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Sample records for women control group

  1. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  2. Impact of a Participatory Intervention with Womens Groups on Psychological Distress among Mothers in Rural Bangladesh: Secondary Analysis of a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Kelly; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Tasmin; Aumon, Bedowra Haq; Hossen, Mohammed Munir; Beard, James; Costello, Anthony; Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Prost, Audrey; Fottrell, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs) are a major cause of disability among women and disproportionately affect lower income countries. Interventions to address PCMDs are urgently needed in these settings, and group-based and peer-led approaches are potential strategies to increase access to mental health interventions. Participatory womens health groups led by local women previously reduced postpartum psychological distress in eastern India. We assessed the effect of a similar intervention on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. Method We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 18 clusters and an estimated population of 532,996. Nine clusters received an intervention comprising monthly meetings during which womens groups worked through a participatory learning and action cycle to develop strategies for improving womens and childrens health. There was one group for every 309 individuals in the population, 810 groups in total. Mothers in nine control clusters had access to usual perinatal care. Postpartum psychological distress was measured with the 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) between six and 52 weeks after delivery, during the months of January to April, in 2010 and 2011. Results We analysed outcomes for 6275 mothers. Although the cluster mean SRQ-20 score was lower in the intervention arm (mean 5.2, standard deviation 1.8) compared to control (5.3, 1.2), the difference was not significant (? 1.44, 95% CI 0.28, 3.08). Conclusions Despite promising results in India, participatory womens groups focused on womens and childrens health had no significant effect on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. PMID:25329470

  3. Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

  4. Women in the POSCH trial. Effects of aggressive cholesterol modification in women with coronary heart disease. The POSCH Group. Program on the Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias.

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, H; Campos, C T; Matts, J P; Fitch, L L; Long, J M; Varco, R L

    1992-01-01

    The Program on the Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias (POSCH) provided the clearest and the most convincing evidence supporting the beneficial effects of cholesterol lowering in hypercholesterolemic survivors of a myocardial infarction. In POSCH, 78 of the 838 patients (9.3%) were women, with 32 randomized to the diet-control group and 46 to the diet plus partial ileal bypass surgery-intervention group. At 5 years, the mean per cent change from baseline was -23.9% for total plasma cholesterol (p < 0.0001), -36.1% for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.0001), and +8.5% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = not significant). Because of the small number of women, no statistically significant changes in clinical event rates were observed between the control and the surgery groups. A comparison of 162 coronary arteriography film pairs in the POSCH women, between baseline and 3, 5, 7, and 10 years, consistently showed less disease progression in the surgery group (p = 0.013 for combined assessments of the baseline to the longest follow-up film). Because the lipid and coronary arteriography findings in the POSCH women paralleled these findings in the total POSCH population and in the POSCH men, and because the arteriography changes in POSCH have previously been demonstrated to be statistically significant surrogate end points for certain clinical events and predictors of overall and atherosclerotic coronary heart disease mortality rates, we conclude that the lipid modification achieved in the POSCH women by partial ileal bypass reduced their atherosclerosis progression. The POSCH findings in women support the aggressive treatment of hyperlipidemia in the general management of atherosclerosis in women. Images FIG. 3. PMID:1417188

  5. Elevated levels of whole blood nickel in a group of Sri Lankan women with endometriosis: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is characterized by the persistence of endometrial tissue in ectopic sites outside the uterine cavity. Presence of nickel, cadmium and lead in ectopic endometrial tissue has been reported previously. While any association between blood levels of nickel and endometriosis is yet to be described in literature, conflicting reports are available with regards to cadmium and lead levels in blood and urine. Findings In fifty patients with endometriosis and fifty age-matched controls confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy, whole blood samples were collected and digested using supra pure 65% HNO3. Whole blood levels of nickel and lead were measured using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) while cadmium levels were evaluated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFASS). Women with endometriosis had significantly higher (P=0.016) geometric mean (95% CI) whole blood nickel levels [2.6(1.9-3.3) μg/L] as compared to women without endometriosis [0.8 (0.7-0.9) μg/L]. Whole blood levels of cadmium and lead were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Although women with endometriosis in this study population had higher levels of nickel in whole blood compared to controls, whether nickel could be considered as an aetiological factor in endometriosis remains inconclusive in view of the smaller sample that was evaluated. PMID:23317102

  6. Severe sepsis in women with group B Streptococcus in pregnancy: an exploratory UK national case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Kalin, Asli; Acosta, Colleen; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of severe maternal sepsis due to group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the UK, and to investigate the associated outcomes for mother and infant. Design National case–control study. Setting All UK consultant-led maternity units. Participants 30 women with confirmed or suspected severe GBS sepsis, and 757 control women. Main outcome measures Disease incidence, additional maternal morbidity, critical care admission, length of stay, infant infection, mortality. Results The incidences of confirmed and presumed severe maternal GBS sepsis were 1.00 and 2.75 per 100 000 maternities, respectively, giving an overall incidence of 3.75 per 100 000. Compared with controls, severe GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of additional maternal morbidity (OR 12.35, 95% CI 3.96 to 35.0), requiring level 2 (OR 39.3, 95% CI 16.0 to 99.3) or level 3 (OR 182, 95% CI 21.0 to 8701) care and longer hospital stay (median stay in cases and controls was 7 days (range 3–29 days) and 2 days (range 0–16 days), respectively, p<0.001). None of the women died. Severe maternal GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of infant sepsis (OR 32.7, 95% CI 8.99 to 119.0); 79% of infants, however, did not develop sepsis. There were no associated stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Conclusions Severe maternal GBS sepsis is a rare occurrence in the UK. It is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:26450426

  7. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  8. Organizing Women in Physics Working Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kausch, Corinna; Butcher, Gillian; Barbosa, Marcia; Ivie, Rachel

    2009-04-01

    The creation and maintenance of women in physics working groups requires human resources, ideas, planning, and funds. Working groups facilitate the improvement of women's situations in physics around the globe. Physical societies, which could help fund working group activities, financially support few working groups for women in physics. This paper presents recommendations and examples of best practices resulting from the workshop, Organizing Women in Physics Working Groups, presented as part of the Third IUPAP Women in Physics Conference, Seoul, 2008.

  9. Women Emerging: Group Approaches. Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michele, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provides a rationale for women's groups and describes benefits to group members. The seven articles in this special issue deal with using a group approach to deal with anger, rape, lesbianism, sexuality awareness, issues for Black women and overcoming internal barriers to career development. (Author/JAC)

  10. Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes

  11. Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…

  12. Evaluating Culturally Responsive Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.; Warner, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a culturally congruent group treatment model, entitled "Claiming Your Connections" (CYC) aimed at reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress, and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black women. Method: A total of 58 Black women recruited from health…

  13. Evaluation of a group based cognitive behavioural therapy programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities: protocol for a mixed methods controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Menstrual pain which is severe enough to impact on daily activities is very common amongst menstruating females. Research suggests that menstrual pain which impacts on daily functioning may be even more prevalent amongst those with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, little research attention has focused on pain management programmes for those with intellectual disabilities. The aims of this pilot study were to develop and evaluate a theory-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities. Methods/Design The study utilised a mixed methods controlled clinical trial to evaluate elements from a CBT programme called Feeling Better (McGuire & McManus, 2010). The Feeling Better programme is a modular, manualised intervention designed for people with an intellectual disability and their carers. The programme was delivered to 36 young women aged 12 – 30 years who have a Mild - Moderate Intellectual Disability, split between two conditions. The treatment group received the Feeling Better intervention and the control group received treatment as usual. To evaluate the effectiveness of the programme, measures were taken of key pain variables including impact, knowledge, self-efficacy and coping. Process evaluation was conducted to examine which elements of the programme were most successful in promoting change. Discussion Participants in the intervention group were expected to report the use of a greater number of coping strategies and have greater knowledge of pain management strategies following participation in the intervention and at three month follow-up, when compared to control group participants. A significant advantage of the study was the use of mixed methods and inclusion of process evaluation to determine which elements of a cognitive behavioural therapy programme work best for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN75567759 PMID:25201648

  14. Executive Committee Working Group Women in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddison, Sarah; Primas, Francesca; Aerts, Conny; Clayton, Geoffery; Combes, Françoise; Dubner, Gloria; Feretti, Luigina; Green, Anne; Griffin, Elizabeth; Liang, Yanchun; Motizuki, Yuko; Nordström, Birgitta

    2012-04-01

    The Working Group was created at the 25th IAU General Assembly in Sydney, Australia, in July 2003 by the IAU Executive Council as a Working Group of IAU Executive. The aims of the Working Group are to evaluate the status of women in astronomy through the collection of statistics over all countries where astronomy research is carried out; and to establish strategies and actions that can help women to attain true equality as research astronomers, which will add enormous value to all of astronomy.

  15. Interpersonal Group Therapy for Women Experiencing Bulimia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…

  16. Interpersonal Group Therapy for Women Experiencing Bulimia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides

  17. Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development sponsored by the UN, an expert group met in June 1992 in Botswana to consider issues related to population and women. Particular attention was devoted to gender equality, population, and development; reproductive health and the health of families; adolescent fertility, marriage, and reproductive health; family planning (FP) and FP programs; education of girls and women and the relationship of education to fertility, health, and welfare; women's economic activity and its relationship to demographic factors; and the relationship between women, population, and the environment. While both developed and developing countries were considered, the emphasis was on the latter. 32 recommendations for action were addressed primarily to governments and other social institutions and also to funding agencies. The recommendations call for a recognization that health and education are particularly critical for women. They ask for the development of gender-based analysis and assessment of development policies to discover their impact on women. Service delivery to women should be culturally appropriate, and women should be integrated into development initiatives and into management and policy-making levels of social institutions. Responsible parenthood should be promoted as should the assumption of familiar responsibilities by men. Women should have access to safe abortion services. Adolescents should receive the education necessary to protect their reproductive health, and a minimum marriage age should be adopted. FP programs should be appropriate to their clients and should provide safe methods of fertility regulation. Improved and safe contraceptives and pharmaceuticals which will protect against sexually transmitted diseases should be developed, with renewed emphasis placed on new contraceptives for men. Safe sex measures should be promoted. The health of girls and women should receive priority attention, and female genital mutilation should end. Special efforts, both formal and informal, should be made to provide proper education for women. Equal rights in sexual relationships should be promoted. Women should have increased access to productive and renumerative employment free from gender discrimination or discrimination due to familiar responsibilities and safe from exposure to hazardous substances. All remaining barriers to women's rights should be removed. The crucial role women play in protecting the environment should be acknowledged, and women should receive training in sustainable development. Adequate social security and medical care systems should be developed for all women, and women and children should be protected against all forms of violence. Women refugees are in special need of protection and health and FP services. Finally, data collection should give priority to information-deficient topics, research on women's status and demographic processes should occur, and statistical systems should represent the full diversity of women's economic activities and publish indicators on a gender-disaggregated basis. PMID:12287716

  18. Themes in Reminiscence Groups with Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnside, Irene

    1993-01-01

    Examined use of themes in reminiscence therapy groups for older women. Themes used in protocols for three research studies were analyzed. Results revealed that, for one of the three studies, the female participants' (n=67) most-discussed themes were favorite holiday, first pet, and first job. (Author/NB)

  19. Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV Positive Men and Women Coping with AIDS-Related Loss and Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Tate, David C.; DiFranceisco, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention…

  20. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  1. Enabling Older Homeless Minority Women to Overcome Homelessness by Using a Life Management Enhancement Group Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of a life management enhancement (LME) group intervention for older minority women in developing personal control and self-confidence in social relationships as they overcome homelessness. Women in the treatment group showed significantly greater personal control and higher levels of self-confidence following the six-week intervention than women in the control group. Increasing personal control and developing self-confidence in social relationships can help individuals achieve desired outcomes as a result of their actions, efforts, and abilities. These attributes can help women increase and sustain appropriate coping methods and overcome homelessness. PMID:19212866

  2. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions. PMID:26578458

  3. Women's groups hold up the introduction of Norplant in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bank, A

    1994-01-01

    Women's groups met in Managua, Nicaragua on International Women's Day to discuss new reproductive technologies and population policies, with an emphasis on reproductive rights. This event postponed introduction of Norplant by the Minister of Health (MINSA), fulfilling the prediction of Carme Clavel of Servicios Integrales para la Mujer, one of the event's organizers, who stated that MINSA would be unable to introduce Norplant quietly. Three days later, Carlos Jarquin, director of Salud Integral at MINSA, denied the alleged approval. However, this was disputed by Maria Hamlin, director of the Centro de Informacion y Servicios de Asesoria en la Salud (CISAS) and one of the event's organizers, who said the procedure had been under consideration for testing since the year before with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the Population Council. Ana Maria Pizarro, director of Si Mujer, suggested that tests focused on overcoming resistance and acceptance of irregularities in menstrual bleeding. It was suggested at the meeting that Norplant should be studied at alternative women's centers with their full participation and from the user's perspective. Ana Maria Pizarro insisted that the wishes and needs of the user be met. Ana Quiros from CISAS stated that women must have control of the method used. Maria Hamlin was optimistic about future cooperation among the groups and their impact on Nicaraguan population and health policies. PMID:12318717

  4. Male Leadership in an Addicted Women's Group: An Empirical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NeSmith, Chad L.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen; Satcher, Jamie F.

    2000-01-01

    Examines premise that women's addiction groups should be facilitated by females. Study indicates that attitudes of participants towards men in groups facilitated by men were more positive than those of participants in groups facilitated by women. Results may provide information for revision of clinical practice, and for examination of options…

  5. Personal Transformation: A Group Therapy Program for Saudi Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pharaon, Nora Alarifi

    A personal transformation group therapy program was designed to help Saudi women function more effectively in their daily lives. The major cognitive idea of these groups was to enable women to better understand their thinking patterns so that they could learn techniques to change. Personal transformation group topics included: Self-Esteem;…

  6. [Group B Streptococcus carriers among pregnant women].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    García SD; Eliseth MC; Lazzo MJ; Copolillo E; Barata AD; de Torres R; Vay CA; Famiglietti AM

    2003-10-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae--group B streptococci (GBS)--is a main cause of severe neonatal infections with a high mortality rate. The detection of pregnant GBS carriers (5-35%) allows intrapartum administration of antibiotic prophylaxis to these women and prevents perinatal infection. We studied the prevalence of GBS in 259 patients between 28 and 37 weeks gestation from April 2000 to March 2002. The anorectum (AR) and vaginal introitus swabs (VI) were cultured in selective Todd-Hewitt broth containing colistin (10 micrograms/ml) and nalidixic acid (15 micrograms/ml) while vaginal swabs (VFS) were cultured following conventional methods. A total of 47 strains of EGB were isolated from 259 patients (18.15%). The prevalence in different samples were: 5.40% in VFS, 13.51% in VI, 11.58% in AR and 17.76% in VI + AR (reference method). The isolates were tested against penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin and streptomycin to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The resistance phenotypes of erythromycin-resistant GBS were determined by the double-disk test. All strains were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone and vancomycin, only one strain was erythromycin and clindamycin resistant by IMLSB mechanism. None of the isolated strains had a high resistant level to aminoglycosides. The sensitivity of cultures increased when selective broths were used as the primary detection method.

  7. Women's groups and individual entrepreneurs: a Ugandan case study.

    PubMed

    Pickering, H; Kajura, E; Katongole, G; Whitworth, J

    1996-10-01

    This study is based on interviews conducted among 8 women's income-generating groups and 12 individual women entrepreneurs in 15 villages in Masaka district, Uganda. The Baganda are the main tribe in the study villages. The study evaluates the economic achievement, objectives, and social characteristics of the groups. Groups ranged in size from 9-20 members. All had functioned for 3-5 years. A regular membership fee was paid through the sale of agricultural produce. Groups met at least every 2 weeks. This study revealed that the individual goals were to increase individual wealth, while the stated group goals were to invest in the community. Members considered the groups as useful in providing an easy way to raise capital. Most members considered financial status as a criterion for group membership. Elderly women tended to join social and handicraft groups. The women's group members tended to be friends before the establishment of the group and tended to be currently married to men residing in the area. Of the 12 women entrepreneurs, only 5 were currently married. All 12 women entrepreneurs had considerable initiative. The 12 women and the women's group members derived income from two or more sources: agricultural projects, animal husbandry, craft production, alcohol production and sale, or other activities. Study findings indicate that decisions were often delayed or avoided in order to preserve social cohesion. In a market-oriented enterprise, quick response time is needed and the bureaucratic dynamics would hinder some agricultural ventures. The poorest women experienced barriers to group membership. Women entrepreneurs were more successful than group women. PMID:12347716

  8. Can the Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Be Delayed by a Group-Based Lifestyle Intervention in Women with Prediabetes following Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)? Findings from a Randomized Control Mixed Methods Trial

    PubMed Central

    O'Dea, Angela; Tierney, Marie; McGuire, Brian E.; Newell, John; Glynn, Liam G.; Gibson, Irene; Noctor, Eoin; Danyliv, Andrii; Connolly, Susan B.; Dunne, Fidelma P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention programme for women with prediabetes following gestational diabetes (GDM). Design. A two-group, mixed methods randomized controlled trial in which 50 women with a history of GDM and abnormal glucose tolerance postpartum were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 24) or wait control (n = 26) and postintervention qualitative interviews with participants. Main Outcome Measures. Modifiable biochemical, anthropometric, behavioural, and psychosocial risk factors associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The primary outcome variable was the change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) from study entry to one-year follow-up. Results. At one-year follow-up, the intervention group showed significant improvements over the wait control group on stress, diet self-efficacy, and quality of life. There was no evidence of an effect of the intervention on measures of biochemistry or anthropometry; the effect on one health behaviour, diet adherence, was close to significance. Conclusions. Prevention programmes must tackle the barriers to participation faced by this population; home-based interventions should be investigated. Strategies for promoting long-term health self-management need to be developed and tested. PMID:26347894

  9. Characteristics of Midlife Women Recruited Through Internet Communities/Groups

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-ok

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics of a specific online population, midlife women recruited through Internet communities (ICs) or groups, and to provide future direction for Internet research among midlife women. Using a feminist perspective, the study focused on ethnic variations in the characteristics of the midlife women. A total of 192 midlife women were recruited through ICs. The Internet survey included questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health/illness status. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that midlife women recruited through ICs tended to be Caucasian, young, married, and affluent. The findings also indicated significant ethnic differences in sociodemographic characteristics. The findings suggest that researchers need to consider that midlife women recruited from ICs tend to be a specific group of midlife women. PMID:18091620

  10. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:

  11. From the inside Out: Group Work with Women of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.

    2014-01-01

    This article will present two models for conducting group work with Women of Color (WOC): the SisterCircle Approach and the Group Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of group work that can assist group workers to conduct individual and group-level

  12. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  13. From the inside Out: Group Work with Women of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.

