analyzed to measure the groups' effects on their lives. Most participants were survivors of war-related forms of violence. Others had experienced domestic violence and some were still living under abusive circumstances while attending counselling. The evaluation took place in the group setting and each participant was asked to answer a standardized set of four open-ended questions. All answers were tabulated, coded and eventually put into themes to be analyzed. Over 90% of the participants described an improvement in their social life or their general health. This research shows that this model of psychosocial care is a useful intervention to assist Afghan women suffering from a variety of physical or emotional problems. PMID:19491486

Manneschmidt, Sybille; Griese, Karin

2009-01-01

135

Pain control: mastery through group experience.  

PubMed

This paper describes a group program which is part of the therapeutic management of out-patients with chronic pain at the multidisciplinary Pain Clinic in Hamilton, Ontario (McMaster Division, Chedoke-McMaster Hospital). The programme seeks to assist chronic pain sufferers in developing more adaptive coping styles. Groups of 12--14 patients meet for 9 weeks, 3 h/week, under the co-leadership of a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist with backgrounds in psychology and psychiatry. Seventy-five patients with diverse aetiologies of chronic pain have completed these "pain control classes". Outcome was assessed on the basis of several parameters. Results indicate a considerable reduction in depression, pain perception and analgesic intake. Conversely, employment figures increased from 20 to 48% after completion of the program. 21% were considered failures. Significant variables differentiating successes from failures were sex, marital status, work incentive, employment and absence of litigation or Workmen's Compensation claims. PMID:7232014

Herman, E; Baptiste, S

1981-02-01

136

Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a home exercise programme of strength and balance retraining exercises in reducing falls and injuries in elderly women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of an individually tailored programme of physical therapy in the home (exercise group, n = 116) compared with the usual care and an equal number of social visits (control group, n = 117). SETTING: 17 general practices in Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Women aged 80 years and older living in the community and registered with a general practice in Dunedin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of falls and injuries related to falls and time between falls during one year of follow up; changes in muscle strength and balance measures after six months. RESULTS: After one year there were 152 falls in the control group and 88 falls in the exercise group. The mean (SD) rate of falls was lower in the exercise than the control group (0.87 (1.29) v 1.34 (1.93) falls per year respectively; difference 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.90). The relative hazard for the first four falls in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.68 (0.52 to 0.90). The relative hazard for a first fall with injury in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.61 (0.39 to 0.97). After six months, balance had improved in the exercise group (difference between groups in change in balance score 0.43 (0.21 to 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: An individual programme of strength and balance retraining exercises improved physical function and was effective in reducing falls and injuries in women 80 years and older. PMID:9366737

Campbell, A. J.; Robertson, M. C.; Gardner, M. M.; Norton, R. N.; Tilyard, M. W.; Buchner, D. M.

1997-01-01

137

The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African…

Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

2010-01-01

138

Organizational Repertoires and Institutional Change: Women's Groups and the Transformation of U.S. Politics, 1890-1920.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses social changes brought about in the United States as a result of the women's suffrage movement. Explains that groups marginalized by existing institutions must create alternative organizations if they are to be successful. Describes political innovations used by women's groups in the struggle for voting rights. (CFR)

Clemens, Elisabeth S.

1993-01-01

139

Moving beyond safe sex to women-controlled safe sex: A concept analysis  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of a conceptual analysis of women-controlled safe sex. Background Women bear disproportionate burdens from sexually-related health compromising outcomes. Imbalanced societal gender and power positions contribute to high morbidities. The expression, women-controlled safe sex, aims to empower women to gain control of their sexual lives. Few researchers focus on contextualized socio-cultural definitions of sexual safety among women. Data Sources The sample included scientific literature from Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Sociological Abstracts. Papers were published 2000–2010. Review Methods Critical analyses of literature about women-controlled safe sex were performed using Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis methods. The search focused on social and cultural influences on sexual practices aimed at increasing women’s control over their sexual safety. Results The analysis uncovered five attributes of women-controlled safe sex: technology; access to choices; women at-risk; “condom migration” panic; and communication. Three antecedents included: male partner influence; body awareness; and self-efficacy. Consequences were categorized as positive or negative. Nine surrogate terms included: empowerment; gender power; female-controlled sexual barrier method; microbicides; diaphragm; sexual negotiation and communication; female condom; women-initiated disease transmission prevention; and spermicides. Finally, a consensus definition was identified: a socio- culturally influenced multilevel process for initiating sexual safety by women deemed at-risk for sexually-related dangers, usually sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV/AIDS. Conclusion This concept analysis described current significance, uses, and applications of women-controlled safe sex in the scientific literature. The authors clarified its limited nature and conclude that additional conceptual refinement in nursing is necessary to influence women’s health. PMID:22111843

Alexander, Kamila A.; Coleman, Christopher L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Jemott, Loretta S.

2011-01-01

140

Waseda University Doctoral Dissertation Elevator Group Supervisory Control of  

E-print Network

Waseda University Doctoral Dissertation Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Overview of Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) . . . . . . 1.2.1 Development History of Elevator Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Control Algorithms

Fernandez, Thomas

141

Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group  

PubMed Central

Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG) or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG) incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70) completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ? .05) within each group with a mean (± standard deviation) weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35) vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35). Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat) ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG). Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG). There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (? 10%), cholesterol (<200 mg/day), and sodium (< 2400 mg/day), with increased total servings/day of fruits and vegetables (4.0 ± 2.2, TFG vs 4.6 ± 3.2, MRG). However, the TFG had a significantly lower dietary intake of several vitamins and minerals compared to the MRG and was at greater risk for inadequate intake. Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy-restricted diet for weight loss. PMID:17592648

Ashley, Judith M; Herzog, Holly; Clodfelter, Sharon; Bovee, Vicki; Schrage, Jon; Pritsos, Chris

2007-01-01

142

Examining the efficacy of a brief group protective behavioral strategies skills training alcohol intervention with college women.  

PubMed

College students' use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students' use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women randomized to either a PBS skills training intervention or study skills control condition. Participants attended a 45-min group session and completed online surveys pre- and postintervention (1 month and 6 months). We conducted a series of 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANCOVAs with condition and baseline mental health (anxiety/depression) as the between-subjects factors and time as the within-subjects factor. Intervention participants, relative to controls, reported significantly greater increases in PBS use and reductions in both heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consequences. The intervention was particularly effective in increasing PBS use at 1 month among participants with high anxiety. Further, tests of moderated mediation showed a significant conditional indirect effect of condition on 1-month consequences through PBS use among participants with high levels of anxiety. Findings provide preliminary support for a brief PBS-specific group intervention to reduce alcohol risk among college women, particularly anxious women. Future research is needed to strengthen the long-term effectiveness of the present approach and further explore the moderating effects of mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25347024

Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W; Martens, Matthew P

2014-12-01

143

The Effect of Education on Sexual Health of Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Sexuality constitutes an important part of women’s life. Healthy and proper sexual functioning is one of the signs of physical and mental health. The present study aimed to identify the effect of education on sexual health of women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 80 married women at reproductive age were randomly divided into a control and an education group. These women participated in this study based on self-reporting of having hypoactive sexual desire disorder. After six weekly educational sessions regarding sexual health, percentage of changes in sexual desire was assayed using Hurlbert index of sexual desire. Independent and paired t-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: After the intervention, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the sexual desire score (P<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference within groups in this regard (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that educational intervention regarding sexual health was effective for the women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Thus, establishing sexual health education units in different health centers is highly necessary. These centers can help couples to promote their sexual knowledge and treat their sexual dysfunctions. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012101911032N2 PMID:25349850

Kaviani, Maasumeh; Rahnavard, Tahereh; Azima, Sara; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Asadi, Nasrin; Sayadi, Mehrab

2014-01-01

144

Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of…

Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

2010-01-01

145

Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

2012-01-01

146

The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. Methods and design The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44–50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25–29.9 kg/m2) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n?=?28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n?=?26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). Discussion The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether a relatively low intensity, health professional led intervention will achieve better weight control in pre-menopausal women than a self-directed intervention. The results will add to the scant body of literature on obesity prevention methods at an under-researched high-risk life stage, and inform the development of population-based interventions. Trial registration ACTRN12611000064909 PMID:24156558

2013-01-01

147

Safety and efficacy of antenatal milk expressing for women with diabetes in pregnancy: protocol for a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Many maternity providers recommend that women with diabetes in pregnancy express and store breast milk in late pregnancy so breast milk is available after birth, given (1) infants of these women are at increased risk of hypoglycaemia in the first 24?h of life; and (2) the delay in lactogenesis II compared with women without diabetes that increases their infant's risk of receiving infant formula. The Diabetes and Antenatal Milk Expressing (DAME) trial will establish whether advising women with diabetes in pregnancy (pre-existing or gestational) to express breast milk from 36?weeks gestation increases the proportion of infants who require admission to special or neonatal intensive care units (SCN/NICU) compared with infants of women receiving standard care. Secondary outcomes include birth gestation, breastfeeding outcomes and economic impact. Methods and analysis Women will be recruited from 34?weeks gestation to a multicentre, two arm, unblinded randomised controlled trial. The intervention starts at 36?weeks. Randomisation will be stratified by site, parity and diabetes type. Women allocated to the intervention will be taught expressing and encouraged to hand express twice daily for 10?min and keep an expressing diary. The sample size of 658 (329 per group) will detect a 10% difference in proportion of babies admitted to SCN/NICU (85% power, ? 0.05). Data are collected at recruitment (structured questionnaire), after birth (abstracted from medical record blinded to group), and 2 and 12?weeks postpartum (telephone interview). Data analysis: the intervention group will be compared with the standard care group by intention to treat analysis, and the primary outcome compared using ?2 and ORs. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval will be obtained from participating sites. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented to clinicians, policymakers and study participants. Trial registration number Australian Controlled Trials Register ACTRN12611000217909. PMID:25358679

Forster, Della A; Jacobs, Susan; Amir, Lisa H; Davis, Peter; Walker, Susan P; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Donath, Susan M; Moorhead, Anita M; Ford, Rachael; McNamara, Catharine; Aylward, Amanda; Gold, Lisa

2014-01-01

148

Regular physical activity reduces the effects of Achilles tendon vibration on postural control for older women.  

PubMed

The aim was to determine in what extent physical activity influences postural control when visual, vestibular, and/or proprioceptive systems are disrupted. Two groups of healthy older women: an active group (74.0?±?3.8 years) who practiced physical activities and a sedentary group (74.7?±?6.3 years) who did not, underwent 12 postural conditions consisted in altering information emanating from sensory systems by means of sensory manipulations (i.e., eyes closed, cervical collar, tendon vibration, electromyostimulation, galvanic vestibular stimulation, foam surface). The center of foot pressure velocity was recorded on a force platform. Results indicate that the sensory manipulations altered postural control. The sedentary group was more disturbed than the active group by the use of tendon vibration. There was no clear difference between the two groups in the other conditions. This study suggests that the practice of physical activities is beneficial as a means of limiting the effects of tendon vibration on postural control through a better use of the not manipulated sensory systems and/or a more efficient reweighting to proprioceptive information from regions unaffected by the tendon vibration. PMID:24853711

Maitre, J; Serres, I; Lhuisset, L; Bois, J; Gasnier, Y; Paillard, T

2015-02-01

149

A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Psycho-Education Intervention by Midwives in Reducing Childbirth Fear in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background Childbirth fear is associated with increased obstetric interventions and poor emotional and psychological health for women. The purpose of this study is to test an antenatal psycho-education intervention by midwives in reducing women's childbirth fear. Methods Women (n = 1,410) attending three hospitals in South East Queensland, Australia, were recruited into the BELIEF trial. Participants reporting high fear were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 170) or control (n = 169) groups. All women received a decision-aid booklet on childbirth choices. The telephone counseling intervention was offered at 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. The control group received usual care offered by public maternity services. Primary outcome was reduction in childbirth fear (WDEQ-A) from second trimester to 36 weeks’ gestation. Secondary outcomes were improved childbirth self-efficacy, and reduced decisional conflict and depressive symptoms. Demographic, obstetric & psychometric measures were administered at recruitment, and 36 weeks of pregnancy. Results There were significant differences between groups on postintervention scores for fear of birth (p < 0.001) and childbirth self-efficacy (p = 0.002). Decisional conflict and depressive symptoms reduced but were not significant. Conclusion Psycho-education by trained midwives was effective in reducing high childbirth fear levels and increasing childbirth confidence in pregnant women. Improving antenatal emotional well-being may have wider positive social and maternity care implications for optimal childbirth experiences. PMID:25303111

Toohill, Jocelyn; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Buist, Anne; Turkstra, Erika; Ryding, Elsa-Lena

2014-01-01

150

Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and  

E-print Network

Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using and real world problems. GNP was firstly applied to Elevator Group Supervisory Control Syste m (EGSCS such as tile-worlds models. EGSCS is the system, where the elevator group supervisory controller controls

Fernandez, Thomas

151

Brief Report: Adapted Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Depressed Low-Income African American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examine the degree to which a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention can be adapted to be culturally sensitive in treating depressed low-income African American women with multiple stressors. We describe the adaptations we made to an existing intervention, a group treatment developed for depressed low-income medical patients. We also describe our evaluation of the adapted treatment in

Laura P. Kohn; Tatia Oden; Ricardo F. Muñoz; Ayinka Robinson; Daria Leavitt

2002-01-01

152

Cognitive, assertive, and insight-oriented group therapies in the treatment of reactive depression in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

33 nonpsychotic, nonsuicidal women (mean age 35.1 yrs) who scored between 15 and 31 on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and whose depression was situationally related were assigned to 6-wk cognitive, assertive, or insight-oriented group therapy. Ss were administered a standardized interview, BDI, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Personality Data Form, and 4 tape-recorded scenes requiring an assertive response before and after

Karen A. LaPointe; David C. Rimm

1980-01-01

153

Late Life Attachment in Context: Patterns of Relating Among Men and Women from Seven Ethnic Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to develop the later life attachment literature by providing data contrasting patterns\\u000a of attachment among 616 older men and women (aged 50 to 70) from seven ethnic groups in the United States: African Americans,\\u000a English-speaking Caribbeans, Haitians, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, Eastern Europeans, and European Americans. A multivariate\\u000a analysis of the variance with ethnicity,

Katherine L. Fiori; Nathan S. Consedine; Carol Magai

2009-01-01

154

Men’s Use of Controlling Behaviors: A Comparison of Reports by Women in a Domestic Violence Shelter and Women in a Domestic Violence Offender Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current descriptive study seeks to broaden empirical understanding about family violence by comparing women’s reports\\u000a of their male partner’s controlling behaviors in samples of women in a domestic violence offender’s program (N?=?77) and women in a domestic violence shelter (N?=?77). Three interesting findings were noted. First, the majority of women in the IPV offender’s program reported their male\\u000a partner

Catherine A. Simmons; Peter Lehmann; Shannon Collier-Tenison

2008-01-01

155

Disparities exist between National food group recommendations and the dietary intakes of women  

PubMed Central

Background Preconception and pregnancy dietary intakes can influence the health of future generations. In this study we compared the food intakes of reproductive-aged women by pregnancy status, to current Australian recommendations. Methods Data are from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, younger cohort aged 25-30 years in 2003, with self-reported status as pregnant (n = 606), trying to conceive (n = 454), given birth in the last 12 months (n = 829) or other (n = 5597). Diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire. Food group servings and nutrient intakes were compared to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) and Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs). Results No women met all AGHE food group recommendations. Highest adherence rates [mean (95% CI) servings/day] were for meat [85%, 1.9(1.8-1.9)], fruit [44%, 2.1(2.1-2.2)] and dairy [35%, 1.8(1.8-1.9)], with < 14% meeting remaining recommendations. Women who achieved NRVs (folate, iron, calcium, zinc, fibre) for pregnancy, breastfeeding and adult life stages were 1.5%, 3.3% and 13.7%, respectively. Compared to AGHE, women consumed more servings of fruit (4.9 vs 4.0;P = 0.034) and dairy (3.4 vs 2.0;P = 0.006) to achieve pregnancy NRVs; more dairy (2.9 vs 2.0;P = 0.001), less fruit (3.9 vs 5.0;P < .001) and vegetables (3.4 vs 7.0;P < .001) to achieve breastfeeding NRVs; more fruit (3.6 vs 3.0;P < .001), dairy (2.5 vs 2.0;P < .001), meat (1.8 vs 1.5;P = 0.015), less vegetables (3.6 vs 5.0;P < .001) to achieve adult NRVs. Conclusions The AGHE does not align with contemporary diets of Australian women or enable them to meet all NRVs. Current tools to guide food consumption by women during pregnancy require revision. PMID:21819627

2011-01-01

156

Daughters of Abya Yala: Native Women Regaining Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book compiles testimonies of the struggles, everyday life, and accomplishments of Indian women from Central and South America. Following an introduction to the increasing role of Indian women in international forums and indigenous organizations, the words of individual women describe the problems that affect them and their determination to…

Alderete, Wara, Ed.; And Others

157

Women with spontaneous 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism) have lower perceived social support than control women  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that women with spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency differ from control women with regard to perceived social support and to investigate the relationship between perceived social support and self-esteem. Design Cross-sectional Setting Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, National Institutes of Health. Patient(s) Women diagnosed with spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency (N=154) at a mean age of 27 years and healthy control women (N=63). Intervention(s) Administration of validated self-reporting instruments. Main Outcome Measure(s) Personal Resource Questionnaire-85 (PRQ85), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Result(s) Women with primary ovarian insufficiency had significantly lower scores than controls on the perceived social support scale and the self-esteem scale. The findings remained significant after modeling with multivariate regression for differences in age, marital status, and having children. In patients there was a significant positive correlation between self-esteem scores and perceived social support. We found no significant differences in perceived social support or self-esteem related to marital status, whether or not they had children, or time since diagnosis. Conclusion(s) This evidence supports the need for prospective controlled studies. Strategies to improve social support and self-esteem might provide a therapeutic approach to reduce the emotional suffering that accompanies the life-altering diagnosis of spontaneous primary ovarian insufficiency. PMID:18829005

Orshan, Susan A.; Ventura, June L.; Covington, Sharon N.; Vanderhoof, Vien H.; Troendle, James F.; Nelson, Lawrence M.

2009-01-01

158

Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B) and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A). Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01). Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively). Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08), BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01). Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients.

Ismail, Suriani; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Latiff, Khalib A.; Saad, Hazizi A.; Majid, Latifah A.; Othman, Fadlan M.

2015-01-01

159

Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:…

Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

2007-01-01

160

Group Therapy within the NHS V: Patients' Views on the Benefit of Group Therapy for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a study of how members of a slow-open analytic group for women survivors of childhood sexual abuse felt about the helpfulness of the group. The respondents' views and comments are analysed and related to their age, their termination of the group, length of follow-up, number of sessions, final stage of depression and overall change in depression

Zaida Hall; Elizabeth King

1997-01-01

161

Human rights versus legal control over women's reproductive self-determination.  

PubMed

States have a duty under international human rights law to protect people's health. Nonetheless, while some health-related policies and laws protect basic human rights, others violate fundamental rights when they criminalize, prohibit, and restrict access to necessary health services. For example, laws and regulations related to protection of life from conception, contraception, actions of pregnant women, and abortion can harm women and place women and health care providers in jeopardy of legal penalization. Given the adverse consequences of punitive and restrictive laws related to pregnancy, advocates, civil society groups, human rights groups, and government institutions must work together to promote, protect, and fulfill women's fundamental reproductive rights. PMID:25006084

Uberoi, Diya; de Bruyn, Maria

2013-01-01

162

Controlling Images, Media, and Women's Development: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Myths, stereotypes, and controlling images are embedded in the cultural textbook of cinema. Women are disempowered and marginalized by these images, and it is important to explore the existence and prevalence of these images in order to examine their effects on women's development. A review of the literature concerning controlling images and the…

Hammer, Tonya R.

2009-01-01

163

2007 Presidential Address: Fear of Losing Control--Power, Perfectionism, and the Psychology of Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anecdotal evidence and popular culture suggest that fear of losing control of oneself is common among North American women, yet there is little in the way of data or theory to show why so many women fear loss of control or how to help them to leave that fear behind. In this article a commonly accepted definition of self-regulation is examined…

Chrisler, Joan C.

2008-01-01

164

Home ovulation tests and stress in women trying to conceive: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Does the use of a digital home ovulation test have any effect on the level of stress in women seeking to conceive? SUMMARY ANSWER No difference was found in levels of stress between women using digital ovulation tests to time intercourse compared with women who were trying to conceive without any additional aids: in addition, their use did not negatively impact time to conception in users but may provide additional benefits, including an increased understanding of the menstrual cycle, reassurance and confidence in focusing conception attempts to the correct time in the cycle. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY It has been suggested that timing of intercourse in such a way that it coincides with ovulation by using ovulation tests can lead to emotional distress; however, no study has been conducted to investigate this hypothesis specifically, until now. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION The study was performed over two complete menstrual cycles as a prospective, randomized, controlled trial including quantitative and qualitative methods. The intervention (test) group were given digital ovulation tests to time intercourse to the most fertile time of the cycle and the control group were provided with the current National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for increasing the chances of conception (intercourse every 2–3 days) and asked not to use any additional methods to time when ovulation occurs. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND METHODS A total of 210 women who were seeking to conceive were recruited from the general UK population. A total of 115 women were randomized to the test group and 95 to the control group through block randomization. The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) were used to measure subjective stress levels, the Short-Form 12 health survey was used as a measure of general health and well-being and urine samples were measured for biochemical markers of stress including urinary cortisol. Qualitative data were collected in the form of a telephone interview upon study completion. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no evidence for a difference either in total stress as measured using the PSS or in total positive or negative affect using the PANAS questionnaire between the test and control groups at any time point for the duration of the study. During cycle 1, for example, on Day 6, the difference in total stress score (test–control) was ?0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) ?2.47 to 1.24] and on the day of the LH surge, it was 0.53 (95% CI ?1.38 to 2.44). In addition, no correlation was observed between time trying to conceive and levels of stress, or between age and levels of stress, and no evidence was found to show that stress affected whether or not a pregnancy was achieved. There is also no evidence that the biochemistry measurements are related to whether a pregnancy was achieved or of a difference in biochemistry between the treatment groups. The use of digital ovulation tests did not negatively affect time to conception and with an adequately sized study, could potentially show improvement. To ensure that the results of this study were not affected by chance, we used a number of different methods for measuring stress, each of which had been independently validated. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Randomization occurred before the start of the study because of the need to provide the ovulation tests in readiness for Day 6 of the first cycle. As a consequence, a number of women fell pregnant during this period (22 and 13 in the test and control groups, respectively). A further 15 women were either lost to follow-up or withdrew consent prior to study start. Pregnancy rate was higher overall in the test group, so to ensure that there were sufficient data from women who failed to become pregnant in the test group, we implemented an additional biased recruitment. This second cohort may have been different from the first, although no significant differences were observed between the two

Tiplady, S.; Jones, G.; Campbell, M.; Johnson, S.; Ledger, W.

2013-01-01

165

Effectiveness of Group Psychotherapy Among Women with Multiple Traumatic Life Events: A Pilot Study in the Southeast Anatolian Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of group psychotherapy in decreasing PTSD symptoms and psychiatric distress (e.g., depression, anxiety, and hostility) and increasing adequate coping strategies was examined among women exposed to severe violence and multiple trauma. The gender- and culture-sensitive group therapy was tailored to increase self-awareness, violence protection, empowerment, and coping capacity and to create support networks. Participants were 33 women from

Ufuk Sezgin; Raija-Leena Punamäki

2008-01-01

166

The influence of ethnic group variation on victimization and help seeking among Latino women.  

PubMed

Interpersonal violence research on Latinos has largely ignored the ethnic group variations that are included under the pan-ethnic term Latino. The current study adds to the literature by utilizing a national sample of Latino women to examine the interpersonal victimization experiences and help-seeking responses to victimization by ethnic group. The sample was drawn from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas Study (SALAS; Cuevas & Sabina, 2010) that surveyed 2,000 self-identified adult Latino women. For the purpose of this study, victimization in the United States was examined among Mexican ethnics (73.3% of sample), Cuban ethnics (14%), and other ethnics (12.8%). Mexican ethnicity was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of experiencing any, physical, sexual, threat, and stalking victimization. Findings also show that higher levels of Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with decreased odds of experiencing any victimization, whereas Anglo orientation, as measured by the Brief ARSMA-II (Cuéllar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995), was associated with greater odds of experiencing any victimization. Anglo orientation was significantly associated with formal help seeking. Taken as a whole, these findings emphasize the importance of bilingual and culturally competent services and also reveal that culturally competent services includes developing an understanding of the cultural differences between Latino ethnic groups. Specifically, service providers should be aware that Latinos of Mexican ethnicity may face unique risks for victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25111549

Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L

2015-01-01

167

Colonization of pregnant women and their newborn infants with group-B streptococci.  

PubMed

As group B streptococci (GBS) prevalence varies from place to place and this organism is responsible for serious infections in newborns such as septicaemia and meningitis, the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of GBS in pregnant women and their neonates. From June 1998 to April 1999 a total of 317 pregnant women and their neonates were examined for GBS. GBS colonization rate was 2.52% and 1.26% in pregnant women and their neonates respectively. Four sites - viz. throat, external ears, external nares and stump of umbilicus from neonates were found to be equally colonized by GBS immediately after birth and at the time of discharge from hospital, except the umbilicus which was not swabbed at the time of discharge. None of the neonates developed GBS related sepsis. Selective broth medium (SBM) was found to be a superior transport method over Stuart transport medium and filter paper method. All the isolates were sensitive to Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Penicillin followed by Chloramphenicol 66.6% (12/18). All the strains were resistant to Gentamicin, followed by Tetracycline 94.4% (17/18) and Kanamycin 88.8% (16/18). PMID:17664797

Kulkarni, A A; Pawar, S G; Dharmadhikari, C A; Kulkarni, R D

2001-01-01

168

Breast cancer screening uptake among women from different ethnic groups in London: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To use newly available self-assigned ethnicity information to investigate variation in breast cancer screening uptake for women from the 16 specific ethnic groups within the broad Asian, Black and White groups that previous studies report. Setting National cancer screening programme services within London. Participants 655?516 female residents aged 50–69, invited for screening between March 2006 and December 2009. Ethnicity information was available for 475?478 (72.5%). White British women were the largest group (306?689, 46.8%), followed by Indian (34?687, 5.3%), White Other (30?053, 4.6%), Black Caribbean (25?607, 3.9%), White Irish (17?271, 2.6%), Black African (17?071, 2.6%) and Asian Other (10?579, 1.6%). Outcome measures Uptake for women in different ethnic groups aged 50–52 for a first call invitation to the programme, and for women aged 50–69 for a routine recall invitation after a previous mammography. Uptake is reported (1) for London overall, adjusted using logistic regression, for age at invitation, socioeconomic deprivation and geographical screening area, and (2) for individual areas, adjusted for age and deprivation. Results White British women attended their first call (67%) and routine recall (78%) invitations most often. Indian women were more likely to attend their first (61%) or routine recall (74%) than Bangladeshi women (43% and 61%, respectively), and Black Caribbean women were more likely than Black African women to attend first call (63% vs 49%, respectively) and routine recall (74% vs 64%, respectively). There was less variation between ethnic groups in some screening areas. Conclusions Breast cancer screening uptake in London varies by specific ethnic group for first and subsequent invitations, with White British women being more likely to attend. The variation in the uptake for women from the same ethnic groups in different geographical areas suggests that collaboration about the successful engagement of services with different communities could improve uptake for all women. PMID:25324320

Jack, Ruth H; Møller, Henrik; Robson, Tony; Davies, Elizabeth A

2014-01-01

169

Exercising Choice and Control--Women with Learning Disabilities and Contraception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project used semi-structured in-depth interviews to ask women with learning disabilities about the experience of being prescribed contraception. It also asked general practitioners about their prescribing practices through a postal survey. A service user group was involved at different stages of the project. Most of the women

McCarthy, Michelle

2010-01-01

170

Exploring Iranian Women's Perceptions regarding Control and Prevention of Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian women's perceptions, behaviors, and beliefs related to breast cancer screening, breast cancer, and follow up care. A qualitative descriptive inquiry with both individual and focus group interviews was conducted in Tehran with 31 Farsi-speaking women, age 35 to 65 years of age. A constant comparison…

Thomas, Eileen; Escandon, Socorro; Lamyian, Minoor; Ahmadi, Fazlolah; Setoode, Sam Mohammad; Golkho, Shokoofe

2011-01-01

171

Employment and Quality of Life Outcomes Among Women with Fibromyalgia Compared to Healthy Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of paid employment on health related quality of life among women with fibromyalgia compared to a group of women who were otherwise healthy. Participants were recruited from 118 rheumatology practices randomly sampled from the membership of the American College of Rheumatology. Three hundred and sixty-five patients were referred to the

Susan Reisine; Judith Fifield; Stephen Walsh; Deborah Dauser

2004-01-01

172

DCCPS: TCRB: TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Low SES Women and Girl  

Cancer.gov

Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Home TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control

173

Group therapy and its barriers for women suffering from postpartum depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data were collected to pilot-test the feasibility and the effects of the “Gruen” Postpartum Depression Group Therapy as an intervention for depression for a small treatment and control group of postpartum depressed mothers. Treatment was a ten-week group therapy consisting of four interacting aspects: (1) education and information, (2) stress reduction techniques,(3) development of support systems, and (4) cognitive restructuring.

Doris Noel Ugarriza

2004-01-01

174

Effects of oral contraceptives on selected parameters of the homeostatic control system in young women having a sudden disorder of the auditory and/or balance system.  

PubMed

The purpose of the paper was to assess the effects of oral contraceptives on selected parameters of the homeostatic control system in women having a sudden disorder of the auditory and/or balance system. The study included 105 young women divided into two groups: Group I-52 women with the disorder of the auditory and/or balance system using hormonal contraceptives for at least 2 months, aged 20-49; and Group II-53 women without any disorder of the auditory and/or balance system using hormonal contraceptives for at least 2 months, aged 18-40. The patients included in the study underwent a full otoneurological evaluation, detailed laryngological diagnostics and an evaluation of selected parameters of the homeostatic control system-fibrinogen level, D-dimer level, evaluation of APTT and PT indicator, plasma estradiol and progesterone with the Roche Cobas analyser by means of chemiluminescence. The vertigo occurring in the study group was most often central (59.6 % of cases), mixed with compensation in 36.6 % of cases, and peripheral only in 3.8 % of cases, indicating labyrinth damage in 40.4 % of cases. An analysis of the progesterone level, considering the menstrual cycle phase in the group, showed that its value was abnormal in 51.0 % of women in the study group and 47.1 % in the control group. In their own studies, the authors observed that the estradiol level in the plasma, considering the menstrual cycle phase in the study group, was abnormal in 41.2 % of women and that the differences in its concentration were statistically significant in the study and control groups (p = 0.005), which may have a negative impact on the possibility of a thromboembolic episode. PMID:24337825

Urbaniak, Joanna; Zieli?ska-Bli?niewska, Hanna; Mi?o?ski, Jaros?aw; Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Ku?mierczyk, Krzysztof; Olszewski, Jurek

2015-02-01

175

Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race. PMID:21666779

Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

2011-01-01

176

Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for weight loss in midlife women: a controlled study with follow-up  

PubMed Central

Objective Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be effective in weight reduction. This study explores whether individual, 8-session CBT can promote weight loss in midlife women. Methods Anthropometric (weight, abdominal perimeter, and body mass index calculation), psychological (health-related and sexual quality of life, stress, anxiety, and depression), and behavioral measures (binge eating disorder and restrained, external, and emotional eating) were assessed at baseline (T1), posttreatment (T2), and 4-month follow-up (T3), for a total of 21 women at baseline; the CBT group (n = 11) and the control group (n = 10; waiting list) were compared. Results Statistically significant effects that were dependent on the intervention were observed on weight (F = 4.402; P = 0.035; ?p2 = 0.404; ? = 0.652) and body mass index (F = 3.804; P = 0.050; ?p2 = 0.369; ? = 0.585); furthermore, marginally significant effects were observed on external eating (F = 2.844; P = 0.095; ?p2 = 0.304; ? = 0.461). At follow-up, women in the CBT group presented with lower weight, abdominal perimeter, body mass index, and external eating; higher health-related quality-of-life and restrained eating were also observed in this group. Most differences identified were at a marginally significant level. Moreover, at follow-up, none of the participants of the CBT group met the criteria for binge eating disorder, whereas the number of women with binge eating disorder in the control group remained the same through all three assessments. Conclusion An effective, though small, weight loss was achieved. Changes in quality of life were also observed. Moreover, changes in external eating behavior were successful. PMID:23091402

Pimenta, Filipa; Leal, Isabel; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina

2012-01-01

177

Weight Gain Prevention among Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Women 25 to 45 years old are at risk for weight gain and future obesity. This trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of two interventions relative to a control group in preventing weight gain among normal or overweight women and to identify demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors related to weight gain prevention.Research Methods and Procedures: Healthy women (N

Michele D. Levine; Mary Lou Klem; Melissa A. Kalarchian; Rena R. Wing; Lisa Weissfeld; Li Qin; Marsha D. Marcus

2007-01-01

178

Belief in Divine Control, Coping, and Race/Ethnicity among Older Women with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Belief in divine control is often assumed to be fatalistic. However, the assumption has rarely been investigated in racial/ethnic minorities. Objectives This study aims to examine the association between belief in divine control and coping and how the association was moderated by ethnicity/acculturation in a multi-ethnic sample of breast cancer patients. Methods Latina, African American, and non-Hispanic White older women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (N=257) from a population-based survey completed the scale of Belief in Divine Control and the Brief COPE. Results Belief in divine control was positively related to approach coping (i.e., positive reframing, active coping, and planning) in all ethnic groups. Belief in divine control was positively related to acceptance and negatively related to avoidance coping (i.e., denial and behavioral disengagement) among low-acculturated Latinas. Conclusions Negative presumptions about fatalistic implications of belief in divine control should be critically reappraised, especially when such skepticism is applied to racial/ethnic minority patients. PMID:22529040

Umezawa, Yoshiko; You, Jin; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Leake, Barbara; Maly, Rose C.

2013-01-01

179

Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD) rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. Methods The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group) were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age) were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999–2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR) of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15–44 years) were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami) and 23% (controls), respectively. Results Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded) ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94) or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82). Conclusions Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate. PMID:23687638

Norum, Jan; Svee, Tove E.; Heyd, Anca; Nieder, Carsten

2013-01-01

180

Cooperation, Control, and Concession in Meerkat Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

``Limited control'' models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, ``optimal skew'' models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The

T. H. Clutton-Brock; P. N. M. Brotherton; A. F. Russell; M. J. O'Riain; D. Gaynor; R. Kansky; A. Griffin; M. Manser; L. Sharpe; G. M. McIlrath; T. Small; A. Moss; S. Monfort

2001-01-01

181

Experiences and Status of Chinese Rural Women: Differences among Three Age Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Old China, working women had no rights in such matters as politics, economy, culture, society, and family life. Women were governed by the Chinese feudal society tradition. When "new" China was founded in 1949, working women made up the 7.5 percent of the total work force. By 1983, the number of working women had increased to 36.5 percent. In…

Slimmer, Virginia M.; Kejing, Dai

182

Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba extract on sexual desire in postmenopausal women in Tehran  

PubMed Central

Background: During the menopausal period, sexual desire may decrease. Therefore, restoring the sexual desire may help to improve sexual functioning in this group of women. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: In this triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 80 healthy female volunteers attending three healthcare centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) were enrolled. The instrument of this study had two main parts. The first part covered the personal characteristics of the volunteers and the second part used the Sabbatsberg Sexual Rating Scale (SSRS) to subjectively evaluate sexual desire before and after intervention. The participants received GBE at a dose of 120-240 mg (n = 40) or received placebo (n = 40) daily for 30 days. The results were analyzed using Mann–Whitney test. All analyses were performed using SPSS software. Results: The sexual desire was significantly improved in the GBE group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.02). Conclusions: In this study, we found that GBE had a positive effect on sexual desire of menopausal women; thus, these findings support the positive effect of GBE on the sexual function of menopausal women. PMID:24949064

Pebdani, Mina Amiri; Taavoni, Simin; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Haghani, Hamid

2014-01-01

183

Effect of dietary intervention on serum lignan levels in pregnant women - a controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mother's diet during pregnancy is important, since plant lignans and their metabolites, converted by the intestinal microflora to enterolignans, are proposed to possess multiple health benefits. Aim of our study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention affects lignan concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. METHODS: A controlled dietary intervention trial including 105 first-time pregnant women was conducted

Riitta Luoto; Elham Kharazmi; Niina M Saarinen; Annika I Smeds; Sari Mäkelä; Mahdi Fallah; Jani Raitanen; Leena Hilakivi-Clarke

2010-01-01

184

Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineth-nine Mexican-American women who were identified as either high or low acculturated responded to questionnaires assessing the relationship between birth control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and the values ascribed to motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Using a multiple regression analysis, a significant positive relationship was found for both high and low acculturated women with respect to their attitudes toward

Silvia Ortiz; Jesus Manuel Casas

1990-01-01

185

Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities), calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI) 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value <.001) of receiving a cervical screening test; an OR of 2.05 (CI 1.88 – 2.22; X2: 24.236; p.value <.001) of being ceased from screening; and an OR of 0.14 (CI 0.001 – 0.28; X2: 286.341; p.value <0.001 of being a non-responder compared to age and practice-matched women without learning disabilities. Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities. PMID:18218106

Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter

2008-01-01

186

Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD) loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength) are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks. Methods/Design A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen), bone formation (osteocalcin), and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16) to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal mechanical loads and postural control as mediators of fracture risk. Discussion Results of this study will provide preliminary evidence regarding the value of Tai Chi as an intervention for decreasing fracture risk in osteopenic women. They will also inform the feasibility, value and potential limitations related to the use of pragmatic designs for the study of Tai Chi and related mind-body exercise. If the results are positive, this will help focus future, more in-depth, research on the most promising potential mechanisms of action identified by this study. Trial registration This trial is registered in Clinical Trials.gov, with the ID number of NCT01039012. PMID:20193083

2010-01-01

187

Effect of potassium citrate supplementation or increased fruit and vegetable intake on bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alkali provision may explain why fruit and vegeta- bles benefit bone health. Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of alkali-providing potassium citrate (double-blind) and fruit and vegetable intake (single-blind) on bone turnover over 2 y. Design: We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 276 postmenopausal women (aged 55- 65 y). Women were randomly assigned to 4 groups: high-dose

Helen M Macdonald; Alison J Black; Lorna Aucott; Garry Duthie; Susan Duthie; Rena Sandison; Antonia C Hardcastle; Susan A Lanham; William D Fraser; David M Reid

188

A randomised placebo-controlled safety and acceptability trial of PRO 2000 vaginal microbicide gel in sexually active women in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo determine the safety of 0.5% and 2% PRO 2000 gel in terms of local and systemic adverse events (AE) and the acceptability of gel use.DesignA randomised placebo-controlled trial among healthy, sexually active African women aged 18–45 years. Between June 2003 and September 2004, 180 consenting women were randomly assigned to one of four groups: PRO 2000 gel (0.5% or

Anatoli Kamali; Helen Byomire; Catherine Muwonge; Julie Bakobaki; Clare Rutterford; Pius Okong; Albert Profy; Romano Byaruhanga; Stella Namukwaya; Sheena McCormack; Heiner Grosskurth; Andrew J Nunn; Charles J N Lacey

2010-01-01

189

The Effect of Fathers’ Training Regarding Attachment Skills on Maternal-Fetal Attachments among Primigravida Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Fathers’ cooperation has been less taken into account in the process of pregnancy. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of training the fathers regarding attachment skills on maternal-fetal attachment in primigravida women in 2013. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 150 qualified pregnant women’s husbands. The intervention group took part in four 90-minute sessions of maternal-fetal attachment training held once a week. On the other hand, the control group received the routine pregnancy care. Both groups completed Spielberger’s anxiety scale and Cranley’s questionnaire before and after the intervention. Then, the data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test. Besides, P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The intervention group’s mean score of attachment was 55.98±6.99 and 61.90±5.41 before and after the intervention, respectively. The results of paired t-test revealed a significant difference between the intervention and the control group regarding their mean scores of attachment before and one month after the intervention (P<0.001). Additionally, the results of independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the five dimensions of the questionnaire, namely interaction with the baby (P<0.001), acceptance of maternal role (P<0.001), differentiation between oneself and the baby (P<0.001), attribution of some features to the baby (P=0.01), and self-devotion (P=0.01). Conclusion: Training the fathers regarding the attachment behaviors and skills led to an increase in the maternal-fetal attachment scores. Thus, paternal training should be considered in pregnancy care programs. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012091910886N1 PMID:25349869

Akbarzade, Marzieh; Setodeh, Sara; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Zare, Najaf

2014-01-01

190

Anopheles punctulatus Group: Evolution, Distribution, and Control.  

PubMed

The major malaria vectors of the Southwest Pacific belong to a group of closely related mosquitoes known as the Anopheles punctulatus group. The group comprises 13 co-occurring species that either are isomorphic or carry overlapping morphological features, and today several species remain informally named. The advent of species-diagnostic molecular tools in the 1990s permitted a new raft of studies into the newly differentiated mosquitoes of this group, and these have revealed five species as the region's primary malaria vectors: An. farauti, An. hinesorum, An. farauti 4, An. koliensis, and An. punctulatus. Species' distributions are now well established across Papua New Guinea, northern Australia, and the Solomon Archipelago, but little has been documented thus far in eastern Indonesia. As each species reveals significant differences in distribution and biology, the relative paucity of knowledge of their biology or ecology in relation to malaria transmission is brought into clearer focus. Only three of the species have undergone some form of spatial or population genetics analyses, and this has revealed striking differences in their genetic signatures throughout the region. This review compiles and dissects the key findings for this important mosquito group and points to where future research should focus to maximize the output of field studies in developing relevant knowledge on these malaria vectors. PMID:25341094

Beebe, Nigel W; Russell, Tanya; Burkot, Thomas R; Cooper, Robert D

2015-01-01

191

Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.  

PubMed

"Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts. PMID:11161200

Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

2001-01-19

192

Scaling up community mobilisation through women's groups for maternal and neonatal health: experiences from rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Program coverage is likely to be an important determinant of the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. Rigorous examination and documentation of methods to scale-up interventions and measure coverage are scarce, however. To address this knowledge gap, this paper describes the process and measurement of scaling-up coverage of a community mobilisation intervention for maternal, child and neonatal health in rural Bangladesh and critiques this real-life experience in relation to available literature on scaling-up. Methods Scale-up activities took place in nine unions in rural Bangladesh. Recruitment and training of those who deliver the intervention, communication and engagement with the community and other stakeholders and active dissemination of intervention activities are described. Process evaluation and population survey data are presented and used to measure coverage and the success of scale-up. Results The intervention was scaled-up from 162 women's groups to 810, representing a five-fold increase in population coverage. The proportion of women of reproductive age and pregnant women who were engaged in the intervention increased from 9% and 3%, respectively, to 23% and 29%. Conclusions Examination and documentation of how scaling-up was successfully initiated, led, managed and monitored in rural Bangladesh provide a deeper knowledge base and valuable lessons. Strong operational capabilities and institutional knowledge of the implementing organisation were critical to the success of scale-up. It was possible to increase community engagement with the intervention without financial incentives and without an increase in managerial staff. Monitoring and feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to successful scale-up and require programmatic and operational flexibility. PMID:22273440

2012-01-01

193

Greater anterior insula activation during anticipation of food images in women recovered from anorexia nervosa versus controls.  

PubMed

Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict food consumption and become severely emaciated. Eating food, even thinking of eating food, is often associated with heightened anxiety. However, food cue anticipation in AN is poorly understood. Fourteen women recovered from AN and 12 matched healthy control women performed an anticipation task viewing images of food and object images during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing anticipation of food versus object images between control women and recovered AN groups showed significant interaction only in the right ventral anterior insula, with greater activation in recovered AN anticipating food images. These data support the hypothesis of a disconnect between anticipating and experiencing food stimuli in recovered AN. Insula activation positively correlated with pleasantness ratings of palatable foods in control women, while no such relationship existed in recovered AN, which is further evidence of altered interoceptive function. Finally, these findings raise the possibility that enhanced anterior insula anticipatory response to food cues in recovered AN could contribute to exaggerated sensitivity and anxiety related to food and eating. PMID:23993362

Oberndorfer, Tyson; Simmons, Alan; McCurdy, Danyale; Strigo, Irina; Matthews, Scott; Yang, Tony; Irvine, Zoe; Kaye, Walter

2013-11-30

194

Greater anterior insula activation during anticipation of food images in women recovered from anorexia nervosa versus controls  

PubMed Central

Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict food consumption and become severely emaciated. Eating food, even thinking of eating food, is often associated with heightened anxiety. However, food cue anticipation in AN is poorly understood. Fourteen women recovered from AN and 12 matched healthy control women performed an anticipation task viewing images of food and object images during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing anticipation of food versus object images between control women and recovered AN groups showed significant interaction only in the right ventral anterior insula, with greater activation in recovered AN anticipating food images. These data support the hypothesis of a disconnect between anticipating and experiencing food stimuli in recovered AN. Insula activation positively correlated with pleasantness ratings of palatable foods in control women, while no such relationship existed in recovered AN, which is further evidence of altered interoceptive function. Finally, these findings raise the possibility that enhanced anterior insula anticipatory response to food cues in recovered AN could contribute to exaggerated sensitivity and anxiety related to food and eating. PMID:23993362

Oberndorfer, Tyson; Simmons, Alan; McCurdy, Danyale; Strigo, Irina; Matthews, Scott; Yang, Tony; Irvine, Zoe; Kaye, Walter

2013-01-01

195

Stable serum levels of relaxin throughout the menstrual cycle: a preliminary comparison of women with premenstrual dysphoria and controls.  

PubMed

Serum levels of relaxin in 25 women with premenstrual dysphoria and 25 age-matched controls were determined at three time points during the menstrual cycle. At the same time, levels of estradiol, progesterone, 17-beta-OH-progesterone, free testosterone, total testosterone, sex hormone binding hormone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, and 3-alpha-androstanediol glucuronide were determined. Detectable levels of relaxin were found in all women in both the follicular and luteal phase as well as around ovulation, the inter-individual variations being larger than intra-individual differences. The levels of relaxin were not influenced by the fluctuation of the other reproductive hormones. A significant difference between the two groups of women was observed, subjects with premenstrual dysphoria displaying reduced levels of relaxin (p < 0.05) compared to controls. Also, when analysed with respect to a variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism (CT repeats followed by GT repeats) in the promotor region of the relaxin H2 gene, women with premenstrual dysphoria (n = 29) were found to display significantly longer GT repeats than controls (n = 35). PMID:17541704

Pehrsson, M; Westberg, L; Landén, M; Ekman, A

2007-01-01

196

Mobilizing women's groups for improved maternal and newborn health: evidence for impact, and challenges for sustainability and scale up.  

PubMed

Research conducted over the past decade has shown that community-based interventions can improve the survival and health of mothers and newborns in low- and middle-income countries. Interventions engaging women's groups in participatory learning and action meetings and other group activities, for example, have led to substantial increases in neonatal survival in high-mortality settings. Participatory interventions with women's groups work by providing a forum for communities to develop a common understanding of maternal and neonatal problems, as well as locally acceptable and sustainable strategies to address these. Potential partners for scaling up interventions with women's groups include government community health workers and volunteers, as well as organizations working with self-help groups. It is important to tailor scale-up efforts to local contexts, while retaining fidelity to the intervention, by ensuring that the mobilization of women's groups complements other local programs (e.g. home visits), and by providing capacity building for participatory learning and action methods across a range of nongovernmental organizations and government stakeholders. Research into scale-up mechanisms and effectiveness is needed to inform further implementation, and prospective surveillance of maternal and neonatal mortality in key scale-up sites can provide valuable data for measuring impact and for advocacy. There is a need for further research into the role of participatory interventions with women's groups to improve the quality of health services, health, and nutrition beyond the perinatal period, as well as the role of groups in influencing non-health issues, such as women's decision-making power. PMID:22883914

Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Costello, Anthony; Prost, Audrey

2012-10-01

197

Change in attachment to the therapy group generalizes to change in individual attachment among women with binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Attachment to groups is analogous to attachment to individuals, and may play an important role in group functioning and in group psychotherapy outcomes. This study examined whether attachment to the therapy group can change during treatment, and whether such change predicts improvements in treatment outcomes, including individual attachment, up to 1 year posttreatment. Eighty-seven women with binge eating disorder (BED) attended Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP). Participants were assigned to one of two conditions in which groups were homogeneously composed of women with either higher or lower individual attachment anxiety. Outcomes were assessed pre, post, 6 months, and 1 year posttreatment. Attachment to the group was assessed at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of GPIP. Group attachment insecurity decreased significantly during treatment. Reductions in group attachment avoidance predicted decreases in individual attachment insecurity at 1 year posttreatment. Study condition did not moderate these associations. These results indicate that women with BED who receive GPIP are able to generalize improvements in group attachment security to their individual attachment relationships outside of therapy up to 1 year post group treatment. PMID:23398033

Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Gick, Mary; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany

2014-03-01

198

A Randomized Control Trial of a Chronic Care Intervention for Homeless Women With Alcohol Use Problems.  

PubMed

A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n=82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a primary care provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a care manager (CM) for 6months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest that screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

2014-11-21

199

Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.  

PubMed

Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043

Freeman, Matthew C; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

2012-01-01

200

Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity  

PubMed Central

Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043

Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

2012-01-01

201

Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

202

Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and  

E-print Network

1 Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using Genetic Control Systems EGSCS 1970 Artificial Intelligence AI) Double-Deck Elevator Systems DDES Multi Network Programming YU, Lu 7 #12;2 Genetic Algorithm GA Genetic Programming GP Elevator Group Supervisory

Fernandez, Thomas

203

Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women.

Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

2015-01-01

204

Birth Control for Women Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2  

E-print Network

The Pill Birth Control for Women Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2 Revised 9/14/11 The birth control pill is a combined hormonal contraceptive containing two hormones use another birth control method while on these medications and for 7 days after completing them

Yener, Aylin

205

The Black Woman Worker: A Minority Group Perspective on Women at Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being black and female is a double disadvantage in the labor market. Black women work in higher proportions than other women, but their wages are less and many have undesirable jobs. Some black women are experiencing more employment success, but as racial discrimination lessens, they face sexism. (VM)

Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

1986-01-01

206

A Case Control Study of Bacterial Species and Colony Count in Milk of Breastfeeding Women with Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: An infectious etiology for chronic breast pain in breastfeeding women continues to be debated. Although recent data suggest that Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) may cause chronic breast pain, no studies have used quantitative cultures to address this question. In this study we compared bacterial species and colony counts between breastfeeding women with (cases) and without (controls) chronic pain. Subjects and Methods: We enrolled 114 breastfeeding women in a prospective cohort study. Cases (n=61), breastfeeding women with breast pain for >1 week and no signs of acute infection, were matched with controls (n=53) by weeks postpartum and parity. Results: More cases had a history of mastitis (14% vs. 2%, p=0.036), cracked nipples (64% vs. 17%, p=0.001), and other breastfeeding difficulties. Enterobacter species growth was less likely in cases (0% vs. 7.5%, p=0.029). Cases had a significantly higher growth of S. aureus (19.7% vs. 1.9%, p=0.003). CNS frequency was similar between groups (75% vs. 79%, p=0.626), but median colony count growth was significantly lower in cases (900 colony-forming units/mL vs. 5,000 colony-forming units/ml, p=0.003). Growth of CNS and S. aureus was negatively correlated (r=–0.265, p=0.004). Conclusions: Higher S. aureus growth in cases supports a pathogenic role for S. aureus and reinforces the need for future antibiotic treatment studies in breastfeeding women with chronic pain. In contrast, similar CNS frequency between groups, lower CNS colony counts in cases, and a negative correlation between S. aureus and CNS growth suggest that neither CNS, nor its overgrowth, causes chronic breast pain. PMID:23789831

Mason, Mary Jane; Burgess, Kelly; Flocke, Susan; Zyzanski, Steven

2014-01-01

207

Anatomy, Destiny, and Predestination: Women and the Loss of Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stereotyped views of active masculinity and passive femininity have recently come under increasingly critical scrutiny. From the abstract to the practical, the authors see a growth of efforts toward equality of social opportunity regardless of biological differences. The central thesis of the paper is that women are repeatedly subject to…

Datan, Nancy; Roth, Sandra R.

208

Reducing HIV and partner violence risk among women with criminal justice system involvement: A randomized controlled trial of two Motivational Interviewing-based interventions  

PubMed Central

Women with histories of incarceration show high levels of risk for HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial with women at risk for HIV who had recent criminal justice system involvement (n=530) evaluated two interventions based on Motivational Interviewing to reduce either HIV risk or HIV and IPV risk. Baseline and 3, 6, and 9-month follow-up assessments measured unprotected intercourse, needle sharing, and IPV. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the intervention groups had significant decreases in unprotected intercourse and needle sharing, and significantly greater reductions in the odds and incidence rates of unprotected intercourse compared to the control group. No significant differences were found in changes in IPV over time between the HIV and IPV group and the control group. Motivational Interviewing-based HIV prevention interventions delivered by county health department staff appear helpful in reducing HIV risk behavior for this population. PMID:18636325

Weir, Brian W.; O’Brien, Kerth; Bard, Ronda S.; Casciato, Carol J.; Maher, Julie E.; Dent, Clyde W.; Dougherty, John A.; Stark, Michael J.

2010-01-01

209

The comparative experiences of women in control: diabetes self-management education in a virtual world.  

PubMed

The purpose was to characterize participants' experiences of a diabetes self-management (DSM) education program delivered via a virtual world (VW) versus a face-to-face (F2F) format. Participants included a randomly selected sample of participants who completed the Women in Control study. Four focus groups were conducted with 32 participants. Four researchers coded the data and conducted a qualitative thematic analysis. Four overarching themes were identified. Three domains apply to both VW and F2F formats, including (1) the value of DSM knowledge gained, (2) cultivating DSM attitudes and skills, and (3) the value of peer-derived social support. The fourth domain is labeled positive technological development for DSM (VW condition only). VW and F2F groups both reported mastery of DSM knowledge, attitudes, and skills, and there were no differences in peer-derived social support between groups. The technological aspects of VW participation afforded VW participants a unique sense of personal agency and diabetes self-efficacy not reported by F2F participants. DSM education in a VW is feasible and educational outcomes are similar to a F2F classroom experience. Furthermore, learning DSM skills in a VW offers unique advantages in supporting personal agency for health behavior change. Further research is warranted. PMID:25212580

Mitchell, Suzanne E; Mako, Morgan; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Barnes, Linda; Stone, Abriella; Rosal, Milagros C; Wiecha, John

2014-11-01

210

Yoga for managing knee osteoarthritis in older women: a pilot randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common problem in older women that is associated with pain and disabilities. Although yoga is recommended as an exercise intervention to manage arthritis, there is limited evidence documenting its effectiveness, with little known about its long term benefits. This study’s aims were to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of a Hatha yoga exercise program in managing OA-related symptoms in older women with knee OA. Methods Eligible participants (N?=?36; mean age 72 years) were randomly assigned to 8-week yoga program involving group and home-based sessions or wait-list control. The yoga intervention program was developed by a group of yoga experts (N?=?5). The primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total score that measures knee OA pain, stiffness, and function at 8 weeks. The secondary outcomes, physical function of the lower extremities, body mass index (BMI), quality of sleep (QOS), and quality of life (QOL), were measured using weight, height, the short physical performance battery (SPPB), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Cantril Self-Anchoring Ladder, and the SF12v2 Health Survey. Data were collected at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. Results The recruitment target was met, with study retention at 95%. Based on ANCOVAs, participants in the treatment group exhibited significantly greater improvement in WOMAC pain (adjusted means [SE]) (8.3 [.67], 5.8 [.67]; p?=?.01), stiffness (4.7 [.28], 3.4 [.28]; p?=?.002) and SPPB (repeated chair stands) (2.0 [.23], 2.8 [.23]; p?=?.03) at 8 weeks. Significant treatment and time effects were seen in WOMAC pain (7.0 [.46], 5.4 [.54]; p?=?.03), function (24.5 [1.8], 19.9 [1.6]; p?=?.01) and total scores (35.4 [2.3], 28.6 [2.1]; p?=?.01) from 4 to 20 weeks. Sleep disturbance was improved but the PSQI total score declined significantly at 20 weeks. Changes in BMI and QOL were not significant. No yoga related adverse events were observed. Conclusions A weekly yoga program with home practice is feasible, acceptable, and safe for older women with knee OA, and shows therapeutic benefits. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01832155 PMID:24886638

2014-01-01

211

Exercise-Induced Reduction in Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Women: a Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the effects of equivalent diet- or exercise-induced weight loss and exercise without weight loss on subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and insulin sensitivity in obese women.Research Methods and Procedures: Fifty-four premenopausal women with abdominal obesity [waist circumference 110.1 ± 5.8 cm (mean ± SD)] (BMI 31.3 ± 2.0 kg\\/m2) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: diet

Robert Ross; Ian Janssen; Jody Dawson; Ann-Marie Kungl; Jennifer L. Kuk; Suzy L. Wong; Thanh-Binh Nguyen-Duy; SoJung Lee; Katherine Kilpatrick; Robert Hudson

2004-01-01

212

Experience with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist prior to myomectomy--comparison of twice- vs thrice-monthly doses and a control group.  