    2014-01-01

    This article will present two models for conducting group work with Women of Color (WOC): the SisterCircle Approach and the Group Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of group work that can assist group workers to conduct individual and group-level…

  14. Women Together Again: A Phenomenological Study of Leaderless Women's Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kees, Nathalie L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents results of a study of eight leaderless groups. Findings included a serendipitous forming process, minimal norming, a support system extending beyond the group, a spontaneous and flexible group process, and unresolved issues. Focus and purpose of the groups were found to be the factors that have changed over time. Discusses results in…

  15. The "Comadre" Group Approach: A Wellness-Based Group Model for Monolingual Mexican Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Sand, Jennifer K.; Brucato, Toni; Ortega, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    The "comadre" approach to group counseling with immigrant Mexican women creates an environment of sisterhood, trust, support, and education. This article describes a wellness-based, comadre pilot group designed to support monolingual Spanish-speaking, Mexican-born women who recently immigrated to the United States. The need for the group and group…

  16. Sexual Enhancement Groups for Dysfunctional Women: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiblum, Sandra R.; Ersner-Hershfield, Robin

    1977-01-01

    Three groups of women with sexual dysfunction were evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment. Two groups did not involve partner participation, while the third group included partners on two occasions. Results for all groups were similar. The question of whether orgasm through coitus alone is a reasonable goal is raised and challenged. (Author)

  17. Psychometric Evaluation of the Midlife Womens Symptom Index (MSI) in Multiethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bokim; Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2011-01-01

    The Midlife Womens Symptom Index (MSI) was designed to measure menopausal symptoms specifically in a multiethnic sample of midlife women. This study is a psychometric property test to evaluate MSI among 512 multiethnic groups of midlife women (White, Hispanic, African American, and Asian American). Across the ethnic groups, MSI had an adequate internal consistency in all subdomains except psychosomatic symptoms. The item-to-total correlation coefficients of lost weight and nosebleeds were less than 0.20 among all ethnic groups. The discriminant validity was confirmed among all ethnic groups except Asian Americans. Overall, MSI may work better for Whites and not as well for Asian Americans, compared with other ethnic groups. Additional studies with diverse groups of multiethnic midlife women are needed, however, to confirm MSI psychometric properties. PMID:20606074

  18. A Process Model of Empowerment for Women in Group Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwill, Janet V.; Hulbert, Kathleen

    The significance/importance of relationships and connection of women in working through emotional distress and building personal empowerment is illustrated in the process model. The group process model of empowerment draws from both the current theories of women's psychological development and social interaction theory in illustrating the process…

  19. A Consciousness-Raising Group for Obese Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, Ruth; Grayer, Elinor D.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes three consciousness-raising groups for obese women which met to explore what it is like to be fat in a thin-oriented society, to enhance their self-esteem, and to help the women recognize that being fat is one of many choices a person may legitimately make for herself. (Author/EJT)

  20. Women Face Unemployment: A Comparative Analysis of Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat

    2000-01-01

    A study of job search intensity among 451 unemployed women in Israel found that the youngest (below 22) spent the most time seeking employment; young (age 22-35) and midlife (age 36-49) women rejected job offers more frequently. The oldest group (50-62) were least likely to reject offers and experienced more health problems following unemployment.…

  1. The Mothering of Women Abused by Their Partner: An Outcome Evaluation of a Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Perel, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Findings of an outcome evaluation of a mothering group intervention with women abused by their partners are presented, based on measurements of intervention and control groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. At Time 1, both groups reported moderate well-being, high parental self-efficacy, and low mothering-related…

  2. Housework, children, and women's wages across racial-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson

    2014-07-01

    Motherhood affects women's household labor and paid employment, but little previous research has explored the extent to which hours of housework may explain per child wage penalties or differences in such penalties across racial-ethnic groups. In this paper, I use longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data to examine how variations in household labor affect the motherhood penalty for White, Black, and Hispanic women. In doing so, I first assess how children affect hours of household labor across these groups and then explore the extent to which this household labor mediates the relationship between children and wages for these women. I find that household labor explains a portion of the motherhood penalty for White women, who experience the most dramatic increases in household labor with additional children. Black and Hispanic women experience slight increases in housework with additional children, but neither children nor housework affects their already low wages. PMID:24767591

  3. Assessment of female sexual function in a group of uncircumcised obese Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, A R M; Ibrahim, N H; Ahmed, H-Eh; Hassanin, A M; Elgawady, M A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess female sexual function in an obese group (250 women) and to compare it with a control group (100 women), among 25-35-year-old uncircumcised Egyptian women, using female sexual function index (FSFI) score. FSFI total score of ⩽ 26.55 was considered diagnostic of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). The percentage of FSD in the obese group was 73.6% while it was 71% in the control group, which was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). The difference between both groups regarding the total (FSFI) score was insignificant (P > 0.05), but arousal and satisfaction domains scores were significantly lower in the obese group. In the obese group, a strong negative correlation between body mass index and arousal, orgasm and the total FSFI score was found. Women with excessive obesity had the lowest total FSFI score. In the obese group, college graduates had the highest total scores and all domain scores of FSFI followed by high school graduates while the least educated women had the lowest scores and when these subgroups were compared, significant differences were found among them. We conclude that in uncircumcised 25-35-year-old Egyptian women, obesity is not a major detrimental factor for FSD, but it may affect some sexual domains such as arousal and satisfaction, although excessive obesity is associated with FSD. Also, educational and cultural factors may have an impact on perception of sex and pleasure. PMID:26155831

  4. Estimating coverage of a womens group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention coverage in resource and data poor settings is rarely documented. This paper describes four different methods, and their underlying assumptions, to estimate coverage of a community mobilisation womens group intervention for maternal and newborn health among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. Methods Primary and secondary data sources were used to estimate the interventions coverage among pregnant women. Four methods were used: (1) direct measurement of a proxy indicator using intervention survey data; (2) direct measurement among intervention participants and modelled extrapolation based on routine longitudinal surveillance of births; (3) direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on cross-sectional measurements and national data; and (4) direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on published national data. Results The estimated womens group interventions coverage among pregnant women ranged from 30% to 34%, depending on method used. Differences likely reflect differing assumptions and methodological biases of the various methods. Conclusion In the absence of complete and timely population data, choice of coverage estimation method must be based on the strengths and limitations of available methods, capacity and resources for measurement and the ultimate end user needs. Each of the methods presented and discussed here is likely to provide a useful understanding of intervention coverage at a single point in time and Methods 1 and 2 may also provide more reliable estimates of coverage trends. Footnotes 1Unpublished data from three focus group discussions with womens group members and facilitators participating in the Womens Groups intervention. PMID:22747973

  5. Women's Participation in Physics Internationally: the IUPAP Working Group on Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Judy

    2001-04-01

    In 1999 the General Assembly of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) voted to establish a Working Group on Women in Physics with the following charge: to survey the situation for women in physics in IUPAP member countries; to analyze and report the data collected along with suggestions on how to improve the situation; to suggest ways that women can become more involved in IUPAP, including the Liaison Committees, the Commissions, the Council, and the General Assemblies; and to report all findings at the next General Assembly in 2002. The Working Group was established in 2000 with 11 members representing North and South America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East/Africa. The Group has been gathering data on women in physics and is planning to hold an International Conference on Women in Physics at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris in March, 2002. I will discuss some of the findings and the plans for the future.

  6. Group mindfulness-based therapy significantly improves sexual desire in women.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Basson, Rosemary

    2014-06-01

    At least a third of women across reproductive ages experience low sexual desire and impaired arousal. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental present moment awareness, may improve women's sexual functioning. The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy, either immediately or after a 3-month waiting period, in women seeking treatment for low sexual desire and arousal. Women participated in four 90-min group sessions that included mindfulness meditation, cognitive therapy, and education. A total of 117 women were assigned to either the immediate treatment (n = 68, mean age 40.8 yrs) or delayed treatment (n = 49, mean age 42.2 yrs) group, in which women had two pre-treatment baseline assessments followed by treatment. A total of 95 women completed assessments through to the 6-month follow-up period. Compared to the delayed treatment control group, treatment significantly improved sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, sexual satisfaction, and overall sexual functioning. Sex-related distress significantly decreased in both conditions, regardless of treatment, as did orgasmic difficulties and depressive symptoms. Increases in mindfulness and a reduction in depressive symptoms predicted improvements in sexual desire. Mindfulness-based group therapy significantly improved sexual desire and other indices of sexual response, and should be considered in the treatment of women's sexual dysfunction. PMID:24814472

  7. Not Far Enough: Women vs. Smoking. A Workshop for Women's Group and Women's Health Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Highlights from a series of papers on the role of smoking in women's disease and death, women's smoking behavior, and the role of the tobacco industry are included in this document. Conference participants included public health and women's organizations. Brief summaries of the papers introduce the document. An outline of network strategies…

  8. Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed. PMID:23423547

  9. A community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among middle-aged African American women in rural Alabama: Findings from a group randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Scarinci, Isabel C.; Moore, Artisha; Wynn, Theresa; Cherrington, Andrea; Fouad, Mona; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the efficacy of a community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among African American (AA) women between the ages of 45–65 years, residing in rural Alabama. Methods We conducted a group randomized controlled trial with counties as the unit of randomization that evaluated two interventions based on health priorities identified by the community: (1) promotion of healthy eating and physical activity; and (2) promotion of breast and cervical cancer screening. A total of 6 counties with 565 participants were enrolled in the study between November 2009 and October 2011. Results The overall retention rate at 24-month follow-up was 54.7%. Higher retention rate was observed in the “healthy lifestyle” arm (63.1%) as compared to the “screening” arm (45.3%). Participants in the “healthy lifestyle” arm showed significant positive changes compared to the “screening” arm at 12-month follow-up with regard to decrease in fried food consumption and an increase in both fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity. At 24-month follow-up, these positive changes were maintained with healthy eating behaviors, but not engagement in physical activity. Conclusions A culturally relevant intervention, developed in collaboration with the target audience, can improve (and maintain) healthy eating among AA women living in rural areas. PMID:25152504

  10. Community mobilisation with women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to improve maternal and newborn health in underserved areas of Jharkhand and Orissa: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Around a quarter of the world's neonatal and maternal deaths occur in India. Morbidity and mortality are highest in rural areas and among the poorest wealth quintiles. Few interventions to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes with government-mandated community health workers have been rigorously evaluated at scale in this setting. The study aims to assess the impact of a community mobilisation intervention with women's groups facilitated by ASHAs to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes among rural tribal communities of Jharkhand and Orissa. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomised controlled trial and will be implemented in five districts, three in Jharkhand and two in Orissa. The unit of randomisation is a rural cluster of approximately 5000 population. We identified villages within rural, tribal areas of five districts, approached them for participation in the study and enrolled them into 30 clusters, with approximately 10 ASHAs per cluster. Within each district, 6 clusters were randomly allocated to receive the community intervention or to the control group, resulting in 15 intervention and 15 control clusters. Randomisation was carried out in the presence of local stakeholders who selected the cluster numbers and allocated them to intervention or control using a pre-generated random number sequence. The intervention is a participatory learning and action cycle where ASHAs support community women's groups through a four-phase process in which they identify and prioritise local maternal and newborn health problems, implement strategies to address these and evaluate the result. The cycle is designed to fit with the ASHAs' mandate to mobilise communities for health and to complement their other tasks, including increasing institutional delivery rates and providing home visits to mothers and newborns. The trial's primary endpoint is neonatal mortality during 24 months of intervention. Additional endpoints include home care practices and health care-seeking in the antenatal, delivery and postnatal period. The impact of the intervention will be measured through a prospective surveillance system implemented by the project team, through which mothers will be interviewed around six weeks after delivery. Cost data and qualitative data are collected for cost-effectiveness and process evaluations. Study registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN31567106 PMID:21787392

  11. Women's experiences of participation in a feminist group for women with complex mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Clements Eaton, Emma Catherine; Cox, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    A sample of women (n = 5) participated in a qualitative service evaluation concerning an open-ended, therapeutic group for women only. Data analysis followed suggestions by Halcomb and Davidson (2006). Main themes derived from the evaluation included: 'Groups are different from individual work', 'Belonging/ not being alone', 'Performance in the group', 'The group as a safety net', 'Life improvements and hope for the future' and 'The extent of emotional despair felt'. In this paper, several sub-themes within the main themes and relevant theories and implications for theory and service provision are discussed. PMID:25517122

  12. Health of women: associations among life events, social support, and personality for selected patient groups.

    PubMed

    Norlander, T; Dahlin, A; Archer, T

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the effects of life events, social support, personality traits, and siblings' birth-order on the health of women. 199 middle-class participants were included. 95 women, randomly assigned from four different patient groups, were compared with a control group of 96 randomly selected women without any special health problems. They completed a questionnaire which included questions regarding family background, health, different life events, social support, and signs of disease and a projective test, the Sivik Psychosomatism Test. Analysis indicated that report of negative life events was associated with more physical symptoms than positive life events and that the patient groups reported more negative life events and less social support than the control group. PMID:10778252

  13. Improved neonatal survival after participatory learning and action with womens groups: a prospective study in rural eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Swati Sarbani; Mahapatra, Rajendra; Rath, Shibanand; Bajpai, Aparna; Singh, Vijay; Rath, Suchitra; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Gope, Raj Kumar; Sinha, Rajesh; Costello, Anthony; Pagel, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether a womens group intervention involving participatory learning and action has a sustainable and replicable effect on neonatal survival in rural, eastern India. Methods From 2004 to 2011, births and neonatal deaths in 36 geographical clusters in Jharkhand and Odisha were monitored. Between 2005 and 2008, these clusters were part of a randomized controlled trial of how womens group meetings involving participatory learning and action influence maternal and neonatal health. Between 2008 and 2011, groups in the original intervention clusters (zone1) continued to meet to discuss post-neonatal issues and new groups in the original control clusters (zone2) met to discuss neonatal health. Logistic regression was used to examine neonatal mortality rates after 2008 in the two zones. Findings Data on 41?191 births were analysed. In zone1, the interventions effect was sustained: the cluster-mean neonatal mortality rate was 34.2 per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval, CI: 28.340.0) between 2008 and 2011, compared with 41.3 per 1000 live births (95%CI:35.447.1) between 2005 and 2008. The effect of the intervention was replicated in zone2: the cluster-mean neonatal mortality rate decreased from 61.8 to 40.5 per 1000 live births between two periods: 20062008 and 20092011 (odds ratio: 0.69, 95%CI:0.570.83). Hygiene during delivery, thermal care of the neonate and exclusive breastfeeding were important factors. Conclusion The effect of participatory womens groups on neonatal survival in rural India, where neonatal mortality is high, was sustainable and replicable. PMID:24052679

  14. Family Therapy in a Women's Group: Integrating Marriage and Family Therapy and Group Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Hildy G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a family therapy perspective can be integrated into group as a treatment modality. Concepts from family therapy are illustrated through a description of a specific women's group and case study. Techniques from family therapy applied in group are derived from multigenerational, experiential/humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral…

  15. The Effects of 16 Hour Long Marathon Groups on the Ways that Female Drug Users Perceive Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of three 16-hour-long unstructured marathon groups composed of female illicit drug users in a woman's prison (N=78), using evaluative adjective pairs of the semantic differential concept Women. Marathon groups rated women as more successful and more pleasurable than did controls. (JAC)

  16. Traditional Healing Methods with First Nations Women in Group Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbron, Carrie L.; Guttman, Mary Alice Julius

    2000-01-01

    Utilizes a traditional aboriginal healing ceremony, called the healing circle, in a counseling group comprised of First Nations and non-aboriginal women survivors of child sexual abuse. Examines ceremony and aboriginal beliefs for their impact on the counseling process. Results indicate that the ceremony and beliefs established a spiritual

  17. Length of Group Treatment and Changes in Women with Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Hotelling, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Examined effects of 4-month or 9-month multidimensional therapy group on bulimic women. Results suggest that participants altered behaviors, attitudes, feelings, and thoughts related to bingeing, purging, and physical appearance and developed more adaptive life skills. Decreases in bingeing and purging were maintained after treatment; no…

  18. Self-care agency in two groups of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hart, M A; Foster, S N

    1998-01-01

    Self-care agency, a multidimensional concept in Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory, includes motivation, decision-making, energy, and knowledge necessary to perform self-care actions. Basic conditioning factors affect individuals' development and exercise of self-care agency. Secondary analysis of Appraisal of Self-Care Agency (ASA) scores in two groups of pregnant women, (1) a childbirth education group (n = 119) and (2) a clinic group (n = 127) was completed. Group 2 had significantly higher ASA scores. Several basic conditioning factors influenced ASA scores. Results offer implications for Orem's theory and maternity nursing practice. PMID:10214234

  19. Women and Wasta: The Use of Focus Groups for Understanding Social Capital and Middle Eastern Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Deborah C.

    2012-01-01

    Social capital is the use of informal networking to secure access to resources and opportunities. Often identified as an asset for offsetting deficiencies in societies, research on the phenomena is limited. This paper describes a qualitative study using focus groups with young adult Emeriti women representing three social-economic groups who were…

  20. Differences in Self-Concept and Locus of Control among Women Who Seek Abortions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Linda V.; Robinson, Sharon E.

    1986-01-01

    Three groups of women who varied in abortion status were formed to investigate the self-concept and locus of control of a total of 90 women. No significant differences in self-concept were found among the three groups, nor was there a relationship between locus of control and repeated abortion. (Author/ABB)

  1. Our Place at the Table: An Introduction to the Special Issue on Women's Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kees, Nathalie L.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes that the goal for this issue is to help move the study of women's groups beyond survival and recovery issues to the thriving that can and does occur for women through their participation in women's groups. This collection of articles helps build on a growing body of literature attempting to study women's groups as a phenomena in their…

  2. Quality Control in Small Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, L. F.

    2008-11-01

    The smallness of some groups in a set up to control the quality of a service using questionnaires limits the size of the samples, this limitation has several consequences. Indeed the common approach used for relatively large groups, based on the central limit theorem and the law of large numbers, cannot be used anymore to construct estimators for the parameters of the model. Using an inverse probability will lift these restrictions. A questionnaire is a collection of items. In an item the respondent indicates on a Likert scale his or her agreement with a statement. Dimensions are a set of items dealing with one aspect of the service. In a questionnaire several dimensions are addressed but usually the items are presented in a random sequence. The model for an item is hierarchical with following components: a multivariate hypergeometric model takes the sampling in a finite population into account, the multinomial serves as a prior for the sampling and the Dirichlet-distribution serves as a prior for the multinomials. The composition of dimensions allows to use the posterior for one of the items as a prior for another item of that dimension and so on. After analysis of several questionnaires using this model, the reliability of the responses from some respondents turned out to be a key-problem, in the sense the responses can be classified into at least two classes and a decision rule had to be developed to neglect some of them. The influence of rejecting some answers, on the confidence for the most plausible statement can be estimated. This leads often to the result that there is only minimal evidence for the most probable statement.

  3. Promoting urinary continence in women after delivery: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiarelli, Pauline; Cockburn, Jill

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To test the effectiveness of a physiotherapist delivered intervention designed to prevent urinary incontinence among women three months after giving birth. Design Prospective randomised controlled trial with women randomised to receive the intervention (which entailed training in pelvic floor exercises and incorporated strategies to improve adherence) or usual postpartum care. Setting Postpartum wards of three tertiary teaching hospitals in the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. Participants Women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or whose babies had a high birth weight (⩾4000 g), or both—676 (348 in the intervention group and 328 in the usual care group) provided endpoint data at three months. Main outcome measures Urinary incontinence at three months measured as a dichotomous variable. The severity of incontinence was also measured. Self report of the frequency of performance of pelvic floor exercises was recorded. Results At three months after delivery, the prevalence of incontinence in the intervention group was 31.0% (108 women) and in the usual care group 38.4% (125 women); difference 7.4% (95% confidence interval 0.2% to 14.6%, P=0.044). At follow up significantly fewer women with incontinence were classified as severe in the intervention group (10.1%) v (17.0%), difference 7.0%, 1.6% to 11.8%). The proportions of women reporting doing pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels was 84% (80% to 88%) for the intervention group and 58% (52% to 63%) for the usual care group (P=0.001). Conclusions The intervention promoting urinary continence reduced the prevalence of urinary incontinence after giving birth, particularly its severity, and promoted the performance of pelvic floor exercises at adequate levels; both continence and adherence to the programme were measured at three months after delivery in women who had forceps or ventouse deliveries or babies weighing 4000 g or more. What is already known on this topicIntensive pelvic floor exercise programmes can reduce urinary incontinence in selected groups of female patientsThe effectiveness of interventions promoting continence in reducing urinary incontinence in the female population overall has not been investigatedPelvic floor exercises are widely held to be an important component of continence promotion programmesWhat this study addsContinence promotion programmes delivered to a selected population are able to prevent urinary incontinence in that populationFew studies have examined the efficacy of compliance aiding strategies in helping women adhere to prescribed pelvic floor exercise programmes PMID:12028976

  4. Women Healing Women: Time-Limited, Psychoeducational Group Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweig, Terri L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a time-limited, psychoeducational group in its 16th consecutive year of providing a safe and supportive milieu that breaks down isolation while helping women understand the impact of abuse on their lives and empowering them to alter their victim identity. Cognitive, affective, and expressive arts approaches are used to address aspects of

  5. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication. PMID:26101911

  6. Factors influencing participation in weekly support groups among women completing an HIV/STD intervention program.

    PubMed

    VanDevanter, N; Parikh, N S; Cohall, R M; Merzel, C; Faber, N; Litwak, E; Gonzales, V; Kahn-Krieger, S; Messeri, P; Weinberg, G; Greenberg, J

    1999-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the influence and importance of social support has been well documented and the findings have suggested a beneficial effect on stress-related situations, mental and physical health, and social functioning. More recently, small group/skills training behavioral interventions have demonstrated success in changing behaviors which affect the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV among populations at risk for these diseases. Studies of support groups to date have been conducted exclusively in research settings where women are offered financial incentives for participation. Little is known about the willingness of women to participate in ongoing support groups after successfully completing a skills training intervention. The present study examines the factors that may influence participation among women in a weekly support group after completing a structured, six session HIV/STD intervention. Both quantitative and qualitative data are collected from 265 women in the intervention arm of a multi-site randomized controlled behavioral intervention trial. Results reveal that less than a quarter (22%) of women participated in at least one support group. Participation varied significantly by site, ranging from 34% to 15% (p = .008). Participation was also strongly linked to recent use of domestic violence services. Qualitative data indicated that although monetary incentives play some role in the woman's decision to participate, other factors are also important. These include program outreach, support group size, salience of the group content, consistency of group leadership from the intervention to the support group, and use of peer leaders along with professional facilitators. Implications for design of post-intervention support groups programs are discussed. PMID:10813265

  7. Mixing it Up: Integrating Men and Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Prevention Groups

    PubMed Central

    Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The current study was conducted to examine the impact of mixing genders in HIV prevention intervention groups targeted toward HIV positive men and women. Methods Men (N=310) and women (N=126) participated in a randomized clinical trial testing a behavioral risk reduction/ medication adherence intervention versus a general health control condition administered to small mixed gender groups. Gender composition of groups was examined in relation to participant group attendance and group satisfaction measures through correlations and logistic regression. Results Significant regression models were found for men in the risk reduction condition and for women in the general health condition, however, regression models were not significant for women in the risk reduction condition and men in the general health condition. Discussion The findings indicate that mixing genders in risk reduction interventions for men and women living with HIV/AIDS has no negative impact on women’s group satisfaction and may positively impact men’s group satisfaction. This calls into question the assumption that gender sensitive material will always make individuals uncomfortable within mixed gender groups. Implications for practice and policy In practice, mixed gender intervention groups can be a helpful option for delivering programs to diverse populations especially when resources are limited within community-based services providers and AIDS service organizations. Conclusion Although more thorough investigation is needed about the consequences and possible benefits of mixing genders within HIV prevention intervention groups, this study supports the idea that mixing genders may be a viable option, in practice, without sacrificing the integrity of the intervention. PMID:25525414

  8. Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group

  9. Group Process in the single-gender Women's Recovery Group compared with mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Shelly F.; Kuper, Laura E.; Cummings, Amanda M.; Robbins, Michael S.; Gallop, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced affiliation among members is thought to provide increased support for women in single-gender compared with mixed-gender group therapy for substance use disorders (SUDs) and to provide a potential mechanism of action for its efficacy. In a Stage I trial of single-gender versus mixed-gender group therapy for SUDs we examined affiliative statements made by members in two group treatments, single-gender Women's Recovery Group (WRG) and mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC). Twenty-eight WRG and 17 GDC group therapy tapes were coded and compared for five types of affiliative statements. Three types of affiliative statements (agreement, supportive, and completing a thought) were highly correlated and were more frequent in WRG than GDC (D=0.882, p=0.27). In GDC, women were more likely to provide an affiliative statement to a male group member than any other combination of directionality (p<0.01). Compared with mixed-gender, single-gender group therapy for SUDs may enhance support through greater frequency of affiliative statements. PMID:24294145