PubMed

The aim of this randomised prospective study was to investigate the impact of preoperative gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) compared with a control group with myomectomy. A total of 36 women (n = 36, group 1) with fibroids were randomised to receive either two monthly doses (n = 18/36, group 1a) or three monthly doses of goserelin (n = 18/36, group 1b) prior to myomectomy. The 32 women who received no treatment (group 2) comprised the controls. All patients had similar demographic features. There were no significant differences among the three groups with respect to: (1) mean intraoperative blood loss; (2) preoperative and postoperative blood transfusion or (3) length of hospital stay. The only advantage of administering GnRHa prior to myomectomy for symptomatic fibroids in our population was a higher haemoglobin level prior to surgery among the women who received three doses of the drug. PMID:24678813

Bassaw, B; Mohammed, N; Jaggat, A; Singh-Bhola, M; Ramkissoon, A; Singh, P; Jones, K; Maharaj, S; Ramsewak, S

2014-07-01

213

Different labour outcomes in primiparous women that have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse or rape in adulthood: a case–control study in a clinical cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the duration and outcome of the first labour in women who have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and women who have been raped in adulthood (RA). Design Case–control study in a clinical cohort. Setting University Hospital of North Norway. Sample In all, 373 primiparas: 185 subjected to CSA, 47 to RA and 141 controls without a history of abuse. Methods Data on birth outcomes were retrieved from the patient files. Information on sexual abuse was reported in consultation with specialised midwives in the mental health team. Birth outcomes were analysed by multinominal regression analysis. Main outcome measures Vaginal births, delivery by caesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and duration of labour. Results As compared with controls, the RA group showed a significantly higher risk for caesarean section (adjusted OR 9.9, 95% CI 3.4–29.4) and operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 12.2, 95% CI 4.4–33.7). There were no significant differences between the CSA and the control group. The RA group displayed significantly longer duration of labour in all phases as compared with the control and CSA groups. Conclusions There were major differences in the duration of labour and birth outcomes in the two abuse groups. Despite a higher proportion of obstetric risk factors at onset of labour in the CSA group, women subjected to CSA had shorter labours and less risk for caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries than women subjected to RA. The best care for birthing women subjected to sexual abuse needs to be explored in further studies. PMID:23157417

Nerum, H; Halvorsen, L; Straume, B; Sørlie, T; Øian, P

2013-01-01

214

Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Exercise in Pregnant Women with Chronic Hypertension and/or Previous Preeclampsia: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To evaluate the association between physical exercise supervised in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Method. Randomized controlled trial, which included 116 pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, considered risk of preeclampsia development. They were divided into two groups: study group that performed physical exercise with a stationary bicycle once a week, for 30 minutes; the intensity was controlled (heart rate 20% above resting values), under professional supervision and a control group that was not engaged in any physical exercise. The data was retrieved from medical charts. Significance level assumed was 5%. Results. Women from study group performed 9.24 ± 7.03 of physical exercise sessions. There were no differences between groups comparing type of delivery and maternal outcomes, including maternal morbidity and hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal outcomes, including birth weight, adequacy of weight to gestational age, prematurity, Apgar scale at first and fifth minutes, hospitalization in intensive unit care, and neonatal morbidity. Conclusions. Physical exercise using a stationary bicycle in pregnant women with chronic hypertension and/or previous preeclampsia, once a week, under professional supervision, did not interfere in the delivery method and did not produce maternal and neonatal risks of the occurrence of morbidity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01395342. PMID:23997960

Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Burgos, Camila Schneider Gannuny; do Nascimento, Simony Lira; Ferreira, Néville Oliveira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto e Silva, João Luiz

2013-01-01

215

Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)  

PubMed Central

Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance education program that can be adopted by universities, to assess whether aspects of the program need to be strengthened, and also to indicate how long the effects of the program last and at which point in time refresher sessions may be necessary. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01338428 PMID:23702221

2013-01-01

216

Effects of High Performance Inulin Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Antioxidant Status in Women with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high performance inulin supplementation on blood glycemic control and antioxidant status in women with type 2 diabetes. Methods In a randomized, triple-blind controlled trial, 49 females (fiber intake <30 g/day, 25groups in which the participants either received 10 g/day of inulin (intervention, n=24) or maltodextrin (control, n=25) for 2 months. Fasting blood samples were obtained and both glycemic control and antioxidant status were determined at baseline and at the end of the study. Results At the end of the study period, there were significant decreases in fasting plasma glucose (8.47%), glycosylated hemoglobin (10.43%), and malondialdehyde (37.21%) levels and significant increases in total antioxidant capacity (18.82%) and superoxide dismutase activity (4.36%) in the inulin group when compared to the maltodextrin group (P<0.05). Changes in fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and catalase activity were not significant in the inulin group when compared with the maltodextrin group. Glutathione peroxidase activity remained unchanged in both groups. Conclusion Inulin supplementation may improve some glycemic and antioxidant indices and decrease malondialdehyde levels in women with type 2 diabetes. Further investigations are needed in order to confirm the positive effects that inulin may have on the glycemic and antioxidant indices of patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23641355

Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar; Asghari Jafar-abadi, Mohammad

2013-01-01

217

Treatment of condylomata acuminata with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of treatment of condylomata acuminata of the anogenital region in pregnant women are presented. All patients were treated between the 28th and 35th weeks of gestation. The laser surgery was done in 23 patients. One laser procedure was done in 14 women. In 5 patients we performed two and in 4 women 3 laser therapies. Complete destruction of pathological changes was obtained and no recurrences were diagnosed. There were no clinical signs of HPV infection in all neonates. In the authors' opinion the use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control is an efficient and safe method in the treatment of condylomata acuminata in pregnant women. Colposcopic control allows us to discover and coagulate the bleeding spots using the defocused laser beam with low power density.

Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

1996-03-01

218

Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01490281 PMID:22336292

2012-01-01

219

A pilot study of a randomized controlled trial of yoga as an intervention for PTSD symptoms in women.  

PubMed

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that affects approximately 10% of women in the United States. Although effective psychotherapeutic treatments for PTSD exist, clients with PTSD report additional benefits of complementary and alternative approaches such as yoga. In particular, yoga may downregulate the stress response and positively impact PTSD and comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms. We conducted a pilot study of a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-session Kripalu-based yoga intervention with an assessment control group. Participants included 38 women with current full or subthreshold PTSD symptoms. During the intervention, yoga participants showed decreases in reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms. The assessment control group, however, showed decreases in reexperiencing and anxiety symptoms as well, which may be a result of the positive effect of self-monitoring on PTSD and associated symptoms. Between-groups effect sizes were small to moderate (0.08-0.31). Although more research is needed, yoga may be an effective adjunctive treatment for PTSD. Participants responded positively to the intervention, suggesting that it was tolerable for this sample. Findings underscore the need for future research investigating mechanisms by which yoga may impact mental health symptoms, gender comparisons, and the long-term effects of yoga practice. PMID:24668767

Mitchell, Karen S; Dick, Alexandra M; DiMartino, Dawn M; Smith, Brian N; Niles, Barbara; Koenen, Karestan C; Street, Amy

2014-04-01

220

Differential Therapeutic Outcomes of Community-Based Group Interventions for Women and Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two community-based group therapies, emotion focused versus goal oriented, are compared among women exposed to intimate partner violence (n = 46) and their children (n = 48) aged between 6 and 12 years. A series of repeated measures analyses are employed to evaluate the effects of time from baseline to postintervention following random assignment.…

McWhirter, Paula T.

2011-01-01

221

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: a review of randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies are widely used in the general population. This paper reviews randomized controlled trials of CAM therapies for obstetrical and gynecologic conditions and presents therapies that are likely to be used by women of reproductive age and by pregnant women. Data Sources: Sources included English-language papers in MEDLINE 1966-2002 and AMED (1985-2000) and the

Adriane Fugh-Bermana; Fredi Kronenberg

2003-01-01

222

Risky Business: Focus-Group Analysis of Sexual Behaviors, Drug use and Victimization among Incarcerated Women in St. Louis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incarcerated women report multiple vulnerabilities and, yet, are under-represented in research. This study used focus-group\\u000a methodology to explore high-risk sexual behaviors, drug use, and victimization among female offenders in St. Louis. Inmates\\u000a of the St. Louis Medium Security Institution (MSI) were invited to participate in one of five focus groups between May and\\u000a September 2005 in preparation for an NIH\\/NINR

Tamara A. Millay; Veena A. Satyanarayana; Catina C. O’Leary; Robert Crecelius; Linda B. Cottler

2009-01-01

223

Morinda citrifolia (Noni) as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

Introduction. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been used for many years as an anti-inflammatory agent. We tested the efficacy of Noni in women with dysmenorrhea. Method. We did a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 100 university students of 18 years and older over three menstrual cycles. Patients were invited to participate and randomly assigned to receive 400?mg Noni capsules or placebo. They were assessed for baseline demographic variables such as age, parity, and BMI. They were also assessed before and after treatment, for pain, menstrual blood loss, and laboratory variables: ESR, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume. Results. Of the 1027 women screened, 100 eligible women were randomized. Of the women completing the study, 42 women were randomized to Noni and 38 to placebo. There were no significant differences in any of the variables at randomization. There were also no significant differences in mean bleeding score or pain score at randomization. Both bleeding and pain scores gradually improved in both groups as the women were observed over three menstrual cycles; however, the improvement was not significantly different in the Noni group when compared to the controls. Conclusion. Noni did not show a reduction in menstrual pain or bleeding when compared to placebo. PMID:23431314

Fletcher, H M; Dawkins, J; Rattray, C; Wharfe, G; Reid, M; Gordon-Strachan, G

2013-01-01

224

Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

2014-01-01

225

Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

2007-01-01

226

Serum calcium and magnesium levels in women presenting with pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension: a case¿control study in the Cape Coast metropolis, Ghana.  

PubMed

BackgroundHypertensive disorders of pregnancy are important causes of morbidity and mortality. The levels of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) in pregnancy may implicate their possible role in pregnancy-induced hypertension. This study assessed serum Ca2+ and Mg2+ levels in women with PIH (pregnancy-induced hypertension) and PE (pre-eclampsia), compared to that in normal pregnancy.MethodsThis case¿control study was conducted on 380 pregnant women (¿20 weeks gestation) receiving antenatal care at three hospitals in the Cape Coast metropolis, Ghana. This comprised 120 women with PIH, 100 women with PE and 160 healthy, age-matched pregnant women (controls). Demographic, anthropometric, clinical and obstetric data were gathered using an interview-based questionnaire. Venous blood samples were drawn for the estimation of calcium and magnesium.ResultsSystolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly raised in women with PIH (p¿=¿0.001) and PE (p¿=¿0.001). Women with hypertensive disorders (PE and PIH) had significantly lower serum calcium and magnesium levels than those in the control group (p¿<¿0.0001 each). Of those with PIH, SBP correlated positively with BMI (r¿=¿0.575, p¿<¿0.01) and Ca2+ correlated positively with Mg2+ (r¿=¿0.494, p¿<¿0.01). This was similar amongst the PE group for SBP and BMI as well as for Ca2+and Mg2+ but was not significant. Multivariate analysis showed that women aged ¿40 years were at a significant risk of developing PIH (OR¿=¿2.14, p¿=¿0.000).ConclusionIn this study population, serum calcium and magnesium levels are lower in PIH and PE than in normal pregnancy. Mineral supplementation during the antenatal period may influence significantly, the occurrence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. PMID:25410280

Ephraim, Richard; Osakunor, Derick; Denkyira, Seth; Eshun, Henrietta; Amoah, Samuel; Anto, Enoch

2014-11-20

227

Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls.  

PubMed

This study had two purposes: (i) to explore differences in sexual function between women with gynecological or rectal cancer after related pelvic-area treatments and women without cancer; and (ii) to investigate the relationships among body image, anxiety and depression, sexual relationship power, sexual self-schema, and female sexual function. The participants (n?=?139) were recruited through Internet cancer support groups and women's health organizations in the USA. Six structured questionnaires were mailed, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that women with gynecological or rectal cancer had significantly worse sexual function than women without cancer. Having gynecological/rectal cancer and a negative sexual self-schema were significantly related to poor sexual function. Furthermore, sexual self-schema moderated the relationship between sexual relationship power and female sexual function. Healthcare providers could give more attention to sexual issues in women who have undergone treatment for gynecological or rectal cancer, especially for those with a negative sexual self-schema and high sexual relationship power, which might improve these women's quality of life. PMID:25417724

Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Chen, Lynn

2014-11-23

228

Effect of selenium on markers of risk of pre-eclampsia in UK pregnant women: a randomised, controlled pilot trial.  

PubMed

Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Se intake or status has been linked to the occurrence of pre-eclampsia by our own work and that of others. We hypothesised that a small increase in the Se intake of UK pregnant women of inadequate Se status would protect against the risk of pre-eclampsia, as assessed by biomarkers of pre-eclampsia. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial, we randomised 230 primiparous pregnant women to Se (60 ?g/d, as Se-enriched yeast) or placebo treatment from 12 to 14 weeks of gestation until delivery. Whole-blood Se concentration was measured at baseline and 35 weeks, and plasma selenoprotein P (SEPP1) concentration at 35 weeks. The primary outcome measure of the present study was serum soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1), an anti-angiogenic factor linked with the risk of pre-eclampsia. Other serum/plasma components related to the risk of pre-eclampsia were also measured. Between 12 and 35 weeks, whole-blood Se concentration increased significantly in the Se-treated group but decreased significantly in the placebo group. At 35 weeks, significantly higher concentrations of whole-blood Se and plasma SEPP1 were observed in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group. In line with our hypothesis, the concentration of sFlt-1 was significantly lower at 35 weeks in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group in participants in the lowest quartile of Se status at baseline (P= 0·039). None of the secondary outcome measures was significantly affected by treatment. The present finding that Se supplementation has the potential to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women of low Se status needs to be validated in an adequately powered trial. PMID:24708917

Rayman, Margaret P; Searle, Elizabeth; Kelly, Lynne; Johnsen, Sigurd; Bodman-Smith, Katherine; Bath, Sarah C; Mao, Jinyuan; Redman, Christopher W G

2014-07-14

229

A randomised controlled trial on hypolipidemic effects of Nigella Sativa seeds powder in menopausal women  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increased tremendously among menopausal women, and there is an increasing demand for alternative therapies for managing factors like dyslipidemia that contribute to CVD development. Methods In this study, Nigella sativa was evaluated for its hypolipidemic effects among menopausal women. In a randomised trial, hyperlipidemic menopausal women were assigned to treatment (n?=?19) or placebo groups (n?=?18), and given N. sativa or placebo for two months after their informed consents were sought. At baseline, blood samples were taken and at one month intervals thereafter until one month after the end of the study. Results The results showed that N. sativa significantly improved lipid profiles of menopausal women (decreased total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride, and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol) more than the placebo treatment over 2 months of intervention. One month after cessation of treatment, the lipid profiles in the N. sativa-treated group tended to change towards the pretreatment levels. Conclusions N. sativa is thought to have multiple mechanisms of action and is cost-effective. Therefore, it could be used by menopausal women to remedy hypercholesterolemia, with likely more benefits than with single pharmacological agents that may cause side effects. The use of N. sativa as an alternative therapy for hypercholesterolemia could have profound impact on the management of CVD among menopausal women especially in countries where it is readily available. PMID:24685020

2014-01-01

230

The early postnatal period: Exploring women's views, expectations and experiences of care using focus groups in Victoria, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence from Australia and overseas that the care provided in hospital in the early postnatal period is less than ideal for both women and care providers. Many health services face increasing pressure on hospital beds and have limited physical space available to care for mothers and their babies. We aimed to gain a more in-depth understanding of women's views, expectations and experiences of early postnatal care. Methods We conducted focus groups in rural and metropolitan Victoria, Australia in 2006. Fifty-two people participated in eight focus groups and four interviews. Participants included eight pregnant women, of whom seven were pregnant with their first baby; 42 women who were in the postpartum period (some up to twelve months after the birth of their baby); and two partners. All participants were fluent in English. Focus group guides were developed specifically for the study and explored participants' experiences and/or expectations of early postnatal care in hospital and at home, with an emphasis on length of hospital stay, professional and social support, continuity of care, and rest. Discussions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic network was constructed to describe and connect categories with emerging basic, organizing, and global themes. Results Global themes that emerged were: anxiety and/or fear; and the transition to motherhood and parenting. The needs of first time mothers were considered to be different to the needs of women who had already experienced motherhood. The women in this study were generally concerned about the safety of their new baby, and lacked confidence in themselves as new mothers regarding their ability to care for their baby. There was a consistent view that the physical presence and availability of professional support helped alleviate these concerns, and this was especially the case for women having a first baby. Conclusion Women have anxieties and fears around early parenting and their changing role, and may consider that the physical availability of professional care providers will help during this time. Care providers should be cognisant of these potential issues. It is crucial that women's concerns and needs be considered when service delivery changes are planned. If anxiety around new parenting is a predominant view then care providers need to recognise this and ensure care is individualised to address each woman's/families particular concerns. PMID:18644157

Forster, Della A; McLachlan, Helen L; Rayner, Jo; Yelland, Jane; Gold, Lisa; Rayner, Sharon

2008-01-01

231

Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.  

PubMed

In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ?6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely given that >150 million women, many of childbearing age, are involved in microfinance globally. PMID:24812071

Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

2014-07-01

232

The Effect of Acupressure at GB-21 and SP-6 Acupoints on Anxiety Level and Maternal-Fetal Attachment in Primiparous Women: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Delivery is one of the most stressful events in women’s life. Excessive anxiety, in turn, increases delivery and pregnancy complications. Mother’s positive experience of delivery leads to more effective maternal-fetal attachment in the first few hours of birth. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of acupressure at two different acupoints on anxiety level and maternal-fetal attachment in primiparous women. Materials and Methods: In this study, 150 primiparous women were allocated to acupressure at GB-21 acupoint, acupressure at SP-6 acupoint, and control group. The women in their active phase of delivery were enrolled in the study and pressure was applied to the acupoints for 20 minutes. Mother’s anxiety level was assessed using Spielberger’s questionnaire before and one hour after the intervention. In addition, maternal-fetal attachment behaviors were evaluated using Avant’s questionnaire during the first breastfeeding. Then the data were introduced to the SPSS (v. 13) and were analyzed using t test and one way ANOVA. Results: The results revealed no significant difference among the three groups regarding the anxiety level before the intervention (P > 0.05). One hour after the intervention, this measure was significantly lower in the intervention groups in comparison to the control group (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found between the two intervention groups in this regard (P > 0.05). Moreover, maternal-fetal attachment was higher in the intervention groups in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Acupressure at both acupoints reduced anxiety level and increased maternal-fetal attachment. This method can be easily used in the delivery room.

Moradi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Moradi, Parvin; Toosi, Monieh; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad

2014-01-01

233

Employment and Market Innovation in Chinese Business Group Affiliated Firms: The Role of Group Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Prior research has suggested a number of potential benefits to firm membership in business groups. These benefits include availability of capital and other resources not readily accessible in an open market, the facilitation of entrepreneurship, plus information and risk sharing advantages. We suggest that another important benefit is the assistance of group control systems in helping the firm to

Robert E. White; Robert E. Hoskisson; Daphne W. Yiu; Garry D. Bruton

2008-01-01

234

A cognitive-behavioral group therapy intervention with depressed Spanish-speaking Mexican women living in an emerging immigrant community in the United States.  

PubMed

This article reports feasibility issues with the implementation of an intervention study for depression in Latina women from Mexico living in an emerging immigrant community in the United States. Based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model, the study explores implementation issues such as the intervention and retention, logistical issues such as transportation and childcare, and possible measurement issues such as reliability and validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Spanish version. Future studies should evaluate the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Spanish version, and test the modified cognitive-behavioral group therapy intervention in larger samples and through randomized controlled studies. PMID:20460961

Shattell, Mona M; Quinlan-Colwell, Ann; Villalba, José; Ivers, Nathaniel N; Mails, Marina

2010-01-01

235

Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape Concerns among a Group of College Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three potential factors that might mediate the relationship between reading women's magazines and body shape and size concern. Finds that health and fitness magazine reading by college-aged women was linked directly to body shape concerns, indirectly through beliefs about men's thinness expectations. Explains that beauty and fashion…

Thomsen, Steven R.

2002-01-01

236

Prevalence of Group B Streptococcus serotypes III and V in pregnant women of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

PubMed Central

GBS serotypes III and V were the most prevalent in pregnant women and exhibited resistance to tetracycline, clindamycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Serotype III showed high sialic acid content and PFGE analysis discerned 33 heterogeneous profiles. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization could be relevant to control GBS infections unaffected by intra-partum chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24516454

Soares, Georgia Cristina Tavolaro; Alviano, Daniela Sales; da Silva Santos, Gabriela; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Nagao, Prescilla Emy

2013-01-01

237

Lessons learned from the Philadelphia Collaborative Preterm Prevention Project: the prevalence of risk factors and program participation rates among women in the intervention group.  

PubMed

BackgroundWomen who deliver preterm infants are at a much greater risk for repeating a preterm birth (PTB), compared to women without a history of PTB. However, little is known about the prevalence of the risk factors which account for this markedly increased risk. Moreover, little or nothing is known about the feasibility of providing treatments and services to these women, outside of the context of prenatal care, during the inter-conception period, which provides the best opportunity for successful risk-reduction interventions.MethodsThe Philadelphia Collaborative Preterm Prevention Project (PCPPP), a large randomized control trial designed to identify and reduce six major risk factors for a repeat preterm birth among women immediately following the delivering of a preterm infant. For the women assigned to the PCPPP treatment group, we calculated the prevalence of the six risk factors in question, the percentages of women who agreed to receive high quality risk-appropriate treatments or services, and the of rates of participation among those who were offered and eligible for these treatments or services.ResultsUrogenital tract infections were identified in 57% of the women, while 59% were found to have periodontal disease. More than 39% were active smokers, and 17% were assessed with clinical depression. Low literacy, and housing instability were identified in, 22 and 83% of the study sample, respectively. Among women eligible for intervention, the percentages who accepted and at least minimally participated in treatment ranged from a low of 28% for smoking, to a high of 85% for urogenital tract infection. Most PCPPP enrollees (57%) had three or more major risk factors. Participation rates associated with the PCPPP treatments or services varied markedly, and were quite low in some cases, despite considerable efforts to reduce the barriers to receiving care.ConclusionThe efficacy of individual level risk-reduction efforts designed to prevent preterm/repeat preterm in the pre- or inter-conception period may be limited if participation rates associated with interventions to reduce major risk factors for PTB are low. Achieving adequate participation may require identifying, better understanding, and eliminating barriers to access, beyond those associated with cost, transportation, childcare, and service location or hours of operation.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01117922). PMID:25361563

Webb, David A; Mathew, Leny; Culhane, Jennifer F

2014-11-01

238

Trait and Self-Presentational Dimensions of Perfectionism Among Women with Anorexia Nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trait and self-presentational dimensions of perfectionism were examined in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric control group of women with mood disorders, and a normal control group of women without mental disorders. With one exception, self-report measures and interview measures indicated that, after controlling for self-esteem, depression, and overall psychiatric severity, compared to women with mood disorders, women with

Sarah J. Cockell; Paul L. Hewitt; Brooke Seal; Simon Sherry; Elliot M. Goldner; Gordon L. Flett; Ronald A. Remick

2002-01-01

239

Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus among pregnant women and control subjects in China.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E infection, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is an important global public health concern, with particularly high mortality in pregnant women. China is generally judged to be an HEV-endemic area, but epidemiological data for HEV among pregnant women are limited. Between June 2011 and July 2013, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by pregnant women in China. Nine-hundred and ninety pregnant women who visited hospitals for antenatal follow-up or medication in Qingdao and Weihai and 965 control subjects matched by age, gender and residence were examined for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme immunoassays. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in all 1,955 samples was 20.7%. In pregnant women, 16.2% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive whereas, in control subjects 25.3% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive, (P?women and control subjects was 2.6% and 3.6%, respectively. Age, contact with cats, contact with pigs and exposure to soil were found to be associated with HEV infection. These findings demonstrated the high prevalence of HEV and the considerable potential for the transmission of HEV infection in pregnant women in China. J. Med. Virol. 87:446-450, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25164987

Cong, Wei; Sui, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Qian, Ai-Dong; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2015-03-01

240

Evaluation of reproductive function in women treated for bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive function of women with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls. Methods Women diagnosed with BD and healthy controls with no psychiatric history ages 18 to 45 years were recruited from a university clinic and surrounding community. Participants completed a baseline reproductive health questionnaire, serum hormone assessment, and ovulation tracking for three consecutive cycles using urine luteinizing hormone (LH)-detecting strips with a confirmatory luteal-phase serum progesterone. Results Women with BD (n = 103) did not differ from controls (n = 36) in demographics, rates of menstrual abnormalities (MA), or number of ovulation-positive cycles. Of the women with BD, 17% reported a current MA and 39% reported a past MA. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 17-hydroxyprogresterone were higher in controls (p = 0.052 and 0.004, respectively), otherwise there were no differences in biochemical levels. Medication type, dose, or duration was not associated with MA or biochemical markers, except those currently taking an atypical antipsychotic indicated a greater rate of current or past MA (80% versus 55%, p = 0.013). In women with BD, 22% reported a period of amenorrhea associated with exercising or stress, versus 8% of controls (p = 0.064). Self-reported rates of bulimia and anorexia nervosa were 10% and 5%, respectively. Conclusions Rates of MA and biochemical levels did not significantly differ between women with BD and controls. Current atypical antipsychotic use was associated with a higher rate of current or past MA and should be further investigated. Incidence of stress-induced amenorrhea should be further investigated in this population, as should comorbid incidence of eating disorders. PMID:24262071

Reynolds-May, Margaret F; Kenna, Heather A; Marsh, Wendy; Stemmle, Pascale G; Wang, Po; Ketter, Terence A; Rasgon, Natalie L

2013-01-01

241

Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach) and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. Discussion This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174 PMID:21867502

2011-01-01

242

Exposure to biomass smoke and chronic airway disease in Mexican women. A case-control study.  

PubMed

A case-control study was performed in women older than 40 yr of age to evaluate the risk of cooking with traditional wood stoves for chronic bronchitis and chronic airway obstruction (CAO). The subjects were recruited from patients attending a referral chest hospital in Mexico City. We selected 127 patients with chronic bronchitis or CAO, of which 63 had chronic bronchitis alone, 23 had CAO alone (FEV1 less than 75% of predicted), and 41 had both chronic bronchitis and CAO (cases). Four control groups were selected: 83 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, 100 patients with interstitial lung diseases, 97 patients with ear, nose and throat ailments, and 95 healthy visitors to the hospital (controls). Exposure to wood smoke, assessed as any or none, and as hour-years (years of exposure multiplied by average hours of exposure per day) was significantly higher in cases than in controls. Crude odds ratios for wood smoke exposure were 3.9 (95% CI, 2.0 to 7.6) for chronic bronchitis only, 9.7 (95% CI, 3.7 to 27) for CAO plus chronic bronchitis, and 1.8 (95% CI, 0.7 to 4.7) for CAO only. Differences in exposure to wood smoke persisted after adjusting by stratification and logistic regression for age, income, education, smoking, place of residence, and place of birth. Risk of chronic bronchitis alone and chronic bronchitis with CAO increased linearly with hour-years of cooking with a wood stove; odds ratios for exposure to more than 200 hour-years compared with nonexposed were 15.0 (95% CI, 5.6 to 40) for chronic bronchitis only and 75 (95% CI, 18 to 306) for chronic bronchitis with CAO. The findings support a causal role of domestic wood smoke exposure in chronic bronchitis and chronic airflow obstruction. PMID:8810608

Pérez-Padilla, R; Regalado, J; Vedal, S; Paré, P; Chapela, R; Sansores, R; Selman, M

1996-09-01

243

Women's status and health of two ethnic groups inhabiting a periurban habitat of Kolkata City, India: a micro-level study.  