  10. Preeclampsia in high risk women is characterized by risk group-specific abnormalities in serum biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Torri D.; Allshouse, Amanda A.; Euser, Anna G.; Heyborne, Kent D.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if early pregnancy serum biomarkers in high-risk women who develop preeclampsia vary according to risk factor. STUDY DESIGN We performed a secondary analysis of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network randomized controlled trial of low-dose aspirin for the prevention of preeclampsia in high-risk women. Serum biomarker levels at enrollment (before initiation of aspirin or placebo) were compared between women who did and did not develop preeclampsia, both for the group as a whole and within each of 4 high-risk groups (insulin-dependent diabetes, hypertension, multiple gestation, and previous preeclampsia) using a regression model adjusting for gestational age at collection and prepregnancy body mass index. RESULTS 1258 women were included (233 with insulin-dependent diabetes, 387 with chronic hypertension, 315 with a multiple gestation, 323 with previous preeclampsia). Multiple early pregnancy serum biomarkers differed between women who did and did not develop preeclampsia. Each high-risk group had a unique and largely nonoverlapping pattern of biomarker abnormality. Differences between those who did and did not develop preeclampsia were noted in vascular cell adhesion molecule in the diabetes group; human chorionic gonadotropin, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, selectin and angiogenin in the chronic hypertension group; interleukin-6, placental growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase plus endoglin to placental growth factor ratio in the multiple gestation group; and angiogenin in the previous preeclampsia group. CONCLUSION Patterns of serum biomarkers vary by high-risk group. These data support the hypothesis that multiple pathogenic pathways lead to the disease recognized clinically as preeclampsia. PMID:24769011

  11. Mediating Effects of Group Cohesion on Physical Activity and Diet in Women of Color: Health Is Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Smith-Ray, Renae; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Banda, Jorge A.; Layne, Charles S.; Brosnan, Marcella; Cubbin, Catherine; McMillan, Tracy; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects and mediating factors of a physical activity (PA) or vegetable and fruit (VF) group cohesion intervention. Design Longitudinal design. Setting Harris County and Travis County, Texas. Participants Community-dwelling African-American and Hispanic or Latina women. Intervention Three hundred ten women were randomized to a PA (n = 204) or VF (n = 106) intervention group. Women met in groups six times over the course of 6 months and were exposed to a group cohesion intervention to promote walking or to increase VF consumption. Measures Women completed the International PA Questionnaire, National Cancer Institute VF and fat screeners, PA Group Environment Questionnaire, and 7-day accelerometer protocol at baseline and post-intervention. Analyses The direct and mediated effects of the intervention on outcomes were evaluated using a mediational chain model, controlling for baseline values and covariates using path analysis. Results Women were middle aged (mean = 44.4 years) and overweight or obese (mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m2). PA increased and fat consumption decreased for both groups, whereas VF consumption increased for women in VF group only (all p <.05). Increased task cohesion led to hypothesized increases in psychosocial factors in the PA group but not to behavioral changes. Conclusions Group cohesion interventions may have psychological and physical health benefits for African-American and Hispanic or Latina women, but refinement of measures and intervention delivery is needed to determine whether hypothesized mediational pathways are valid. PMID:22375580

  12. Will the Reality condom help to empower women? Focus groups urged.

    PubMed

    1993-07-01

    The newly approved Reality condom is the first female-controlled method to offer protection from both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, aggressive, creative promotional approaches must be developed to enable women to overcome initial distaste with the bulkiness of the device and discomfort with touching their own genitalia. A focus group format has been effective in creating positive attitudes toward the condom among low-income black women--a population group that has traditionally lacked power in the sexual decision-making process. Attitudinal changes occurred once black women received education about their high risk of contracting acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (Although African-Americans comprise only 12% of the US population, they account for 29% of total AIDS cases and 53% of cases of AIDS in women.) Less acceptance of the female condom is anticipated among Hispanic women due to its conspicuousness and fears of accusations of infidelity from their husbands. Teenagers and college students--another sector lacking sexual negotiation skills and comfort in touching their own bodies--will be targeted for future focus group discussions. PMID:12286997

  13. Cardiovascular Control in Men and Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qi

    Women, primarily young women, have a greater incidence of orthostatic intolerance than agematched men. This difference is especially dramatic in the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS, also called Chronic Orthostatic Intolerance, in which patients are unable to stand or remain upright for prolonged periods of time due to intolerable light headedness, weakness, and near-syncope). However, the mechanisms underlying this gender difference are still not completely understood. It is likely that certain gender-specific factors such as the normal menstrual cycle, differences in some hormonal levels which may affect the neurohumoral regulation of blood pressure, or physical characteristics such as a smaller and less "distensible" heart may influence orthostatic blood pressure control. The authors review what has been done on the effects of gender and the menstrual cycle on sympathetic neural control of hemodynamics during shortand long-term orthostasis in healthy young individuals and in female patients with POTS. In addition, the role of cardiac size and function, a non-neural mechanism, in gender differences in orthostatic tolerance is also reviewed. It is suggested that sympathetic neural control and vasoconstrictor responses during orthostasis are comparable between healthy men and women, and are enhanced but not impaired in POTS patients. There is a gender-specific difference in cardiac size even in the healthy population, while this difference is exaggerated in female patients with POTS.

  14. Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group…

  15. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a protective role, regardless age and weight. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the potential deleterious effect of lipid metabolism-related components, including fat intake and body fatness and worse lipid profile, on bone mass and metabolism in healthy women. PMID:22409945

  16. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Eisenberg, V H

    1997-07-01

    There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to procreate or reproduce; the process of in vitro fertilization itself-is it morally acceptable to interfere in the reproduction process?; the moral status of the embryo; the involvement of a third party in the reproductive process by genetic material donation; the practice of surrogacy, cryopreservation of pre-embryos; genetic manipulation; experiments on pre-embryos, etc. Induced abortion raises ethical issues related to the rights of the woman versus the rights of the fetus. For those who consider life to begin at conception abortion always equals murder and is therefore forbidden. Those who believe in the absolute autonomy of the woman over her body take the other extreme approach. The discussion surrounding abortion usually centers on whether it should be legal or illegal. Access to safe abortion is critical to the health of women and to their autonomy. The development of new effective contraceptive methods has a profound impact on women's lives. By the use of contraception it is possible to lessen maternal, infant and child mortality and to reduce the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Research and development of new effective reversible contraceptives for women and men is needed. Dissemination of information about the safety and effectiveness of contraceptive methods is of great importance. Female genital mutilation is still practiced worldwide due to customs and tradition among various ethnic groups. The procedure is considered to be medically detrimental to the physical and mental health of women and girls, and is considered by many as oppression of women. The practice has to be stopped. Recognition of the fetus as a 'patient' has a potential effect on women's right for autonomy; they have no legal obligation to undergo invasive procedures and to risk their health for the sake of their fetuses. The woman carries ethical obligations toward her fetus. This obligation should not be enforced by the law. At present women bear most of the burden of reproductive health. All of them have a right of access to fertility regulation. Governments and society must ensure the women's equal rights to health care just as men have in the regulation of their fertility. PMID:9253679

  17. Black women in double jeopardy: a perspective on birth control.

    PubMed

    Gould, K H

    1984-01-01

    The thesis that attitudes relating family planning to racism and genocide have historical roots in the birth control and the women's movements and that black women were the targets of racist and anti working class attitudes prevalent among the conservative forces in both movements is explored. The issue of genocide is limited to black women only, because the historical material on the genocide question and the findings of current studies on minorities are generally based on data collected from the black population. The 1st stage of the birth control movement failed to address any issues that were pertinent to black women. Early in the 20th century, with the advent of the 2nd stage of the birth control movement, a public controversy demonstrated the racist and anti working class attitudes that were dominant among feminists and advocates of birth control. The issue in question was "race suicide." Many viewpoints were advocated by those using this slogan, but the most pertinent was the fear that individuals of Yankeee stock, who had lower birth rates than other groups, would be numerically overwhelmed as a result of the fertility of immigrants, nonwhites, and the poor. The leaders of the birth control and women's movements failed to examine the facts that might have convinced them of the irrationality of their position. Overall, the beginning of this century saw birth control, a valuable tool, become a weapon with which to attack the poor and those who were nonwhite. In the 1920s the professionalization of the birth control movement finally crystallized the conservative trend, as women lost their leadership positions in the movement to men. This began the movement's 3rd stage. It set the pattern of physician-dominated clinic programs that still constitute the model for the delivery of birth control services. The stage was set for accusations concerning black genocide when the federal government's entry into the field of subsidized family planning services was tied to the coercive features of the 1967 amendments to the Social Security Act. Little empirical data exist on which segments of the black community agree with the genocide indictment. Steps social workers need to take in developing an appropriate response to clients' concerns are identified. PMID:6724429

  18. Using Focus Groups To Design a Quantitative Measure: Women's Indirect "No" to Sexual Intimacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Heidi M.

    This study combined qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the reasons many women use indirect messages to say "no" to men's attempts to escalate sexual intimacy. Subjects were six female students at a large southwestern university. At one time, one group had four women, at another time the group had two women. All were Caucasian. The room…

  19. Results of the Burkina Faso Women in Physics Working Group's activities at the University of Ouagadougou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, Pétronille; Zerbo, Issa

    2015-12-01

    The Burkina Faso Women in Physics Working Group was formed as a result of the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2008. The effect of the Working Group's activities on the amount and success of women in physics in Burkina Faso are presented.

  20. Low-dose dexamethasone as a treatment for women with heavy menstrual bleeding: protocol for response-adaptive randomised placebo-controlled dose-finding parallel group trial (DexFEM)

    PubMed Central

    Warner, P; Weir, C J; Hansen, C H; Douglas, A; Madhra, M; Hillier, S G; Saunders, P T K; Iredale, J P; Semple, S; Walker, B R; Critchley, H O D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) diminishes individual quality-of-life and poses substantial societal burden. In HMB endometrium, inactivation of cortisol (by enzyme 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2)), may cause local endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency and hence increased angiogenesis and impaired vasoconstriction. We propose that ‘rescue’ of luteal phase endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency could reduce menstrual bleeding. Methods and analysis DexFEM is a double-blind response-adaptive parallel-group placebo-controlled trial in women with HMB (108 to be randomised), with active treatment the potent oral synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, which is relatively resistant to 11βHSD2 inactivation. Participants will be aged over 18 years, with mean measured menstrual blood loss (MBL) for two screening cycles ≥50 mL. The primary outcome is reduction in MBL from screening. Secondary end points are questionnaire assessments of treatment effect and acceptability. Treatment will be for 5 days in the mid-luteal phases of three treatment menstrual cycles. Six doses of low-dose dexamethasone (ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 mg twice daily) will be compared with placebo, to ascertain optimal dose, and whether this has advantage over placebo. Statistical efficiency is maximised by allowing randomisation probabilities to ‘adapt’ at five points during enrolment phase, based on the response data available so far, to favour doses expected to provide greatest additional information on the dose–response. Bayesian Normal Dynamic Linear Modelling, with baseline MBL included as covariate, will determine optimal dose (re reduction in MBL). Secondary end points will be analysed using generalised dynamic linear models. For each dose for all end points, a 95% credible interval will be calculated for effect versus placebo. Ethics and dissemination Dexamethasone is widely used and hence well-characterised safety-wise. Ethical approval has been obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee (12/SS/0147). Trial findings will be disseminated via open-access peer-reviewed publications, conferences, clinical networks, public lectures, and our websites. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01769820; EudractCT 2012-003405-98. PMID:25588784

  1. Coping styles differ between recovered and nonrecovered women with bulimia nervosa, but not between recovered women and non-eating-disordered control subjects.

    PubMed

    Yager, J; Rorty, M; Rossotto, E

    1995-02-01

    We examined potential differences in dispositional coping styles among women who had recovered from DSM-III-R bulimia nervosa (RBN; N = 40), women actively suffering from the disorder (N = 40), and women with no history of eating disturbance (control; N = 40). Using a 60-item self-report measure, we found that women with active bulimia nervosa were less likely than the other two groups to utilize active coping, planning, and seeking emotional support, and less likely than the recovering bulimia nervosa group to focus on and vent emotions. They were more likely than control subjects to use behavioral disengagement. On none of the scales did recovered women differ significantly from control subjects. Our findings suggest that the characteristic coping styles of women who have recovered from bulimia nervosa are as adaptive as those with no history of eating disorder, whereas women who are actively bulimic manifest fewer adaptive and more maladaptive coping behaviors. PMID:7844582

  2. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the "leaky pipeline" problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created "microenvironments" (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students' academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women's academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women's verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  3. Historical note: How bringing women's health advocacy groups to WHO helped change the research agenda.

    PubMed

    Cottingham, Jane

    2015-05-01

    The politics of population control and its sometimes coercive methods in developing countries documented during the 1960s, 70s and 80s, gave rise to strong opposition by women's groups, and put into question the safety of contraceptive methods that were being developed and introduced into countries. In 1991, the Special Programme on Human Reproduction at the World Health Organization, a research programme focused on development of new methods and safety assessments of existing fertility regulation methods, started a process of "dialogue" meetings between scientists and women's health advocacy groups which lasted for nearly a decade. This paper describes the process of these meetings and what they achieved in terms of bringing new or different research topics into the agenda, and some of the actions taken as a result. PMID:26278829

  4. Selective sexual harassment: differential treatment of similar groups of women workers.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Elizabeth A

    2004-02-01

    If male workers categorize different groups of women coworkers and, subsequently, treat them differently, the experiences of women from one of these groups would not be indicative of the experiences of women from another group. When this different treatment involves hostile environment sexual harassment of one group, but not the other, then the law must recognize the possibility of "selective sexual harassment." Without this understanding of the nuances of the workplace dynamics, a court could mistake the women of the unharassed group as representing "reasonable women" and the women of the harassed group as simply oversensitive. This paper draws on empirical data to demonstrate such a situation and advocates for a version of the "reasonable victim" standard to facilitate a closer analysis of hostile environment sexual harassment suits. PMID:15055340

  5. Reclaiming the Maiden: Use of Archetypes in a 6-Week Women's Empowerment Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese; Hofsess, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a 6-week, semi-structured group counseling experience for university women students (undergraduate and graduate) from diverse backgrounds exploring archetypes and using group empowerment skills. Theoretical perspectives on women's empowerment groups and the use of archetypes in counseling are discussed as…

  6. The Use of the Courts by Women's Groups to Obtain Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Karen

    This study examines how women's groups have made use of litigation strategy to gain favorable policy decisions from the U.S. Supreme Court. The litigation strategies associated with four groups are discussed in the major portion of the report. These groups are: (1) the National Women's Suffrage Association (NWSA), active from 1869 to 1875; (2) the…

  7. Female peers in small work groups enhance women's motivation, verbal participation, and career aspirations in engineering

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana; Scircle, Melissa McManus; Hunsinger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    For years, public discourse in science education, technology, and policy-making has focused on the “leaky pipeline” problem: the observation that fewer women than men enter science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields and more women than men leave. Less attention has focused on experimentally testing solutions to this problem. We report an experiment investigating one solution: we created “microenvironments” (small groups) in engineering with varying proportions of women to identify which environment increases motivation and participation, and whether outcomes depend on students’ academic stage. Female engineering students were randomly assigned to one of three engineering groups of varying sex composition: 75% women, 50% women, or 25% women. For first-years, group composition had a large effect: women in female-majority and sex-parity groups felt less anxious than women in female-minority groups. However, among advanced students, sex composition had no effect on anxiety. Importantly, group composition significantly affected verbal participation, regardless of women’s academic seniority: women participated more in female-majority groups than sex-parity or female-minority groups. Additionally, when assigned to female-minority groups, women who harbored implicit masculine stereotypes about engineering reported less confidence and engineering career aspirations. However, in sex-parity and female-majority groups, confidence and career aspirations remained high regardless of implicit stereotypes. These data suggest that creating small groups with high proportions of women in otherwise male-dominated fields is one way to keep women engaged and aspiring toward engineering careers. Although sex parity works sometimes, it is insufficient to boost women’s verbal participation in group work, which often affects learning and mastery. PMID:25848061

  8. Predictors of plasma concentrations of DDE and PCBs in a group of U.S. women.

    PubMed Central

    Laden, F; Neas, L M; Spiegelman, D; Hankinson, S E; Willett, W C; Ireland, K; Wolff, M S; Hunter, D J

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated predictors of plasma concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a group of 240 women, controls from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study. We considered personal attributes such as age, serum cholesterol, region of residence, adiposity, lactation, and dietary intake. DDE levels increased 0.17 ppb/year of age (p = 0.0003), and PCBs increased 0.08 ppb (p = 0.0001). DDE and PCBs increased 0.20 (p = 0.02) and 0.13 ppb (p = 0.001), respectively, per 10 mg/dl serum cholesterol. Women living in the western United States had higher levels of DDE (mean = 11.0 ppb; p = 0.003), and women in the Northeast and Midwest had higher levels of PCBs (mean = 5.6 ppb; p = 0.0002) as compared to women from other parts of the country (mean DDE = 6.3; mean PCBs = 4. 5 ppb). Levels of DDE could not be predicted from consumption of meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and grains. There was a positive association between fish consumption and PCB concentrations among women in the Northeast and Midwest. Using data from the cases in the nested case-control study to assess the predictive ability of the models, we confirmed that the most reliable predictors of DDE were age and serum cholesterol, and the most important predictors of PCBs were age, serum cholesterol, and residence in the Midwest or Northeast. The null results for the majority of the food variables suggest that specific dietary factors, other than fish, are not currently a substantial contributor to human exposure to DDE and PCBs. PMID:9872720

  9. Preventing Depression: Culturally Relevant Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.

    2008-01-01

    Recent estimates indicate that 10% to 25% of women in the United States report clinically significant depressive symptoms and that Black women are less likely to obtain care for depression and to receive appropriate treatment when they do seek care. Current mental and social health services necessitate a search for strength-based treatment models…

  10. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women’s experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. Results A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Conclusion Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern. PMID:24148317

  11. Effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Exercise on Postural Control among Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jihe; Chang, Shuwan; Cong, Yan; Qin, Meiqin; Sun, Wei; Lian, Jianhua; Yao, Jian; Li, Weiping; Hong, Youlian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 24 weeks of Tai Chi Quan on the postural control of elderly women. A total of 43 women aged 55-68 years participated in the study. A Tai Chi group (n = 22) underwent an organized Tai Chi exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) maintained a habitual, no-regular-exercise lifestyle. A Good Balance tester (Metitur, Finland) was used to measure the time, paths and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) of subjects during stance while shifting COP to targeted positions shown on a monitor. After 24 weeks, the Tai Chi group showed significantly shorter total (18.6%, p = 0.005), mediolateral (21.9%, p = 0.002) and anteroposterior (18.3%, p = 0.002) COP sway paths than the control group. The results indicate that 24 weeks of the Tai Chi exercise improved the efficiency of postural control for elderly women. PMID:26223978

  12. Cardiopulmonary effects of traditional Thai dance on menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Phusririt, Chonticha; Angkapattamakul, Sariya; Hurst, Cameron P; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of Thai dance on cardiopulmonary factors in menopausal women. [Subjects] Sixty-six menopausal women aged 40 years or more. [Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to either the Thai dance or control group. The Thai dance group performed a traditional Thai dancing exercise program for 60 minutes, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. The control group received general health guidance. The 6-minutewalk test, peak expiratory flow, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and chest expansion were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. [Results] Sixty-six menopausal women were eligible. At the end of the study, all variables were significantly better in the Thai dance group than the control group. Moreover, all variables improved significantly compared to baseline in the Thai dance group but not in the control group. For example, the mean 6-minutewalk test result in Thai dance group at the end of the study was 285.4 m, which was significantly higher than that at baseline (254.8 m) and the control group at baseline (247.0 m). [Conclusion] A 6-week Thai dance program improves cardiorespiratory endurance in menopausal women. PMID:26357441

  13. Cardiopulmonary effects of traditional Thai dance on menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Phusririt, Chonticha; Angkapattamakul, Sariya; Hurst, Cameron P.; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of Thai dance on cardiopulmonary factors in menopausal women. [Subjects] Sixty-six menopausal women aged 40 years or more. [Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to either the Thai dance or control group. The Thai dance group performed a traditional Thai dancing exercise program for 60 minutes, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. The control group received general health guidance. The 6-minutewalk test, peak expiratory flow, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and chest expansion were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. [Results] Sixty-six menopausal women were eligible. At the end of the study, all variables were significantly better in the Thai dance group than the control group. Moreover, all variables improved significantly compared to baseline in the Thai dance group but not in the control group. For example, the mean 6-minutewalk test result in Thai dance group at the end of the study was 285.4 m, which was significantly higher than that at baseline (254.8 m) and the control group at baseline (247.0 m). [Conclusion] A 6-week Thai dance program improves cardiorespiratory endurance in menopausal women. PMID:26357441

  14. Fear of Success and Locus of Control in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Nina; Abrams, Marsha Stein

    1974-01-01

    This study examines the relationship, in women, between the motive to avoid success and feelings of being controlled externally. The results suggest that achievement motivation is blocked or lowered by feelings of external control in the situation of arousal of achievement anxieties in young women. (Author/PC)

  15. Poor glycemic control in younger women attending Malaysian public primary care clinics: findings from adults diabetes control and management registry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women of reproductive age are a group of particular concern as diabetes may affect their pregnancy outcome as well as long-term morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the clinical profiles and glycemic control of reproductive and non-reproductive age women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in primary care settings, and to determine the associated factors of poor glycemic control in the reproductive age group women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using cases reported by public primary care clinics to the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry from 1st January to 31st December 2009. All Malaysian women aged 18 years old and above and diagnosed with T2D for at least 1 year were included in the analysis. The target for glycemic control (HbA1c < 6.5%) is in accordance to the recommended national guidelines. Both univariate and multivariate approaches of logistic regression were applied to determine whether reproductive age women have an association with poor glycemic control. Results Data from a total of 30,427 women were analyzed and 21.8% (6,622) were of reproductive age. There were 12.5% of reproductive age women and 18.0% of non-reproductive age women that achieved glycemic control. Reproductive age group women were associated with poorer glycemic control (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.8). The risk factors associated with poor glycemic control in the reproductive age women were being of Malay and Indian race, longer duration of diabetes, patients on anti-diabetic agents, and those who had not achieved the target total cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion Women with T2D have poor glycemic control, but being of reproductive age was associated with even poorer control. Health care providers need to pay more attention to this group of patients especially for those with risk factors. More aggressive therapeutic strategies to improve their cardiometabolic control and pregnancy outcome are warranted. PMID:24325794

  16. Control of complex physically simulated robot groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogan, David C.

    2001-10-01

    Actuated systems such as robots take many forms and sizes but each requires solving the difficult task of utilizing available control inputs to accomplish desired system performance. Coordinated groups of robots provide the opportunity to accomplish more complex tasks, to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and to survive individual failures. Similarly, groups of simulated robots, represented as graphical characters, can test the design of experimental scenarios and provide autonomous interactive counterparts for video games. The complexity of writing control algorithms for these groups currently hinders their use. A combination of biologically inspired heuristics, search strategies, and optimization techniques serve to reduce the complexity of controlling these real and simulated characters and to provide computationally feasible solutions.

  17. Microlevel determinants of blood pressure among women of two ethnic groups in a periurban area of Kolkata city, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Rohini

    2007-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) trends vary cross-culturally, and studies on the risk factors associated with hypertension are limited in periurban regions of India. This study was conducted to examine the effect of socioeconomic factors (income, expenditure, activity time) and anthropometric measurements (skinfolds of biceps, triceps, subscapular, supra iliac, and body mass index) on 102 Munda (tribe) and 135 Pod (caste) women of childbearing age in a periurban area of Kolkata city. Results indicate that Munda women had significantly higher diastolic BP in the 30+ age group. However, no difference in the systolic and diastolic BP was observed between the two groups, when the socioanthropometric factors were controlled as covariates. Also, according to the JNC (JNC, 2004, The JNC 7 Report NIH Publication No. 04-5230) classification of hypertension, no significant difference in hypertension was noted between the women of the two social groups. But the risk factors associated with hypertension varied between the two ethnic groups. Expenditure on alcohol and activity time was associated with hypertension among the Munda, while body mass index was significantly associated with hypertension among the Pod women. Alcohol consumption is a rare phenomenon among Indian women. Yet, Munda women in this transitional periurban environment, in spite of high poverty were more inclined to spent their earnings in alcohol consumption (due to their cultural preferences), increasing the risk of hypertension in their childbearing age. PMID:17420997

  18. Acupuncture to Treat Primary Dysmenorrhea in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caroline A.; Crowther, Caroline A.; Petrucco, Oswald; Beilby, Justin; Dent, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of acupuncture to reduce the severity and intensity of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized controlled trial compared acupuncture with control acupuncture using a placebo needle. Eligible women were aged 1425 years with a diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea. Women received nine sessions of the study treatment over 3 months. The primary outcomes were menstrual pain intensity and duration, overall improvement in dysmenorrhea symptoms and reduced need for additional analgesia, measured at 3, 6 and 12 months from trial entry. A total of 92 women were randomly assigned to the intervention (acupuncture n = 46 and control n = 46). At 3 months although pain outcomes were lower for women in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, there was no significant difference between groups. Women receiving acupuncture reported a small reduction in mood changes compared with the control group, relative risk (RR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.531.00, P = .05. Follow-up at 6 months found a significant reduction in the duration of menstrual pain in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, mean difference 9.6, 95% CI 18.9 to 0.3, P = .04, and the need for additional analgesia was significantly lower in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.490.96, P = .03, but the follow-up at 12 months found lack of treatment effect. To conclude, although acupuncture improved menstrual mood symptoms in women with primary dysmenorrhea during the treatment phase, the trend in the improvement of symptoms during the active phase of treatment, and at 6 and 12 months was non-significant, indicating that a small treatment effect from acupuncture on dysmenorrhea may exist. In the study, acupuncture was acceptable and safe, but further appropriately powered trials are needed before recommendations for clinical practice can be made. PMID:21799683

  19. What I Need to Know about Bladder Control for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternate Language URL Español What I need to know about Bladder Control for Women Page Content On ... Bladder Control Worksheets: What Your Doctor Needs to Know Your Daily Bladder Diary Kegel Exercise Tips Medicines ...

  20. Measurement of Attitudes of Rural Women towards Self-Help Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meena, M. S.; Jain, Dilip; Meena, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's…

  1. A Group Learning Intervention into How Women Learn Empathy in Prison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Deborah W.

    2001-01-01

    A study of 24 incarcerated women participating in a learning group indicated that empathic practices used by prisoners were typically limited to cognitive aspects, whereas the learning group developed a repertoire of affective practices. Developing this kind of empathy better prepares incarcerated women for social relations outside the prison.…

  2. The Status of the Women Physicists and Working Group Activities in China-Taipei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Ming-Fong; Cheng, Ching; Lin, Jauyn Grace; Tsai, Li-Ling; Ho, Mon-Shu; Kao, Fu-Jen; Wu, Maw-Kuen; Kwo, J. Raynien

    2009-04-01

    The Working Group on Women in Physics in China-Taiwan (WGWP-CT) was established in 1999 and has been active since then. In this brief report, we will introduce the progress of WGWP-CT and the current status of women physicists in China-Taipei. Based on solid data, we demonstrate a rapid development of group support.

  3. Measurement of Attitudes of Rural Women towards Self-Help Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meena, M. S.; Jain, Dilip; Meena, H. R.

    2008-01-01

    Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's

  4. Self-perception of women after mastectomy as an ego defence mechanism. Comparison with a group of healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Ziółkowska, Patrycja; Kowalska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Analysis of changes in self-perception in post-mastectomy patients and its comparison with self-perception of healthy women. Material and methods The subjects of this study were 50 women. The main group was post-mastectomy patients involved in the meetings of the Amazons Club (25 women). The reference group consisted of 25 healthy women. The method used in the study was the ACL (Adjective Check List) test, identifying 37 dimensions of self-image. Oncological patients completed a test twice (for current and pre-cancer self-image), and healthy women once – for current self. Both groups were selected similarly in respect of education level for the purpose of ensuring a similar level of insight. Results Retrospective self-image and the current one in the Amazon women group were highly convergent. Existing differences include a reduced need for achievement and dominance, and a lower level of self-confidence. However, the comparison of current self-images in both groups showed a large discrepancy of the results. The Amazon women assess themselves in a much more negative way. Also, their self-image is self-contradictory in certain characteristics. Conclusions Mastectomy is a difficult experience requiring one to re-adapt and to accept oneself thereafter. The way of thinking about oneself is a defence mechanism helping to cope. The work with patients programmes must, therefore, focus on identifying their emotions and thoughts, especially on those they do not want to accept because of the perceived pressure from the environment to effectively and quickly deal with this difficult situation. The increasing acceptance of personal limitations may help the affected women to adjust psychologically faster and easier. PMID:23788875

  5. Early intervention in pregnant women with elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms: efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Antje; Peukert, Judith; Zimmermann, Cornelia; Junge-Hoffmeister, Juliane; Parker, Lisa S; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Weidner, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether a cognitive-behavioral group program among pregnant women with elevated levels of anxiety or depression may reduce anxious and depressive symptoms and has a positive impact on risk factors for anxiety disorders and depression. A total of 753 participants were recruited. After completion of the clinical standardized interview, 160 participants were randomized to an intervention group or a control condition. Psychometric assessments took place at T1 (preintervention), T2 (antenatal follow-up), and T3 (3 months postpartum). Analyses included women who took part in all 3 assessments (intervention group, N = 21; control group, N = 53). The subjective program evaluation by the participants was highly positive, but with the exception of a short-term effect on the quality of an intimate partnership (F1/67 = 4.056; P < .05], intervention effects on anxiety or depressive symptoms were not found. However, there was an intervention effect 3 months postpartum for participants with high depressive symptoms at T1 (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of ≥10) (F1/69 = 5.410; P < .05). The results argue against a general efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group program for pregnant women with rather low levels of anxiety and depression. For women with higher depressive symptoms during pregnancy, a cognitive-behavioral group program may have a positive impact on the course of depressive symptoms during the postpartum period. PMID:25062520

  6. Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…

  7. Women Entering the Elite Group: A Limited Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yunshan; Wang, Zhiming

    2009-01-01

    Based on studies of literature and the freshman admission data from 1978 to 2005 in Peking University, the research reveals how female student enrollments grew from nil to a considerable size, and how the exclusion of women college admission was overcome to achieve gender balance. However, the paper argues that this progress is limited in that…

  8. Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult

  9. Women's Empowerment and Education: Panchayats and Women's Self-Help Groups in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna; Chakravarti, Paromita; Mansi, Kumari

    2015-01-01

    While women have made many advances, their inferior status to men continues to be a global phenomenon. At a time of unprecedented economic growth, India is experiencing a dramatic intensification of violence against women and the majority of girls are still not getting equal educational opportunity. In one of the most important steps for the…

  10. Writing Viewed by Two Traditionally Disenfranchised Groups of Academicians, Women and Women's College Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, Robert; Kelly, Kelly A.

    Views of women and men faculty at universities and women's colleges were surveyed concerning work loads, pressures to publish, experiences with the editorial process, and beliefs that scholarly writing will be rewarded. The Writing Survey was mailed to matched-pair samples of psychologists who were listed at academic settings in 1984. Of the 174…

  11. Women's Empowerment and Education: Panchayats and Women's Self-Help Groups in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna; Chakravarti, Paromita; Mansi, Kumari

    2015-01-01

    While women have made many advances, their inferior status to men continues to be a global phenomenon. At a time of unprecedented economic growth, India is experiencing a dramatic intensification of violence against women and the majority of girls are still not getting equal educational opportunity. In one of the most important steps for the

  12. "Nice Girl": Social Control of Women through a Value Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Greer Litton

    1977-01-01

    Social control of women through the normative constructs has the virtue of subtlety. It gives the appearance of nonrestriction and noncontrol, thus reducing the potential for resistance. The "nice girl" construct keeps women out of men's way, while ostensibly keeping them out of harm's way. (Author/GC)

  13. Understanding the mechanisms through which women's group community participatory intervention improved maternal health outcomes in rural Malawi: was the use of contraceptives the pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Zamawe, Collins O. F.; Mandiwa, Chrispin

    2016-01-01

    Background Women's group intervention is a community based initiative through which rural women form groups, meet regularly to discuss maternal health issues affecting them, and come up with locally available solutions. This intervention has been associated with reduced maternal and neonatal mortality in limited resource settings. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through which women's groups influence maternal health outcomes are uncertain. Because contraception reduces the risk of maternal mortality and women's groups also tackled this issue, we speculated that contraceptive use might be the pathway. Consequently, this study investigated whether participation in women's groups was associated with contraceptive use in Malawi. Design We examined the use of contraceptives between women who participated in women's groups and those who did not through a community-based cross-sectional study in Mchinji, Malawi. The study involved 3,435 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) who were recruited using a multistage sampling approach. Members (treated) and non-members (control) of women's groups were matched on observed covariates using propensity scores and the counterfactual for the treated individuals was estimated. Results Crude analysis revealed that women's groups improved uptake of contraceptives by 26% (odds ratio (OR)=1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.03–1.56; p=0.024). However, using the matched data, uptake of contraceptives was almost the same among members and non-members of women's groups. More precisely, the likelihood of using contraceptives was not significantly different between the members and non-members of women's groups (OR=1.00; 95% CI=0.81–1.24; p=0.991). Conclusions There is insufficient evidence of an association between participation in women's groups and contraceptive use among rural Malawian women. The implication is that contraception was not the mechanism through which women's groups contributed to reduced maternal mortality in Malawi. Because the effects of community interventions are usually comprehensive and sometimes difficult to demonstrate, ethnographic studies should be considered in the evaluation of women's groups and other related interventions. PMID:27098712

  14. The Effect of Acupressure on Sleep Quality in Menopausal Women: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Abedian, Zahra; Eskandari, Leila; Abdi, Hamid; Ebrahimzadeh, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the common problems in menopausal women is sleep disorder. Traditional Chinese acupressure is a noninvasive and safe technique. Menopausal women can easily learn the technique and a self-care method to manage their sleep disorder. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure on sleep quality of postmenopausal women in Mashhad during 2009. Methods This double blind, randomized clinical trial was performed on 120 qualified menopausal women at the age of 41-65 years. Their sleep quality was measured according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Participants were randomly assigned to an acupressure group (n=37), a sham acupressure group (n=36) and a control group (n=32) by two time randomized method (systematic and simple randomized). These interventions were carried out for four consecutive weeks. The participants in the acupressure and sham acupressure groups learned to carry out the acupressure technique as a self-care at home with simultaneous massage techniques that were to be performed 2 hours before sleep, whereas only conversation was used in the control group. The data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 17. Results The results indicated significant differences in total PSQI scores among the three groups (P<0.001). Tukey’s test revealed that there were significant differences between the acupressure group and the control group (P<0.001), the acupressure group and sham acupressure group (P<0.001), and the sham acupressure and the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion Acupressure can be used as a complementary treatment to relieve sleep disorders in menopausal women; and is offered as an efficient method to manage sleep quality. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013100614910N1. PMID:26170519

  15. Comparison of Dietary Intake between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women and Controls.

    PubMed

    Shishehgar, Farnaz; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hajian, Sepideh; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza; Moslehi, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complicated endocrinopathy affecting women in reproductive age. The crucial role of obesity and insulin resistance in progression of metabolic and cardiovascular features of PCOS has been confirmed. Although it has been suggested that there is a possible association between dietary pattern and risk of PCOS, few studies investigating the diet composition of PCOS women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intakes between women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and eumenorrheic non hirsute women. This was a case control study of 142 women with PCOS and 140 eumenorrheic non hirsute healthy age and BMI matched controls. We compared the dietary intakes of our study group using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), using T-test or Mann-Whitney to compare the means of two groups. One way Anova was used to compare the tertiles of GI and GL in each group and a two way ANOVA was used to compare between tertiles of GI-GL and groups. The results demonstrated that energy and macronutrient intakes in PCOS women compared to controls were similar. PCOS group consumed more food items with high glycemic index (p=0.042) and less legumes (P=0.026) and vegetables (p=0.037) than controls. Both groups in the highest tertile of glycemic load (GL) had higher body mass index and waist circumference. Considering the results of this study, it was concluded that PCOS women had a dietary pattern that was characterized by a higher consumption of high GI food items and lower legumes and vegetables. PMID:27157182

  16. The Effect of the Sexual Composition of a Group on Discrimination against Women and Sex-Role Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toder, Nancy L.

    1980-01-01

    Undergraduates in mixed-sex groups evaluated female-authored articles. Subjects in all-women groups did not show sex discrimination. Female subjects in mixed-sex groups endorsed more profeminist ideas. Participation in an all-women's group may elicit a more positive image of women. (Author)

  17. An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

  18. An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social

  19. A Sexual-Enchantment Workshop: Beyond Group Systematic Desensitization for Women's Sexual Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotile, Wayne M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigates whether six women who previously had received 15 sessions of group systematic desensitization (SD) for their sexual anxiety would report additional treatment gains from participation in a sexual-enchantment workshop with their partners. The women reported a significant decrease in sexual anxiety. (Author)

  20. Women's Employment Patterns during Early Parenthood: A Group-Based Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Kathryn; Clarkberg, Marin

    2005-01-01

    Research on women's employment and parenthood frequently focuses on the correlates and consequences of decisions at a particular time, such as a birth. This article applies a group-based trajectory method to examine women's employment trajectories across the period of early parenthood using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N=…

  1. Honoring the Ways of American Indian Women: A Group Therapy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.; Robbins, Rockey; Vaughn, Karen; Youngbull, Natalie; Burks, Derek; Willmon-Haque, Sadie; Schuetz, Suzan; Brandes, Joyce A.; Nael, Andrea Zainab Omidy

    2010-01-01

    A culturally grounded group intervention for a typically underserved population of urban American Indian women is described. The intervention is designed to increase interpersonal connection, improve inter-tribal acceptance and trust, and enhance psychological well being of marginalized urban American Indian women. Topics used to structure the…

  2. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  3. Crowding, grouping, and gain control in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Roinishvili, Maya; Cappe, Céline; Shaqiri, Albulena; Brand, Andreas; Rürup, Linda; Chkonia, Eka; Herzog, Michael H

    2015-04-30

    Visual paradigms are versatile tools to investigate the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Contextual modulation refers to a class of paradigms where a target is flanked by neighbouring elements, which either deteriorate or facilitate target perception. It is often proposed that contextual modulation is weakened in schizophrenia compared to controls, with facilitating contexts being less facilitating and deteriorating contexts being less deteriorating. However, results are mixed. In addition, facilitating and deteriorating effects are usually determined in different paradigms, making comparisons difficult. Here, we used a crowding paradigm in which both facilitation and deterioration effects can be determined all together. We found a main effect of group, i.e., patients performed worse in all conditions compared to controls. However, when we discounted for this main effect, facilitation and deterioration were well comparable to controls. Our results indicate that contextual modulation can be intact in schizophrenia patients. PMID:25681007

  4. Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, R; John, S; Ling, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Despite a recent surge in tobacco advertising and the recent advertising ban (pending enforcement at the time of this study), there are few studies describing current cigarette marketing in India. This study sought to assess cigarette companies' marketing strategies in Mumbai, India. Methods: A two week field study was conducted in Mumbai in September 2003, observing, documenting, and collecting cigarette advertising on billboards, storefronts and at point of sale along two major thoroughfares, and performing a content analysis of news, film industry, and women's magazines and three newspapers. Results: Cigarette advertising was ubiquitous in the environment, present in news and in film magazines, but not in women's magazines or the newspapers. The four major advertising campaigns all associated smoking with aspiration; the premium brands targeting the higher socioeconomic status market utilised tangible images of westernisation and affluence whereas the "bingo" (low priced) segment advertisements invited smokers to belong to a league of their own and "rise to the taste" using intangible images. Women were not depicted smoking, but were present in cigarette advertisements—for example, a woman almost always accompanied a man in "the man with the smooth edge" Four Square campaign. Advertisements and product placements at low heights and next to candies at point of sale were easily accessible by children. In view of the iminent enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertisements, cigarette companies are increasing advertising for the existing brand images, launching brand extensions, and brand stretching. Conclusion: Cigarette companies have developed sophisticated campaigns targeting men, women, and children in different socioeconomic groups. Many of these strategies circumvent the Indian tobacco advertising ban. Understanding these marketing strategies is critical to mimimise the exploitation of loopholes in tobacco control legislation. PMID:15923471

  5. Under-representation of women on governing bodies: women general practitioners on Clinical Commissioning Groups in England.

    PubMed

    Segar, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Recently formed Clinical Commissioning Groups in the English National Health Service have important responsibility for commissioning local health and care services. Women are under-represented on the governing bodies of these significant primary care based organizations despite the fact that they constitute almost half of the general practitioner workforce in England. This essay examines some of the reasons for this under-representation including the predominance of women in the salaried and part-time sector of general practice and gendered management styles within the National Health Service. It is argued that the under-representation of women on Clinical Commissioning Group governing bodies matters in terms of social justice, representation of the broader community and role models. PMID:25589088

  6. A case-control study of factors associated with HIV infection among black women.

    PubMed Central

    Forna, Fatu M.; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; Adimora, Adaora A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Leone, Peter; Brooks, John T.; Marks, Gary; Greenberg, Alan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify social, behavioral and epidemiologic factors associated with HIV infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected black women residing in North Carolina. DESIGN: A case-control study conducted in August 2004 in North Carolina. METHODS: Cases were 18-40-year-old women with HIV infections diagnosed from 2003-2004. Controls were 18-40-yearold, HIV-negative heterosexually active women recruited from HIV testing sites. Five focus group discussions were also conducted with women not participating in the case-control study. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses of 31 cases and 101 controls showed that HIV-positive women were more likely to receive public assistance [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1, 26.0], to report a history of genital herpes infection (aOR 10.6; 95% CI 2.4, 47.2), and were less likely to have discussed a variety of sexual and behavioral issues relevant to risk of HIV infection with their male partners (aOR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.8). Focus group participants indicated that financial and social demands created competing challenges for making HIV prevention a priority. CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate communication between black women and their sexual partners may create barriers to sexual and behavioral risk reduction. A multidimensional approach that addresses both biological factors such as herpes infection and socioeconomic factors may be needed to reduce HIV transmission in this population. PMID:17128690

  7. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Results Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p < 0.001), desire (p < 0.001), arousal (p = 0.037), lubrication (p < 0.001), satisfaction (p < 0.001) and pain (p = 0.041) domains of FSFI. Frequency of side effects was similar between the two groups. Conclusions Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted. PMID:24773615

  8. Efficacy of a group intervention for adult women survivors of sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group intervention reduced psychological distress and consequences associated with sexual abuse and that gains were maintained at three-month follow- up. Analyses of potential factors related to differential gains indicated that abuse-related variables and concurrent individual interventions were not linked to outcomes. Exploratory analyses suggested that women experiencing severe physical partner violence showed greater gains with respect to self-blame/stigmatization, sexual anxiety, and anxiety related to assertiveness. PMID:18032245

  9. Multiple primary tumours in women with vulvar neoplasms: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, K. J.; Daling, J. R.; Chu, J.; McKnight, B.; Weiss, N. S.