PubMed

We studied the interrelationship of women's status in terms of socioeconomic inequality and its effect on women's health at micro level between two ethnic groups in a periurban area of Kolkata City, India. One-hundred twenty-seven women who belong to a tribal population (Munda) and 174 women who belong to a caste population (Poundrakshatriya) participated in this study. We found significant differences between various (socioeconomic, demographic, diet intake, and body mass index [BMI] factors among the two ethnic groups that indicated a better situation for the Pod women. The number of live births, dietary intake and BMI of the women of the two ethnic groups varied differentially among socioeconomic factors, such as women's education and working pattern and poverty level of the household, which are the most recognized measures of women's status. Thus, the diverse socioeconomic status in various cultural groups in traditional Indian societies reflects a more complex situation of women's status and their health. Different factors were responsible for the differential health status of women, which is culture and location specific. Women who are more educated and employed are not necessarily more healthy, since poverty remains an integral factor, base on which literacy and employment status of women in India is determined. Furthermore, suppression of women is rooted in the very fabric of the Indian society, in tradition, in religious doctrine and practices, within the educational systems, and within the families. Along with education, therefore, income-generating schemes for the women of the economically deprived population should be strengthened to bring equality in overall health status of a region that consists of diverse cultural populations with vast economic disparity. PMID:15804693

Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda

2005-03-01

244

Long-Term Effects of Self-Control on Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior among Urban Minority Young Women  

PubMed Central

High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners) in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample) reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19%) reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8%) reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and sexual behaviors. PMID:22470274

Griffin, Kenneth W.; Scheier, Lawrence M.; Acevedo, Bianca; Grenard, Jerry L.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

2011-01-01

245

Lipid profile and socioeconomic status in healthy middle aged women in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and full lipid profile in middle aged healthy women. PARTICIPANTS: These comprised 300 healthy Swedish women between 30 and 65 years who constitute the control group of the Stockholm female coronary risk study, a population based, case-control study of women with coronary heart disease (CHD). The age matched control group,

S P Wamala; A Wolk; K Schenck-Gustafsson; K Orth-Gomér

1997-01-01

246

Effect of Nurse Home Visits vs. Usual Care on Reducing Intimate Partner Violence in Young High-Risk Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Expectant mothers and mothers of young children are especially vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV). The nurse-family partnership (NFP) is a home visitation program in the United States effective for the prevention of adverse child health outcomes. Evidence regarding the effect of nurse home visiting on IPV is inconsistent. This study aims to study the effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch NFP, on IPV. Methods A random sample of 460 eligible disadvantaged women <26 years, with no previous live births, was randomized. Women in the control group (C; n=223) received usual care; women in the intervention group (I; n=237) received usual care plus nurse home visits periodically during pregnancy and until the child’s second birthday. Results At 32 weeks of pregnancy, women in the intervention group self-reported significantly less IPV victimization than women in the control group in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 56% vs. I: 39%), physical assault level 1 (C: 58% vs. I: 40%) and level 2 (C: 31% vs. I: 20%), and level 1 sexual coercion (C: 16% vs. I: 8%). Furthermore, women in the intervention group reported significantly less IPV perpetration in: level 2 psychological aggression (C: 60% vs. I: 46%), level 1 physical assault (C: 65% vs. I: 52%), and level 1 injury (C: 27% vs. I: 17%). At 24 months after birth, IPV victimization was significantly lower in the intervention group for level 1 physical assault (C: 44% vs. I: 26%), and IPV perpetration was significantly lower for level 1 sexual assault (C: 18% vs. I: 3%). Multilevel analyses showed a significant improvement in IPV victimization and perpetration among women in the intervention group at 24 months after birth. Conclusion VoorZorg, compared with the usual care, is effective in reducing IPV during pregnancy and in the two years after birth among young high-risk women. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR854 http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=854 PMID:24205150

Mejdoubi, Jamila; van den Heijkant, Silvia C. C. M.; van Leerdam, Frank J. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Hirasing, Remy A.; Crijnen, Alfons A. M.

2013-01-01

247

Genitourinary tract infections in pregnancy and low birth weight: case-control study in Australian aboriginal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the association between genital and urinary tract infections in pregnant Aboriginal women and low birth weight. DESIGN--Retrospective case-control study controlling for potential confounding variables. SETTING--Western Australia from 1985 to 1987. SUBJECTS--All Aboriginal women (n = 269) who had given birth to singleton infants weighing 2250 g or less (cases), and 269 randomly selected Aboriginal women who had given

R Schultz; A W Read; J A Straton; F J Stanley; P Morich

1991-01-01

248

Quantification of bacterial species of the vaginal microbiome in different groups of women, using nucleic acid amplification tests  

PubMed Central

Background The vaginal microbiome plays an important role in urogenital health. Quantitative real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assays for the most prevalent vaginal Lactobacillus species and bacterial vaginosis species G. vaginalis and A. vaginae exist, but qPCR information regarding variation over time is still very limited. We set up qPCR assays for a selection of seven species and defined the temporal variation over three menstrual cycles in a healthy Caucasian population with a normal Nugent score. We also explored differences in qPCR data between these healthy women and an ‘at risk’ clinic population of Caucasian, African and Asian women with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV), as defined by the Nugent score. Results Temporal stability of the Lactobacillus species counts was high with L. crispatus counts of 108 copies/mL and L. vaginalis counts of 106 copies/mL. We identified 2 types of ‘normal flora’ and one ‘BV type flora’ with latent class analysis on the combined data of all women. The first group was particularly common in women with a normal Nugent score and was characterized by a high frequency of L. crispatus, L. iners, L. jensenii, and L. vaginalis and a correspondingly low frequency of L. gasseri and A. vaginae. The second group was characterized by the predominance of L. gasseri and L. vaginalis and was found most commonly in healthy Caucasian women. The third group was commonest in women with a high Nugent score but was also seen in a subset of African and Asian women with a low Nugent score and was characterized by the absence of Lactobacillus species (except for L. iners) but the presence of G. vaginalis and A. vaginae. Conclusions We have shown that the quantification of specific bacteria by qPCR contributes to a better description of the non-BV vaginal microbiome, but we also demonstrated that differences in populations such as risk and ethnicity also have to be taken into account. We believe that our selection of indicator organisms represents a feasible strategy for the assessment of the vaginal microbiome and could be useful for monitoring the microbiome in safety trials of vaginal products. PMID:22647069

2012-01-01

249

Effect of different types of exercise on postural balance in elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Different types of exercise are indicated for the elderly to prevent functional capacity limitations due to aging and reduce the risk of falls. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different exercises (mini-trampoline, MT; aquatic gymnastics, AG and general floor gymnastics, GG) on postural balance in elderly women. Seventy-four physically independent elderly women, mean age 69±4 years, were randomly assigned to three intervention groups: (1) MT (n=23), (2) AG (n=28), and (3) GG (n=23). Each group performed physical training, including cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and sensory-motor exercises for 12 weeks. To determine the effects on each intervention group, five postural balance tasks were performed on a force platform (BIOMEC 400): the two-legged stand with eyes open (TLEO) and two-legged stand with eyes closed (TLEC); the semi-tandem stand with eyes open (STEO) and semi-tandem stand with eyes closed (STEC) and the one-legged stand. Three trials were performed for each task (with 30s of rest between them) and the mean was used to compute balance parameters such as center of pressure (COP) sway movements. All modalities investigated such as the MT, AG and GG were significantly (P<0.05) efficient in improving the postural balance of elderly women after 12 weeks of training. These results provide further evidence concerning exercise and balance for promoting health in elderly women. PMID:25239512

de Oliveira, Marcio R; da Silva, Rubens A; Dascal, Juliana B; Teixeira, Denilson C

2014-01-01

250

Changing control strategies during standard assessment using computerized dynamic posturography with older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this investigation was to explore the use of spectral analysis to examine the data obtained during computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). In particular, we examined whether spectral analysis would provide more detailed information about underlying postural control strategies and potential learning across conditions and trials of the sensory organization test (SOT). Twenty older women between the ages of

Karl S. Rosengren; Karthikeyan Rajendran; Jonas Contakos; Li-Ling Chuang; Melissa Peterson; Richard Doyle; Edward McAuley

2007-01-01

251

Adipose Tissue Fatty Acids in Breast Cancer Patients versus Healthy Control Women from Crete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Few studies have implemented biomarkers of fatty acid intake in relation to breast cancer. Aims: To examine possible differences in adipose tissue fatty acid composition between breast cancer patients and healthy control women. The relationship between tumor promotion and adipose tissue fatty acid synthesis was also investigated. Methods: The study was conducted at the University of Crete. Subjects included

G. Mamalakis; C. Hatzis; E. de Bree; E. Sanidas; D. D. Tsiftsis; J. Askoxylakis; M. Daskalakis; G. Tsibinos; A. Kafatos

2009-01-01

252

Perceived Barriers to Excercise and Weight Control Practices in Community Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of community women was surveyed to determine exercise habits, weight control methods, and perceived barriers to sustaining and initiating exercise and weight management programs. Lack of time was reported to be the most significant factor limiting exercise, while lack of willpower and time constraints were the most frequently reported obstacles to weight management. Suggestions to aid adherence to

Cheryl A. Johnson; Sheila A. Corrigan; Patricia M. Dubbert; Sandra E. Gramling

1990-01-01

253

A Case-Control Study of Endometrial Cancer after Antipsychotics Exposure in Premenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Most endometrial cancers are related to hormonal imbalance, and antipsychotics are a common cause of hyperprolactinemia. We investigated the possible relation between the use of antipsychotics and the risk of endometrial cancer. Methods: A case-control study was conducted on premenopausal women at the Chiba University Hospital between 1989 and 2000. The cases were 41 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial

Koji Yamazawa; Hideo Matsui; Katsuyoshi Seki; Souei Sekiya

2003-01-01

254

Cost-effectiveness of a screening strategy for Q fever among pregnant women in risk areas: a clustered randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background In The Netherlands the largest human Q fever outbreak ever reported in the literature is currently ongoing with more than 2300 notified cases in 2009. Pregnant women are particularly at risk as Q fever during pregnancy may cause maternal and obstetric complications. Since the majority of infected pregnant women are asymptomatic, a screening strategy might be of great value to reduce Q fever related complications. We designed a trial to assess the (cost-)effectiveness of a screening program for Q fever in pregnant women living in risks areas in The Netherlands. Methods/design We will conduct a clustered randomized controlled trial in which primary care midwife centres in Q fever risk areas are randomized to recruit pregnant women for either the control group or the intervention group. In both groups a blood sample is taken around 20 weeks postmenstrual age. In the intervention group, this sample is immediately analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies using a sensitive cut-off level of 1:32. In case of an active Q fever infection, antibiotic treatment is recommended and serological follow up is performed. In the control group, serum is frozen for analysis after delivery. The primary endpoint is a maternal (chronic Q fever or reactivation) or obstetric complication (low birth weight, preterm delivery or fetal death) in Q fever positive women. Secondary aims pertain to the course of infection in pregnant women, diagnostic accuracy of laboratory tests used for screening, histo-pathological abnormalities of the placenta of Q fever positive women, side effects of therapy, and costs. The analysis will be according to the intention-to-screen principle, and cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed by comparing the direct and indirect costs between the intervention and control group. Discussion With this study we aim to provide insight into the balance of risks of undetected and detected Q fever during pregnancy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, protocol record NL30340.042.09. PMID:21040534

2010-01-01

255

Characterization of a Normal Control Group: Are they Healthy?  

PubMed Central

We examined the health of a control group (18–81 years) in our aging study, which is similar to control groups used in other neuroimaging studies. The current study was motivated by our previous results showing that one third of the elder control group had moderate to severe white matter hyperintensities and/or cortical volume loss which correlated with poor performance on memory tasks. Therefore, we predicted that cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, high cholesterol) within the control group would account for significant variance on working memory task performance. Fifty-five participants completed 4 verbal and spatial working memory tasks, neuropsychological exams, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and blood tests to assess vascular risk. In addition to using a repeated measures ANOVA design, a cluster analysis was applied to the vascular risk measures as a data reduction step to characterize relationships between conjoint risk factors. The cluster groupings were used to predict working memory performance. The results show that higher levels of systolic blood pressure were associated with: 1) poor spatial working memory accuracy; and 2) lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple brain regions. In contrast, higher levels of total cholesterol corresponded with increased accuracy in verbal working memory. An association between lower FA values and higher cholesterol levels were identified in different brain regions from those associated with systolic blood pressure. The conjoint risk analysis revealed that Risk Cluster Group 3 (the group with the greatest number of risk factors) displayed: 1) the poorest performance on the spatial working memory tasks; 2) the longest reaction times across both spatial and verbal memory tasks; and 3) the lowest FA values across widespread brain regions. Our results confirm that a considerable range of vascular risk factors are present in a typical control group, even in younger individuals, which have robust effects on brain anatomy and function. These results present a new challenge to neuroimaging studies both for defining a cohort from which to characterize `normative' brain circuitry and for establishing a control group to compare with other clinical populations. PMID:24060318

Aine, CJ; Sanfratello, L; Adair, JC; Knoefel, JE; Qualls, C; Lundy, SL; Caprihan, A; Stone, D; Stephen, JM

2013-01-01

256

Results of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Buprenorphine For Opioid Dependent Women in the Criminal Justice System  

PubMed Central

Aims Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of both methadone and buprenorphine when used with opioid dependent men transitioning from prison to the community, but no studies have been conducted with women in the criminal justice (CJ) system. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of buprenorphine for relapse prevention among opioid dependent women in the CJ system transitioning back to the community. Methods 36 women under CJ supervision were recruited from an inpatient drug treatment facility that treats CJ individuals returning back to the community. Nine were enrolled in an open label buprenorphine arm then 27 were randomized to buprenorphine (n=15) or placebo (n=12; double-blind). All women completed baseline measures and started study medication prior to release. Participants were followed weekly, provided urine drug screens (UDS), received study medication for 12 weeks, and returned for a 3 month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses were performed for all time points through end-of-treatment (EOT). Results The majority of participants were Caucasian (88.9%), young (M±SD=31.8±8.4 years), divorced/separated (59.2%) women with at least a high school/GED education (M±SD =12±1.7 years). GEE analyses showed that buprenorphine was efficacious in maintaining abstinence across time compared to placebo. At End of Treatment, 92% of placebo and 33% of active medication participants were positive for opiates on urine drug screen (Chi-Square = 10.9, df=1; p<0.001). However, by the three month follow-up point, no differences were found between the two groups, with 83% of participants at follow-up positive for opiates. Conclusions Women in the CJ system who received buprenorphine prior to release from a treatment facility had fewer opiate positive UDS through the 12-weeks of treatment compared to women receiving placebo. Initiating buprenorphine in a controlled environment prior to release appears to be a viable strategy to reduce opiate use when transitioning back to the community. PMID:21782352

Cropsey, Karen L.; Lane, Peter S.; Hale, Galen J.; Jackson, Dorothy O.; Clark, C. Brendan; Ingersoll, Karen S.; Islam, M. Aminul; Stitzer, Maxine L.

2011-01-01

257

The Self-in-Relation Theory and Women for Sobriety: Female-Specific Theory and Mutual Help Group for Chemically Dependent Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special issues faced by chemically dependent women are reviewed. Self-in-Relation Theory, a model of psychological development for women, is discussed; the approach of Women for Sobriety is presented. When these two approaches are related, an alternative way of understanding and supporting chemically dependent women in recovery is provided. (EMK)

Manhal-Baugus, Monique

1998-01-01

258

Interpersonal learning is associated with improved self-esteem in group psychotherapy for women with binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

Yalom and Leszcz (2005) indicated that interpersonal learning is a key therapeutic factor in group psychotherapy. In this study, we conceptualized interpersonal learning as the convergence over time between an individual's and the group's perception of the individual's cohesion to the group. First, we developed parallel measures of: (a) an individual's self-rated cohesion to the group (Cohesion Questionnaire-Individual Version [CQ-I]), and (b) the group's rating of the individual's cohesion to the group (CQ-G) based on the original Cohesion Questionnaire (CQ; Piper, Marache, Lacroix, Richardsen, & Jones, 1983). Second, we used these parallel scales to assess differences between an individual's self-rating and the mean of the group's ratings of the individual's cohesion to the group. Women with binge eating disorder (N = 102) received Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Participants were assigned to homogeneously composed groups of either high or low attachment anxiety. Outcomes were measured pre- and post-treatment, and the CQ-I and CQ-G were administered every fourth group session. We found significant convergence over time between the CQ-I and mean CQ-G scale scores in both attachment anxiety conditions. Participants with higher attachment anxiety had lower individual self-ratings of cohesion and had greater discrepancies between the CQ-I and CG-G compared with those with lower attachment anxiety. There was a significant relationship between greater convergence in cohesion ratings and improved self-esteem at post-treatment. More accurate self-perceptions through feedback from group members may be a key factor in facilitating increased self-esteem in group therapy. Group therapists may facilitate such interpersonal learning, especially for those higher in attachment anxiety, by noting discrepancies and then encouraging convergence between an individual and the group in their perceptions of cohesion to the group. PMID:23398038

Gallagher, Meagan E; Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Maxwell, Hilary; Bissada, Hany

2014-03-01

259

Antiobesity effect of caraway extract on overweight and obese women: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30?mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377. PMID:24319489

Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A

2013-01-01

260

Antiobesity Effect of Caraway Extract on Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30?mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377. PMID:24319489

Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A.

2013-01-01

261

Massage therapy effects on depressed pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-four depressed pregnant women were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy and randomly assigned to a massage therapy group, a progressive muscle relaxation group or a control group that received standard prenatal care alone. These groups were compared to each other and to a non-depressed group at the end of pregnancy. The massage therapy group participants received two 20

T. Field; M. A. Diego; M. Hernandez-Reif; S. Schanberg; C. Kuhn

2004-01-01

262

Human papillomavirus infection in women who develop high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer: a case–control study in the UK  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing might identify older women who could be withdrawn from the cervical screening programme, or require less frequent screening. A case–control study using the United Kingdom cervical screening population was set up to help address this issue. Cases comprised 575 women who developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse over a 13-year period following a cytologically normal baseline smear, and were stratified by age group (‘under 20', ‘20–39' and 40 years or over). Controls (n=601) were women who remained disease free over this interval and were the same age on average as cases. DNA was extracted from the baseline smears and tested for HPV by PCR using GP5+/6+ consensus primers. HPV+ samples were tested for HPV types 16 and 18 using specific PCR primers. In all, 27.0% of cases tested positive for HPV at baseline, compared with 15.4% of controls (odds ratio (OR)=2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.50–2.68). Among women aged 40 years or over, the OR for HPV 16 was 8.95 (95% CI, 2.63–30.4). These results support the need for further cervical screening of HPV? older women, as many of the cases were HPV? at baseline. PMID:15827556

Grainge, M J; Seth, R; Coupland, C; Guo, L; Rittman, T; Vryenhoef, P; Johnson, J; Jenkins, D; Neal, K R

2005-01-01

263

Effect of 2 month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

There have been no controlled intervention studies to investigate the effects of green tea on circulating hormone levels, an established breast cancer risk factor. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the effect of the main green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), taken in a green tea extract, Polyphenon E (PPE). Postmenopausal women (n=103) were randomized into three arms: placebo, 400 mg EGCG as PPE, or 800 mg EGCG as PPE as capsules per day for 2 months. Urinary tea catechin and serum estrogen, androgen, lipid, glucose-related markers, adiponectin, and growth factor levels were measured at baseline and at the end of months 1 and 2 of intervention. Based on urinary tea catechin concentrations, compliance was excellent. Supplementation with PPE did not produce consistent patterns of changes in estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), or testosterone (T) levels. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly in both PPE groups but was unchanged in the placebo group; the change in LDL-cholesterol differed between the placebo and PPE groups (P=0.02). Glucose and insulin levels decreased nonsignificantly in the PPE groups but increased in the placebo group; statistically significant differences in changes in glucose (P=0.008) and insulin (P=0.01) were found. In summary, green tea (400 and 800 mg EGCG as PPE; ~5–10 cups) supplementation for 2 months had suggestive beneficial effects on LDL cholesterol concentrations and glucose-related markers. PMID:22246619

Wu, Anna H.; Spicer, Darcy; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Yang, Chung S.; Pike, Malcolm C.

2013-01-01

264

Effectiveness of a Single Education and Counseling Intervention in Reducing Anxiety in Women Undergoing Hysterosalpingography: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is generally considered a stressful and painful procedure; we aimed to evaluate whether a single education and counseling intervention could reduce women's distress and pain after undergoing HSG for infertility. Patients were randomized into control group (n = 108) and intervention group (n = 109). All patients filled the following questionnaires before and after HSG: Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Z-SAS), Zung self-rating depression scale (Z-SDS), and an ad hoc questionnaire designed to evaluate HSG procedure knowledge. Pain was scored using a visual analog scale. The intervention consisted in a 45-minute individualised session 48?h before HSG. We observed a reduction of anxiety and depression scores in the intervention arm compared to the control group. After controlling for potential confounding variables, intervention was an independent predictor of the difference of Z-SAS score before and after HSG. This is the first randomised controlled trial to assess the potential effectiveness of a single education and counseling intervention to lower anxiety in a diagnostic setting. PMID:24574902

Dellafiore, Caterina; Travaini, Daniele; Gambini, Francesca; Caverzasi, Edgardo

2014-01-01

265

Local control strategies for groups of mobile autonomous agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of achieving a specified formation among a group of mobile autonomous agents by distributed control is studied. If convergence to a point is feasible, then more general formations are achievable too, so the focus is on convergence to a point (the agreement problem). Three formation strategies are studied and convergence is proved under certain conditions. Also, motivated by

Zhiyun Lin; Mireille Broucke; Bruce Francis

2004-01-01

266

Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

1974-01-01

267

FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

Children Today, 1987

1987-01-01

268

2006 Nature Publishing Group Electrical signals control wound healing through  

E-print Network

© 2006 Nature Publishing Group Electrical signals control wound healing through. Forrester1 , Henry R. Bourne3 , Peter N. Devreotes6 , Colin D. McCaig1 & Josef M. Penninger2 Wound healing to be important in wound healing1­3 . The identity of signalling pathways that guide both cell migration

Devreotes, Peter

269

The effectiveness of critical time intervention for abused women and homeless people leaving Dutch shelters: study protocol of two randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background One of the main priorities of Dutch organisations providing shelter services is to develop evidence-based interventions in the care for abused women and homeless people. To date, most of these organisations have not used specific intervention models and the interventions which have been implemented rarely have an empirical and theoretical foundation. The present studies aim to examine the effectiveness of critical time intervention (CTI) for abused women and homeless people. Methods In two multi-centre randomised controlled trials we investigate whether CTI, a time-limited (nine month) outreach intervention, is more effective than care-as-usual for abused women and homeless people making the transition from shelter facilities to supported or independent housing. Participants were recruited in 19 women’s shelter facilities and 22 homeless shelter facilities across The Netherlands and randomly allocated to the intervention group (CTI) or the control group (care-as-usual). They were interviewed four times in nine months: once before leaving the shelter, and then at three, six and nine months after leaving the shelter. Quality of life (primary outcome for abused women) and recurrent loss of housing (primary outcome for homeless people) as well as secondary outcomes (e.g. care needs, self-esteem, loneliness, social support, substance use, psychological distress and service use) were assessed during the interviews. In addition, the model integrity of CTI was investigated during the data collection period. Discussion Based on international research CTI is expected to be an appropriate intervention for clients making the transition from institutional to community living. If CTI proves to be effective for abused women and homeless people, shelter services could include this case management model in their professional standards and improve the (quality of) services for clients. Trial registration NTR3463 and NTR3425

2013-01-01

270

Motivational Interviewing with computer assistance as an intervention to empower women to make contraceptive choices while incarcerated: study protocol for randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important and costly public health problems in the United States resulting from unprotected sexual intercourse. Risk factors for unplanned pregnancies and STIs (poverty, low educational attainment, homelessness, substance abuse, lack of health insurance, history of an abusive environment, and practice of commercial sex work) are especially high among women with a history of incarceration. Project CARE (Contraceptive Awareness and Reproductive Education) is designed to evaluate an innovative intervention, Motivational Interviewing with Computer Assistance (MICA), aimed at enhancing contraceptive initiation and maintenance among incarcerated women who do not want a pregnancy within the next year and who are anticipated to be released back to the community. This study aims to: (1) increase the initiation of highly effective contraceptives while incarcerated; (2) increase the continuation of highly effective contraceptive use at 3, 6, 9, and 12?months after release; and (3) decrease unsafe sexual activity. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial will recruit 400 women from the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI DOC) women’s jail at risk for an unplanned pregnancy (that is, sexually active with men and not planning/wanting to become pregnant in the next year). They will be randomized to two interventions: a control group who receive two educational videos (on contraception, STIs, and pre-conception counseling) or a treatment group who receive two sessions of personalized MICA. MICA is based on the principles of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and on Motivational Interviewing (MI), an empirically supported counseling technique designed to enhance readiness to change targeted behaviors. Women will be followed at 3, 6, 9, and 12?months post release and assessed for STIs, pregnancy, and reported condom use. Discussion Results from this study are expected to enhance our understanding of the efficacy of MICA to enhance contraceptive initiation and maintenance and reduce sexual risk-taking behaviors among incarcerated women who have re-entered the community. Trial registration NCT01132950 PMID:22747705

2012-01-01

271

Comparison of culture with two different qPCR assays for detection of rectovaginal carriage of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci) in pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of rapid and sensitive detection methods for group B streptococci (GBS) in pregnant women remains useful in order to adequately identify pregnant women at risk of transferring GBS to their neonate. This study compared the CDC recommended sampling and culture method with two qPCR methods for detecting GBS colonization.For a total of 100 pregnant women at 35–37 weeks of

Nabil Abdullah El Aila; Inge Tency; Geert Claeys; Hans Verstraelen; Pieter Deschaght; Ellen Decat; Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago; Piet Cools; Marleen Temmerman; Mario Vaneechoutte

2011-01-01

272

Motion on Lie groups and its applications in Control Theory  

E-print Network

The usefulness in control theory of the geometric theory of motion on Lie groups and homogeneous spaces will be shown. We quickly review some recent results concerning two methods to deal with these systems, namely, a generalization of the method proposed by Wei and Norman for linear systems, and a reduction procedure. This last method allows us to reduce the equation on a Lie group $G$ to that on a subgroup $H$, provided a particular solution of an associated problem in $G/H$ is known. These methods are shown to be very appropriate to deal with control systems on Lie groups and homogeneous spaces, through the specific examples of the planar rigid body with two oscillators and the front-wheel driven kinematic car.

José F. Cariñena; Jesús Clemente-Gallardo; Arturo Ramos

2003-07-01

273

Usual and Unusual Care: Existing Practice Control Groups In Randomized Controlled Trials of Behavioral Interventions  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the use of existing practice control groups in randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions, and the role of extrinsic healthcare services in the design and conduct of behavioral trials. Method Selective qualitative review. Results Extrinsic healthcare services, also known as nonstudy care, have important but under-recognized effects on the design and conduct of behavioral trials. Usual care, treatment as usual, standard of care, and other existing practice control groups pose a variety of methodological and ethical challenges, but they play a vital role in behavioral intervention research. Conclusion This review highlights the need for a scientific consensus statement on control groups in behavioral trials. PMID:21536837

Freedland, Kenneth E.; Mohr, David C.; Davidson, Karina W.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

2011-01-01

274

Group psychoeducation with relaxation for severe fear of childbirth improves maternal adjustment and childbirth experience - a randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Previous studies on the treatment of women with fear of childbirth have focused on the delivery mode. Women with fear of childbirth often suffer from anxiety and/or depression, and treatment therefore also needs to target postnatal psychological well-being and the early mother-infant relationship. Methods: Three hundred and seventy-one nulliparous women out of 4575 scored ?100 in prospective screening (Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire, W-DEQ-A), indicating severe fear of childbirth. These women were randomised to psychoeducative group intervention with relaxation (n?=?131; six sessions during pregnancy, one postnatal) or to conventional care (n?=?240) by community nurses (referral if necessary). Psycho-emotional and psychosocial evaluations [Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), social support, Maternal Adjustment and Attitudes (MAMA), Traumatic Events Scale (TES) and the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ-B)] were completed twice during pregnancy and/or 3 months postpartum. Results: Postnatal maternal adjustment (MAMA mean score 38.1?±?4.3 versus 35.7?±?5.0, p?=?0.001) and childbirth experience (mean W-DEQ-B sum score 63.0?±?29 versus 73.7?±?32, p?=?0.008) were better in the intervention group compared with controls. In hierarchical regression, social support, participating in intervention, and less fearful childbirth experience predicted better maternal adjustment. The level of postnatal depressive symptoms was significantly lower in the intervention group (mean sum score 6.4?±?5.4 versus 8.0?±?5.9 p?=?0.04). There were no differences in the frequency of post-traumatic stress symptoms between the groups. Conclusions: In nulliparous women with severe fear of childbirth, participation in a targeted psychoeducative group resulted in better maternal adjustment, a less fearful childbirth experience and fewer postnatal depressive symptoms, compared with conventional care. PMID:25417935

Rouhe, Hanna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Toivanen, Riikka; Tokola, Maiju; Halmesmäki, Erja; Ryding, Elsa-Lena; Saisto, Terhi

2014-11-24

275

Effect of a regular exercise programme on pelvic girdle and low back pain in previously inactive pregnant women: A randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Objective: To determine whether participation in a group fitness class for pregnant women can prevent and treat pelvic girdle pain and low back pain. Design: An observer-blinded randomized controlled trial. Participants: A total of 105 sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women, mean age 30.7 years (standard deviation (SD) 4.0), mean pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) 23.8 (SD 4.3), were assigned to either control or exercise groups at mean gestation week 17.7 (SD 4.2). Methods: The exercise intervention followed the guidelines of American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and included a 60 min general fitness class, with 40 min of endurance training and 20 min of strength training including stretching, performed at least twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks. Outcome measures were number of women reporting pelvic girdle pain and low back pain after the intervention (mean pregnancy week 36.6 (SD 0.9)) and postpartum (mean 7.7 (SD 1.7)). Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the exercisers and controls in numbers reporting the 2 conditions after the intervention (pelvic girdle pain: odds ratio (OR)?=?1.34, CI?=?0.56-3.20 or low back pain: OR?=?1.10, CI?=?0.47-2.60) or postpartum (pelvic girdle pain: OR?=?0.38, CI?=?0.13-1.10 or low back pain: OR?=?1.45, CI?=?0.54-3.94). A comparison of the women who had attended at least 80% of the weekly exercise classes with the control participants did not change the results. Conclusion: Participation in regular group fitness classes during pregnancy did not alter the proportion of women reporting pelvic girdle pain or low back pain during pregnancy or after childbirth. PMID:25385408

Haakstad, Lene A H; Bø, Kari

2014-11-01

276

My Time, My Space (an arts-based group for women with postnatal depression): a project report.  