    1988-01-01

    We sought to determine whether women with in situ or invasive squamous cell vulvar cancer were more likely than other women to have had a previous or concurrent tumour at other anogenital sites. One hundred and fifty-eight women with vulvar cancer were identified who were first diagnosed during 1980-1985, were ages 18-79 years at that time, and were residents of one of three counties in western Washington. Two control groups were selected: (1) from records of hospital pathology departments, a sample of 113 women with certain benign conditions of the vulva; (2) through random digit dialing, a sample of 212 women from the general population of these counties. Information on a history of other cancers, and on sexual, reproductive, medical, and demographic characteristics was collected from cases and controls in at-home interviews. Cases were more likely to report a history of other anogenital cancers than were controls, with relative risks of 3.5-29.8, depending on the type of case group and type of control. These associations were not explained by case-control differences in demographic characteristics or frequency of cervical screening. On the other hand, prior or concurrent non-anogenital cancers were equally common in cases and controls. These results support the hypothesis that the different anogenital cancers have at least one aetiology in common. PMID:3390379

  10. The Relationship between Objectified Body Consciousness and Wellness in a Group of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Stacey L.; Myers, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Objectified body consciousness theory provides a framework for understanding young women's negative body experiences and their impact on well-being. This study examined the impact of body surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs, the 3 components of objectified body consciousness, on wellness in college women. Data indicated a…

  11. Reducing Postpartum Weight Retention and Improving Breastfeeding Outcomes in Overweight Women: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julia; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Hure, Alexis; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity is prevalent among women of reproductive age (42% BMI > 25 kg/m2) and parity is associated with risk of weight gain. Weight gain greater than that recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM )is also associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in women. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial is to examine the feasibility of recruiting and maintaining a cohort of pregnant women with the view of reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes. Women (BMI of 25–35 kg/m2 (n = 36)) were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were stratified by BMI and randomised to one of three groups with follow-up to six months postpartum. Women received a dietary intervention with or without breastfeeding support from a lactation consultant, or were assigned to a wait-list control group where the dietary intervention was issued at three months postpartum. Feasibility and acceptability was assessed by participation rates and questionnaire. Analysis of variance and covariance was conducted to determine any differences between groups. Sixty-nine per cent of the participants were still enrolled at six months postpartum. This pilot demonstrated some difficulties in recruiting women from antenatal clinics and retaining them in the trial. Although underpowered; the results on weight; biomarkers and breastfeeding outcomes indicated improved metabolic health. PMID:25723973

  12. [Is blood pressure control different in women than in men?].

    PubMed

    Oliveras, A; Sans-Atxer, L; Vázquez, S

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) evolves with age; until the 50's it is higher in men than in women, equaling and even then increasing in women. The prevalence of controlled BP appears to be similar between the sexes, but the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is higher in women than in men. The possibility that BP influences the cardiovascular risk differently according to sex must therefore be considered. While some studies suggest no difference exists, others have shown evidence of an increased risk in women with respect to men despite equal BP. In this way, it seems that the measurement of ambulatory BP, but not office BP, would mark the differences in the association between BP-gender and cardiovascular risk. It should therefore be investigated the possibility of a different BP goal for women and men, especially by evaluating ambulatory BP. PMID:26486463

  13. The stool microbiota of insulin resistant women with recent gestational diabetes, a high risk group for type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fugmann, Marina; Breier, Michaela; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Banning, Friederike; Ferrari, Uta; Sacco, Vanessa; Grallert, Harald; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Seissler, Jochen; Clavel, Thomas; Lechner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to metabolic diseases. However, information on the microbiome of young adults at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to investigate whether insulin resistant women with previous gestational diabetes (pGDM), a high risk group for T2D, differ in their stool microbiota from women after a normoglycemic pregnancy (controls). Bacterial communities were analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing using fecal samples from 42 pGDM and 35 control subjects 3–16 months after delivery. Clinical characterization included a 5-point OGTT, anthropometrics, clinical chemistry markers and a food frequency questionnaire. Women with a Prevotellaceae-dominated intestinal microbiome were overrepresented in the pGDM group (p < 0.0001). Additionally, the relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes was significantly lower in women pGDM (median 48.5 vs. 56.8%; p = 0.013). Taxa richness (alpha diversity) was similar between the two groups and with correction for multiple testing we observed no significant differences on lower taxonomic levels. These results suggest that distinctive features of the intestinal microbiota are already present in young adults at risk for T2D and that further investigations of a potential pathophysiological role of gut bacteria in early T2D development are warranted. PMID:26279179

  14. The stool microbiota of insulin resistant women with recent gestational diabetes, a high risk group for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, Marina; Breier, Michaela; Rottenkolber, Marietta; Banning, Friederike; Ferrari, Uta; Sacco, Vanessa; Grallert, Harald; Parhofer, Klaus G; Seissler, Jochen; Clavel, Thomas; Lechner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to metabolic diseases. However, information on the microbiome of young adults at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional analysis was to investigate whether insulin resistant women with previous gestational diabetes (pGDM), a high risk group for T2D, differ in their stool microbiota from women after a normoglycemic pregnancy (controls). Bacterial communities were analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing using fecal samples from 42 pGDM and 35 control subjects 3-16 months after delivery. Clinical characterization included a 5-point OGTT, anthropometrics, clinical chemistry markers and a food frequency questionnaire. Women with a Prevotellaceae-dominated intestinal microbiome were overrepresented in the pGDM group (p < 0.0001). Additionally, the relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes was significantly lower in women pGDM (median 48.5 vs. 56.8%; p = 0.013). Taxa richness (alpha diversity) was similar between the two groups and with correction for multiple testing we observed no significant differences on lower taxonomic levels. These results suggest that distinctive features of the intestinal microbiota are already present in young adults at risk for T2D and that further investigations of a potential pathophysiological role of gut bacteria in early T2D development are warranted. PMID:26279179

  15. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pregnant Women: A Seroprevalence and Case-Control Study in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wei; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Zhou, Na; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Very limited information is available concerning the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in eastern China. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in this population group and to identify risk factors and possible routes of contamination. Serum samples were collected from 965 pregnant women and 965 age-matched nonpregnant control subjects in Qingdao and Weihai between October 2011 and July 2013. These were screened with enzyme linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. 147 (15.2%) pregnant women and 167 (17.3%) control subjects were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, while 28 (2.9%) pregnant women and 37 (3.8%) controls were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (P = 0.256). There was no significant difference between pregnant women and nonpregnant controls with regard to the seroprevalence of either anti-T. gondii IgG or IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with location, cats in home, contact with cats and dogs, and exposure to soil. The results indicated that the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women is high compared to most other regions of China and other East Asian countries with similar climatic conditions. PMID:26539465

  16. Support Groups, Marriage, and the Management of Ambiguity among HIV-Positive Women in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Rhine, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the African HIV epidemic, support groups are not simply spaces for discussions of social and health well-being; neither are they institutions functioning solely to cultivate self-responsible and economically empowered patients. HIV-positive women in northern Nigeria have appropriated a support group to facilitate their marriage arrangements. In this group, women negotiate the threats of stigma and the promises of respectable marriage through what I call the management of ambiguity surrounding their HIV status. I further argue that the practice of support group matchmaking reveals the local political economic dynamics that shape social and illness trajectories in resource-poor settings. PMID:23946544

  17. Postpartum emotional distress: a controlled study of Nigerian women after caesarean childbirth.

    PubMed

    Ukpong, D I; Owolabi, A T

    2006-02-01

    The study investigated postpartum emotional distress including depression among 47 Nigerian women who had a caesarean section by comparing them at 6-8 weeks following childbirth with 47 matched controls who had normal vaginal delivery. Analysis of scores on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) showed that women that delivered by caesarean section were significantly different from the controls on the GHQ and BDI scores in the postpartum period. Apart from marital status, other sociodemographic variables did not significantly contribute to psychopathology in this group of women. This observation is in support of the view that caesarean childbirth may predispose Nigerian women to adverse psychological sequelae. PMID:16483968

  18. Women's status and family planning: results from a focus group survey.

    PubMed

    Gu, B; Xie, Z

    1994-02-01

    Focus group discussions were conducted in China's Pingluo County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Sihui County, Guangdong Province among reproductive age women with only daughters, mothers-in-law, unmarried women aged 23 years and older, and women business persons and cadres. The topic of discussion was the status of women, gender differences in employment, education, marriage, family life, childbearing, and elderly care in counties that have above average fertility rates. There were also several groups of men, mixed gender groups with husbands working away from home, local family planning workers, and rural intellectuals. The findings showed that there is more access to education for girls and a higher employment rate for young women. Daughters receive education to the highest level affordable. Enrollments are equal for boys and girls. Women's employment is not challenged by husbands, and work is available in a variety of locations. Business ownership and operation is encouraged. By middle age, women generally do not work in enterprises, but at home or on contracted farmland. Equal rights within the family are generally accepted. Husbands turn over their salary to wives for family expenses. Girls receive the same care after birth as boys. Women's status is improving. Improvements in social status have also involved sacrifices. Women complained that the workload on the farm has increased with adult males away working in cities. Women bear the burden of family planning, including in some cases side effects from oral pills and recovery from sterilizations. One women remarked that there were burdens in bearing children, taking oral pills, having IUD insertions, and having induced abortions; men should bear 50% of the responsibility. The burden of women without sons is harder, and women may also feel inferior as the last in their family line. One family with 6 daughters accepted the fine of RMB 7000 yuan for having another child, which turned out to be a son. One commented that even a stupid son is better than a daughter. Many with only daughters have not tried for a son because the fine was too expensive. Support in old age was a reason for desiring sons. There were positive opinions expressed about family planning. Economic gains for women were considered important in raising women's status. PMID:12318705

  19. Knowledge, perceptions, and decision-making about human papillomavirus vaccination among Korean American women: A focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Boyoung; Choi, Eunsuk; Song, Youngshin; Han, Hae-Ra

    2014-01-01

    Objective As one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in the United States, Korean American (KA) women experience a heightened cervical cancer burden. The advent of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine offers an unprecedented opportunity to eliminate cervical cancer disparities in KA women. Yet, the uptake of HPV vaccine among KA adolescents remains suboptimal. Hence, we set out to explore knowledge, perceptions, and decision-making about HPV vaccination among KA women. Methods We conducted four focus groups of 26 KA women who participated in a community-based randomized controlled trial to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Focus group data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Four main themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) limited awareness and knowledge of HPV vaccine, (2) perceptions and beliefs about HPV vaccination (acceptance, negative perceptions, ambivalence), (3) patterns of decision-making about HPV vaccination (hierarchical, peer-influenced, autonomous, and collaborative), and (4) promoting HPV education and information-sharing in the Korean community. Conclusion KA women are generally favorable toward HPV vaccination but lack awareness and knowledge about HPV. Culturally tailored HPV education programs based on KA women’s decision-making patterns and effective information-sharing by trustworthy sources in comfortable environments are suggested strategies to promote HPV vaccination in the KA community. The findings point to the need for a multi-level approach to addressing linguistic, cultural, and system barriers that the recent immigrant community faces in promoting HPV vaccinations. In the development of targeted interventions for KA women, educational strategies and patterns of decision-making need to be considered. PMID:25747518

  20. Unleashing the Power of Young Women through Peer Helping Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Richard; Steiner, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the application of the Positive Peer Culture (PPC) treatment methodology to a population of troubled girls in a residential setting. The peer group utilizes naturally occurring problems as vehicles to teach girls about errors in behavior and thinking. Community activities are used to practice newly obtained prosocial behaviors. (LSR)

  1. A Women's Support Group for Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Joetta L.; Koyama, Miki; Thiagarajan, Monica

    2003-01-01

    International students underuse counseling services, which are grounded in Western cultural values. The authors describe a support group for Asian international students that they launched at a large midwestern university to help students feel at ease with American university life, address homesickness, language problems, and academic and social…

  2. Family Group Decision Making: Protecting Children and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Joan; Burford, Gale

    2000-01-01

    Details implementation of the Family Group Decision Making Project in Canadian Newfoundland and Labrador among residents from Inuit and European backgrounds. Notes how the program offered solutions to problems of fostering cultural autonomy, measuring family violence, unifying families and protecting family members, and integrating child welfare…

  3. Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

  4. Improving participation rates for women of color in health research: the role of group cohesion.

    PubMed

    Smith-Ray, Renae L; Mama, Scherezade; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Estabrooks, Paul A; Lee, Rebecca E

    2012-02-01

    Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community physical activity program for women of color. African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 310) completed measurements at baseline and post-intervention and participated in a social cohesion intervention to improve physical activity and dietary habits. Women were assigned to a physical activity or fruit and vegetable intervention group. Social and task cohesion was measured using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGE-Q). Attendance was recorded at each of six intervention sessions. Women were generally middle-age (M age = 46.4 years, SD = 9.1) and obese (M BMI = 34.4 kg/m2, SD = 7.7). The estimate of the mediated effect was significant for all group cohesion constructs, indicating both task constructs-attraction to the group's task (SE = 0.096, CI: -0.599 to -0.221) and group integration around the task (SE = 0.060, CI: -0.092 to -0.328)-and social constructs-attraction to the group's social aspects (SE = 0.046, CI: -0.546 to -0.366) and group integration around social aspects (SE = 0.046, CI: -0.546 to -0.366)-significantly mediated the association between group assignment and attendance. Both task and social constructs are important to improve attendance in health promotion interventions for women of color. PMID:21826476

  5. Women's knowledge about heart disease: Differences among ethnic and cultural groups in the Israeli Women's Health in Midlife Study.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Tzvia; Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to assess levels of knowledge about risk factors for heart disease among midlife Israeli women, and to evaluate the relationship of knowledge to personal risk factors and vulnerability to heart disease. Face-to-face interviews with women aged 45-64 years were conducted during 2004-2006 within three population groups: long-term Jewish residents (LTR), immigrants from the former Soviet Union, and Arab women. The survey instrument included six knowledge statements relating to: the risk after menopause, family history, elevated cholesterol level, diabetes, obesity, and warning signs of a heart attack. The findings showed wide disparities in knowledge by educational level and between immigrants and LTR, after taking into account personal risk factors and education. Personal risk factors were not significantly related to the knowledge items, except for personal history of cardiovascular disease, which was associated with knowledge about "warning signs of a heart attack" and "family history." Women who perceived themselves as more vulnerable to heart disease were more likely to identify several risk factors correctly. These findings stress the need to increase knowledge about heart disease, especially among less educated and minority women, and to emphasize the risk of patients' personal status by health providers. PMID:26214539

  6. Mutual support groups to reduce alcohol consumption by pregnant women: marketing implications.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M A; Coleman, N C; Murray, J P

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of social support and alcohol consumption of 153 women during pregnancy. The majority of women changed their alcohol intake patterns during pregnancy because of concern for the health of the fetus. Most women decreased the amount and frequency of drinking and changed their beverage of choice. Social support was found to be significantly related to reduction in alcohol use during pregnancy. Social support came from relationships with specific individuals and groups of individuals. Health care providers may be able to extend the range of their work by designing specific prevention strategies targeted toward the development and implementation of mutual support groups for pregnant women. The marketing discipline has identified certain characteristics of the mutual benefit association, an organization which exists exclusively for the benefit of its members. The authors propose that the mutual support group, often used to promote health-related behaviors, is a special case of the mutual benefit association; further, that appropriate application of established marketing principles and practices will be effective in promulgating the mutual support group. The authors offer a marketing strategy for the mutual support of pregnant women, a strategy which should be effective in further reducing the alcohol intake of pregnant women. PMID:10105907

  7. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160

  8. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy in a group of Australian women

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Della A; Denning, Angela; Wills, Gemma; Bolger, Melissa; McCarthy, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a public tertiary maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Secondary aims were to explore why women took the herbal medicine, where they received advice, what form the supplements took and if they perceived the supplements to be helpful. Methods Consecutive pregnant women were approached in the antenatal clinic and the birth centre at around 36–38 weeks gestation. A questionnaire was developed and self-administered in English, as well as being translated into the four most common languages of women attending the hospital: Cantonese, Vietnamese, Turkish and Arabic. Back translation into English was undertaken by different professional translators to verify accuracy of both words and concepts. Data collected included demographic information, model of pregnancy care and herbal supplement use. Descriptive statistics were used initially, with stratified and regression analysis to compare sub-groups. Results Of 705 eligible women, 588 (83%) agreed to participate. Of these, 88 (15%) completed the questionnaire in a language other than English. Thirty-six percent of women took at least one herbal supplement during the current pregnancy. The most common supplements taken were raspberry leaf (14%), ginger (12%) and chamomile (11%). Women were more likely to take herbal supplements if they were older, tertiary educated, English speaking, non-smokers and primiparous. Conclusion Use of herbal supplements in pregnancy is likely to be relatively high and it is important to ascertain what supplements (if any) women are taking. Pregnancy care providers should be aware of the common herbal supplements used by women, and of the evidence regarding potential benefits or harm. PMID:16780602

  9. Enhancing Women's Lives: The Role of Support Groups among Breast Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Spiegel, David

    1999-01-01

    Reviews research indicating that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. States that Supportive-Expressive group therapy has been effective in assisting patients in reducing anxiety related to death and dying, strengthening interpersonal relationships, and improving the quality of

  10. Evaluating a Survivors Group Pilot for Women with Significant Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Howlett, Susan; Corbett, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse has been associated with trauma, low self-esteem, anger, depression and challenging behaviours. This pilot study builds on a small published literature by evaluating a survivors group (SG) for women with an intellectual disability and an educational support group (ESG) for their carers. Method: The SG was delivered weekly

  11. Feminist Group Counseling with South Asian Women Who Have Survived Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is presented.…

  12. Evaluating a Survivors Group Pilot for Women with Significant Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Howlett, Susan; Corbett, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse has been associated with trauma, low self-esteem, anger, depression and challenging behaviours. This pilot study builds on a small published literature by evaluating a survivors group (SG) for women with an intellectual disability and an educational support group (ESG) for their carers. Method: The SG was delivered weekly…

  13. Enhancing Women's Lives: The Role of Support Groups among Breast Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Spiegel, David

    1999-01-01

    Reviews research indicating that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. States that Supportive-Expressive group therapy has been effective in assisting patients in reducing anxiety related to death and dying, strengthening interpersonal relationships, and improving the quality of…

  14. Health care utilization patterns of Russian-speaking immigrant women across age groups.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, L Louise; Buck, K

    2002-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 substantially increased the numbers of refugees and immigrants to the United States from the former Soviet Union. Little research has been conducted with this population although studies found that immigrant's access to health care services are based on patterns of utilization in their countries of origin. The purpose of this study was to learn about the experiences of immigrant women from three former Soviet Republics (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine) with women's health care services. Three focus groups of women were formed; ages 20-30, 37-46, and 60 and above. A focus-group guide was used to learn about their health care experiences. These immigrant women did access health care services based on patterns of utilization in their countries of origin. Greater understanding of immigrant populations' cultural patterns of health care utilization is needed to improve access and delivery of health care services to these populations. PMID:16228751

  15. Dynamics of colonization with group B streptococci in relation to normal flora in women during subsequent trimesters of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brzychczy-Włoch, Monika; Pabian, Wojciech; Majewska, Elzbieta; Zuk, Ma Gorzata; Kielbik, Jadwiga; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Bulanda, Ma Gorzata

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of the study was to compare the qualitative and quantitative composition of vaginal and rectal flora in GBS-positive (n=15) and GBS-negative (n=27) pregnant women examined in three subsequent trimesters of their pregnancy. Study samples consisted of vaginal and rectal smears and urine samples. GBS numbers were determined by the quantitatively cultured method [cfu/ml] and with the use of qPCR. Five GBS colonies were isolated per each positive sample and genotyped by PFGE and serotyping. The normal flora components: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Candida were quantitatively cultured. Carriage of GBS in subsequent trimesters in vagina/anus was variable and fluctuated between 17% and 28%. Quantitative GBS analyses showed that the vaginal population was at a constant level with the mean value equal to 3.94×104 cfu/ml, in contrast to the rectal population where the highest values appeared in the third trimester 4.37×105. The use of qPCR gave 7% more positive results for vaginal/rectal swabs. Genetic similarity analysis showed that one GBS clone was present in 73% of carriers during pregnancy, while in 27% of patients, 2 clones were found. H2O2-positive vaginal lactobacilli were detected in all women, while H2O2-negative lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium occurred more frequently in the anus in about 50% of women. Candida was present in the vagina in 30% of women. The analysis of women in three consecutive trimesters of pregnancy on the basis of a study group and control group showed no statistically significant differences in either the species (qualitative) or quantitative composition in vaginal and rectal flora in both of the groups. Therefore, GBS should be considered as a component of the microbiota and an opportunistic microorganism rather than a typical pathogen, because it does not distort the composition of women's normal genital tract flora. PMID:25180845

  16. Improving Participation Rates for Women of Color in Health Research: The Role of Group Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community physical activity program for women of color. African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N=310) completed measurements at baseline and post-intervention and participated in a social cohesion intervention to improve physical activity and dietary habits. Women were assigned to a physical activity or fruit and vegetable intervention group. Social and task cohesion was measured using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGE-Q). Attendance was recorded at each of six intervention sessions. Women were generally middle-age (M age = 46.4 years, SD=9.1) and obese (M BMI = 34.4 kg/m2, SD=7.7). The estimate of the mediated effect was significant for all group cohesion constructs, indicating both task constructs—attraction to the group’s task (SE=0.096, CI: −0.599 to −0.221) and group integration around the task (SE=0.060, CI: −0.092 to −0.328)—and social constructs—attraction to the group’s social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: −0.546 to −0.366) and group integration around social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: −0.546 to −0.366)—significantly mediated the association between group assignment and attendance. Both task and social constructs are important to improve attendance in health promotion interventions for women of color. PMID:21826476

  17. Exploring the Self/Group Initiated and On-the-Job Learning Activities of Low Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterwick, Shauna

    The self- and group-initiated and on-the-job learning activities of low-income women were explored in a study of a small group of low-income mothers living in the greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Canada. During the study, the low-income women attended meetings during which a participating researcher documented the women's experiences.…

  18. Sexual function in women with primary and secondary infertility in comparison with controls.

    PubMed

    Davari Tanha, F; Mohseni, M; Ghajarzadeh, M

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a distressing health condition that has diverse effects on couples' lives. One of the most affected aspects of life in infertile women is sexual function, which is a key factor in physical and marital health. The goal of this study was to evaluate sexual function according to the type of infertility in comparison with controls. In this study, 191 women with primary infertility and 129 with secondary infertility along with 87 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. They were asked to fill a valid and reliable FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index). Age, partner age and duration of marriage were significantly different between the primary and secondary infertility groups. The score of each FSFI domain was significantly higher in the control group, and the only significant difference between primary and secondary infertility groups was in the desire domain. Multiple linear regression analysis between the total FSFI score as a dependent variable and age, partner age, Body Mass Index and marriage duration as independent variables showed that age is a dependent predictor of FSFI in the primary group. We found significant negative correlation between total FSFI score and age, partner age and marriage duration (r1=-0.21 and P<0.001, r2=-0.14 and P=0.01, r3=-0.19 and P<0.001). Sexual dysfunction is high in all infertile women, and women with secondary infertility suffer more from impaired sexual function compared with those with primary infertility. PMID:24430276

  19. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  20. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background. PMID:18489287

  1. Command control group behaviors. Objective 1: A methodology for and identification of command control group behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reaser, J. M.; Stewart, S.; Tiede, R. V.

    1984-08-01

    This report provides the results of the first year's research of a three-year effort to identify the individual and multi-individual non-procedural skills exhibited by battalion command control group members and the commander/staff as a whole. In this project a model of command control group behavior was applied to identify and quantify four general categories of behavior. A methodology was developed for use at the Combined Arms Tactical Training Simulator (CATTS) at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas. Extensive recordings were made of battalion commanders and their staffs as they underwent training at the facility fighting a highly realistic computer-assisted war game. The methodology was effective in distinguishing between groups in three of the four areas. Preliminary results show that both procedural and nonprocedural, individual, and team behaviors contribute to overall team performance.

  2. The use of PHC clinic-based women's groups for financial empowerment in a rural area.

    PubMed

    Uys, L R; Bhengu, B R; Majumdar, B

    2006-03-01

    The article is based on a four-year project during which Primary Health Care (PHC) nurses worked with women's groups in their areas. The aim of the study was to explore the involvement of PHC nurses in economic empowerment, both in terms of health promotion and in terms of the PHC approach. In particular the objectives were to establish whether nurses could lead economic empowerment groups, whether such groups could establish adequate external links and become financially viable. Eleven groups were used as case studies, and a cross-case analysis was done in terms of the three objectives. It was found that between the women and the nurses, adequate leadership existed for the groups to function well. Very limited external linkages were established, notwithstanding efforts in this regard. Nine out of 11 groups contributed to financial welfare of their members after 18 months, but a range of problems with regard to financial viability are identified. PMID:16817489

  3. A comparison of two groups of women with bulimia nervosa on symptom onset.

    PubMed

    White, J H

    2000-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is a significant mental health problem for women. Both children and adolescents develop risk factors for BN that are identifiable. An important role for psychiatric-mental health nurses is the prevention of psychiatric disorders through risk factor identification and intervention for early symptoms. The purpose of this study was to extend recent research on the sequencing of risk factors and symptoms in the development of bulimia nervosa. Symptom history was collected on 71 women who agreed to participate in research on eating disorders (EDs). Women were divided into two groups based on whether their first symptom manifested was bingeing (BF) or dieting (DF). The groups were compared on age of symptom onset, weight history, and history of diagnosis. There were significant differences between the groups, and the present findings contradict some of the important conclusions from three previous studies. The results are discussed and implications for strategies for early detection and prevention are presented. PMID:11855044

  4. The Intersection of Everyday Life and Group Prenatal Care for Women in Two Urban Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Groce, Nora Ellen; Kennedy, Holly Powell

    2013-01-01

    Women from vulnerable populations encounter challenging circumstances that generate stress and may adversely affect their health. Group prenatal care (GPNC) incorporates features which address social stressors, and has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes and prenatal care experiences. In this qualitative study, we describe the complex circumstances in the lives of women receiving care in two urban clinics and how GPNC attenuated them. Stressors included problems with transportation and child care, demanding jobs, poverty, homelessness, difficult relationships with partners, limited family support, and frustrating health care experiences. Receiving prenatal care in groups allowed women to strengthen relationships with significant others, gain social support, and develop meaningful relationships with group leaders. By eliminating waits and providing the opportunity to participate in care, GPNC also offered sanctuary from frustrations encountered in receiving individual care. Reducing such stressors may help improve pregnancy outcomes; however, more evidence is needed on mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:22643609

  5. Safety planning in focus groups of Malawian women living with HIV: helping each other deal with violence and abuse.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Stevens, Patricia E; Kako, Peninnah M; Dressel, Anne

    2013-11-01

    In this critical ethnography, 72 HIV-infected women in Southern Malawi participated in 12 focus groups discussing the impact of HIV and violence. Our analysis, informed by a postcolonial feminist perspective, revealed women's capacity to collectively engage in safety planning. We present our findings about women's experiences based on narratives detailing how women collectively strategized safety planning efforts to mitigate the impact of violence. This study helps to fill a gap in the literature on the intersection between HIV and violence in women's lives. Strategies discussed by the women could form a basis for safety planning interventions for women in similar circumstances. PMID:24322953

  6. Efficacy of a Group-Based Multimedia HIV Prevention Intervention for Drug-Involved Women under Community Supervision: Project WORTH

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A.; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Importance This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. Objective We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. Design, Setting, Participants, and Intervention We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Results Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02–0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57–0.90). Conclusion and Relevance The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01784809 PMID:25372149

  7. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups

    PubMed Central

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control. PMID:26074832

  8. Exploring Somali women's reproductive health knowledge and experiences: results from focus group discussions in Mogadishu.

    PubMed

    Gure, Faduma; Yusuf, Marian; Foster, Angel M

    2015-11-01

    With a total fertility ratio of 6.7 children per woman, a maternal mortality ratio over 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births, high rates of sexual and gender-based violence, and the lowest contraceptive prevalence rate in the world, women's reproductive health indices in Somalia prove alarming. The voices of women living in Somalia have long been neglected and we undertook this qualitative study to explore women's reproductive health knowledge and experiences. In 2014, we conducted four focus group discussions with 21 married and unmarried women of reproductive age living in Mogadishu, Somalia. Discussions took place in Somali and we used a constant comparative approach to analyse the discussions for content and themes. Our findings reveal that misinformation, restrictive policies, mistrust of clinicians, and prohibitively expensive services shape women's experiences and health-seeking behaviours. Women identified the need for culturally resonant reproductive health information and services as a significant priority. As Somalia begins to emerge from over two decades of civil war, it is imperative that comprehensive reproductive health issues are included on the national agenda and that women's perspectives are incorporated into future policies and interventions. PMID:26719005

  9. Effects of cognitive and experiential group therapy on self-efficacy and perceptions of employability of chemically dependent women.

    PubMed

    Washington, O

    1999-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study assessed effects of cognitive and experiential group therapy on self-efficacy and perceptions of employability for 52 chemically dependent adult women. The sample was 98% African American. Therapy consisted of six 90-min group sessions held twice weekly. The participants were pre- and posttested with the Self-Efficacy Scale (M. Sherer et al., 1982) and the Ghiselli Self-Description Inventory (E. E. Ghiselli, 1975). After the intervention, the cognitive group had significantly higher levels than the experiential group of social self-efficacy and need for self-actualization, an indicator of aspiration for employment. General self-efficacy and decisiveness, indicators of employability, significantly increased over time for both groups. Interventions to enhance people's belief in their ability to successfully perform tasks and control outcomes, promote personal growth, teach responsibility, and enhance self-awareness could be used to develop employability skills that reduce recidivism. PMID:10633639

  10. Actions of the Burkina Faso women in physics working group at the University of Ouagadougou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, Pétronille; Zerbo, Issa

    2013-03-01

    At the University of Ouagadougou, the largest university in Burkina Faso, the percentage of female student enrollment in the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit was 5.1% (for all the levels) from 2006 to 2009-this rate was 2.3% for physics. For the same period, 22 women out of 455 students (4.8%) were enrolled in PhD (all the fields of the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit) and three women out of 180 students (1.7%) registered in physics PhD. During the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2008, the Burkina Faso Working Group proposed some strategies to attract more women to physics and all the sciences. Some actions were initiated at the University of Ouagadougou as well as in secondary schools. These actions and the feedback of female students are presented.

  11. Informal and Formal Support Groups Retain Women and Minorities in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Maria

    2005-10-01

    Ten U.S. minority female undergraduates who aspire to become physicists were followed over an 8-year period. Participant observation and in-depth interviews recorded the strategies they used to earn bachelor's degrees in physics or physics-related fields, and then go on to graduate school and/or careers in science. One significant strategy these women of color employed was participating in small subcommunities with other women or underrepresented ethnic minorities at the margins of their local physics community. The study found that informal peer groups offered safe spaces to counter negative experiences, to normalize their social realities, and to offer practical guidance for persevering in the field. Formal women- and minority-serving programs in physics provided foundations for community building, stronger curriculum and instruction, networking, and role models. The positive effects of informal and formal support groups on these students' experiences challenge a standard application of Pierre Bourdieu's framework of social and cultural capital. Women of color in the study initially lacked traditional capital of "acceptable" appearance, cultural background and habits, and networks that are more easily acquired by white males and are rewarded by the U.S. physics culture. However, instead of failing or leaving, as Bourdieu's theory would predict, the minority women persisted and achieved in science. The marginal communities contributed to their retention by offering safe spaces in which they could learn and share alternative ways of "accruing capital." Moreover, as these women made strides along their academic and career paths, they also engaged in social justice work in efforts to change the physics culture to be more welcoming of nontraditional members. The outcomes of the study offer empirical confirmation of the critical need for informal and institutionally supported women's and minorities' support groups to promote diversity in science.

  12. Characterization of the Vaginal Microbiota among Sexual Risk Behavior Groups of Women with Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Muzny, Christina A.; Sunesara, Imran R.; Kumar, Ranjit; Mena, Leandro A.; Griswold, Michael E.; Martin, David H.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Schwebke, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) remains elusive. BV may be more common among women who have sex with women (WSW). The objective of this study was to use 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the vaginal microbiome of WSW, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM), and women who have sex with men (WSM) with BV to determine if there are differences in organism composition between groups that may inform new hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of BV. Methods Vaginal swab specimens from eligible women with BV at the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic were used. After DNA extraction, 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences was performed. Sequence data was classified using the Ribosomal Database Program classifer. Complete linkage clustering analysis was performed to compare bacterial community composition among samples. Differences in operational taxonomic units with an abundance of ≥2% between risk behavior groups were determined. Alpha and beta diversity were measured using Shannon’s Index implemented in QIIME and Unifrac analysis, respectively. Results 33 WSW, 35 WSWM, and 44 WSM were included. The vaginal bacterial communities of all women clustered into four taxonomic groups with the dominant taxonomic group in each being Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, and Sneathia. Regarding differences in organism composition between risk behavior groups, the abundance of Atopobium (relative ratio (RR)=0.24; 95%CI 0.11-0.54) and Parvimonas (RR=0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.93) were significantly lower in WSW than WSM, the abundance of Prevotella was significantly higher in WSW than WSWM (RR=1.77; 95%CI 1.10-2.86), and the abundance of Atopobium (RR=0.41; 95%CI 0.18-0.88) was significantly lower in WSWM than WSM. Overall, WSM had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Conclusion The microbiology of BV among women in different risk behavior groups is heterogeneous. WSM in this study had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Additional studies are needed to better understand these differences. PMID:24236175

  13. The Delivery of a Survivors' Group for Learning Disabled Women with Significant Learning Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Corbett, Alan; Howlett, Susan; McKee, Alan; Pattison, Sue

    2007-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are more likely to experience sexual things happening to them when they do not want them to. This is called sexual abuse. A group was started to help women who have been sexually abused. The group met once a week and lasted for 20 weeks. Women who were interested in attending this group were given information

  14. The Delivery of a Survivors' Group for Learning Disabled Women with Significant Learning Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Corbett, Alan; Howlett, Susan; McKee, Alan; Pattison, Sue

    2007-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are more likely to experience sexual things happening to them when they do not want them to. This is called sexual abuse. A group was started to help women who have been sexually abused. The group met once a week and lasted for 20 weeks. Women who were interested in attending this group were given information…

  15. Autonomic regulation across phases of the menstrual cycle and sleep stages in women with premenstrual syndrome and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Nicholas, Christian L; Colrain, Ian M; Trinder, John A; Baker, Fiona C

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the presence of severe premenstrual symptoms on cardiac autonomic control during sleep, we performed heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during stable non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep in 12 women with severe premenstrual syndrome and 14 controls in the mid-follicular, mid-luteal, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Heart rate was higher, along with lower high frequency (HF) power, reflecting reduced vagal activity, and a higher ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency power, reflecting a shift to sympathetic dominance, in REM sleep compared with NREM sleep in both groups of women. Both groups of women had higher heart rate during NREM and REM sleep in the luteal phase recordings compared with the mid-follicular phase. HF power in REM sleep was lowest in the mid-luteal phase, when progesterone was highest, in both groups of women. The mid-luteal phase reduction in HF power was also evident in NREM sleep in control women but not in women with PMS, suggesting some impact of premenstrual syndrome on autonomic responses to the hormone environment of the mid-luteal phase. In addition, mid-luteal phase progesterone levels correlated positively with HF power and negatively with LF/HF ratio in control women in NREM sleep and with the LF/HF ratio during REM sleep in both groups of women. Our findings suggest the involvement of female reproductive steroids in cardiac autonomic control during sleep in women with and without premenstrual syndrome. PMID:23850226

  16. Empowering rural women's groups for strengthening economic linkages: some Indian experiments.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal

    1999-05-01

    Through organizing informal self-help groups (SHGs), rural women in India are provided credit and extension support for various production-oriented income-generating activities. These activities usually include garment-making, embroidery, food processing, bee-keeping, basketry, gem cutting, weaving, and knitting. SHGs are self-governed, with decisions about production and marketing taken collectively, although the group leader is responsible for identifying potential marketing centers and consumers. These groups represent a new culture in rural development, breaking with traditional bureaucracy and top-down management. Informal groups empower rural women to manage rural industries and make decisions collectively for their common economic interests. Experience with SHGs in Orissa, lessons from nongovernmental organization intervention, and a model for empowering poor people in a small town in Kerala are discussed. PMID:12295206

  17. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg…

  18. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  19. Incivility among Group Mates in English Classes at a Japanese Women's University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; Kimura, Harumi; Greliche, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Incivilities are words and actions that may be perceived as impolite. This article reports a study of perceptions of and experiences with incivilities during group activities in English class. Participants were 119 students at a women's university in Japan. They completed the Pair/Groupwork Incivility Scale, a Japanese-language instrument, which…

  20. Group Psychotherapy for Women with a History of Incest: The Research Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and…

  1. Deconstructing the Mirror's Reflection: Narrative Therapy Groups for Women Dissatisfied with Their Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duba, Jill D.; Kindsvatter, Aaron; Priddy, Constance J.

    2010-01-01

    Women facing middle age and beyond are pressured by a cultural ideal of slimness. The authors review literature pertaining to the factors affecting the societal perceptions of body image and address relevant counseling interventions, specifically, group therapy based on narrative theory, that are aimed at this population.

  2. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None

  3. Paraprofessionals--Changes in Minority Group Women After Four Years of College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVey, Ronald F.; Naun, Ruth A.

    Sixteen minority group women, who attended college for four years in a career opportunity program, were measured by the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) before and after their college experience. Results indicated positive personality changes on all 18 CPI scales, with significant positive changes at the .05 level on five of these…

  4. Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

  5. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg

  6. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Strizzi, Jenna; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Pappadis, Monique; Olivera, Silvia Leonor; Valdivia Tangarife, Edgar Ricardo; Fernandez Agis, Inmaculada; Perrin, Paul B.; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can substantially alter many areas of a person's life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls) from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI), and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS). Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p < 0.001), FSFI subscales of desire (p < 0.05), arousal (p < 0.05), lubrication (p < 0.05), orgasm (p < 0.05), and satisfaction (p < 0.05), and the ISS (p < 0.001) than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs. PMID:26556951

  7. THE AUXILIARY TREATMENT OF PSYCHOTIC WOMENGroup Therapy for Their Husbands

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Gene; Bowman, Karl M.

    1953-01-01

    Group therapy for the husbands of hospitalized psychotic women relieved the anxiety and feeling of guilt of the husbands and led to better communication between husband and wife. It was particularly helpful just before and after the wife came home from the hospital. The group meetings saved various members of the hospital staff considerable time which they otherwise would have had to devote to the husbands individually. PMID:13042665

  8. Decisions about prenatal testing for chromosomal disorders: perceptions of a diverse group of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Moyer, A; Brown, B; Gates, E; Daniels, M; Brown, H D; Kuppermann, M

    1999-05-01

    We conducted a study to elucidate factors influencing women's decisions regarding prenatal genetic screening for and diagnosis of chromosomal disorders and to learn about their experiences with these tests and with the medical system. Using focus group interviews and questionnaire assessments, we obtained detailed impressions of a diverse group of 75 pregnant women. Participants varied with respect to race/ethnicity, religious background, and reproductive history, as well as in their decisions about use of prenatal screening and diagnostic testing. Substantial variation surfaced in attitudes toward testing. Factors influencing women's views included available resources, feelings about having a child with Down syndrome, moral beliefs, family and social influences, perceptions of one's own health, the difficulty of becoming pregnant, and willingness to put the fetus at elevated miscarriage risk. Such findings indicate that age-based policies regarding access to prenatal diagnoses that, among other reasons, are based on the balance of risks between bearing a child with a chromosomal abnormality versus procedure-related loss are incompatible with the range of concerns that women bring to this decision and the weight individual women may assign to the outcomes. PMID:10839707

  9. The role of focus groups in health education for cervical cancer among minority women.

    PubMed

    Dignan, M; Michielutte, R; Sharp, P; Bahnson, J; Young, L; Beal, P

    1990-12-01

    Focus groups were used in the development of community-based public health education designed to reduce mortality from cervical cancer among black women in Forsyth County, North Carolina. The educational goals of this National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded project were to increase the proportion of black women, age 18 and older, who obtain Pap smears on a regular basis and return for followup care when necessary. A series of four focus groups were conducted to help develop the conceptual basis for designing educational messages and materials. The groups were led by a black, female professional focus group moderator, and explored a variety of health-related topics ranging from general, ordinary concerns of daily living to knowledge and attitudes about cancer screening. The group discussions suggested that health is regarded as very important to the target population, particularly when related to family functioning. Regarding the Pap smear, most women knew about the test, but had little awareness of its role in the early detection of cervical cancer. Fear and fatalism were clearly the dominant, top-of-mind reactions to cancer, and there was little differentiation among sites or types of cancer. Despite the overall pessimism, the groups agreed that early diagnosis and treatment provide the best hope for good outcomes with cancer. PMID:2280036

  10. Group Therapy for Women Sexually Abused as Children: Mental Health before and after Group Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Gunilla; Svedin, Carl Goran; Hansson, Kjell; Broman, Inger

    2006-01-01

    Forty-five female outpatients sexually abused in childhood were offered a 2-year phase-divided group therapy. Before and after treatment and at 12 months follow-up, they answered questionnaires designed to elicit responses concerning psychological symptoms (Symptom Checklist; SCL-90) and sense of coherence (SOC). Symptoms for posttraumatic stress…

  11. A complex intervention to improve pregnancy outcome in obese women; the UPBEAT randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread recognition that obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, there is no intervention proven to reduce the risk of these complications. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess in obese pregnant women, whether a complex behavioural intervention, based on changing diet (to foods with a lower glycemic index) and physical activity, will reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and delivery of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. A secondary aim is to determine whether the intervention lowers the long term risk of obesity in the offspring. Methods/Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing a behavioural intervention designed to improve glycemic control with standard antenatal care in obese pregnant women. Inclusion criteria; women with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and a singleton pregnancy between 15+0 weeks and 18+6 weeks’ gestation. Exclusion criteria; pre-defined, pre-existing diseases and multiple pregnancy. Randomisation is on-line by a computer generated programme and is minimised by BMI category, maternal age, ethnicity, parity and centre. Intervention; this is delivered by a health trainer over 8 sessions. Based on control theory, with elements of social cognitive theory, the intervention is designed to improve maternal glycemic control. Women randomised to the control arm receive standard antenatal care until delivery according to local guidelines. All women have a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 27+0- 28+6 weeks’ gestation. Primary outcome; Maternal: diagnosis of GDM, according to the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria. Neonatal; infant LGA defined as >90th customised birth weight centile. Sample size; 1546 women to provide 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the incidence of GDM and a 30% reduction in infants large for gestational age. Discussion All aspects of this protocol have been evaluated in a pilot randomised controlled trial, with subsequent optimisation of the intervention. The findings of this trial will inform whether lifestyle mediated improvement of glycemic control in obese pregnant women can minimise the risk of pregnancy complications. Trial registration Current controlled trials; ISRCTN89971375. PMID:24533897

  12. [Experiences, perceptions and self-management of gestational diabetes in a group of overweight multiparous women].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Courtois, Mayra; Graham, Chelsea; Romero-Pérez, Irma; Sánchez-Miranda, Georgina; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Perichart-Perera, Otilia