PubMed

This paper will describe an innovative method of treatment for women with postnatal depression that has been used in the south west of England since 2004 and has now been successfully piloted in other areas of the UK. My Time My Space is an arts-based group for women with postnatal depression that aims to improve mood by reducing social isolation and using creativity to improve self-esteem. Results of the programme will be shared, in addition to the ways in which the project has been implemented using collaborative working with children's centres and building community capacity by engaging local charities. The qualitative results have been collected from participants (n = 30) over the last two years using post-course evaluation forms with open questions to elicit participants' views. The quantitative results of a small pilot study (n = 8) based on pre- and post-group Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) are also reported. The findings suggest My Time My Space has a positive effect on women's mood and perceived social support, and provides an effective alternative or additional method of treatment for postnatal depression. PMID:23724760

Morton, Alison; Forsey, Philippa

2013-05-01

277

Efficacy of metformin in pregnant obese women: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Increasing evidence suggests obesity has its origins prior to birth. There is clear correlation between maternal obesity, high birthweight and offspring risk of obesity in later life. It is also clear that women who are obese during pregnancy are at greater risk of adverse outcomes, including gestational diabetes and stillbirth. The mechanism(s) by which obesity causes these problems is unknown, although hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are strongly implicated. We present a protocol for a study to test the hypothesis that metformin will improve insulin sensitivity in obese pregnant women, thereby reducing the incidence of high birthweight babies and other pregnancy complications. Methods and analysis The Efficacy of Metformin in Pregnant Obese Women, a Randomised controlled (EMPOWaR) trial is a double-masked randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine whether metformin given to obese (body mass index >30?kg/m2) pregnant women from 16?weeks’ gestation until delivery reduces the incidence of high birthweight babies. A secondary aim is to test the mechanism(s) of any effect. Obese women with a singleton pregnancy and normal glucose tolerance will be recruited prior to 16?weeks’ gestation and prescribed study medication, metformin or placebo, to be taken until delivery. Further study visits will occur at 28 and 36?weeks’ gestation for glucose tolerance testing and to record anthropometric measurements. Birth weight and other measurements will be recorded at time of delivery. Anthropometry of mother and baby will be performed at 3?months postdelivery. As of January 2014, 449 women had been randomised across the UK. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice. A favourable ethical opinion was obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee, reference number 10/MRE00/12. Results will be disseminated at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number ISRCTN51279843. PMID:25588785

Chiswick, Carolyn A; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Denison, Fiona C; Whyte, Sonia A; Drake, Amanda J; Newby, David E; Walker, Brian R; Forbes, Shareen; Murray, Gordon D; Quenby, Siobhan; Wray, Susan; Norman, Jane E

2015-01-01

278

Attitudes Toward Women's Rights: Relationships with Social Dominance Orientation and Political Group Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed the extent to whichattitudes toward women's rights are predicted by socialdominance orientation (SDO) and the political groupidentities socialist and capitalist. Respondents were 181 Australian undergraduates (54 males, 127females), most of whom were of European descent. Theresults of multiple regression analyses suggested thatSDO was the most consistent predictor of negative attitudes, although the extent to which itunderpins attitudes

Patrick C. L. Heaven

1999-01-01

279

Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

Jones, Jayatta D.

2012-01-01

280

Cambodian Women's Health Project  

Cancer.gov

Increasing the regular use of Pap testing by underserved populations has been identified as a national research priority. Southeast Asian immigrants to the United States have high rates of invasive cervical cancer and demonstrate low use of Pap testing compared to other groups. However, there is little information concerning the control of cancer in Southeast Asian populations. Harborview Medical Center and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center are working together on the Cambodian Women’s Health Project.

281

Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.

Khan, S.; Maibodi, M. [Bechtel Power corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Srivastava, R. [and others

1997-12-31

282

Ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal and perimenopausal women treated with Tamoxifen: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

As tamoxifen stimulates ovarian steroidogenesis in premenopausal women, induces ovulation and increases the incidence of benign ovarian cysts, there has been concern that it might also increase ovarian cancer risk in women treated premenopausally. In a national case–control study in Britain, treatment histories were collected for 158 cases of ovarian cancer after breast cancer diagnosed at ages under 55 years and 464 controls who had breast cancer at these ages without subsequent ovarian cancer. Risk of ovarian cancer was not raised for women overall who had taken tamoxifen (odds ratio (OR)=0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6–1.3) or for those treated when premenopausal (OR=1.0, 95% CI 0.6–1.6) or perimenopausal (OR=0.7, 95% CI 0.2–2.4). There was also no relation of risk to daily dose, duration or cumulative dose of tamoxifen, or time since last use. There was, however, a significantly raised risk in relation to non-hormonal chemotherapy. The results suggest that tamoxifen treatment of premenopausal or perimenopausal women does not materially affect ovarian cancer risk, but that non-hormonal chemotherapy might increase risk. PMID:17285129

Swerdlow, A J; Jones, M E

2007-01-01

283

Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme Impact in Pregnant Women and Status of Universal Salt Iodization  

PubMed Central

Background: Several studies pertaining to current status of Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme in India have revealed goiter prevalence in the range of 1.5–44.5%, mean urinary iodine excretion level ranging from 92.5–160 mcg/L and iodized salt coverage ranging from 37–62.3%. Most of these studies were based on school children. However, very few studies have focused on pregnant women. This population is very sensitive to marginalized iodine deficiency throughout their gestational period. Methods: This 40 cluster cross sectional study was done in Raipur district. Iodine content of salt was estimated by using “Rapid Salt Testing Kits” along with observing salt storage practices, at household and in shops. Pregnant women were interviewed by using semi structured comprehensive questionnaire, which was based on knowledge attitude, and practices about salt use pattern and awareness about IDDCP, UIE level were also estimated. Results: Prevalence of goiter was 0.17%. Many (41.12%) pregnant women had <15ppm iodine content in the salt sample and 51.58% of women had subnormal iodine uptake. Wrong salt storage practice was observed in 36.3% of households. Conclusions: There were lacunae in Iodine deficiency control program in Chhattisgarh. Implementation and monitoring of program was weak. Thus for monitoring purpose IDD Cell & IDD Laboratory should be established at district level. This will lead to periodic assessment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders, by monitoring of Iodine intake and all other preventive, promotive as well as curative measures in the state. PMID:23113082

Sinha, AK; Tripathi, S; Gandhi, NK; Singh, AJ

2011-01-01

284

Women's Perceptions of Breastfeeding Barriers in Early Postpartum Period: A Qualitative Analysis Nested in Two Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives: This study examined women's perceptions of early infant feeding experiences and identified early postpartum barriers to successful breastfeeding. Subjects and Methods: We conducted semistructured exit interviews at 6 months postpartum with a subsample of participants (n=67) enrolled in two randomized controlled trials of breastfeeding promotion. Study arms included (1) routine pre- and postnatal visits with an International Board Certified Lactation Consultant (IBCLC) (LC group), (2) electronically prompted guidance from prenatal care providers (EP group), (3) EP+LC combined, and (4) standard of care (control group). Interview transcripts were coded using grounded theory and analyzed in MAXqda. Code matrices were used to identify early postpartum breastfeeding barriers and were further examined in relation to treatment group using a mixed methods analysis. Results: The majority of the participants reported experiencing at least one barrier to breastfeeding. Barriers to breastfeeding were more commonly reported in the early postpartum than late postpartum period. The most common barrier during the early postpartum period was the perception of inadequate milk supply (“lactational”) (n=18), followed by problems with latch, medical problems that were perceived as precluding breastfeeding, and medical staff and hospital practices. Participants frequently reported that the IBCLCs assisted them in anticipating, managing, and overcoming these barriers. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of integrating IBCLCs into routine pre- and postpartum care because they provide critical support that effectively addresses early postpartum barriers to breastfeeding. PMID:24304033

Barnett, Josephine; Bonuck, Karen

2014-01-01

285

Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density and the cortical bone thickness in the OVX mice. Moreover, the Ca concentrations were maintained in the OVX-LPSp mice. The effects of LPSp on bone turnover were tested in randomized and double-blind clinical test subjects, who were healthy women aged 40-79 years. The subjects ingested either soy milk without LPSp (control group) or with LPSp (LPSp group) for 3 months. The results showed that the LPSp group on premenopause maintained their bone density compared with the control group pre- and postmenopause. Moreover, these effects were maintained for 2 months postobservation. LPSp maintains bone volume and density in vivo. Thus, a combination of soy milk and LPSp may be useful for osteoporosis prevention. PMID:25493180

Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

2014-11-01

286

Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Côte d’Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding “gender dialogue groups” to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d’Ivoire. Methods Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to “gender dialogue groups” added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman’s ability to refuse sex with her husband. Results Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR?=?0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p?group (??=?-0.97; 95% CI: -1.67, -0.28, p?=?0.006), while attitudes towards refusal of sex did not significantly change Per protocol analysis suggests that compared to control women, treatment women attending more than 75% of intervention sessions with their male partner were less likely to report physical IPV (a OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.94; p?=?.04) and report fewer justifications for wife beating (adjusted ??=?-1.14; 95% CI: -2.01, -0.28, p?=?0.01) ; and both low and high adherent women reported significantly decreased economic abuse (a OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.52, p?

2013-01-01

287

Assessment of the morpho-densitometric parameters of the lumbar pedicles in osteoporotic and control women undergoing routine abdominal MDCT examinations.  

PubMed

In transpedicular surgical operations, the pedicle should be safely penetrated. In this study, we hypothesize that morpho-densitometric data describing the physical status of the pedicle isthmus in osteoporotic versus control postmenopausal women may be generated using high-resolution three-dimensional images obtained from routine abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans. Thus, 32 osteoporotic and 38 postmenopausal control women had a routine abdominal scan using a 16-row CT scanner. Images of the pedicle isthmus of the L2-L4 vertebrae were generated at the plane that was vertical to the pedicle axis. Several indices were calculated based on the measurements of outer and inner dimension of the pedicle isthmus, pedicle isthmus area, and pedicle isthmus endosteal area. The mean Hounsfield unit number within the isthmus endosteal area (HU(IEA)) and the trabecular portion of the vertebral body (HU(VERT)) were measured. All subjects had a dual X-ray absorptiometry scan (DXA) in the lumbar spine. Most of the indices calculated showed statistically significant differences between osteoporotic and control women. HU(IEA) was significantly correlated to T-score (r = 0.580, P < 0.0001). HU(IEA) showed the best discriminatory ability between the two groups (area under ROC curve, 0.840). Routine abdominal MDCT can be used to assess the morpho-densitometric characteristics of the lumbar pedicle isthmus and differentiate osteoporotic from control postmenopausal women. PMID:20976512

Papadakis, Antonios E; Karantanas, Apostolos H; Papadokostakis, Giorgos; Damilakis, John

2011-05-01

288

Control Groups in Routine Evaluations of Outcomes of Alcoholism Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of no treatment or waiting list controls for the time span of both treatment and follow-up of one year or longer involves ethical and methodological problems such as sample attribution; however, shorter follow-ups would lead to overestimates of long-term outcomes. Other comparison groups such as nonspecific treatment contols do not provide an estimate of what would happen to

Zack Zdenek Cernovsky

1986-01-01

289

Operation transformation based concurrency control in group editors  

E-print Network

for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Du Li Committee Members, Jianer Chen Jennifer L. Welch Ronald Zellner Head of Department, Valerie E. Taylor August 2006 Major Subject: Computer Science iii ABSTRACT Operation Transformation... Based Concurrency Control in Group Editors . (August 2006) Rui Li, B.E., Beijing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics; M.E., Beijing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics; M.E., Johns Hopkins University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Du Li...

Li, Rui

2006-10-30

290

Birth characteristics in a clinical sample of women seeking infertility treatment: a case–control study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the distribution of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) by main cause of infertility (female, combined, male, unexplained) in women seeking infertility treatment. Design A case–control study. Setting A Centre for Reproductive Medicine in Sweden. Participants All women (n=1293) born in Sweden in 1973 or later and who were part of heterosexual couples seeking infertility treatment at a Centre of Reproductive Medicine from 2005 to 2010 were asked to participate. Those who had not begun the diagnostic process and who declined participation in the study were excluded. In total, 1206 women (94.5%) participated in the study. Main outcome measures Main cause of infertility (female, combined, male, unexplained) collected from the patients’ medical charts. LBW (<2500?g), preterm birth (<37?weeks), SGA (+2SD of the mean weight for the gestational length), collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Results The risk of being born with LBW was increased about 2.4 times (OR=2.40, CI 1.13 to 5.07, p=0.02) in women seeking treatment for infertility due to female causes rather than for male or unexplained causes. Women with a female infertility factor were 2.7 times more likely to be born SGA (OR=2.73, CI 1.02 to 7.34, p=0.047) compared with those in whom the cause of infertility was unexplained. Conclusions Women born with LBW or SGA seem to suffer an increased risk of infertility due to a female factor. Thus, infants born with birth characteristics that deviate from the norm may be at greater risk of difficulties in childbearing later on in life. Since this study is the first of its kind, more studies are needed to verify the associations found in this study and to determine their nature. PMID:24613821

Vikström, Josefin; Hammar, Mats; Josefsson, Ann; Bladh, Marie; Sydsjö, Gunilla

2014-01-01

291

Improving Ambulatory Saliva-Sampling Compliance in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and has been associated with biased cortisol estimates in nonpregnant subjects. This study is the first to investigate in pregnant women strategies to improve ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance, and the association between sampling noncompliance and saliva cortisol estimates. Methods We instructed 64 pregnant women to collect eight scheduled saliva samples on two consecutive days each. Objective compliance with scheduled sampling times was assessed with a Medication Event Monitoring System and self-reported compliance with a paper-and-pencil diary. In a randomized controlled study, we estimated whether a disclosure intervention (informing women about objective compliance monitoring) and a reminder intervention (use of acoustical reminders) improved compliance. A mixed model analysis was used to estimate associations between women's objective compliance and their diurnal cortisol profiles, and between deviation from scheduled sampling and the cortisol concentration measured in the related sample. Results Self-reported compliance with a saliva-sampling protocol was 91%, and objective compliance was 70%. The disclosure intervention was associated with improved objective compliance (informed: 81%, noninformed: 60%), F(1,60) ?=?17.64, p<0.001, but not the reminder intervention (reminders: 68%, without reminders: 72%), F(1,60) ?=?0.78, p?=?0.379. Furthermore, a woman's increased objective compliance was associated with a higher diurnal cortisol profile, F(2,64)?=?8.22, p<0.001. Altered cortisol levels were observed in less objective compliant samples, F(1,705)?=?7.38, p?=?0.007, with delayed sampling associated with lower cortisol levels. Conclusions The results suggest that in pregnant women, objective noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and is associated with biased cortisol estimates. To improve sampling compliance, results suggest informing women about objective compliance monitoring but discourage use of acoustical reminders. PMID:24465958

Moeller, Julian; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Loetscher, Katharina Quack; Krastel, Bettina; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

2014-01-01

292

SAFETY, HEALTH, AND WELLNESS: ASSESSING THE GOALS, MESSAGES, AND DILEMMAS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE SUPPORT GROUPS FOR WOMEN IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT  

E-print Network

SAFETY, HEALTH, AND WELLNESS: ASSESSING THE GOALS, MESSAGES, AND DILEMMAS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE SUPPORT GROUPS FOR WOMEN IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT BY ©2013 Jennifer A. Guthrie Submitted to the graduate degree program... The Dissertation Committee for Jennifer A. Guthrie certifies that this is the approved version of the following dissertation: SAFETY, HEALTH, AND WELLNESS: ASSESSING THE GOALS, MESSAGES, AND DILEMMAS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE SUPPORT GROUPS FOR WOMEN...

Guthrie, Jennifer Ann

2013-08-31

293

The Sex Panic: Women, Censorship and "Pornography." A Conference of the Working Group on Women, Censorship, and "Pornography" (New York, New York, May 7-8, 1993).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 1993, representatives of anti-censorship feminists convened at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York to overturn the myths that censorship is good for women, that women want censorship, and that those who support censorship speak for women. Participants at the convention discussed four major themes: the current panic over…

National Coalition Against Censorship, New York, NY.

294

Time course of arthralgia among women initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy and a postmenopausal comparison group in a prospective cohort  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND More than 80,000 postmenopausal breast cancer patients in the US each year are estimated to begin a five-year course of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) to prevent recurrence. AI-related arthralgia (joint pain and/or stiffness) may contribute to nonadherence, but longitudinal data are needed on arthralgia risk factors, trajectories, and background in postmenopause. OBJECTIVES To describe one-year arthralgia trajectories and baseline covariates among AI patients and a postmenopausal comparison group. METHODS Patients initiating AIs (n=91) were surveyed at the time of AI initiation and at six repeated assessments over one year. A comparison group of postmenopausal women without breast cancer (n=177) completed concomitantly-timed surveys. Numeric rating scales (0–10) were used to measure pain in eight joint pair groups (bilateral fingers, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles, and toes). Poisson regression models were used to analyze arthralgia trajectories and risk factors. RESULTS By week six, the AI-initiating group had more severe arthralgia than did the comparison group (ratio of means=1.8, (95% CI 1.2–2.7, p=0.002), adjusting for baseline characteristics. Arthralgia then worsened further over a year in the AI group. Menopausal symptom severity and existing joint-related comorbidity at baseline among women initiating AI were associated with more severe longitudinal arthralgia. CONCLUSIONS Patients initiating AI should be told about the timing of arthralgia over the first year of therapy, and advised that it does not appear to resolve over the course of a year. Menopausal symptoms and joint-related comorbidity at AI initiation can help identify patients at risk for developing AI-related arthralgia. PMID:23575918

Castel, Liana D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Mayer, Ingrid A.; Saville, Benjamin R.; Alvarez, JoAnn; Boomershine, Chad S.; Abramson, Vandana G.; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Friedman, Debra L.; Cella, David F.

2013-01-01

295

Compensatory Weight Control Behaviors of Women in Emerging Adulthood: Associations between Childhood Abuse Experiences and Adult Relationship Avoidance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine correlates of compensatory weight control behaviors among women in transition between adolescence and adulthood. Participants: The authors recruited a sample of undergraduate women ("N" = 759) at a large northwestern university during the 2009-2010 academic year. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess…

Bankoff, Sarah M.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Jackson, Michelle A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.

2013-01-01

296

A pilot case–control association study of cytokine polymorphisms in Brazilian women presenting with HPV-related cervical lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and study designA case–control study was conducted on 42 Brazilian women presenting with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and cervical lesion and 87 HPV-negative women to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms observed in TNF-?, TGF-?, IL-10, IL-6, and IFN-? genes.

Ana Paula M. Fernandes; Maria Alice G. Gonçalves; Renata T. Simões; Celso T. Mendes-Junior; Geraldo Duarte; Eduardo A. Donadi

2008-01-01

297

Can weight loss improve migraine headaches in obese women? Rationale and design of the WHAM randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Research demonstrates a link between migraine and obesity. Obesity increases the risk of frequent migraines and is associated with migraine prevalence among reproductive-aged women. These findings are substantiated by several plausible mechanisms and emerging evidence of migraine improvements after surgical and non-surgical weight loss. However, no previous study has examined the effect of weight loss on migraine within a treatment-controlled framework. The WHAM trial is a RCT to test the efficacy of behavioral weight loss as a treatment for migraine. Study design Overweight/obese women (n=140; BMI=25.0–49.9 kg/m2) who meet international diagnostic criteria for migraine and record ?3 migraines and 4–20 migraine days using a smartphone-based headache diary during a 4-week baseline period, will be randomly assigned to 4 months of either group-based behavioral weight loss (intervention) or migraine education (control). Intervention participants will be taught strategies to increase physical activity and consume fewer calories in order to lose weight. Control participants will receive general education on migraine symptoms/triggers and various treatment approaches. Both groups will use smartphones to record their headaches for 4 weeks at baseline, after the 16-week treatment period, and at the end of a 16-week follow-up period. Changes in weight and other potential physiological (inflammation), psychological (depression), and behavioral (diet and physical activity) mediators of the intervention effect will also be assessed. Conclusion The WHAM trial will evaluate the efficacy of a standardized behavioral weight loss intervention for reducing migraine frequency, and the extent to which weight loss and other potential mediators account for intervention effects. PMID:23524340

Bond, Dale S.; O’Leary, Kevin C.; Thomas, J. Graham; Lipton, Richard B.; Papandonatos, George D.; Roth, Julie; Rathier, Lucille; Daniello, Richard; Wing, Rena R.

2013-01-01

298

Under-representation of Women and Ethnic Minorities in Vascular Surgery Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Objectives Gender and ethnicity are factors affecting the incidence and severity of vascular disease as well as subsequent treatment outcomes. Though well-studied in other fields, balanced enrollment of patients with relevant demographic characteristics in vascular surgery randomized-control trials (RCT) is not well known. This study describes the reporting of gender and ethnicity data in vascular surgery RCT and analyzes whether these studies adequately represent our diverse patient population. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of US-based RCT from 1983 through 2007 for three broadly defined vascular procedures: aortic aneurysm repair (AAR), carotid revascularization (CR), and lower extremity revascularization (LER). Included studies were examined for gender and ethnicity data, study parameters, funding source, and geographic region. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was analyzed to obtain group-specific procedure frequency as an estimate of procedure frequency in the general population. Results Seventy-seven studies were reviewed and 52 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, only 85% reported gender and 21% reported ethnicity. Reporting of ethnicity was strongly associated with larger (>280 subjects), multi-center, government-funded trials (P<0.001 for all). Women are disproportionately under-represented in RCT for all procedure categories (AAR: 9.0% vs 21.5%, CR: 30.0% vs 42.9%, LER: 22.4% vs 41.3%) while minorities are underrepresented in AAR studies (6.0% vs 10.7%) and CR studies (6.9% vs 9.5%) while they are over represented in LER studies (26.0% vs 21.8%, P<.001 for all). Conclusions Minority ethnicity and female gender are under-reported and under-represented in vascular surgery RCT, particularly in small, non-government funded and single-center trials. The generalizability of some trial results may not be applicable to these populations. Greater effort to enroll a balanced study population in RCT may yield more broadly applicable results. PMID:19631869

Hoel, Andrew W.; Kayssi, Ahmed; Brahmanandam, Soma; Belkin, Michael; Conte, Michael S.; Nguyen, Louis L.

2009-01-01

299

Efficacy of Psychoeducational Group Therapy in Reducing Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Multiply Traumatized Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The role of group therapy in treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been traditionally restricted to issues of self-esteem and interpersonal relationships, rather than primary symptoms of the disorder. In this study, the authors examined the effectiveness of a 16-week trauma-focused, cognitive-behavioral group therapy, named Interactive Psychoeducational Group Therapy, in reducing primary symptoms of PTSD in five groups

Hadar Lubin; Michelle Loris; John Burt; David Read Johnson

1998-01-01

300

An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

Jeffries, Sherryl A. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Calgary Health Region Chronic Pain Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Robinson, John W. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Program in Clinical Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S. [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Keats, Melanie R. [Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

2006-06-01

301

Trait and Self-Presentational Dimensions of Perfectionism Among Women with Anorexia Nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trait and self-presentational dimensions of perfectionism were examined in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric control group of women with mood dis- orders, and a normal control group of women without mental disorders. With one exception, self-report measures and interview measures indicated that, after control- ling for self-esteem, depression, and overall psychiatric severity, compared to women with mood disorders,

Sarah J. Cockell; Paul L. Hewitt; Brooke Seal; Simon Sherry; Elliot M. Goldner; Gordon L. Flett; Ronald A. Remick

2002-01-01

302

The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: baseline characteristics of women involved in the SPRINT randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Gender-specific smoking cessation strategies have rarely been developed. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA) promotion and intervention in adjunct to smoking cessation programs is not strong. SPRINT study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to evaluate a counselling intervention on smoking cessation and PA delivered to women attending the Italian National Health System Cervical Cancer Screening Program. This paper presents study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. Methods/Design Among women undergoing the Pap examination in three study centres (Florence, Turin, Mantua), participants were randomized to the smoking cessation counselling [S], the smoking cessation + PA counselling [S + PA], or the control [C] groups. The program under evaluation is a standard brief counselling on smoking cessation combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was delivered in 2010. A questionnaire, administered before, after 6 months and 1 year from the intervention, was used to track behavioural changes in tobacco use and PA, and to record cessation rates in participants. Discussion Out of the 5,657 women undergoing the Pap examination, 1,100 participants (55% of smokers) were randomized in 1 of the 3 study groups (363 in the S, 366 in the S + PA and 371 in the C groups). The three arms did not differ on any demographic, PA, or tobacco-use characteristics. Recruited smokers were older, less educated than non-participant women, more motivated to quit (33% vs.9% in the Preparation stage, p < 0.001), smoked more cigarettes per day (12 vs.9, p < 0.001), and were more likely to have already done 1 or more quit attempts (64% vs.50%, p < 0.001). The approach of SPRINT study appeared suitable to enrol less educated women who usually smoke more and have more difficulties to quit. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN52660565 PMID:22151834

2011-01-01

303

Main Risk Factors for Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case-Control Study in A Sample of Iranian Women  

PubMed Central

Background Although the risk factors of ectopic pregnancy have been determined in previous studies, the main risk factors of ectopic pregnancy are different in various countries due to different cultural and social characteristics. Determination of main risk factors of ectopic pregnancy leads to a rapid diagnosis and an improvement in strategies for its prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the main risk factors of ectopic pregnancy in a sample of Iranian women. Materials and Methods We designed a case-control study to include 150 cases and 300 controls and to compare them by the following factors: socio-demographic characteristics, contraceptive methods, prior tubal surgery, tubal pathology, prior ectopic pregnancy, prior caesarean section, prior abortion, prior infertility, and prior abdominal/pelvic surgery. Results The case and control groups were significantly similar in term of education and parity. There was an association between ectopic pregnancy and age which was disappeared after controlling for the main risk factors (adjusted OR=2.45, 95% CI: 0.86-6.97). There was no statistically significant relation between ectopic pregnancy and prior tubal surgery, tubal pathology, prior abortion, prior infertility, assisted reproductive technology, and oral contraceptive method (p>0.05). However, there was a significant association between prior ectopic pregnancy, prior tubal ligation, use of intrauterine device, and prior abdominal/pelvic surgery with ectopic pregnancy (p<0.05). The risk of ectopic pregnancy increased with the use of intrauterine device and tubal ligation, whereas decreased with use of oral contraception. Conclusion This study identified prior ectopic pregnancy, prior tubal ligation, use of intrauterine device, and prior pelvic/abdominal surgery as the main risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in a sample of Iranian women. Our findings can be useful for early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy and for improvement in strategies of its prevention through medical therapy instead of unnecessarily surgical treatment. PMID:25083179

Parashi, Shayesteh; Moukhah, Somayeh; Ashrafi, Mahnaz

2014-01-01

304

Persistence of decidual NK cells and KIR genotypes in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women: a case-control study in the third trimester of gestation  

PubMed Central

Background Natural Killer (NK) cells are the most abundant lymphocytes in the decidua during early gestation. The interactions of NK cells with the extravillous cytotrophoblast have been associated with a normal spiral artery remodeling process, an essential event for a successful pregnancy. Recent data indicate that alterations in the amount of decidual NK (dNK) cells contribute to the development of preeclampsia (PE). Moreover, genetic studies suggest that Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) expressed in dNK cells influence the susceptibility to PE. Although dNK cells have been well characterized during early pregnancy, they have been scarcely studied in the third trimester of gestation. The aim of this work was to characterize dNK cells at the last trimester of gestation and to analyze the KIR genotype of healthy and PE women. Methods Decidual samples were obtained during Caesarean section from control (n = 10) and PE (n = 9) women. Flow cytometric analysis of CD3, CD56, CD16 and CD9 was used to characterize and quantify dNK cells in both groups. Cell surface markers from decidual leukocytes were compared with PBMC from healthy donors. KIR genotyping was performed in genomic DNA (control, n = 86; PE, n = 90) using PCR-SSP. Results The results indicate that dNK cells persist throughout pregnancy. They represented 20% of total leukocytes in control and PE groups, and they expressed the same cell surface markers (CD3-, CD56+, CD16- and CD9+) as dNK in the first trimester of gestation. There were no significant differences in the percentage of dNK cells between control and PE groups. The analysis of KIR gene frequencies and genotypes was not statistically different between control and PE groups. The ratio of activating to inhibitory genes indicated that the overall inhibitory balance (0.2-0.5) was more frequent in the PE group (control, 31.3% vs PE, 45.5%), and the activating balance (0.6-1.1) was more frequent in the control group (control, 68.6% vs PE, 54.4%). However this difference was not significant. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of dNK cells in PE and control women at the third trimester of pregnancy; these dNK cells had a similar phenotype to those found during early pregnancy. The predominance of a KIR inhibitory balance in the PE group could be associated to the physiopathology of PE. PMID:21247496

2011-01-01

305

Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy with Mefloquine in HIV-Infected Women Receiving Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis: A Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for malaria prevention in HIV-negative pregnant women, but it is contraindicated in HIV-infected women taking daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTXp) because of potential added risk of adverse effects associated with taking two antifolate drugs simultaneously. We studied the safety and efficacy of mefloquine (MQ) in women receiving CTXp and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs). Methods and Findings A total of 1,071 HIV-infected women from Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania were randomized to receive either three doses of IPTp-MQ (15 mg/kg) or placebo given at least one month apart; all received CTXp and a LLITN. IPTp-MQ was associated with reduced rates of maternal parasitemia (risk ratio [RR], 0.47 [95% CI 0.27–0.82]; p?=?0.008), placental malaria (RR, 0.52 [95% CI 0.29–0.90]; p?=?0.021), and reduced incidence of non-obstetric hospital admissions (RR, 0.59 [95% CI 0.37–0.95]; p?=?0.031) in the intention to treat (ITT) analysis. There were no differences in the prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes between groups. Drug tolerability was poorer in the MQ group compared to the control group (29.6% referred dizziness and 23.9% vomiting after the first IPTp-MQ administration). HIV viral load at delivery was higher in the MQ group compared to the control group (p?=?0.048) in the ATP analysis. The frequency of perinatal mother to child transmission of HIV was increased in women who received MQ (RR, 1.95 [95% CI 1.14–3.33]; p?=?0.015). The main limitation of the latter finding relates to the exploratory nature of this part of the analysis. Conclusions An effective antimalarial added to CTXp and LLITNs in HIV-infected pregnant women can improve malaria prevention, as well as maternal health through reduction in hospital admissions. However, MQ was not well tolerated, limiting its potential for IPTp and indicating the need to find alternatives with better tolerability to reduce malaria in this particularly vulnerable group. MQ was associated with an increased risk of mother to child transmission of HIV, which warrants a better understanding of the pharmacological interactions between antimalarials and antiretroviral drugs. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00811421; Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR 2010020001813440 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25247995

Abdulla, Salim; Aponte, John J.; Bulo, Helder; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor M.; Katana, Abraham; Maculuve, Sonia; Mayor, Alfredo; Nhacolo, Arsenio; Otieno, Kephas; Pahlavan, Golbahar; Rupérez, María; Sevene, Esperança; Slutsker, Laurence; Vala, Anifa; Williamsom, John; Menéndez, Clara

2014-01-01

306

Static balance control and lower limb strength in blind and sighted women.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine isokinetic and isometric strength of the knee and ankle muscles and to compare center of pressure (CoP) sway between blind and sighted women. A total of 20 women volunteered to participate in this study. Ten severe blind women (age 33.5 +/- 7.9 years; height 163 +/- 5 cm; mass 64.5 +/- 12.2 kg) and 10 women with normal vision (age 33.5 +/- 8.3 years; height 164 +/- 6 cm; mass 61.9 +/- 14.5 kg) performed 3 different tasks of increasing difficulty: Normal Quiet Stance (1 min), Tandem Stance (20 s), and One-Leg Stance (10 s). Participants stood barefoot on two adjacent force platforms and the CoP variations [peak-to-peak amplitude (CoPmax) and SD of the CoP displacement (CoPsd)] were analyzed. Sighted participants performed the tests in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Torque/angular velocity and torque/angular position relationships were also established using a Cybex dynamometer for knee extensors and flexors as well as for ankle plantar and dorsiflexors. The main finding of this study was that the ability to control balance in both anterior/posterior and medio/lateral directions was inferior in blind than in sighted women. However, when sighted participants performed the tests blindfolded, their CoP sway increased significantly in both directions. There were no differences in most isometric and concentric strength measurements of the lower limb muscles between the blind and sighted individuals. Our results demonstrate that vision is a more prominent indicator of performance during the postural tasks compared to strength of the lower limbs. Despite similar level of strength, blind individuals performed significantly worse in all balance tests compared to sighted individuals. PMID:19701648

Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Amiridis, Ioannis G; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Thimara, Maria; Kouvelioti, Vassiliki; Kellis, Elefthrerios

2009-11-01

307

Use of group quarantine in ebola control - Nigeria, 2014.  