    2014-06-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a public health problem in Mexico and diet therapy is the main form of treatment. Self-management abilities are required to control the disease. Five women with GDM were studied to assess GDM risk perception and experiences related with self-management practices. Sociodemographic data were obtained and in-depth interviews were conducted and subsequently analyzed using Atlas ti V.5 software. The results revealed that women were conscious regarding the role of diet and physical activity in improving GDM control, and about the perinatal risks associated with the disease. Adherence to diet recommendations was partial, but gradual and positive lifestyle changes were observed. Emotionally, perception about having GDM was a key factor with respect to adhering to the diet. In conclusion, the medical and dietary treatment influences the cultural food behavior of women with GDM. Health professionals should consider sociocultural determinants when designing and implementing treatment strategies. PMID:24897466

  13. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  14. The equity impact of participatory womens groups to reduce neonatal mortality in India: secondary analysis of a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Houweling, Tanja AJ; Tripathy, Prasanta; Nair, Nirmala; Rath, Shibanand; Rath, Suchitra; Gope, Rajkumar; Sinha, Rajesh; Looman, Caspar W; Costello, Anthony; Prost, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has been uneven. Inequalities in child health are large and effective interventions rarely reach the most in need. Little is known about how to reduce these inequalities. We describe and explain the equity impact of a womens group intervention in India that strongly reduced the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) in a cluster-randomised trial. We conducted secondary analyses of the trial data, obtained through prospective surveillance of a population of 228 186. The intervention effects were estimated separately, through random effects logistic regression, for the most and less socio-economically marginalised groups. Among the most marginalised, the NMR was 59% lower in intervention than in control clusters in years 2 and 3 (70%, year 3); among the less marginalised, the NMR was 36% lower (35%, year 3). The intervention effect was stronger among the most than among the less marginalised (P-value for difference = 0.028, years 2-3; P-value for difference = 0.009, year 3). The stronger effect was concentrated in winter, particularly for early NMR. There was no effect on the use of health-care services in either group, and improvements in home care were comparable. Participatory community interventions can substantially reduce socio-economic inequalities in neonatal mortality and contribute to an equitable achievement of the unfinished MDG agenda. PMID:23509239

  15. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts. PMID:11161200

  16. Effectiveness of Group-Delivered Cognitive Therapy and Treatment Length in Women Veterans with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Diane T.; Lacefield, Katharine; C’de Baca, Janet; Blankenship, Abby; Qualls, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness and length of group-delivered cognitive treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was examined in a sample of women veterans. The sample included 271 primarily non-Hispanic white (61%) and Hispanic (25%) women veterans treated in 8-, 10-, or 12-group length sessions with manualized cognitive therapy for PTSD. Outcome was measured with the PTSD Symptom Checklist (PCL) in an intention-to-treat analysis (N = 271), in completer subjects (n = 172), and with group as the unit of analysis (n = 47 groups). Significant decreases in PTSD were found in the full sample (effect size [ES] range = 0.27 to 0.38), completers (ES range = 0.37 to 0.54), and group as the unit of analysis (ES range = 0.71 to 0.92), suggesting effectiveness of cognitive group treatment for PTSD. PCL scores significantly improved in the 8, 10, and 12 group lengths, with no differences between each. Clinical improvement showed a third decreasing 10 or more PCL points and 22% no longer meeting PTSD diagnostic criteria, with the best results in the 10-session group. The results suggest group-delivered cognitive therapy is an effective, efficient, time-limited treatment for PTSD. PMID:25379266

  17. Looking Out for The Secret Wound: The Effect of E-Cognitive Group Therapy with Emotional Disclosure on The Status of Mental Health in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Mosalanejad, Leili; Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Morshed Behbahani, Bahar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considering the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among infertile women, it seems that gynecologists, psychiatrists, and psychologists should be more attentive to identify and treat these disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of E-cognitive group therapy with emotional disclosure on mentwal health status of infertile women who are receiving assisted reproduction. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 80 infertile women who were receiving hormonal therapy or other assisted reproductive technologies (ART) were randomly allocated to the cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) group or the control group. The CBT group had a weekly 12-hour meeting for a period of three months. They also participated in some painting sessions (art therapy) and written and verbal emotional disclosure (both individually and in group presentation). The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) test and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) were used for data gathering. Results: Results showed the level of psychological distress decreased in the control group, but not significantly. Psychological intervention in the treatment group significantly lowered the level of psychological distress; the mean score of DASS in all aspects was significant. The difference between the mean score of the two groups after intervention was significant (p=0.001) and also according to ANCOVA (p=0.002). Differences were significant between the mean scores of both groups in the PSWQ (p=0.001), Inventory Test (p=0.001), which was confirmed by ANCOVA (p=0.009). Conclusion: These finding suggest that CBT with emotional self-disclosure promotes coping strategies among infertile women. Results also show that these approaches develop mental health and decrease stress in infertile women. Using a psychiatric approach in medical settings could help infertile women to promote their adjustment with mental health problems due to of in infertility. (Registration Number: IRCT201108247407N2). PMID:25493164

  18. Young Women with Breast Cancer: A Focus Group Study of Unmet Needs

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Mary L.; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Meyer, Meghan E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Young women with breast cancer suffer distress both at the time of diagnosis and afterwards. This study aimed to elucidate which issues are most disturbing to this population and which might be amenable to intervention. Methods: English-speaking women treated or involved in research at the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute for stage I–III breast cancer while aged 18–42 years were invited to participate in one of four focus groups. A trained moderator led each 90-minute audio-recorded group using a semi-structured interview guide. All transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis with NVivo software. Results: Thirty-six women participated. Three major themes emerged from the analyses of these focus groups' data: (1) participants felt different from older breast cancer patients with regard to relationships, fertility, menopausal symptoms, treatment side effects, and work/finances; (2) participants faced unique challenges transitioning into the survivorship phase of care; and (3) participants desired assistance, including connections with other young patients, help navigating the healthcare system, educational materials, and lists of appropriate counselors. Conclusion: Young women with breast cancer have unmet needs for psychosocial support, education, and symptom management, and can identify potential support that may help meet these needs. PMID:24380034

  19. Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: Results from a focus groups assessment

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Patricia A.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n=28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3±8.9 years; BMI 40.4±8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g. from children, people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

  20. Adrenergic control of lipolysis in women compared with men

    PubMed Central

    Bessesen, Daniel H.; Stotz, Sarah; Peelor, Frederick F.; Miller, Benjamin F.; Horton, Tracy J.

    2014-01-01

    Data suggest women are more sensitive to the lipolytic action of epinephrine compared with men while maintaining similar glucoregulatory effects (Horton et al. J Appl Physiol 107: 200–210, 2009). This study aimed to determine the specific adrenergic receptor(s) that may mediate these sex differences. Lean women (n = 14) and men (n = 16) were studied on 4 nonconsecutive days during the following treatment infusions: saline (S: control), epinephrine [E: mixed β-adrenergic (lipolytic) and α2-adrenergic (antilipolytic) stimulation], epinephrine + phentolamine (E + P: mixed β-adrenergic stimulation only), and terbutaline (T: selective β2-adrenergic stimulation). Tracer infusions of glycerol, palmitate, and glucose were administered to determine systemic lipolysis, free fatty acid (FFA) release, and glucose turnover, respectively. Following basal measurements, substrate and hormone concentrations were measured in all subjects over 90 min of treatment and tracer infusion. Women had greater increases in glycerol and FFA concentrations with all three hormone infusions compared with men (P < 0.01). Glycerol and palmitate rate of appearance (Ra) and rate of disappearance (Rd) per kilogram body weight were greater with E infusion in women compared with men (P < 0.05), whereas no sex differences were observed with other treatments. Glucose concentration and kinetics were not different between sexes with any infusion. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the greater rate of lipolysis in women with infusion of E was likely due to lesser α2 antilipolytic activation. These findings may help explain why women have greater lipolysis and fat oxidation during exercise, a time when epinephrine concentration is elevated. PMID:25190743

  1. Adrenergic control of lipolysis in women compared with men.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stacy L; Bessesen, Daniel H; Stotz, Sarah; Peelor, Frederick F; Miller, Benjamin F; Horton, Tracy J

    2014-11-01

    Data suggest women are more sensitive to the lipolytic action of epinephrine compared with men while maintaining similar glucoregulatory effects (Horton et al. J Appl Physiol 107: 200-210, 2009). This study aimed to determine the specific adrenergic receptor(s) that may mediate these sex differences. Lean women (n = 14) and men (n = 16) were studied on 4 nonconsecutive days during the following treatment infusions: saline (S: control), epinephrine [E: mixed β-adrenergic (lipolytic) and α2-adrenergic (antilipolytic) stimulation], epinephrine + phentolamine (E + P: mixed β-adrenergic stimulation only), and terbutaline (T: selective β2-adrenergic stimulation). Tracer infusions of glycerol, palmitate, and glucose were administered to determine systemic lipolysis, free fatty acid (FFA) release, and glucose turnover, respectively. Following basal measurements, substrate and hormone concentrations were measured in all subjects over 90 min of treatment and tracer infusion. Women had greater increases in glycerol and FFA concentrations with all three hormone infusions compared with men (P < 0.01). Glycerol and palmitate rate of appearance (Ra) and rate of disappearance (Rd) per kilogram body weight were greater with E infusion in women compared with men (P < 0.05), whereas no sex differences were observed with other treatments. Glucose concentration and kinetics were not different between sexes with any infusion. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the greater rate of lipolysis in women with infusion of E was likely due to lesser α2 antilipolytic activation. These findings may help explain why women have greater lipolysis and fat oxidation during exercise, a time when epinephrine concentration is elevated. PMID:25190743

  2. Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157758.html Obese Women on Birth Control Pills May Face Higher Risk of Rare Stroke ... suggests. Dutch researchers found that obese women on birth control pills were nearly 30 times more likely to ...

  3. Noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure control in normotensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Margulies, M; Zin, C; Margulies, N D; Voto, L S

    1989-12-01

    Twenty-four hour noninvasive, automatic and ambulatory control of blood pressure (BP) was carried out on 11 normotensive pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy with a Del Mar Avionics Model 1978 Pressurometer III System at 7.5 min intervals during 24 h. The patients kept a detailed record of their activities during those 24 h. BP increased from 9 AM to a peak between 7 and 10 PM. Mean (+/- SD) waking and sleeping values were 110.56 +/- 6.68 mm Hg and 96.5 +/- 10.01 mm Hg, respectively, for systolic BP, and 71.41 +/- 5.35 mm Hg and 62.82 +/- 5.47 mm Hg, respectively, for diastolic BP. There was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP between sleeping hours and waking hours. We believe that 24-h control of BP behavior in normotensive pregnant women allows us to adequately diagnose hypertensive disease in pregnancy. PMID:2610998

  4. The Effect of Gabapentin on Intensity and Duration of Hot Flashes in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saadati, Najmieh; Jafari, Razieh Mohammad; Natanj, Solmaz; Abedi, Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Menopause is the stage of time in which the menstruation stops following the loss of ovarian activity. The purpose of this study was to find out the effectiveness of gabapentin on hot flashes in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial from Feb 2010 to 2011 was conducted. Sixty postmenopausal women who were referred to obstetrics and gynecology ward of two educational hospitals were recruited and divided into two groups (intervention and control). Intervention group received 300 mg gabapentin three times a day for three months, while control group received placebo. The Intensity and duration of hot flashes in women scored and recorded using visual analog scale. Independent, Paired t-test and chi-square test were used for analyzing data. Results: Intensity of hot flashes in the beginning of research in the intervention group was significantly different with the first, second and third follow-up visit (P<0.05). Also at the end of intervention a significant difference between intervention and control groups were observed regarding the intensity, frequency and duration of hot flashes (P<0.05 and P=0.01 respectively). Conclusion: According to the findings of this study; it appears that the use of gabapentin could decrease the intensity, duration and frequency of hot flashes in postmenopausal women. For postmenopausal women who hormone therapy is contraindicated, gabapentine could be an acceptable alternative. PMID:24171880

  5. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening. PMID:26134040

  6. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt medium for group B streptococcus screening in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andria Frana; Silva, Flvia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lcia Dias; de Pdua, Rbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ? 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paran, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ? 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  7. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt Medium for Group B Streptococcus Screening in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andréia França; Silva, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; de Pádua, Rúbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  8. Support group processes: Perspectives from HIV-infected women in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mundell, J.P.; Visser, M.J.; Makin, J.D.; Forsyth, B.W.; Sikkema, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the experiences and perceived benefits of support group participation among HIV-infected women in South Africa. From a qualitative analysis of responses, key psychological processes through which support groups are potentially beneficial were identified. These processes included: identification; modeling; acceptance; and empowerment. The participants’ consequent life changes were explored in order to associate these processes with the positive outcomes of support group participation. Through understanding the relationship between the psychological processes within a support group setting and the potential benefits, and by targeting these processes in the development and implementation of future support group interventions, a framework is provided for achieving positive outcomes associated with support group participation. PMID:22514790

  9. Association between ABO blood group and osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder

    2014-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to examine possible associations between ABO blood groups and the risk of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India. This cross-sectional study involved 250 postmenopausal women from North India, ranging in age from 45 to 80 years. Four anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference), blood sample (ABO status and haemoglobin concentration) and grip strength (dominant as well as non-dominant hand) of all the participants were taken. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal femur. Analysis of data revealed that at lumbar spine (L1-L4) osteoporosis was more prevalent among individuals with blood group A (31.58%), followed by those with blood group B (29.67%), AB (28.57%) and then blood group O (15%), whereas for proximal femur individuals with blood group AB (21.43%) showed the highest prevalence of osteoporosis followed by a decreasing trend from blood group A (17.54%) to B (12.08%) and then O (5%). Total prevalence of osteoporosis was 26.4% in lumbar spine and 13.2% in proximal femur, indicating that lumbar spine had an elevated risk for osteoporosis among postmenopausal women. All the anthropometric variables, haemoglobin concentration as well as grip strength of individuals with blood group O demonstrated non-significant differences with non-O blood group except for weight and body mass index, where differences were statistically significant. Women with blood group O exhibited significantly higher bone mineral density for lumbar spine (0.90 g/cm(2) vs. 0.85 g/cm(2), p<0.05) and proximal femur (0.87 g/cm(2) vs. 0.79 g/cm(2), p<0.05) as compared to those with non-O blood group, thereby suggesting an increasing risk of osteoporosis among individuals with non-O blood group. PMID:25451514

  10. The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African…

  11. A Systematic Review of Training Interventions Addressing Sexual Violence against Marginalized At-Risk Groups of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with…

  12. A Systematic Review of Training Interventions Addressing Sexual Violence against Marginalized At-Risk Groups of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with

  13. Organizational Repertoires and Institutional Change: Women's Groups and the Transformation of U.S. Politics, 1890-1920.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elisabeth S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses social changes brought about in the United States as a result of the women's suffrage movement. Explains that groups marginalized by existing institutions must create alternative organizations if they are to be successful. Describes political innovations used by women's groups in the struggle for voting rights. (CFR)

  14. 78 FR 36541 - Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Department of the Air Force Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting ACTION: Public ICWG... be hosting a Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) meeting for the Navstar GPS public signals... Control System (OCX) to User Support Community Interfaces (ICD-GPS-870). Dates and times can be...

  15. Benefits of combining massage therapy with group interpersonal psychotherapy in prenatally depressed women.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Deeds, Osvelia; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Gauler, Andy; Sullivan, Susan; Wilson, Donna; Nearing, Graciela

    2009-10-01

    One hundred and twelve pregnant women who were diagnosed depressed were randomly assigned to a group who received group Interpersonal Psychotherapy or to a group who received both group Interpersonal Psychotherapy and massage therapy. The group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (1h sessions) and massage therapy (20 min sessions) were held once per week for 6 weeks. The data suggested that the group who received psychotherapy plus massage attended more sessions on average, and a greater percentage of that group completed the 6-week program. The group who received both therapies also showed a greater decrease in depression, depressed affect and somatic-vegetative symptom scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), a greater decrease in anxiety scale (STAI) scores and a greater decrease in cortisol levels. The group therapy process appeared to be effective for both groups as suggested by the increased expression of both positive and negative affect and relatedness during the group therapy sessions. Thus, the data highlight the effectiveness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy and particularly when combined with massage therapy for reducing prenatal depression. PMID:19761951

  16. A randomised controlled trial of caseload midwifery care: M@NGO (Midwives @ New Group practice Options)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Australia has an enviable record of safety for women in childbirth. There is nevertheless growing concern at the increasing level of intervention and consequent morbidity amongst childbearing women. Not only do interventions impact on the cost of services, they carry with them the potential for serious morbidities for mother and infant. Models of midwifery have proliferated in an attempt to offer women less fragmented hospital care. One of these models that is gaining widespread consumer, disciplinary and political support is caseload midwifery care. Caseload midwives manage the care of approximately 35-40 a year within a small Midwifery Group Practice (usually 4-6 midwives who plan their on call and leave within the Group Practice.) We propose to compare the outcomes and costs of caseload midwifery care compared to standard or routine hospital care through a randomised controlled trial. Methods/design A two-arm RCT design will be used. Women will be recruited from tertiary women's hospitals in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Women allocated to the caseload intervention will receive care from a named caseload midwife within a Midwifery Group Practice. Control women will be allocated to standard or routine hospital care. Women allocated to standard care will receive their care from hospital rostered midwives, public hospital obstetric care and community based general medical practitioner care. All midwives will collaborate with obstetricians and other health professionals as necessary according to the woman's needs. Discussion Data will be collected at recruitment, 36 weeks antenatally, six weeks and six months postpartum by web based or postal survey. With 750 women or more in each of the intervention and control arms the study is powered (based on 80% power; alpha 0.05) to detect a difference in caesarean section rates of 29.4 to 22.9%; instrumental birth rates from 11.0% to 6.8%; and rates of admission to neonatal intensive care of all neonates from 9.9% to 5.8% (requires 721 in each arm). The study is not powered to detect infant or maternal mortality, however all deaths will be reported. Other significant findings will be reported, including a comprehensive process and economic evaluation. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000349246 PMID:22029746

  17. Socio-economic differences in food group and nutrient intakes among young women in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all P< 0·001), yogurt (P= 0·001), low-fat spread (P= 0·002) and fresh meat (P= 0·003). They also had higher intakes of butter, processed red meats, white bread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P< 0·001) and full-fat milk (P= 0·014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P= 0·017), fat (P< 0·001), saturated fat (P< 0·001), refined sugar (P< 0·001), folate (P= 0·050), vitamin C (P< 0·001), vitamin D (P= 0·047) and Ca (P= 0·019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions. PMID:23721781

  18. Preventing Weight Gain in Women in Rural Communities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Catherine; Harrison, Cheryce; Kozica, Samantha; Zoungas, Sophia; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Teede, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information. Methods and Findings We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters) randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21) or control (n = 20). Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her) consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women’s health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/− SD 6.7) and BMI of 28.8 kg/m2 (+/− SD 6.9) with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI −0.09 to 0.97) and in the intervention group −0.48kg (95% CI −0.99 to 0.03) with an unadjusted between group difference of −0.92 kg (95% CI −1.67 to −0.16) or −0.87 kg (95% CI −1.62 to −0.13) adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures. Conclusions A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the persistent weight gain observed in women. Key features included community integration, nonprescriptive simple health messages, small changes to behaviour, low participant burden, self-weighing, and delivery including a mix of group, phone, and SMS text reminders. The findings support population strategies to halt the rise in obesity prevalence. PMID:26785406

  19. Examining the Efficacy of a Brief Group Protective Behavioral Strategies Skills Training Alcohol Intervention With College Women

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    College students’ use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students’ use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women randomized to either a PBS skills training intervention or study skills control condition. Participants attended a 45-min group session and completed online surveys pre- and postintervention (1 month and 6 months). We conducted a series of 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANCOVAs with condition and baseline mental health (anxiety/depression) as the between-subjects factors and time as the within-subjects factor. Intervention participants, relative to controls, reported significantly greater increases in PBS use and reductions in both heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consequences. The intervention was particularly effective in increasing PBS use at 1 month among participants with high anxiety. Further, tests of moderated mediation showed a significant conditional indirect effect of condition on 1-month consequences through PBS use among participants with high levels of anxiety. Findings provide preliminary support for a brief PBS-specific group intervention to reduce alcohol risk among college women, particularly anxious women. Future research is needed to strengthen the long-term effectiveness of the present approach and further explore the moderating effects of mental health. PMID:25347024

  20. Violence against Women and Gastroschisis: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Soldin, Offie P.; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Cánovas-Conesa, Alicia; Gomaríz-Peñalver, Virtudes; Jaimes-Vega, Diana Carolina; Perales, Joseph E.; Cárceles-Alvarez, Alberto; Martínez-Ros, Maria Teresa; Ruiz, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gastroschisis, a birth defect characterized by herniated fetal abdominal wall, occurs more commonly in infants born to teenage and young mothers. Ischemia of the vascular vitelline vessels is the likely mechanism of pathogenesis. Given that chronic stress and violence against women are risk factors for cardiovascular disease we explored whether these may represent risk factors for gastroschisis, when they occur during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted, with 15 incident cases of children born with gastroschisis in the Region of Murcia, Spain, from December 2007 to June 2013. Forty concurrent controls were recruited at gestation weeks 20–24 or post-partum. All mothers of cases and controls completed a comprehensive, in-person, ‘green sheet’ questionnaire on environmental exposures. Results: Mothers of children with gastroschisis were younger, smoked more cigarettes per week relative to controls, were exposed to higher amounts of illegal drugs, and suffered from domestic violence more frequently than the controls. Multivariable logistic regression analysis highlights periconceptional ‘gender-related violence’ (OR: 16.6, 95% CI 2.7 to 101.7) and younger maternal age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.3). Conclusions: Violence against pregnant women is associated with birth defects, and should be studied in more depth as a cause-effect teratogenic. Psychosocial risk factors, including gender-based violence, are important for insuring the health and safety of the pregnant mother and the fetus. PMID:24142184