PubMed

On July 20, 2014, the first known case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in Nigeria, in a traveler from Liberia, led to an outbreak that was successfully curtailed with infection control, contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine measures coordinated through an incident management system. During this outbreak, most contacts underwent home monitoring, which included instructions to stay home or to avoid crowded areas if staying home was not possible. However, for five contacts with high-risk exposures, group quarantine in an observation unit was preferred because the five had crowded home environments or occupations that could have resulted in a large number of community exposures if they developed Ebola. PMID:25674994

Grigg, Cheri; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Olayinka, Adebola T; Vertefeuille, John F

2015-02-13

308

Group vs. individual exercise interventions for women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Both during and after treatment, cancer survivors experience declines in physical and psychosocial quality of life (QoL). Prior research indicates that exercise interventions alleviate problems in physical functioning and some aspects of psychological functioning. For survivors seeking social support, exercise programs that are conducted in group settings may foster optimal QoL improvement (by addressing additional issues related to isolation, social support) over individually-based exercise programs. Methods We reviewed literature on group cohesion in exercise studies, and conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that group as compared to individual exercise interventions for breast cancer survivors would show greater improvement in QoL. Results As currently implemented, group exercise interventions showed no advantage. However, they typically did not provide any evidence that they capitalized upon potentially beneficial group processes. Conclusions Future exercise intervention studies could investigate the effect on QoL of deliberately using group dynamics processes, such as team building experiences and group goal setting to foster group cohesion. PMID:20607139

Moyer, Anne

2010-01-01

309

Effects of parameter estimation on the group runs control chart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of the Group Runs (GR) chart is based on the assumption of known process parameters. Nevertheless, the in-control process parameters, mean and standard deviation are rarely known in reality, thus, both of them need to be estimated from a set of in-control data which is acquired from the Phase I process. In this paper, we will study the effects of parameter estimation on the performance of the GR chart, in terms of the average run length (ARL). The results show that the performance of the estimated GR chart are severely affected when process shift and the Phase I sample size are small. However, the performance of the chart with estimated parameters approaches that of the chart with known parameters when large Phase I samples are used.

You, Huay Woon; Khoo, Michael Boon Chong

2014-07-01

310

Heart Disease Management by Women: Does Intervention Format Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A randomized controlled trial of two formats of a program (Women Take PRIDE) to enhance management of heart disease by patients was conducted. Older women (N = 575) were randomly assigned to a group or self-directed format or to a control group. Data regarding symptoms, functional health status, and weight were collected at baseline and at 4, 12,…

Clark, Noreen M.; Janz, Nancy K.; Dodge, Julia A.; Lin, Xihong; Trabert, Britton L.; Kaciroti, Niko; Mosca, Lori; Wheeler, John R.; Keteyian, Steven

2009-01-01

311

Heart Disease Management by Women: Does Intervention Format Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A randomized controlled trial of two formats of a program (Women Take PRIDE) to enhance management of heart disease by patients was conducted. Older women (N = 575) were randomly assigned to a group or self-directed format or to a control group. Data regarding symptoms, functional health status, and weight were collected at baseline and at 4, 12,…

Clark, Noreen M.; Janz, Nancy K.; Dodge, Julia A.; Lin, Xihong; Trabert, Britton L.; Kaciroti, Niko; Mosca, Lori; Wheeler, John R.; Keteyian, Steven

2014-01-01

312

Paging “Dr. Google”: Does Technology Fill the Gap Created by the Prenatal Care Visit Structure? Qualitative Focus Group Study With Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background The prenatal care visit structure has changed little over the past century despite the rapid evolution of technology including Internet and mobile phones. Little is known about how pregnant women engage with technologies and the interface between these tools and medical care, especially for women of lower socioeconomic status. Objective We sought to understand how women use technology during pregnancy through a qualitative study with women enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. Methods We recruited pregnant women ages 18 and older who owned a smartphone, at a WIC clinic in central Pennsylvania. The focus group guide included questions about women’s current pregnancy, their sources of information, and whether they used technology for pregnancy-related information. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed. Three members of the research team independently analyzed each transcript, using a thematic analysis approach. Themes related to the topics discussed were identified, for which there was full agreement. Results Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 17 women. Three major themes emerged as follows. First, the prenatal visit structure is not patient-centered, with the first visit perceived as occurring too late and with too few visits early in pregnancy when women have the most questions for their prenatal care providers. Unfortunately, the educational materials women received during prenatal care were viewed as unhelpful. Second, women turn to technology (eg, Google, smartphone applications) to fill their knowledge gaps. Turning to technology was viewed to be a generational approach. Finally, women reported that technology, although frequently used, has limitations. Conclusions The results of this qualitative research suggest that the current prenatal care visit structure is not patient-centered in that it does not allow women to seek advice when they want it most. A generational shift seems to have occurred, resulting in pregnant women in our study turning to the Internet and smartphones to fill this gap, which requires significant skills to navigate for useful information. Future steps may include developing interventions to help health care providers assist patients early in pregnancy to seek the information they want and to become better consumers of Internet-based pregnancy resources. PMID:24892583

Chuang, Cynthia H; Poole, Erika S; Peyton, Tamara; Blubaugh, Ian; Pauli, Jaimey; Feher, Alyssa; Reddy, Madhu

2014-01-01

313

Effect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

There have been no controlled intervention studies to investigate the effects of green tea on circulating hormone levels, an established breast cancer risk factor. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the effect of the main green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), taken in a green tea extract, polyphenon E (PPE). Postmenopausal women (n = 103) were randomized into three arms: placebo, 400-mg EGCG as PPE, or 800-mg EGCG as PPE as capsules per day for 2 months. Urinary tea catechin and serum estrogen, androgen, lipid, glucose-related markers, adiponectin, and growth factor levels were measured at baseline and at the end of months 1 and 2 of intervention. On the basis of urinary tea catechin concentrations, compliance was excellent. Supplementation with PPE did not produce consistent patterns of changes in estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), or testosterone (T) levels. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly in both PPE groups but was unchanged in the placebo group; the change in LDL-cholesterol differed between the placebo and PPE groups (P = 0.02). Glucose and insulin levels decreased nonsignificantly in the PPE groups but increased in the placebo group; statistically significant differences in changes in glucose (P = 0.008) and insulin (P = 0.01) were found. In summary, green tea (400- and 800-mg EGCG as PPE; ?5-10 cups) supplementation for 2 months had suggestive beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol concentrations and glucose-related markers. PMID:22246619

Wu, Anna H; Spicer, Darcy; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Yang, Chung S; Pike, Malcolm C

2012-03-01

314

A cluster randomised controlled trial of a brief couple-focused psychoeducational intervention to prevent common postnatal mental disorders among women: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Postnatal common mental disorders among women are an important public health problem internationally. Interventions to prevent postnatal depression have had limited success. What Were We Thinking (WWWT) is a structured, gender-informed, psychoeducational group programme for parents and their first infant that addresses two modifiable risks to postnatal mental health. This paper describes the protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial to test the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of WWWT when implemented in usual primary care. Methods and analysis 48 maternal and child health (MCH) centres from six diverse Local Government Areas, in Victoria, Australia are randomly allocated to the intervention group (usual care plus WWWT) or the control group (usual care). The required sample size is 184 women in each group. English-speaking primiparous women receiving postpartum healthcare in participating MCH centres complete two computer-assisted telephone interviews: baseline at 4?weeks and outcome at 6?months postpartum. Women attending intervention MCH centres are invited to attend WWWT in addition to usual care. The primary outcome is meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for major depressive episode; generalised anxiety disorder; panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia with or without panic, social phobia, adult separation anxiety or adjustment disorder with depressed mood, anxiety or mixed depressed mood and anxiety within the past 30?days at 6?months postpartum. Secondary outcomes are self-rated general and emotional health, infant sleep problems, method of infant feeding, quality of mother–infant relationship and intimate partner relationship, and healthcare costs and outcomes. Ethics and dissemination Approval to conduct the study has been granted. A comprehensive dissemination plan has been devised. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000506796. UTN U1111-1125-8208. PMID:25248497

Rowe, Heather; Wynter, Karen; Lorgelly, Paula; Amir, Lisa H; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Proimos, Jenny; Cann, Warren; Hiscock, Harriet; Bayer, Jordana; Burns, Joanna; Ride, Jemimah; Bobevski, Irene; Fisher, Jane

2014-01-01

315

Determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group in North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Africa with high fertility and fast population growth rate. It is also one of the countries with high maternal and child mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa Family planning is a crucial strategy to halt the fast population growth, to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health (Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 15 to September 1, 2010 among married women aged 15–49 years in Debre Birhan District. Multistage sampling technique was used to select a total of 851 study participants. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for gathering data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical package. Results Modern contraceptive prevalence rate among currently married women was 46.9%. Injectable contraceptives were the most frequently used methods (62.9%), followed by intrauterine device (16.8%), pills (14%), norplant (4.3%), male condom (1.2%) and female sterilization (0.8%). Multiple logistic regression model revealed that the need for more children (AOR 9.27, 95% CI 5.43-15.84), husband approve (AOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.67-4.80), couple’s discussion about family planning issues (AOR 7.32, 95% CI 3.60-14.86). Similarly, monthly family income and number of living children were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion Modern contraceptive use was high in the district. Couple’s discussion and husband approval of contraceptives use were significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives. Therefore, district health office and concerned stakeholders should focus on couples to encourage communication and male involvement for family planning. PMID:24490810

2014-01-01

316

Cognitive Ability and Everyday Functioning in Women with Turner Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of 23 Turner syndrome (TUS) women with 23 women with constitutional short stature (CSS) found significant group differences for Performance and Full Scale IQ, largely due to TUS women's deficits in spatial and mathematical ability. TUS individuals had significantly lower educational and occupational attainment than CSS controls but did…

Downey, Jennifer; And Others

1991-01-01

317

High-Fiber Orange Juice as a Nutrition Supplement in Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Tolerance and Effectiveness.  

PubMed

Background: The daily consumption of dietary fiber is frequently below suggested recommendations. Using a double-blind, controlled, randomized study, we assessed the efficiency and tolerance of a fiber-enriched orange juice to supplement fiber intake in women. Materials and Methods: After 1 week of noninterventional observation, 192 healthy adult women ingested 400 mL of orange juice for 21 days, which either was not (placebo group) or was enriched with fiber (fiber group). Orange juice ingestion was registered daily and controlled for each week during the study period. Macronutrient, fiber, and energy intake were determined using a 3-day food record, validated food chemical composition databases, and the "Pro Diet" software. Gastrointestinal symptoms were self-evaluated daily by scoring 4 grades of symptom intensity and using a visual analog scale to grade pain severity. Results: No changes were observed for macronutrient and energy ingestion. For the placebo group (n = 97), the total fiber intake record was under the daily recommended value. In contrast, the fiber group (n = 95) displayed higher comparative values of total and soluble fiber consumption (P ? .001), achieving the daily recommended values of fiber intake. Both groups reported an increased frequency of slight bloating and rumbles over time (P ? .05). The fiber group also experienced a higher frequency of slight flatulence over time (P = .002). Conclusion: Consumption of fiber-enriched orange juice was efficient to achieve the daily fiber intake recommendation for women, was not accompanied by intense adverse events, and may represent a suitable method to supplement fiber intake in woman. PMID:24941951

Bergamasco, Christiane; Horie, Lilian Mika; Torrinhas, Raquel Susana; Waitzberg, Dan L

2014-06-18

318

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Women with Lifelong Vaginismus: A Randomized Waiting-List Controlled Trial of Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women with lifelong vaginismus (N = 117) were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral group therapy, cognitive-behavioral bibliotherapy, or a waiting list. Manualized treatment comprised sexual education, relaxation exercises, gradual exposure, cognitive therapy, and sensate focus therapy. Group therapy consisted of ten 2-hr sessions with 6 to 9…

Van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; ter Kuile, Moniek M.; de Groot, H. Ellen; Melles, Reinhilde; Nefs, Janneke; Zandbergen, Maartje

2006-01-01

319

Change in attachment insecurity is related to improved outcomes 1-year post group therapy in women with binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

An interpersonal model of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) posits that difficulties with social functioning precipitate negative affect, which in turn causes binge eating as a means of coping. Thus, long-term decreases in attachment insecurity may be important for women with BED. No research has assessed if long-term change in attachment insecurity is associated with sustained change in other outcomes. In the current study, we hypothesized that changes in attachment anxiety and avoidance will decrease at posttreatment and will be maintained up to 12 months after Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP). We further hypothesized that long-term stability of these changes in attachment insecurity will be related to other long-term outcomes. Women with BED (N = 102) attended 16 sessions of GPIP. Measures were completed pretreatment, posttreatment, at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, and the other outcome variables decreased significantly at 12 months posttreatment. Reductions in attachment anxiety and avoidance were significantly related to decreases in interpersonal problems up to 12 months posttreatment, and reduction in attachment anxiety was significantly related to decreases in depressive symptoms 12 months posttreatment. Further, the significant relationship between reduced attachment avoidance and decreased interpersonal problems strengthened over the long term. This is the first study to show an association between change in attachment insecurity and change in other outcomes in the long term, and to show an adaptive spiral in which greater reduction in attachment avoidance is increasingly associated with ongoing improvement of interpersonal problems. PMID:23398032

Maxwell, Hilary; Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany

2014-03-01

320

The paradox of progress: translating Evan Stark's Coercive Control into legal doctrine for abused women.  

PubMed

This article examines Evan Stark's model of coercive control and what this paradigm shift might mean for the law. Coercive control can help redefine both criminal offenses involving domestic violence and defenses available to women who kill their abusers. This redefinition would shift the law away from incident-based violence and toward a more comprehensive and accurate paradigm that accounts for the deprivation of a woman's autonomy within the context of an abusive relationship. Such a change would likely provide more effective state intervention into what were once considered private relationships. Yet, this approach may also have some unintended consequences, including refocusing the law on a victim's mental state and complicity in her own abuse rather than on the harm caused by abusive men. Thus, although the law should more fully account for coercive control, lawyers must be cautiously optimistic in implementing Stark's proposed reforms. PMID:19820177

Hanna, Cheryl

2009-12-01

321

Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women. PMID:12347277

Shefali, M K

1996-01-01

322

Combined estrogen replacement therapy on metabolic control in postmenopausal women with diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that the incidence of diabetes is higher when women come to menopause. This study was carried out to examine the effects of combined estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on diabetes in postmenopausal women. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published between January 1997 and June 2011. Studies that examined ERT on the incidence of diabetes and randomized clinical trials that evaluated combined ERT (estrogen plus progesterone) on diabetic indices in postmenopausal women were included. Pooled relative risks were calculated using a random- or a fixed-effects model. Sixteen studies comprising 17,971 cases were included. Based on the pooled data, ERT significantly reduced the incidence of diabetes [odds ratio (OR), 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55-0.68, ERT past/current/continuous use vs. never use; OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.51-0.65, ERT current/continuous use vs. past/never use]. Women with combined ERT have significantly lower levels of fasting plasma glucose (mean difference, -1.41 mM/L; 95% CI, -2.49 to -0.33 mM/L) and HbA1c (mean difference, -0.73%; 95% CI, from -1.28 to -0.18%) compared with placebo. Furthermore, combined ERT dramatically reduced plasma total cholesterol (mean difference, -0.34 mM/L; 95% CI, from -0.53 to -0.15 mM/L) and low-density lipoprotein (mean difference, -0.43 mM/L; 95% CI, from -0.71 to -0.14 mM/L) but slightly increased high-density lipoprotein (mean difference, 0.02 mM/L; 95% CI, from -0.07 to 0.12 mM/L) levels as compared with placebo control. This systemic review and meta-analysis provides evidence that postmenopausal women taking low-dose combined ERT have a decreased risk of developing diabetes and have better diabetic control. PMID:24924841

Xu, Youhua; Lin, Jing; Wang, Shanshan; Xiong, Jianfeng; Zhu, Quan

2014-07-01

323

Divorcing Abused Latina Immigrant Women's Experiences With Domestic Violence Support Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Latina immigrants who are divorcing and in domestic violence support groups (DVSGs). To gain an understanding of the client perspective, an ex-post facto research design was utilized with the data collection taking place after the members had terminated with the DVSG services. The convenience sample consisted of

Olga Molina; Shawn A. Lawrence; Aisha Azhar-Miller; Marlene Rivera

2009-01-01

324

A STUDY OF THE PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A GROUP OF WOMEN WHO HAD PARTICIPATED IN SEWING CLASSES IN AN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM AND A GROUP OF THEIR FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS WHO HAD NOT PARTICIPATED IN ANY ADULT EDUCATION ACTIVITIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN THIS STUDY OF PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES, THE SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTOR QUESTIONNAIRE AND AN ADULT EDUCATION INTERVIEW SHEET WERE ADMINISTERED TO A GROUP OF WOMEN WHO HAD PARTICIPATED IN SEWING CLASSES OFFERED BY THE MOTT ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM OF THE FLINT, MICHIGAN, BOARD OF EDUCATION, AND TO A GROUP OF THEIR FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS WHO HAD NOT…

SITTS, MARVIN RALPH

325

Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair with and without Concomitant Burch Colposuspension in Incontinent Women: A Randomised Controlled Trial with at Least 5-Year Followup  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to reevaluate and update the followup of a previously published randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the impact of Burch Colposuspension (BC), as an anti-incontinence procedure, in patients with UI and POP, who underwent POP repair. Forty-seven women were randomly assigned to abdominal POP repair and concomitant BC (24 patients; group A) or POP repair alone without any anti-incontinence procedure (23 patients; group B). Median followup was 82 months (range 60–107); from over 47 patients, 30 reached 6-year followup. Two patients were lost at followup. In group A, 2 patients showed a stage I rectocele. In group B, 2 patients had a stage I rectocele and 1 a stage II rectocele. In group A, 13/23 (56.5%) were still incontinent after surgery compared with 9/22 patients (40.9%) in group B (P = 0.298). No significant changes were observed between the first and the current followup. The update of long-term followup confirmed that BC did not improve outcome significantly in incontinent women when they undergo POP repair. PMID:22028719

Costantini, Elisabetta; Lazzeri, Massimo; Bini, Vittorio; Del Zingaro, Michele; Frumenzio, Emanuela; Porena, Massimo

2012-01-01

326

Perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women.  

PubMed

We examined the perinatal outcomes of borderline diabetic pregnant women who had impaired 50 g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) results, but normal 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results. Our study group included 70 pregnant women who had increased 50 g OGCT results, but normal 100 g OGTT results, and a control group of 122 pregnant women with normal 50 g OGCT results. Polyhydramnios, macrosomia and neonatal birth weight were significantly higher in the study group. After adjusting the results for possibly affecting variables, the risk of polyhydramnios remained significant, while the risk of macrosomia and neonatal birth weight was not significant between the groups. The results from the study group were similar to the control group, when adjusted for other risk factors. Increased 50 g OGCT results in pregnant women can be accepted as a benign state if the 100 g OGTT results are normal. PMID:24911521

Yesildager, E; Koken, G; Gungor, A N C; Demirel, R; Arioz, D; Celik, F; Yilmazer, M

2014-11-01

327

C-Reactive protein levels among women of various ethnic groups living in the United States (from the Women's Health Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels was compared among 24,455 white, 475 black, 357 Asian, and 254 Hispanic women, all of whom are participants in the Women's Health Study. Median CRP levels were significantly higher among black women (2.96 mg\\/L, interquartile range [IQR] 1.19 to 5.86) than among their white (2.02 mg\\/L, IQR 0.81 to 4.37), Hispanic (2.06 mg\\/L,

Michelle A Albert; Robert J Glynn; Julie Buring; Paul M Ridker

2004-01-01

328

Food groups associated with a composite measure of probability of adequate intake of 11 micronutrients in the diets of women in urban Mali.  

PubMed

The prevalence of micronutrient deficiency is high among women of reproductive age living in urban Mali. Despite this, there are little data on the dietary intake of micronutrients among women of reproductive age in Mali. This research tested the relationship between the quantity of intake of 21 possible food groups and estimated usual micronutrient (folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin A, iron, thiamin, vitamin B-6, vitamin C, and zinc) intakes and a composite measure of adequacy of 11 micronutrients [mean probability of adequacy (MPA)] based on the individual probability of adequacy (PA) for the 11 micronutrients. Food group and micronutrient intakes were calculated from 24-h recall data in an urban sample of Malian women. PA was lowest for folate, vitamin B-12, calcium, and riboflavin. The overall MPA for the composite measure of 11 micronutrients was 0.47 ± 0.18. Grams of intake from the nuts/seeds, milk/yogurt, vitamin A-rich dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV), and vitamin C-rich vegetables food groups were correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.20-0.36; P < 0.05) with MPA. Women in the highest consumption groups of nuts/seeds and DGLV had 5- and 6-fold greater odds of an MPA > 0.5, respectively. These findings can be used to further the development of indicators of dietary diversity and to improve micronutrient intakes of women of reproductive age. PMID:20881080

Kennedy, Gina; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Seghieri, Chiara; Arimond, Mary; Koreissi, Yara; Dossa, Romain; Kok, Frans J; Brouwer, Inge D

2010-11-01

329

Simultaneous Measurement of Thirteen Steroid Hormones in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Control Women Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background The measurement of adrenal and ovarian androgens in women with PCOS has been difficult based on poor specificity and sensitivity of assays in the female range. Methods Women with PCOS (NIH criteria; n?=?52) and control subjects with 25–35 day menstrual cycles, no evidence of hyperandrogenism and matched for BMI (n?=?42) underwent morning blood sampling. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to simultaneously measure 13 steroids from a single blood sample to measure adrenal and ovarian steroids. Androgen and progesterone results were compared in the same samples using RIA. Results Testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and 17OH progesterone levels were higher when measured using RIA compared to LC-MS/MS, although the testosterone RIA demonstrated the best agreement with the LC-MS/MS using a Bland-Altman analysis. Results using LC-MS/MS demonstrated that the concentration of androgens and their precursors were higher in women with PCOS than controls [median (2.5, 97.5th %ile); 1607 (638, 3085) vs. 1143 (511, 4784) ng/dL; p?=?0.03]. Women with PCOS had higher testosterone [49 (16, 125) vs. 24 (10, 59) ng/dL], androstenedione [203 (98, 476) vs. 106 (69, 223) ng/dL] and 17OH progesterone levels [80 (17, 176) vs. 44 (17, 142) ng/dL] compared to controls (all P<0.02), but no differences in serum concentrations of the adrenal steroids DHEAS, cortisol, corticosterone and their 11 deoxy precursors. Women with PCOS also had an increase in the product:precursor ratio for 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [22% (6, 92) vs. 20% (4, 43); p?=?0.009]. Conclusion LC-MS/MS was superior to RIA in measuring androstenedione, progesterone and 17OH progesterone levels, while testosterone measurements were better matched in the two assays. Androgen levels were higher in women with PCOS in the absence of a difference in adrenal-predominant steroids. These data support previous findings that the ovary is an important source for the androgen excess in women with PCOS. PMID:24713888

Zhang, Ke; Clarke, Nigel; Welt, Corrine K.

2014-01-01

330

A case-control study of menstrual factors in relation to breast cancer risk in African-American women.  

PubMed Central

Menstrual characteristics may serve as surrogate measures of endogenous estrogen and may be related to breast cancer risk. No previous studies have systematically investigated menstrual factors in relation to the disease in African-American women. This case-control study is aimed to assess the relationship between menstrual factors and breast cancer in African-American women. Cases were 304 African-American women, aged 20-64 living in three Tennessee counties, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1995 and 1998. Controls were selected through random-digit dialing and frequency matched to cases (n=305). Phone interviews were conducted on menstrual factors--age at menarche, time to regularity, cycle length, flow length, age at menopause--and other risk factors. Logistic regression showed that compared to women with short cycle length (<28 days), women with average cycle length > or =28 had decreased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio (OR)=0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38-0.94). Dose-response analyses showed decreasing risk with longer cycle length. Results by menopausal status revealed an inverse relationship was shown only in postmenopausal women. No significant associations were observed for other menstrual factors. Findings suggest that cycle length has an inverse association with breast cancer in African-American women that may primarily exist for post-menopausal tumors. PMID:14620704

Beiler, Jessica S. B.; Zhu, Kangmin; Hunter, Sandra; Payne-Wilks, Kathleen; Roland, Chanel L.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.

2003-01-01

331

Paraplegia and squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in young women: findings from a case-control study.  

PubMed Central

A death certificate-based case-control study was conducted on 207 women aged 25-44 who died of bladder cancer in England and Wales in the period 1971-89 and 411 controls matched on sex, year of death and age at death. An odds ratio of 12.0 (95% CI 1.5-99.7) was found for women with a history of paraplegia. Four of the six paraplegic women were reported to have had squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder compared with only 19 of the 201 non-paraplegic women. These findings suggest that squamous cell carcinomas of the bladder, especially in paraplegics, may be the result of chronic urinary tract infection. PMID:8018530

Dolin, P. J.; Darby, S. C.; Beral, V.

1994-01-01

332

Control groups in routine evaluations of outcomes of alcoholism treatment.  

PubMed

The use of no treatment or waiting list controls for the time span of both treatment and follow-up of one year or longer involves ethical and methodological problems such as sample attrition; however, shorter follow-ups would lead to overestimates of long-term outcomes. Other comparison groups such as nonspecific treatment controls do not provide an estimate of what would happen to the clients without treatment and what their recovery chances would be in other treatment centers. Therefore, as an alternative to traditional design for outcome rate evaluations, the present paper suggests comparisons to pooled data from follow-ups of treated alcoholics. Until methodologically more acceptable pooled data is available, the data on untreated alcoholics pooled and re-analyzed by Emrick and the data on treated alcoholics presented by Gillies, Laverty, Smart, and Aharan could provide a temporary interpretational background. The most serious drawback of the two criterion samples is insufficient description of basic characteristics of the clients (e.g., in respect to age, education, sex, occupation, and to personality measures). More detailed descriptions in most future evaluation studies would make it possible to create better described criterion samples by pooling the data. This would also allow further analyses of the relationship of client characteristics to outcomes and, thus, would allow for special credit to outcomes with difficult clientele. PMID:3812129

Cernovsky, Z Z

1986-01-01

333

Randomized controlled pilot trial of a novel dissonance-based group treatment for eating disorders.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Counter Attitudinal Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (?(2)[6] = 34.1, p < .001), producing large effects for thin-ideal internalization (d = .79), body dissatisfaction (d = 1.14), and blinded interview-assessed eating disorder symptoms (d = .95), and medium effects for dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment. PMID:25577189

Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan; Menke, Katharine S; Marti, C Nathan

2015-02-01

334

Bone histomorphometric and biochemical marker results of a 2-year placebo-controlled trial of raloxifene in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has been shown to increase bone density. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of raloxifene on bone tissue by studying bone biopsy specimens before and after 2 years of raloxifene or placebo therapy. The women in this study were participants of the double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study, the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation (MORE) trial. Subjects from two U.S. sites and two European sites were included if they consented to a bone biopsy. Iliac crest bone biopsies were performed at baseline and after 2 years. Tetracycline labeling preceded each biopsy. A total of 65 paired biopsy specimens were evaluated with 25, 22, and 18 patients in the placebo, raloxifene HCl (60 mg) and raloxifene HCl (120 mg) treatment groups, respectively. They were analyzed using standard histomorphometry. None of the biopsy specimens showed evidence of toxic effects on bone or bone cells or met criteria for osteomalacia. Biopsy specimens in the placebo and raloxifene groups had the appearance of normal bone, with no evidence of marrow fibrosis or increases in the amount of woven bone or numbers of empty osteocyte lacunae. Compared with the baseline, the bone formation rate (BFR) decreased significantly in both raloxifene groups. The change in BFR in the group treated with 120 mg of raloxifene was -62.3%, which was significantly lower than the change in the placebo group of -21.0% (p = 0.03). No change in resorption parameters could be measured by histomorphometry, but there was a decrease in urinary type I collagen excretion. The results from this study suggest that raloxifene has actions on bone tissue that are similar to those observed with estrogen. The depressive effects on bone remodeling are less marked than the effects seen with alendronate. PMID:11811565

Ott, Susan M; Oleksik, Anna; Lu, Yili; Harper, Kristine; Lips, Paul

2002-02-01

335

The Effects of a Multimodal Intervention Trial to Promote Lifestyle Factors Associated With the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Menopausal and Postmenopausal Australian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a multimodal intervention (Women's Wellness Program) to improve women's cardiovascular risk factors. This 12-week randomized experiment with a control group targeted women 50–65 years living in the general population. Women in the intervention group were provided with a consultation with a registered nurse at which time biophysical cardiovascular risk

Debra Anderson; Khadegh Mizzari; Victoria Kain; Joan Webster

2006-01-01

336

Protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a specialized health coaching intervention to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention in women: the HIPP study  

PubMed Central

Background Pregnancy is a time of significant physiological and physical change for women. In particular, it is a time at which many women are at risk of gaining excessive weight. We describe the rationale and methods of the Health in Pregnancy and Post-birth (HIPP) Study, a study which aims primarily to determine the effectiveness of a specialized health coaching (HC) intervention during pregnancy, compared to education alone, in preventing excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention 12 months post birth. A secondary aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanisms by which our HC intervention impacts on weight management both during pregnancy and post birth. Methods/Design The randomized controlled trial will be conducted with 220 women who have a BMI > 18.5 (American IOM cut-off for normal weight), are 18 years of age or older, English speaking, no history of disordered eating or diabetes and are less than 18 weeks gestation at recruitment. Women will be randomly allocated to either a specialized HC intervention group or an Education Alone group. Our specialized HC intervention has two components: (1) one-on-one sessions with a Health Coach, and (2) two by two hour educational group sessions led by a Health Coach. Women in the Education Alone group will receive two by two hour educational group sessions with no HC components. Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and psychological factors including motivation, readiness to change, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and body dissatisfaction will be assessed at baseline (14-16 weeks gestation), and again at follow-up: 32 weeks gestation, 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Discussion Our study responds to the urgent need to design effective interventions in pregnancy to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Our pregnancy HC intervention is novel and innovative and has been designed to be easily adopted by health professionals who work with pregnant women, such as obstetricians, midwives, allied health professionals and health psychologists. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000331932 PMID:22272935

2012-01-01

337

Case–control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. Results The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P?women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition. PMID:24902596

2014-01-01

338

Women's Work, Autonomy, and Birth Control: Evidence From Two South Indian Villages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we contrast two South Indian villages which offer women very different employment opportunities. Many women in Village I roll beedis, which are crude hand-rolled cigarettes. The structure of beedi work was designed to meet the needs of the beedi contractor, but inadvertently it has provided women with substantial autonomy. In Village II very few women work for

A. Dharmalingam; S. Philip Morgan

1996-01-01

339

Does aspirin have a role in improving pregnancy outcome for women with the antiphospholipid syndrome? A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This pilot investigation was undertaken to assess the efficacy of low-dose aspirin therapy for the treatment of women with antiphospholipid antibodies when recurrent miscarriage is the only sequela. Study Design: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in the setting of the recurrent miscarriage clinic of a tertiary referral obstetric hospital. The participants were 50 women with a history

Neil S. Pattison; Lawrence W. Chamley; Mary Birdsall; Angi M. Zanderigo; Hilary S. Liddell; Jennifer McDougall

2000-01-01

340

A low intensity, community based lifestyle programme to prevent weight gain in women with young children: cluster randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a community behavioural intervention to prevent weight gain and improve health related behaviours in women with young children.Design Cluster randomised controlled trial.Setting A community setting in urban Australia.Participants 250 adult women with a mean age of 40.39 years (SD 4.77, range 25-51) and a mean body mass index of 27.82 kg\\/m2 (SD

Catherine Lombard; Amanda Deeks; Damien Jolley; Kylie Ball; Helena Teede

2010-01-01

341

Challenging Controlling Images, Oppression, Poverty, and Other Structural Constraints: Survival Strategies Among African–American Women in Distressed Households  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powerful controlling images perpetuate misguided messages about impoverished African–American women that contribute to the\\u000a oppression these women endure. These images inform policies and behavior that create and maintain structural barriers such\\u000a as lack of access to education and meaningful employment further marginalizing oppressed individuals. This article uses in-depth\\u000a interview data to analyze interlocking oppressions in the lived experience of impoverished

Liliane Cambraia Windsor; Eloise Dunlap; Andrew Golub

342

Process evaluation for the FEeding Support Team (FEST) randomised controlled feasibility trial of proactive and reactive telephone support for breastfeeding women living in disadvantaged areas  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of a feeding team intervention with an embedded randomised controlled trial of team-initiated (proactive) and woman-initiated (reactive) telephone support after hospital discharge. Design Participatory approach to the design and implementation of a pilot trial embedded within a before-and-after study, with mixed-method process evaluation. Setting A postnatal ward in Scotland. Sample Women initiating breast feeding and living in disadvantaged areas. Methods Quantitative data: telephone call log and workload diaries. Qualitative data: interviews with women (n=40) with follow-up (n=11) and staff (n=17); ward observations 2?weeks before and after the intervention; recorded telephone calls (n=16) and steering group meetings (n=9); trial case notes (n=69); open question in a telephone interview (n=372). The Framework approach to analysis was applied to mixed-method data. Main outcome measures Quantitative: telephone call characteristics (number, frequency, duration); workload activity. Qualitative: experiences and perspectives of women and staff. Results A median of eight proactive calls per woman (n=35) with a median duration of 5?min occurred in the 14?days following hospital discharge. Only one of 34 control women initiated a call to the feeding team, with women undervaluing their own needs compared to others, and breast feeding as a reason to call. Proactive calls providing continuity of care increased women's confidence and were highly valued. Data demonstrated intervention fidelity for woman-centred care; however, observing an entire breast feed was not well implemented due to short hospital stays, ward routines and staff–team–woman communication issues. Staff pragmatically recognised that dedicated feeding teams help meet women's breastfeeding support needs in the context of overstretched and variable postnatal services. Conclusions Implementing and integrating the FEeding Support Team (FEST) trial within routine postnatal care was feasible and acceptable to women and staff from a research and practice perspective and shows promise for addressing health inequalities. Trial registration ISRCTN27207603. The study protocol and final report is available on request. PMID:22535794

Craig, Leone; MacLennan, Graeme; Boyers, Dwayne; Vale, Luke

2012-01-01

343

77 FR 20277 - Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...violence against women and girls, and gender- related health...that influence women's and girls' vulnerability to HIV infection...activities that engage men and boys and highlight their role in...the violence against women and girls, HIV/AIDS, and...

2012-04-03

344

DCCPS: TCRB: TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Low SES Women and Girl  

Cancer.gov

Tobacco control policies, such as increases in cigarette excise taxes, worksite smoking bans, and youth-focused media campaigns show promise in reducing smoking at the population level. However, few studies have examined the effects of policies in reducing smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure among disadvantaged women and girls. Those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher-than-average rates of tobacco use and suffer disproportionately from the health consequences of tobacco.

345

Total Versus Split Body Resistance Training In Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty women (20-22 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 10: a total body (TB) and a split body (SB) training groups and control group. The SB group performed 4 strength training sessions per week (two upper and two lower body), while the TB group trained both upper and lower body muscle groups together, twice weekly. It took 45-60

Aaron Calder

1992-01-01

346

Effects of a group-based step aerobics training on sleep quality and melatonin levels in sleep-impaired postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of regular moderate- to high-intensity step aerobics training on the melatonin levels and sleep quality of sleep-impaired postmenopausal women (PMW). PMW with poor sleep (having a score over 5 in the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index [PSQI]) were divided into a training group (TG, n = 10) and an age-, height-, weight-, and PSQI score-matched control group (CG, n = 9). The participants in the TG performed 40-45 minutes of step aerobics exercise 3 times per week for 10 weeks at an intensity of 75-85% of the heart rate reserve, whereas the participants in the CG maintained their regular lifestyle. The fasting blood was analyzed, and the PSQI questionnaire and aerobic fitness test were administered before and after the 10-week program. The results revealed that for the participants in the TG, the PSQI score significantly decreased (TG from 9.40 ± 0.81 to 7.40 ± 0.43; CG from 7.56 ± 0.34 to 7.78 ± 0.68; between-group difference = 2.22, p ? 0.05) and the melatonin levels significantly increased (TG from 12.08 ± 4.20 to 44.42 ± 7.03 pg·ml; CG from 11.81 ± 2.03 to 5.5 ± 1.39 pg·ml, between-group difference = 38.65, p ? 0.05). In conclusion, a 10-week moderate- to high-intensity step aerobics training program can improve sleep quality and increase the melatonin levels in sleep-impaired PMW. Therefore, regular moderate- to high-intensity step aerobics training is recommended for sleep-impaired PMW. PMID:24552792

Cai, Zong-Yan; Wen-Chyuan Chen, Kenny; Wen, Huei-Jhen

2014-09-01

347

Developing a complex intervention for diet and activity behaviour change in obese pregnant women (the UPBEAT trial); assessment of behavioural change and process evaluation in a pilot randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Complex interventions in obese pregnant women should be theoretically based, feasible and shown to demonstrate anticipated behavioural change prior to inception of large randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The aim was to determine if a) a complex intervention in obese pregnant women leads to anticipated changes in diet and physical activity behaviours, and b) to refine the intervention protocol through process evaluation of intervention fidelity. Methods We undertook a pilot RCT of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women, comparing routine antenatal care with an intervention to reduce dietary glycaemic load and saturated fat intake, and increase physical activity. Subjects included 183 obese pregnant women (mean BMI 36.3 kg/m2). Diet was assessed by repeated triple pass 24-hour dietary recall and physical activity by accelerometry and questionnaire, at 16+0 to 18+6 and at 27+0 to 28+6 weeks’ gestation in women in control and intervention arms. Attitudes to behaviour change and quality of life were assessed and a process evaluation undertaken. The full RCT protocol was undertaken to assess feasibility. Results Compared to women in the control arm, women in the intervention arm had a significant reduction in dietary glycaemic load (33 points, 95% CI ?47 to ?20), (p < 0.001) and saturated fat intake (?1.6% energy, 95% CI ?2.8 to ?0. 3) at 28 weeks’ gestation. Objectively measured physical activity did not change. Physical discomfort and sustained barriers to physical activity were common at 28 weeks’ gestation. Process evaluation identified barriers to recruitment, group attendance and compliance, leading to modification of intervention delivery. Conclusions This pilot trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women suggests greater potential for change in dietary intake than for change in physical activity, and through process evaluation illustrates the considerable advantage of performing an exploratory trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women before undertaking a large RCT. Trial registration Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN89971375 PMID:23855708

2013-01-01

348

Study on Genetic Network Programming-based Controllers of Elevator Group Systems  

E-print Network

Study on Genetic Network Programming-based Controllers of Elevator Group Systems ZHOU, Jin Graduate.2 Overview of Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) . . . 2 1.2.1 Development History of Elevator Group System . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2.2 Existing Control Algorithms

Fernandez, Thomas

349

Work-family conflict, locus of control, and women's well-being: tests of alternative pathways.  

PubMed

The author tested for the 3 possible pathways (i.e., direct, moderator, and mediator effects) in which locus of control can influence the relationship between work-family conflict and well-being. The author predicted that work-family conflict would be negatively correlated with well-being. In a sample of 310 Malaysian employed women with families, work-family conflict was a significant predictor of both job satisfaction and distress--negatively related to job satisfaction and positively related to symptoms of distress. More important, the results provided support for the effects of all 3 pathways of control on the relationship between work-family conflict and well-being, depending on the outcome measure: For job satisfaction, locus of control had direct effects, acted as a partial mediator, and played a significant moderating role. In contrast, only the direct effect of locus of control predicted distress. The author discusses those findings with reference to the literature on work-family conflict, locus of control, and the issue of stress-distress specificity. PMID:12236473

Noor, Noraini M

2002-10-01

350

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Urinary Escherichia coli in Women Ingesting Cranberry Juice Daily: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the time to urinary tract infection (UTI) and the rates of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary P-fimbriated Escherichia coli during a 6-month period in women ingesting cranberry vs placebo juice daily. Patients and Methods Premenopausal women with a history of recent UTI were enrolled from November 16, 2005, through December 31, 2008, at 2 centers and randomized to 1 of 3 arms: 4 oz of cranberry juice daily, 8 oz of cranberry juice daily, or placebo juice. Time to UTI (symptoms plus pyuria) was the main outcome. Asymptomatic bacteriuria, adherence, and adverse effects were assessed at monthly visits. Results A total of 176 participants were randomized (120 to cranberry juice and 56 to placebo) and followed up for a median of 168 days. The cumulative rate of UTI was 0.29 in the cranberry juice group and 0.37 in the placebo group (P=.82). The adjusted hazard ratio for UTI in the cranberry juice group vs the placebo group was 0.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.39; P=.29). The proportion of women with P-fimbriated urinary E coli isolates during the intervention phase was 10 of 23 (43.5%) in the cranberry juice group and 8 of 10 (80.0%) in the placebo group (P=.07). The mean dose adherence was 91.8% and 90.3% in the cranberry juice group vs the placebo group. Minor adverse effects were reported by 24.2% of those in the cranberry juice group and 12.5% in the placebo group (P=.07). Conclusion Cranberry juice did not significantly reduce UTI risk compared with placebo. The potential protective effect we observed is consistent with previous studies and warrants confirmation in larger, well-powered studies of women with recurrent UTI. The concurrent reduction in urinary P-fimbriated E coli strains supports the biological plausibility of cranberry activity. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00128128 PMID:22305026

Stapleton, Ann E.; Dziura, James; Hooton, Thomas M.; Cox, Marsha E.; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Chen, Shu; Gupta, Kalpana

2012-01-01

351

Energy density effects on food intake, appetite ratings, and loss of control in women with binge eating disorder and weight-matched controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with binge eating disorder have increased gastric capacity and may require excessive food intake and increased volume in the stomach to produce satiation. The present study examined whether lower energy density (ED) meals lead to lower energy intake more than higher-ED meals in women with binge eating disorder (BED) and weight-matched controls. Women with BED (n=15) and healthy weight-matched

Janet D. Latner; Juliet K. Rosewall; Amy M. Chisholm

2008-01-01

352

Is the Belief in Meritocracy Palliative for Members of Low Status Groups? Evidence for a Benefit for Self-Esteem and Physical Health via Perceived Control  

PubMed Central

Consensually held ideologies may serve as the cultural “glue” that justifies hierarchical status differences in society (e.g. Augustinos, 1998). Yet to be effective these beliefs need to be embraced by low-status groups. Why would members of low-status groups endorse beliefs that justify their relative disadvantage? We propose that members of low-status groups in the United States may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs (such as the belief in meritocracy) to the extent that these beliefs emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. In 2 studies, among women, lower-SES women, and women of color, we found a positive relationship between the belief in meritocracy and well-being (self-esteem and physical health) that was mediated by perceived control. Members of low-status groups may benefit from some system-justifying beliefs to the extent that these beliefs, like the belief in meritocracy, emphasize the perception of control over future outcomes. PMID:24039310

McCoy, Shannon K.; Wellman, Joseph D.; Cosley, Brandon; Saslow, Laura; Epel, Elissa

2013-01-01

353

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Receiving Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To testthe relative effectiveness of a mindfulness-based stress reduction program (MBSR) compared with a nutrition education intervention (NEP) and usual care (UC) in women with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer (BrCA) undergoing radiotherapy. Methods Datawere available from a randomized controlled trialof 172 women, 20 to 65 years old, with stage I or II BrCA. Data from women completing the 8-week MBSR program plus 3 additional sessions focuses on special needs associated with BrCA were compared to women receiving attention control NEP and UC. Follow-up was performed at 3 post-intervention points: 4 months, and 1 and 2 years. Standardized, validated self-administered questionnaires were used to assess psychosocial variables. Descriptive analyses compared women by randomization assignment. Regression analyses, incorporating both intention-to-treat and post hoc multivariable approaches, were used to control for potential confounding variables. Results A subset of 120 women underwent radiotherapy; 77 completed treatment prior to the study, and 40 had radiotherapy during the MBSR intervention. Women who actively received radiotherapy (art) while participating in the MBSR intervention (MBSR-art) experienced a significant (P < .05) improvement in 16 psychosocial variables compared with the NEP-art, UC-art, or both at 4 months. These included health-related, BrCA-specific quality of life and psychosocial coping, which were the primary outcomes, and secondary measures, including meaningfulness, helplessness, cognitive avoidance, depression, paranoid ideation, hostility, anxiety, global severity, anxious preoccupation, and emotional control. Conclusions MBSR appears to facilitate psychosocial adjustment in BrCA patients receiving radiotherapy, suggesting applicability for MBSR as adjunctive therapy in oncological practice. PMID:23362338

Henderson, Virginia P.; Massion, Ann O.; Clemow, Lynn; Hurley, Thomas G.; Druker, Susan; Hébert, James R.

2013-01-01

354

Food Groups and Alcoholic Beverages and the Risk of Stomach Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of a wide range of foods and beverages on the risk of stomach cancer, we analyzed data from a case-control study carried out in Italy between 1997 and 2007 on 230 subjects with incident histologically confirmed stomach cancer (143 men and 87 women, age range 22–80 yr) and 547 controls (286 men and 261 women, age

Ersilia Lucenteforte; Virginia Scita; Cristina Bosetti; Paola Bertuccio; Eva Negri; Carlo La Vecchia

2008-01-01

355

Depression and body image among women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), including hyperandrogenism, ovarian dysfunction and obesity, can be highly distressing. We compared 40 women with PCOS to women with infertility but not PCOS, and to women with neither PCOS nor infertility, on measures of depression and body image. Women with PCOS reported higher depression scores and greater body dissatisfaction (p < .001) than comparison group women. Body image was strongly associated with depression overall, even after controlling body mass. Among women with PCOS, body dissatisfaction measures and education explained 66 percent of the variance in depression, suggesting explanations of the PCOS-depression link should consider the role of potentially mediating psychosocial variables. PMID:16769740

Himelein, Melissa J; Thatcher, Samuel S

2006-07-01

356

Perceived control and self-efficacy, subjective well-being and lifestyle behaviours in young Iranian women.  

PubMed

This study examined whether young Iranian women's perceived control and self-efficacy, as a component of cognitive social capital, predicts health and well-being. A total of 391 women aged between 18 and 35?years completed a survey including scales measuring control and self-efficacy and health outcomes including quality of life, satisfaction with life and lifestyle behaviours. Statistical analyses indicated that participants had low perceived control and influence over community affairs together with high perceived control over their personal lives. Multiple regression analyses indicated the predictive role of control and self-efficacy for well-being outcomes suggesting the potential role for health interventions targeting control and self-efficacy. PMID:25370569

Salehi, Asiyeh; Harris, Neil; Coyne, Elisabeth; Sebar, Bernadette

2014-11-01

357

Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral and Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature revealed 20 studies that examined the extent to which cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT), and a combination of these two treatments impact women with breast cancer. Based on this review, it is determined that CBT and SEGT have repeated experimental support for positively…

Boutin, Daniel L.

2007-01-01

358

75 FR 19983 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group In accordance with...92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces...

2010-04-16

359

Raloxifene adjunctive therapy for postmenopausal women suffering from chronic schizophrenia: a randomized double-blind and placebo controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Cumulative evidence from epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies suggests estrogens may have psychoprotective effects in schizophrenic patients. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators could have therapeutic benefits in schizophrenia for both sexes without being hazardous to gynecological tissues or having feminizing effects. Few studies have been conducted regarding the effects of raloxifene on postmenopausal women suffering from schizophrenia. We conducted this placebo-controlled trial to compare the add-on effect of raloxifene to risperidone versus risperidone with placebo. Methods This was an 8-week, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial undertaken at two universities affiliated psychiatric Hospitals in Iran. Forty-six postmenopausal women with the definite diagnosis of schizophrenia were enrolled in the study. Patients received risperidone (6 mg/day in 3 divided doses) combined with either placebo (N = 23) or 120 mg/day of raloxifene (N = 23) for 8 weeks. Patients were assessed by a psychiatrist at baseline and at 2 and 8 weeks after the start of medical therapy. Efficacy was defined as the change from baseline to endpoint in score on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results For PANSS scores, the main effect comparing two types of intervention was not significant [F (1, 48) = 1.77, p = 0.18]. For positive subscale scores, there was marginal significant interaction between intervention type and time [F (2, 47) = 2.93, p = 0.06] and there was substantial main effect for time [F (2, 47) = 24.39, p = 0.001] within both groups showing reduction in positive subscale scores across the three time periods. In addition, the main effect comparing two types of intervention was significant [F (1, 48) = 3.78, p = 0.02]. On the other hand, for negative subscale scores, the main effect comparing two types of intervention was not significant [F (1, 48) = 1.43, p = 0.23]. For general subscale scores, the main effect comparing two types of intervention was not significant [F (1, 48) = 0.03, p = 0.86]. Conclusions According to our findings, raloxifene as an adjunctive treatment to risperidone was only superior in improvement of positive symptoms and it was not effective in treating negative and general psychopathology symptoms. Trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian registry of clinical trials: IRCT201205131556N42 PMID:25012765

2014-01-01

360

Help-Giving in Behavioral Control and Stress Coping Self-Help Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Members of two types of self-help groups assessed the occurence of various helping processes in their groups. Found self-help groups emphasized supportive and expressive processes while avoiding confrontive processes; and behavioral techniques were used more frequently by behavioral control groups than by stress coping groups. (RC)

Wollert, Richard W.; And Others

1982-01-01

361

Healthy lifestyle and risk of breast cancer for indigenous and non-indigenous women in New Zealand: a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background The reasons for the increasing breast cancer incidence in indigenous M?ori compared to non-M?ori New Zealand women are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the association of an index of combined healthy lifestyle behaviours with the risk of breast cancer in M?ori and non-M?ori women. Methods A population-based case–control study was conducted, including breast cancer cases registered in New Zealand from 2005–2007. Controls were matched by ethnicity and 5-year age bands. A healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) was generated for 1093 cases and 2118 controls, based on public health and cancer prevention recommendations. The HLIS was constructed from eleven factors (limiting red meat, cream, and cheese; consuming more white meat, fish, fruit and vegetables; lower alcohol consumption; not smoking; higher exercise levels; lower body mass index; and longer cumulative duration of breastfeeding). Equal weight was given to each factor. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between breast cancer and the HLIS for each ethnic group stratified by menopausal status. Results Among M?ori, the mean HLIS was 5.00 (range 1–9); among non-M?ori the mean was 5.43 (range 1.5-10.5). There was little evidence of an association between the HLIS and breast cancer for non-M?ori women. Among postmenopausal M?ori, those in the top HLIS tertile had a significantly lower odds of breast cancer (Odds Ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.94) compared to those in the bottom tertile. Conclusion These findings suggest that healthy lifestyle recommendations could be important for reducing breast cancer risk in postmenopausal M?ori women. PMID:24410858

2014-01-01

362

The Effects of Low Self-Control and Childhood Maltreatment on Stalking Victimization among Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines sex differences among stalking victimization using two theoretical perspectives: self-control and the\\u000a intergenerational transmission of violence. A sample of 1,490 undergraduate students at a large southeastern university were\\u000a surveyed and asked to report their experiences with stalking, childhood maltreatment, and self-control. Given that men and\\u000a women may experience stalking, self-control, and child maltreatment differently, logistic regression models

Kathleen A. Fox; Angela R. Gover; Catherine Kaukinen

2009-01-01

363

Conditioned Emotional Distress in Women Receiving Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether women undergoing outpatient chemotherapy for breast cancer can develop classically conditioned emotional distress. Women scheduled to begin chemotherapy were randomly assigned either to an experimental group (exposed to a distinctive stimulus before each chemotherapy infusion) or a control group. After repeated infusions of chemotherapy, patients’ responses to the distinctive stimulus were assessed in a location not

Paul B. Jacobsen; Dana H. Bovbjerg; Marc D. Schwartz; Clifford A. Hudis; Teresa A. Gilewski; Larry Norton

1995-01-01

364

A group-based HIV and sexually transmitted infections prevention intervention for lesbian, bisexual, queer and other women who have sex with women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada: study protocol for a non-randomised cohort pilot study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The limited research that exists suggests that lesbian, bisexual queer (LBQ) and other women who have sex with women are at similar risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) as heterosexual women. However, scant research has evaluated HIV and STI prevention strategies for LBQ women. The authors present the rationale and study protocol for developing and pilot testing a psychoeducational group-based HIV and STI prevention intervention with LBQ women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre non-randomised cohort pilot study. The target population is LBQ women in Calgary and Toronto, Canada. The authors aim to recruit 40 participants using purposive peer-driven recruitment methods. Participants will conduct a pretest followed by a 2-day group programme of six 2?h sessions addressing stigma, STI and HIV prevention, healthy relationships, safer sex self-efficacy, self-worth, social support and LBQ community engagement. Participants will conduct a post-test directly following the intervention and 6?weeks after the intervention. The primary outcome is safer sex practices; our prespecified index of clinically significant change is an effect size of 0.50. Secondary outcomes include: safer sex self-efficacy, STI testing frequency, STI knowledge, resilient coping, social support, sexual stigma, access to care, depression and self-esteem. We will conduct mixed-effects regression to calculate mean outcome pre–post test score change. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval was attained from the Office of Research Ethics (REB: 29291), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Trial results will be published according to the Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Non-randomised Designs (TREND) statement, regardless of the outcomes. Trial registration number This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT02067845. PMID:24760356

Logie, Carmen H; Navia, Daniela; Rwigema, Marie-Jolie; Tharao, Wangari; Este, David; Loutfy, Mona R

2014-01-01

365

Risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in women using oral contraceptives containing drospirenone compared with women using oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel: case-control study using United States claims data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the risk of non-fatal venous thromboembolism in women receiving oral contraceptives containing drospirenone with that in women receiving oral contraceptives containing levonorgestrel.Design Nested case-control and cohort study.Setting The study was based on information from PharMetrics, a United States based company that collects information on claims paid by managed care plans.Participants The study encompassed all women aged 15

Susan S Jick; Rohini K Hernandez

2011-01-01

366

Exploring Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control as Risk Factors in Sexual Decision Making for African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…

Pimpleton, Asher M.

2012-01-01

367

The effect of herbal extract (EstroG-100) on pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study.  

PubMed

This clinical research study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a new herbal product, EstroG-100, containing a mixture of standardized extracts of Cynanchum wilfordii, Phlomis umbrosa and Angelica gigas, on menopausal symptoms. This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed for 12 weeks with 64 pre-, peri- and postmenopausal White Hispanic, White non-Hispanic and African American women who were randomly allocated to either the EstroG-100 group (n = 31) or the placebo group (n =? 33). Primary end-points were the mean change in scores of the Kupperman menopause index (KMI) that evaluates 11 symptoms, and the mean change in scores of vaginal dryness. The mean KMI score was significantly reduced in the EstroG-100 group from 29.5 ± 7.4 at baseline to 11.3 ± 5.8 (p < 0.01) compared with change of the placebo group (29.2 ± 6.6 at baseline vs 23.7 ± 7.7 at week 12). The constituting symptoms of vasomotor, paresthesia, insomnia, nervousness, melancholia, vertigo, fatigue and rheumatic pain were significantly improved in the EstroG-100 group in comparison with the placebo group (p < 0.05). Statistically significant improvement in vaginal dryness in the EstroG-100 group was also observed compared with that of the placebo group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, EstroG-100 significantly improved the menopausal symptoms of pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women without weight gain or any serious side effects. PMID:21887807

Chang, Albert; Kwak, Bo-Yeon; Yi, Kwontaek; Kim, Jae Soo

2012-04-01

368

Weight Control Motives for Cigarette Smoking: Further Consequences of the Sexual Objectification of Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has revealed numerous negative consequences associated with the sexual objectification of women. Guided by the constructs of self-objectification and objectified body consciousness (OBC), the present study sought to extend the objectification literature by examining the reasons women report smoking cigarettes in relation to viewing oneself as an object. Undergraduate women (N = 146) completed questionnaire packets assessing OBC, body

Dorrie L. Fiissel; Kathryn D. Lafreniere

2006-01-01

369

A controlled study of Hostile-Helpless states of mind among borderline and dysthymic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are more likely than those with dysthymia to manifest contradictory Hostile-Helpless (HH) states of mind. A reliable rater blind to diagnosis evaluated features of such mental representations in transcripts of Adult Attachment Interviews from 12 women with BPD and 11 women with dysthymia of similar

Karlen Lyons-Ruth; Sharon Melnick; Matthew Patrick; R. Peter Hobson

2007-01-01

370

Japanese-Style Acupuncture for Endometriosis-Related Pelvic Pain in Adolescents and Young Women: Results of a Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Study Objective To assess feasibility, and collect preliminary data for a subsequent randomized, sham-controlled trial to evaluate Japanese-style acupuncture for reducing chronic pelvic pain and improving health related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents with endometriosis. Design Randomized, sham-controlled trial. Settings Tertiary-referral hospital. Participants Eighteen young women (13–22y) with laparoscopically-diagnosed endometriosis-related chronic pelvic pain. Interventions A Japanese style of acupuncture and a sham acupuncture control. Sixteen treatments were administered over 8 weeks. Main outcome measures Protocol feasibility, recruitment numbers, pain not associated with menses or intercourse, and multiple HRQOL instruments including Endometriosis Health Profile, Pediatric Quality of Life, Perceived Stress, and Activity Limitation. Results Fourteen participants (out of 18 randomized) completed the study per protocol. Participants in the active acupuncture group (n=9) experienced an average 4.8 (sd=2.4) point reduction on a 11 point scale (62%) in pain after 4 weeks, which differed significantly from the control group’s (n=5) average reduction of 1.4 (s.d.=2.1) points (P=0.004). Reduction in pain in the active group persisted through a 6 month assessment; however, after 4 weeks, differences between the active and control group decreased and were not statistically significant. All HRQOL measures indicated greater improvements in the active acupuncture group compared to the control; however, the majority of these trends were not statistically significant. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Preliminary estimates indicate that Japanese-style acupuncture may be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated adjunct therapy for endometriosis-related pelvic pain in adolescents. A more definitive trial evaluating Japanese-style acupuncture in this population is both feasible and warranted. PMID:18794019

Wayne, Peter M.; Kerr, Catherine E.; Schnyer, Rosa N.; Legedza, Anna T. R.; Savetsky-German, Jacqueline; Shields, Monica H.; Buring, Julie E.; Davis, Roger B.; Conboy, Lisa A.; Highfield, Ellen; Parton, Barbara; Thomas, Phaedra; Laufer, Marc R.

2008-01-01

371

Effect of pelvic floor muscle training compared with watchful waiting in older women with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse: randomised controlled trial in primary care  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the effects of pelvic floor muscle training and watchful waiting on pelvic floor symptoms in a primary care population of women aged 55 years and over with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Dutch primary care. Participants Women aged 55 years or over with symptomatic mild prolapse (leading edge above the hymen) were identified by screening. Exclusion criteria were current prolapse treatment or treatment in the previous year, malignancy of pelvic organs, current treatment for another gynaecological disorder, severe/terminal illness, impaired mobility, cognitive impairment, and insufficient command of the Dutch language. Interventions Pelvic floor muscle training versus watchful waiting. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was change in bladder, bowel, and pelvic floor symptoms measured with the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20), three months after the start of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in condition specific and general quality of life, sexual function, degree of prolapse, pelvic floor muscle function, and patients’ perceived change in symptoms. Results Of the 287 women who were randomised to pelvic floor muscle training (n=145) or watchful waiting (n=142), 250 (87%) completed follow-up. Participants in the intervention group improved by (on average) 9.1 (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 15.4) points more on the PFDI-20 than did participants in the watchful waiting group (P=0.005). Of women in the pelvic floor muscle training group, 57% (82/145) reported an improvement in overall symptoms from the start of the study compared with 13% (18/142) in the watchful waiting group (P<0.001). Other secondary outcomes showed no significant difference between the groups. Conclusions Although pelvic floor muscle training led to a significantly greater improvement in PFDI-20 score, the difference between the groups was below the presumed level of clinical relevance (15 points). Nevertheless, 57% of the participants in the intervention group reported an improvement of overall symptoms. More studies are needed to identify factors related to success of pelvic floor muscle training and to investigate long term effects. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register (www.trialregister.nl) identifier: NTR2047. PMID:25533442

Wiegersma, Marian; Panman, Chantal M C R; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Berger, Marjolein Y; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvonne

2014-01-01

372

Job constraints and arterial hypertension: different effects in men and women: the IHPAF II case control study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To examine, in a working population of men and women, the relation between organisational job constraints (job strain, passive and active jobs) and incident hypertension and the buffering effect of social support at work on this relation. Methods: A nested case control study was designed within the IHPAF (Incidence of Hypertension in a French Working Population) cohort study. The 20 worksite physicians participating in the study enrolled 203 cases and matched each case for age (SD 10 years) and sex with two normotensive subjects attending the follow up screening immediately after him or her. As a result, 426 men and 183 women were included in the study. Results: Mean age was 41.8 (SD 7.8) years in men and 43.5 (SD 7.5) years in women. Relations between job constraints and hypertension were stronger in women than in men. Odds ratios (OR) were 3.20 (95% CI 0.92 to 11.12) in women and 2.60 (95% CI 1.15 to 5.85) in men for job strain, 4.73 (95% CI 1.36 to 16.42) in women and 2.30 (95% CI 1.01 to 5.26) in men for passive jobs, and 4.51 (95% CI 1.24 to 16.43) in women and 2.39 (95% CI 1.10 to 5.18) in men for active jobs. Low social support at work was not related to hypertension and did not decrease the association with organisational risk factors. In both hypertensive men and women, obesity was related to hypertension (OR = 13.20 (95% CI 3.34 to 52.14) in women and 6.54 (95% CI 2.99 to 14.29) in men) and the prevalence of recent stressful life events was significantly lower in hypertensive women (OR = 0.32 (95% CI 0.12 to 0.89)) and men (OR = 0.37 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.67) compared with normotensives. Alcohol consumption was a significant risk factor for hypertension in women (OR = 3.47 (95% CI 1.18 to 10.25)). Conclusion: A stronger relation between job constraints and hypertension was observed in women compared with men. These findings emphasise the need of addressing more sex-specific concepts of work related stress on the one hand, and of understanding the direct and indirect mechanisms linking psychosocial factors and hypertension in both sexes on the other hand. PMID:16169917

Radi, S; Lang, T; Lauwers-Cances, V; Diene, E; Chatellier, G; Larabi, L; De Gaudemaris, R; t for

2005-01-01

373

Mechanisms of change in an emotion regulation group therapy for deliberate self-harm among women with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

Despite growing evidence for the efficacy of Gratz and colleagues' emotion regulation group therapy (ERGT) for deliberate self-harm (DSH) among women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), the proposed mechanism of change in this treatment (i.e., emotion regulation) remains largely unexamined. This study examined change in emotion dysregulation as a mediator of the effects of this ERGT on DSH and BPD symptoms, as well as the extent to which change in emotion dysregulation during treatment predicts further improvements in DSH during a 9-month follow-up. Participants included 61 female outpatients with BPD and recent DSH who were randomly assigned to receive this ERGT in addition to their ongoing outpatient therapy immediately (n = 31) or after 14 weeks (n = 30). Measures of emotion dysregulation, DSH, and BPD symptoms were administered pre- and post-treatment or -waitlist, and at 9-months post-treatment (for participants in both conditions who received ERGT). Results from a series of mediation analyses provide further support for emotion regulation as a mechanism of change in this treatment. Specifically, results revealed that improvements in emotion dysregulation over the course of treatment mediated the observed reductions in BPD cognitive and affective symptoms during treatment and predicted further improvements in DSH during follow-up. PMID:25557395

Gratz, Kim L; Bardeen, Joseph R; Levy, Roy; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Tull, Matthew T

2015-02-01

374

A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of a stigma reduction intervention for HIV-infected women in the Deep South.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare outcomes (self-esteem, coping self-efficacy, and internalized stigma) across time in HIV-infected women living in the Deep South who received a stigma reduction intervention (n=51) with those of a control group (n=49) who received the usual care at baseline, and at 30 and 90 days. We recruited 99 women from clinics and an AIDS service organization; they were randomized by recruitment site. A video developed from the results of a qualitative metasynthesis study of women with HIV infection was loaded onto iPod Touch devices. Participants were asked to watch the video weekly for 4 weeks, and to record the number of times they viewed it over a 12-week period. We examined the trajectory model results for efficacy outcomes for the intent-to-treat and the supplemental completers groups. There was a treatment-by-time effect for improved self-esteem (intent-to-treat: p=0.0308; completers: p=0.0284) and decreases in internalized stigma (intent-to-treat: p=0.0036; completers: p=0.0060), and a treatment-by-time-by-time effect for improved coping self-efficacy (intent-to-treat: p=0.0414; completers: p=0.0321). A medium effect of the intervention in terms of improving self-esteem was observed when compared with the control condition in those who completed the study. The magnitude of the intervention effect, however, was large with regard to reducing overall stigma, improving social relationships, and decreasing stereotypes in both groups. PMID:25084499

Barroso, Julie; Relf, Michael V; Williams, Megan Scull; Arscott, Joyell; Moore, Elizabeth D; Caiola, Courtney; Silva, Susan G

2014-09-01

375

Estudio Parto: postpartum diabetes prevention program for hispanic women with abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial – study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. with rates consistently higher among Hispanics as compared to non-Hispanic whites. Among Hispanic women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 50% will go on to develop type 2 diabetes within 5?years of the index pregnancy. Although randomised controlled trials among adults with impaired glucose tolerance have shown that diet and physical activity reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, such programs have not been tested in high-risk postpartum women. The overall goal of this randomised controlled trial is to test the efficacy of a culturally and linguistically modified, individually-tailored lifestyle intervention to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease among postpartum Hispanic women with a history of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Methods/Design Hispanic pregnant women who screen positive for GDM will be recruited and randomly assigned to a Lifestyle Intervention (n?=?150) or a Health & Wellness (control) Intervention (n?=?150). Multimodal contacts (i.e., in-person, telephone, and mailed materials) will be used to deliver the intervention from late pregnancy (29?weeks gestation) to 12?months postpartum. Targets of the intervention are to achieve Institute of Medicine Guidelines for postpartum weight loss; American Congress of Obstetrician and Gynecologist guidelines for physical activity; and American Diabetes Association guidelines for diet. The intervention draws from Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model and addresses the specific cultural and environmental challenges faced by low-income Hispanic women. Assessments will be conducted at enrollment, and at 6-weeks, 6-months, and 12-months postpartum by trained bicultural and bilingual personnel blinded to the intervention arm. Efficacy will be assessed via postpartum weight loss and biomarkers of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Changes in physical activity and diet will be measured via 7-day actigraph data and three unannounced 24-hour dietary recalls at each assessment time period. Discussion Hispanic women are the fastest growing minority group in the U.S. and have the highest rates of sedentary behavior and postpartum diabetes after a diagnosis of GDM. This randomised trial uses a high-reach, low-cost strategy that can readily be translated into clinical practice in underserved and minority populations. Trial registration NCT01679210 PMID:24606590

2014-01-01

376

Sterilization and birth control in the shadow of eugenics: married, middle-class women in Alberta, 1930-1960s.  

PubMed

The history of eugenic sterilization connotes draconian images of coerced and involuntary procedures robbing men and women of their reproductive health. While eugenics programs often fit this characterization, there is another, smaller, and less obvious legacy of eugenics that arguably contributed to a more empowering image of reproductive health. Sexual sterilization surgeries as a form of contraception began to gather momentum alongside eugenics programs in the middle of the 20th century and experiences among prairie women serve as an illustrative example. Alberta maintained its eugenics program from 1929 to 1972 and engaged in thousands of eugenic sterilizations, but by the 1940s middle-class married women pressured their Albertan physicians to provide them with sterilization surgeries to control fertility, as a matter of choice. The multiple meanings and motivations behind this surgery introduced a moral quandary for physicians, which encourages medical historians to revisit the history of eugenics and its relationship to the contemporaneous birth control movement. PMID:24909023

Dyck, Erika

2014-01-01

377

The Correlation Between Psychiatric Disorders and Women’s Lives  

PubMed Central

Objective: Psychiatric disorders are important factors which affect the quality of life: employment rates, interpersonal and intrafamilial communications, marriage, child-bearing, parental skills and many other social – cognitive areas in different ways. Psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and depressive disorder have a negative impact on women’s lives. This study has compared the relationship between these mental illnesses and the liabilities of women’s lives. Methods: For the purpose of this study, 61 schizophrenics, 35 bipolar and 40 unipolar female patients and 60 healthy controls from a university hospital of eastern Turkey were evaluated with SCID- I, a family environmental scale and a personal information questionnaire. Results: The women with psychiatric disorders had higher rates of unemployment, shorter durations of marriage and lower numbers of parity, as compared to their healthy counterparts, especially after the onset of their illnesses. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups are at risk due to the psychotropic medications which they take during pregnancy. The onset or the exacerbations of illnesses during the postpartum period are also seen more in the schizophrenia and the bipolar groups. However, the patients did not use medicines more than the healthy controls during lactation. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups seem to be failing in using reliable methods of contraception. This data is important due to the traditional and the socio-economical structure of eastern Turkey, which may interrelate with the results. Conclusion: Women have to play various roles in life and they have various challenges which are related to these roles. The female psychiatric patients should be evaluated in the special perspective of ‘being women’, along with other clinical parameters. The evaluation of the social, cultural and the economic aspects and the collaborative teams of different clinical disciplines which are related to women’s mental health would be beneficial. PMID:23730649

Bursalioglu, Fusun Sevimli; Aydin, Nazan; Yazici, Esra; Yazici, Ahmet Bulent

2013-01-01

378

Blastocyst-stage versus cleavage-stage embryo transfer in women with high oestradiol concentrations: randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

This prospective, randomized, controlled trial tested the hypothesis that delaying embryo transfer to the blastocyst stage can increase the probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth in women with high oestradiol concentrations on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection using the long protocol. A total of 200 women with oestradiol >3000 pg/ml on the HCG day with four or more good-quality, day-3 embryos were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to undergo day-3 or day-5 embryo transfer. Clinical pregnancy rates (CPR; 41% versus 59%; relative risk 0.70, 95% CI 0.52–0.93) and ongoing pregnancy/live-birth rates (35% versus 52%; relative risk 0.67, 95% CI 0.46–0.93) were lower in women undergoing cleavage-stage than blastocyst-stage embryo transfer. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, among women undergoing cleavage-stage embryo transfer, a detrimental cut-off value for not achieving pregnancy for oestradiol was 4200 pg/ml, with lower CPR and ongoing pregnancy/live-birth rates (P = 0.006 and 0.02, respectively). No detrimental cut-off value for oestradiol was identified among women undergoing blastocyst-stage embryo transfer. Delaying embryo transfer to the blastocyst stage can increase the probability of pregnancy in women with high oestradiol on the HCG day PMID:22050864

Elgindy, Eman A; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Mostafa, Magdy I

2011-12-01

379

Work Life Balance of IT Women Professionals Belonging to the Age Group 20-35 in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information technology (IT) industry has shown its potential as a leading sector in spurring economic development and has offered many new job opportunities in India for both men and women. Even though women have made decisive advances in the labor market, there has not been much progress in the IT industry. This is evident from the fact that only

Suganthi L; Divya D; Samuel Anand A

2010-01-01

380

What's Good for the Goose May Not Be as Good for the Gander: The Benefits of Self-Monitoring for Men and Women in Task Groups and Dyadic Conflicts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors posit that women can rely on self-monitoring to overcome negative gender stereotypes in certain performance contexts. In a study of mixed-sex task groups, the authors found that female group members who were high self-monitors were considered more influential and more valuable contributors than women who were low self-monitors. Men…

Flynn, Francis J.; Ames, Daniel R.

2006-01-01

381

Automated monitoring to detect H1N1 symptoms among urban, Medicaid-eligible, pregnant women: a community-partnered randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

In response to the H1N1 epidemic, we used community health workers to design and implement a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a new automated call-monitoring system for second and third trimester predominantly Medicaid-eligible pregnant women in an urban free standing birth center to promptly detect symptoms of influenza and assure rapid treatment to prevent adverse outcomes from influenza. Daily automated telephone call to second and third trimester pregnant women asking if the woman experienced flu-like symptoms. Calls continued daily until 38 weeks gestation. A community health worker's voice was used for the automated call recording. Positive responses triggered an immediate referral to a nurse-midwife for prompt treatment with anti-viral medication. Fifty pregnant participants were randomized into daily-automated call group (n = 26) or health information group (n = 24). The automated call group participants ranged in age from 14 to 36 (mean = 23.5, SD = 6.3), 84.7 % identified their race/ethnicity as African-American Non-Hispanic, and 80.7 % were Medicaid-Eligible. In the automated call group, 11.5 % chose to be immunized against H1N1. The mean percent of patients reached daily was 45.1 % (SD = 3.2 %) and at least once every 3 days was 65.1 % (SD = 3.1 %). One pregnant woman in the automated call group contracted H1N1 influenza and received prompt anti-viral treatment without any serious outcomes. Participation in daily-automated telephone calls did not differ significantly between patients younger than 18 years old versus patients 18 years or older. There was also no difference in participation between patients with parity of 0 versus patients with parity ?1. Participation in daily telephone calls significantly (alpha ?0.05) increased when a community health worker provided personal follow-up of non-responsive participants. 93.3 % of surveyed pregnant women, who received automated daily calls, recommended to use a similar daily call system in response to a future health crisis. Automated daily phone calls, designed and produced by community health workers, is a feasible, well received strategy to provide urgent health information to an urban, Medicaid-eligible group of pregnant women, regardless of age or parity. PMID:23990336

Nassar, Amy Filmore; Alemi, Farrokh; Hetmyer, Alisha; Alemi, Yara; Randolph, Linda A; Ramey, Sharon Landesman

2014-02-01

382

CONTROLLED SUBSTITUTION OF SOY PROTEIN FOR MEAT PROTEIN: EFFECTS ON CALCIUM RETENTION, BONE, AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH INDICES IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a controlled feeding study, the effects of substituting 25 g soy protein for meat on calcium retention and bone biomarkers were determined. Postmenopausal women (n = 13) ate two diets that were similar, except that, in one diet, 25 g high-isoflavone soy protein (SOY) was substituted for an equiva...

383

Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

2012-01-01

384

Lower Serum Androstenedione Levels in Pre-Rheumatoid Arthritis versus Normal Control Women: Correlations with Lower Serum Cortisol Levels  

PubMed Central

Serum adrenal androgens (AAs), including androstenedione (?4A) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), have been reported to be lower in female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with early disease. Few data are available on hormonal status of women before the onset of clinical rheumatoid arthritis (pre-RA). A broad baseline panel of serum adrenal and sex steroids was compared in 36 female pre-RA to 144 matched cohort control (CN) subjects to determine differences in their mean values and in patterns of hormonal correlations. Study subjects having lower versus higher baseline serum cortisol levels than the total group's mean value were also analyzed separately to investigate differences in their hormonal levels and correlational patterns. In total subjects, mean (±SE) ?4A level (nmol/L) was lower (P = 0.018) in 28 pre-RA cases (6.4 ± 0.40) versus 108 CN (7.8 ± 0.28). The significant (P = 0.013) difference was restricted to 9 pre-RA versus 53?CN subjects having lower cortisol levels (5.6 ± 0.73 versus 8.0 ± 0.42?nmol/L, resp.). In total subjects, no significant difference was found between study subjects in their bivariate correlations of the hormonal panel variables, unlike results found in the subgroups stratified by lower versus higher cortisol levels. A subgroup of pre-RA females may have relative adrenal cortical insufficiency, as reflected by lower ?4A, especially observed among those subjects with lower cortisol levels. PMID:23762532

Masi, Alfonse T.; Elmore, Kevin B.; Rehman, Azeem A.; Chatterton, Robert T.; Goertzen, Ned J.; Aldag, Jean C.

2013-01-01

385

An Expressive Therapy Group Disclosure Intervention for Women Living With HIV Improves Social Support, Self-efficacy, and the Safety and Quality of Relationships: A Qualitative Analysis.  

PubMed

Women living with HIV (WLHIV) face high rates of morbidity and mortality. HIV disclosure interventions have been identified as a promising but under-evaluated approach for WLHIV to improve their health and well-being. The Medea Project is an expressive therapy group intervention that was first developed to help incarcerated women develop the confidence and skills to tell their stories publicly in theatrical performances. The intervention was subsequently adapted as a community-based disclosure intervention for WLHIV. Our study describes an analysis of the impact of the Medea Project on the lives of the WLHIV who participated. All participating WLHIV publicly disclosed their HIV status during the performances. Five impact themes emerged from the data: sisterhood, catharsis, self-acceptance, safer and healthier relationships, and gaining a voice. Our study identifies a voluntary, effective, and broadly beneficial disclosure intervention for women living with HIV. PMID:25027284

Machtinger, Edward L; Lavin, Sonja M; Hilliard, Starr; Jones, Rhodessa; Haberer, Jessica E; Capito, Kristen; Dawson-Rose, Carol

2015-01-01

386

Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Gene Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk Among Arab Omani Women: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide with significant global burden. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is an important regulator of cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis and mitogenic and antiapoptotic activities. Some studies suggested an association between cytosine adenine (CA) repeats gene polymorphisms of IGF1 and the risk of developing breast cancer while other studies did not find such an association. This study aims investigate the role of IGF1 (CA) repeats gene polymorphisms in the risk of developing breast cancer among Omani women. Methods We analyzed (CA) repeats gene polymorphisms of IGF1 by extraction of genomic DNA from the peripheral blood of 147 patients with breast cancer and 134 control participants and performed genotyping using DNA sequencing. Results Approximately 46% of patients carried the IGF (CA)19 repeat allele, with 31.3% carrying two copies of this allele and 50% of controls carried the IGF (CA)19 repeat allele with 30.1% carrying two copies of this allele. The difference of the IGF CA repeat groups was significant between cases and controls with (P =0.02). In contrast, there was no difference in the distribution of (CA)19 repeat allele, (CA)18 repeat allele and (CA)19 repeat allele between cases and controls. The difference of the CA groups was significant between cases and controls among postmenopausal women with (P =0.026), whereas no difference was observed among postmenopausal subjects (P =0.429). In both pre- and postmenopausal groups there was no difference in the distribution of (CA)19 repeat allele, (CA)18 repeat allele and (CA)20 repeat allele between patients and control subjects. On further IGF1 genotypes classification, we found an association between progesterone receptor status and the genotypes group where the non carrier of (CA)19 repeat group was compared to (CA)19 repeat carrier group (OR =2.482; 95% CI =1.119–5.503; P value =0.023). Conclusion Overall there was no association between the IGF (CA)19 repeat and breast cancer in Omani females. PMID:22837644

Al-Ajmi, Kawthar; Ganguly, Shyam S.; Al-Ajmi, Adil; Mandhari, Zahid Al; Al-Moundhri, Mansour S.

2012-01-01

387

Little Brother is Watching and Recording You: Social Control in a Deviant Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1950s social control has mostly been explained from the counteraction of deviance perspective. In this research I examine social control in a broader context, what I call social control as the furtherance of action perspective. In order to accomplish this, I conducted a digital ethnography with a group engaged in deviant behavior. The group has no formal name,

Joshua Wayne Roberts

2011-01-01

388

26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts. 1...of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts. (a...taken into account. For rules defining a component member of a controlled group of...

2013-04-01

389

26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts. 1...of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts. (a...taken into account. For rules defining a component member of a controlled group of...

2012-04-01

390

26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts. 1...of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts. (a...result is that the corporation becomes a component member of a controlled group of...

2011-04-01

391

26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.  

...of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts. 1...of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts. (a...taken into account. For rules defining a component member of a controlled group of...

2014-04-01

392

Changes in balance, functional performance and fall risk following whole body vibration training and vitamin D supplementation in institutionalized elderly women. A 6 month randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Falls in the elderly constitute a growing public health problem. This randomized controlled trial investigated the potential benefit of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) training and/or vitamin D supplementation on balance, functionality and estimated fall risk in institutionalized elderly women. A total of 113 women (mean age: 79.6) were randomly assigned to either a WBV or a no-training group, receiving either a conventional dose (880 IU/d) or a high dose (1600 IU/d) of vitamin D3. The WBV group performed exercises on a vibration platform 3×/week. Balance was evaluated by computerized posturography. Functionality was assessed by 10 m walk test, Timed up and Go (TUG) performance and endurance capacity (Shuttle Walk). Fall risk was determined with the Physiological Profile Assessment. Performance on the 10 m walk test and on TUG improved over time in all groups. For none of the parameters, high-dose vitamin D resulted in a better performance than conventional dosing. The improvements in the WBV group in endurance capacity, walking at preferred speed, and TUG were significantly larger than the changes with supplementation alone. No additional benefit of WBV training could be detected on fall risk and postural control, although sway velocity and maximal isometric knee extension strength improved only in the WBV group. This trial showed that a high-dose vitamin D supplementation is not more efficient than conventional dosing in improving functionality in institutionalized elderly. WBV training on top of vitamin D supplementation provided an added benefit with regard to walking, TUG performance, and endurance capacity. PMID:21256028

Bogaerts, An; Delecluse, Christophe; Boonen, Steven; Claessens, Albrecht L; Milisen, Koen; Verschueren, Sabine M P

2011-03-01

393

76 FR 31543 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue...provides notice of public hearing on a notice of proposed...into account deferred losses on the sale or exchange...DATES: The public hearing is being held on...

2011-06-01

394

Group CBT for psychosis: A longitudinal, controlled trial with inpatients.  

PubMed

Individual cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is a recommended treatment in the acute phase and beyond. However, less is known about the effectiveness of group CBTp in acute care. This mixed methods study explored the implementation and effectiveness of brief group CBTp with inpatients. This prospective trial compared inpatients who received either a four week group CBTp program or treatment as usual (TAU). Participants (n = 113 at baseline) completed self-report measures of distress, confidence and symptoms of psychosis at baseline, post-intervention and one month follow up. CBTp group participants also completed a brief open-ended satisfaction questionnaire. Using complete case analysis participants who received CBTp showed significantly reduced distress at follow up compared to TAU and significantly increased confidence across the study and follow up period. However, these effects were not demonstrated using a more conservative intention-to-treat analysis. Qualitative analysis of the satisfaction data revealed positive feedback with a number of specific themes. The study suggests that brief group CBTp with inpatients may improve confidence and reduce distress in the longer term. Participants report that the groups are acceptable and helpful. However, given the methodological limitations involved in this 'real world' study more robust evidence is needed. PMID:25577190

Owen, Mary; Sellwood, William; Kan, Stephen; Murray, John; Sarsam, May