  1. Getting more than they realized they needed: a qualitative study of women's experience of group prenatal care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pregnant women in Canada have traditionally received prenatal care individually from their physicians, with some women attending prenatal education classes. Group prenatal care is a departure from these practices providing a forum for women to experience medical care and child birth education simultaneously and in a group setting. Although other qualitative studies have described the experience of group prenatal care, this is the first which sought to understand the central meaning or core of the experience. The purpose of this study was to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for women who participated in CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada. Methods The study used a phenomenological approach. Twelve women participated postpartum in a one-on-one interview and/or a group validation session between June 2009 and July 2010. Results Six themes emerged: (1) "getting more in one place at one time"; (2) "feeling supported"; (3) "learning and gaining meaningful information"; (4) "not feeling alone in the experience"; (5) "connecting"; and (6) "actively participating and taking on ownership of care". These themes contributed to the core phenomenon of women "getting more than they realized they needed". The active sharing among those in the group allowed women to have both their known and subconscious needs met. Conclusions Women's experience of group prenatal care reflected strong elements of social support in that women had different types of needs met and felt supported. The findings also broadened the understanding of some aspects of social support beyond current theories. In a contemporary North American society, the results of this study indicate that women gain from group prenatal care in terms of empowerment, efficiency, social support and education in ways not routinely available through individual care. This model of care could play a key role in addressing women's needs and improving health outcomes. PMID:22436393

  2. Coping, quality of life and psychological symptoms in three groups of sub-fertile women.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Olga B A

    2005-05-01

    The process of assisted reproductive technology (ART), surrogacy and adoption pose different physical and psychological burdens on sub-fertile populations. Sub-fertile women (n = 176) were assessed retrospectively by questionnaire to determine if process (undergoing ART, surrogacy or adoption) or outcome (having a successful versus unsuccessful outcome) affected quality of life, coping style and psychological symptoms. The ART group was significantly younger, had a shorter period of sub-fertility, and was least likely to have a child than the adoptive and surrogate groups. Quality of life and psychological symptoms were not significantly different between groups, although significantly higher Mental Disengagement and Denial coping strategy scores were obtained for the ART group. Social, psychological, health and functioning quality of life, and Denial coping strategies were good predictors of outcome group. Treatment specific counselling of individuals use of coping strategies early on in their in/subfertility career to cope with the reality of prolonged childlessness is indicated. PMID:15911191

  3. Using focus groups to develop contingent valuation scenarios--a case study of women's groups in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Josephine; Shrestha, Daya L; Shrestha, Deepa; Jan, Stephen

    2007-02-01

    The construction of a contingent valuation (CV) scenario forms a critical component of willingness-to-pay (WTP) survey design, especially when working across diverse cultural and socio-economic settings. However, the methods used to develop CV scenarios have not been well reported in the health economics literature. This paper begins by describing how qualitative methods can be used to develop CV surveys. It then presents a case study illustrating how focus groups were used to develop a CV survey to value a women's group intervention in rural Nepal. A series of focus group discussions were conducted with three stakeholder groups. These were used to determine the most appropriate description of the good to be valued and the means by which payment would be elicited. These methods were very helpful in designing the survey tool and choosing the key attributes to describe the intervention. They also familiarised field workers with the concept of WTP. Further work of this kind will help to highlight additional advantages and limitations of qualitative approaches to survey design. PMID:17107740

  4. Savings and credit: women's informal groups as models for change in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A; Keith, P M

    1994-04-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the financial success of newly formed women's groups involved in Sri Lanka's Hambantota Integrated Rural Development Program (HIRDEP). The project was initiated in July 1986 with 20 trained social mobilizers, who were each assigned to a village community of about 100 families. Mobilizers were selected from village volunteers involved in development activities. The study population included 78 women's groups, with an average size of 7 persons, from 19 villages with populations under the poverty level and people receiving food stamps. Measures of group performance included the exchange of labor among group members, the collective purchase of raw materials and consumer goods, and collective marketing. Service use was differentiated by extension services, inputs, assets, and general benefits. Financial activity was measured as the rupee size of the fund and amounts of loans. 54 groups were engaged in nonfarm activity, and most groups had women social mobilizers. About 50% of women's groups had received all four service types. Funding ranged from Rs. 240 to Rs. 9500. The average of the credit loans per month was Rs. 408 per group. 85% of the loans were used for production, investment, or repayment of old loans. Younger age groups affected the slower growth of funds but were more efficient in loaning money, acquiring services, and marketing activities collectively. Young social mobilizers were associated with efficiency of credit disbursement. Diversity of collective activities was related to the size and growth rate of funds. Multivariate analysis revealed that the growth rate of funds was primarily related to the personal income of members and the level of training of social mobilizers. Members were able to obtain loans equal to about 50% of their monthly income at an average interest rate of about 5%, which was three to four times less than normally available. 47% of the variance in the size of the fund was explained by average income, average member age, average length of time in existence, and education, experience, and training of social mobilizers. PMID:12289881

  5. Continuity of midwifery care and gestational weight gain in obese women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of obesity in pregnant women in Australia and other developed countries is a significant public health concern. Obese women are at increased risk of serious perinatal complications and guidelines recommend weight gain restriction and additional care. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of dietary and physical activity lifestyle interventions in preventing adverse perinatal outcomes and new strategies need to be evaluated. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of continuity of midwifery care on restricting gestational weight gain in obese women to the recommended range. The secondary aims of the study are to assess the impact of continuity of midwifery care on: women's experience of pregnancy care; women's satisfaction with care and a range of psychological factors. Methods/Design A two arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted with primigravid women recruited from maternity services in Victoria, Australia. Participants will be primigravid women, with a BMI≥30 who are less than 17 weeks gestation. Women allocated to the intervention arm will be cared for in a midwifery continuity of care model and receive an informational leaflet on managing weight gain in pregnancy. Women allocated to the control group will receive routine care in addition to the same informational leaflet. Weight gain during pregnancy, standards of care, medical and obstetric information will be extracted from medical records. Data collected at recruitment (self administered survey) and at 36 weeks by postal survey will include socio-demographic information and the use of validated scales to measure secondary outcomes. Discussion Continuity of midwifery care models are well aligned with current Victorian, Australian and many international government policies on maternity care. Increasingly, midwifery continuity models of care are being introduced in low risk maternity care, and information on their application in high risk populations is required. There is an identified need to trial alternative antenatal interventions to reduce perinatal risk factors for women who are obese and the findings from this project may have application in other maternity services. In addition this study will inform a larger trial that will focus on birth and postnatal outcomes. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610001078044. PMID:21426582

  6. Autonomic control of cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Irina W.; Kiselev, Anton R.; Karavaev, Antoly S.; Prokhorov, Mikhail D.; Gridnev, Vladimir I.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I.; Bezruchko, Boris P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the features of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women. Material and Methods We studied 185 postmenopausal women aged 59.3±8.5 years (mean±SD) and 104 premenopausal women aged 45.1±5.8 years. Standard indices of heart rate variability (HRV) (mean heart rate, coefficient of variation, standard deviation of the NN interval (the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram with normal sinus rhythm) (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), proportion derived by dividing RR50, the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms, by the total number of NN intervals (PNN50), and power of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands in absolute values and percentages of total spectral power) and index S of synchronization between the 0.1-Hz rhythms in heart rate and photoplethysmogram were compared between these two groups at rest. We assessed the following sex hormones: estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone. Results Mean heart rate and power of LF and HF bands were significantly different (p<0.05) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The autonomic indices were similar in women with natural and surgical menopause. Some indices (coefficient of variation, SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50, and power of LF and HF bands) showed weak correlation with menopause time in women with natural menopause. In women with surgical menopause, a moderate statistically significant correlation was observed only between menopause time and S index (r=−0.41, p=0.039). In premenopausal women, only testosterone correlated weakly with coefficient of variation, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, and power of HF band. In postmenopausal women, no correlations were found. We did not find any significant relationship between autonomic indices and hot flashes, assessed by hot flash diary. Conclusion We did not find a clinically important relationship between cardiovascular autonomic control and menopausal status in women. PMID:25788843

  7. Prevention and treatment strategy in pregnant women with group B streptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Tevdorashvili, G; Tevdorashvili, D; Andghuladze, M; Tevdorashvili, M

    2015-04-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) are encapsulated gram-positive cocci belonging to Lancefield group B, that frequently colonizes the human genital and gastrointestinal tracts. It is an important cause of illness in three categories of population: infants, pregnant women, and adults with underlying medical conditions. In pregnant women and postpartum women, GBS is a frequent cause of asymptomatic bacteriuria, urinary tract infection, upper genital tract infection (i.e. intraamniotic infection or chorioamnionitis), postpartum endometritis (8%), pneumonia (2%), puerperal sepsis (2%), and bacteremia without a focal site (31%). It also can cause focal infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, and endocarditis, albeit rarely. Invasive maternal infection with GBS is associated with pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. Prior to the widespread use of maternal intrapartum chemoprophylaxis, maternal colonization with GBS conferred an increased risk of chorioamnionitis, and early postpartum infection. The serotype distribution of invasive GBS infection in pregnant women is similar to that of early-onset neonatal disease. The most common GBS serotypes causing invasive disease in adults and neonates are Ia, Ib, III, and V. Vaccination of adolescent women is considered an ideal solution. However, recent reports (April 2015) have shown that serotype IV GBS is emerging in pregnant carriers and causing infections in neonates and adults. This emergence is of concern because GBS conjugate vaccines that are being developed to prevent invasive disease may protect only against serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V, or combinations thereof. Though research for the development of such a vaccine is underway, a good candidate vaccine has yet to surface. PMID:25953932

  8. Isoflavone Soy Protein Supplementation and Atherosclerosis Progression in Healthy Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hodis, Howard N.; Mack, Wendy J.; Kono, Naoko; Azen, Stanley P.; Shoupe, Donna; Hwang-Levine, Juliana; Petitti, Diana; Whitfield-Maxwell, Lora; Yan, Mingzhu; Franke, Adrian A.; Selzer, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that dietary intake of soy may be cardioprotective, use of isoflavone soy protein (ISP) supplementation as a primary preventive therapy remains unexplored. We determined whether ISP reduces subclinical atherosclerosis assessed as carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 350 postmenopausal women 45–92 years of age without diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were randomized to 2 evenly divided daily doses of 25 g soy protein containing 91 mg aglycon isoflavone equivalents or placebo for 2.7-years. Results Overall, mean (95% confidence interval) CIMT progression rate was 4.77(3.39–6.16) μm/year in the ISP group and 5.68(4.30–7.06) μm/year in the placebo group. Although CIMT progression was reduced on average by 16% in the ISP group relative to the placebo group, this treatment effect was not statistically significant (p=0.36). Among the subgroup of women who were randomized within 5 years of menopause, ISP participants had on average a 68% lower CIMT progression rate than placebo participants 2.16(−1.10–5.43) vs. 6.79(3.56–10.01) μm/year, p=0.05). ISP supplementation had a null effect on women who were >5 years beyond menopause when randomized. There were no major adverse events from ISP supplementation. Conclusion ISP supplementation did not significantly reduce subclinical atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women. Subgroup analysis suggest that ISP supplementation may reduce subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy young (median age, 53 years) women at low-risk for CVD who were <5 years postmenopausal. These first trial results of their kind warrant further investigation. PMID:21903957

  9. Chlamydia, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, and yeasts in the lower genital tract of females. Comparison between a group attending a venereal disease clinic and a control group.

    PubMed

    Møller, B R; Sparre Jørgensen, A; From, E; Stenderup, A

    1985-01-01

    162 women were investigated. Group I consisted of 85 women, who were partners to men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) or presented macroscopic signs of cervicitis; patients who had harbored Neisseria gonorrhoeae were excluded from the study. Group II was a control group of 77 women without any complaints from the urogenital tract and with normal findings at pelvic examination. All the women were tested for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Candida albicans. In group I, chlamydiae and mycoplasmas were recovered in 44% and 36%, respectively, the corresponding figures for the control group (group II) being 5% and 19%. The difference is highly significant. No such difference between the two groups was found for ureaplasmas. Sixteen percent of the patients in group I were positive for C. albicans; 12% were positive in group II. Fifty per cent of asymptomatic NGU-partners were chlamydia-positive, and about one-third of patients with either dysuria or vaginal discharge harbored the organism. No difference in the isolation frequency of mycoplasmas was observed between asymptomatic partners to male NGU carriers and women with increased vaginal discharge, whereas the organism was isolated more frequently from patients with dysuria. Fifty-nine per cent of patients with cervicitis were chlamydia-positive, compared with 30% of patients with normal cervical appearance and normal vaginal discharge. Samples obtained from the cervix were more often positive than samples from the urethra. In conclusion, if samples can be taken from only one of the two sites in patients with lower genital tract infection, the cervix is the optimal sampling site. PMID:3885669

  10. Lay support for pregnant women with social risk: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Sara; Jolly, Kate; Hemming, Karla; Hope, Lucy; Blissett, Jackie; Dann, Sophie-Anna; Lilford, Richard; MacArthur, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought evidence of effectiveness of lay support to improve maternal and child outcomes in disadvantaged families. Design Prospective, pragmatic, individually randomised controlled trial. Setting 3 Maternity Trusts in West Midlands, UK. Participants Following routine midwife systematic assessment of social risk factors, 1324 nulliparous women were assigned, using telephone randomisation, to standard maternity care, or addition of referral to a Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW) service. Those under 16 years and teenagers recruited to the Family Nurse Partnership trial were excluded. Interventions POWs were trained to provide individual support and case management for the women including home visiting from randomisation to 6 weeks after birth. Standard maternity care (control) included provision for referring women with social risk factors to specialist midwifery services, available to both arms. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were antenatal visits attended and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) 8–12 weeks postpartum. Prespecified, powered, subgroup comparison was among women with 2 or more social risks. Secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal birth outcomes; maternal self-efficacy, and mother-to-infant bonding at 8–12 weeks; child development assessment at 6 weeks, breastfeeding at 6 weeks, and immunisation uptake at 4 months, all collected from routine child health systems. Results Antenatal attendances were high in the standard care control and did not increase further with addition of the POW intervention (10.1 vs 10.1 (mean difference; MD) −0.00, 95% CI (95% CI −0.37 to 0.37)). In the powered subgroup of women with 2 or more social risk factors, mean EPDS (MD −0.79 (95% CI −1.56 to −0.02) was significantly better, although for all women recruited, no significant differences were seen (MD −0.59 (95% CI −1.24 to 0.06). Mother-to-infant bonding was significantly better in the intervention group for all women (MD −0.30 (95% CI −0.61 to −0.00) p=0.05), and there were no differences in other secondary outcomes. Conclusions This trial demonstrates differences in depressive symptomatology with addition of the POW service in the powered subgroup of women with 2 or more social risk factors. Addition to existing evidence indicates benefit from lay interventions in preventing postnatal depression. This finding is important for women and their families given the known effect of maternal depression on longer term childhood outcomes. Trial registration number ISRCTN35027323; Results. PMID:26936901

  11. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios. PMID:23637315

  12. Intra-group Stigma: Examining Peer Relationships Among Women in Recovery for Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Alana J.; Canada, Kelli E.

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory study explores how women with histories of addiction perceive stigma while in treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women participating in a residential drug treatment center. Previous research has found that support from peers during recovery can be critical to managing illnesses. In fact, researchers have postulated that peers can be a more effective form of support than even family. This study extends existing literature indicating that peer support systems can be supportive, however they can also can be perceived as negative support that impose stigmas. Findings reveal that women perceive stigmas due to how various types of drug use violate societal expectations and conflict with notions of deservingness. Specifically, the “hard users” (i.e., women who use heroin or crack cocaine) perceive stigmas regarding how their drug use violates norms of womanhood. Moreover, the “soft users” (i.e., those who use alcohol or marijuana) perceive stigmas that their drug use is considered undeserving of support. This paper explores the factors that contribute to stigma amongst populations who potentially face marginalization from larger society. Implications for treatment and group work are discussed. PMID:26617439

  13. Looking for Celiac Disease in Italian Women with Endometriosis: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Sebastiano; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Gallo, Antonella; Campo, Vincenzo; Palombini, Guglielmo; Santoliquido, Angelo; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, a potential link between endometriosis and celiac disease has been hypothesized since these disorders share some similarities, specifically concerning a potential role of oxidative stress, inflammation, and immunological dysfunctions. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease among Italian women with endometriosis with respect to general population. Consecutive women with a laparoscopic and histological confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis were enrolled; female nurses of our institution, without a known history of endometriosis, were enrolled as controls. IgA endomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies measurement and serum total IgA dosage were performed in both groups. An upper digestive endoscopy with an intestinal biopsy was performed in case of antibodies positivity. Presence of infertility, miscarriage, coexistence of other autoimmune diseases, and family history of autoimmune diseases was also investigated in all subjects. Celiac disease was diagnosed in 5 of 223 women with endometriosis and in 2 of 246 controls (2.2% versus 0.8%; P = 0.265). Patients with endometriosis showed a largely higher rate of infertility compared to control group (27.4% versus 2.4%; P < 0.001). Our results confirm that also in Italian population an increased prevalence of celiac disease among patients with endometriosis is found, although this trend does not reach the statistical significance. PMID:24804204

  14. Auricular acupuncture for chemically dependent pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial of the NADA protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of maternal drug use during pregnancy in North America has been estimated to be as high as 6-10%. The consequences for the newborn include increased risk for perinatal mortality and ongoing physical, neurobehavioral, and psychosocial problems. Methadone is frequently used to wean women off street drugs but is implicated as a cause of adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes itself. The purpose of our study was to test the ability of maternal acupuncture treatment among mothers who use illicit drugs to reduce the frequency and severity of withdrawal symptoms among their newborns. Methods We randomly assigned chemically dependent pregnant women at BC Women’s Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia to daily acupuncture treatments versus usual care. By necessity, neither our participants nor acupuncturists were blinded as to treatment allocation. Our primary outcome was days of neonatal morphine treatment for symptoms of neonatal withdrawal. Secondary neonatal outcomes included admission to a neonatal ICU and transfer to foster care. Results We randomized 50 women to acupuncture and 39 to standard care. When analyzed by randomized groups, we did not find benefit of acupuncture; the average length of treatment with morphine for newborns in the acupuncture group was 2.7 (6.3) compared to 2.8 (7.0) in the control group. Among newborns of women who were compliant with the acupuncture regime, we observed a reduction of 2.1 and 1.5 days in length of treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome compared to the non-compliant and control groups, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Acupuncture may be a safe and feasible treatment to assist mothers to reduce their dosage of methadone. Our results should encourage ongoing studies to test the ability of acupuncture to mitigate the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome among their newborns. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov registry: W05-0041 PMID:23259913

  15. Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen GHM; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%–44.1% and 4.2%–7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

  16. Cervical Cancer Control for Hispanic Women in Texas: Effective Strategies from Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Maria E.; Savas, Lara S.; Lipizzi, Erica; Smith, Jennifer S.; Vernon, Sally W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hispanic women in Texas have among the highest rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the country. Increasing regular Papanicolaou test screening and HPV vaccination are crucial to reduce the burden of cervical cancer among Hispanics. This paper presents lessons learned from community-based cervical cancer control programs in Texas and highlights effective intervention programs, methods and strategies. Methods We reviewed and summarized cervical cancer control efforts targeting Hispanic women in Texas, focusing on interventions developed by researchers at the University of Texas, School of Public Health. We identified commonalities across programs, highlighted effective methods, and summarized lessons learned to help guide future intervention efforts. Results Community-academic partnerships were fundamental in all steps of program development and implementation. Programs reviewed addressed psychosocial, cultural, and access barriers to cervical cancer control among low-income Hispanic women. Intervention approaches included lay health worker (LHW) and navigation models and used print media, interactive tailored media, photonovellas, client reminders, one-on-one and group education sessions. Conclusions Small media materials combined with LHW and navigation approaches were effective in delivering Pap test screening and HPV vaccination messages and in linking women to services. Common theoretical methods included in these approaches were modeling, verbal persuasion, and facilitating access. Adaptation of programs to an urban environment revealed that intensive navigation was needed to link women with multiple access barriers to health services. Collectively, this review reveals 1) the importance of using a systematic approach for planning and adapting cervical cancer control programs; 2) advantages of collaborative academic-community partnerships to develop feasible interventions with broad reach; 3) the use of small media and LHW approaches and the need for tailored phone navigation in urban settings; and 4) coordination and technical assistance of community-based efforts as a way to maximize resources. PMID:24398135

  17. Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:

  18. Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:…

  19. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  20. 26 CFR 1.382-8 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled groups. 1.382-8 Section 1.382-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.382-8 Controlled groups. (a) Introduction. This section provides rules to adjust the value of a...

  1. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  2. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of

  3. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting...

  4. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on...

  5. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on...

  6. Efficacy of a group-based dietary intervention for limiting gestational weight gain among obese women: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Vesco, Kimberly K.; Karanja, Njeri; King, Janet C.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Leo, Michael C.; Perrin, Nancy; McEvoy, Cindy T.; Eckhardt, Cara L.; Smith, K. Sabina; Stevens, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Observational studies suggest that minimal gestational weight gain (GWG) may optimize pregnancy outcomes for obese women. This trial tested the efficacy of a group-based weight management intervention for limiting GWG among obese women. Methods We randomized 114 obese women (BMI [mean±SD] 36.7±4.9 kg/m2) between 7–21 weeks’ (14.9±2.6) gestation to intervention (n=56) or usual care control conditions (n=58). The intervention included individualized calorie goals, advice to maintain weight within 3% of randomization and follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern without sodium restriction, and attendance at weekly group meetings until delivery. Control participants received one-time dietary advice. Our three main outcomes were maternal weight change from randomization to 2 weeks postpartum and from randomization to 34 weeks gestation, and newborn large-for-gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile, LGA). Results Intervention participants gained less weight from randomization to 34 weeks gestation (5.0 vs 8.4 kg, mean difference=−3.4 kg, 95% CI [−5.1, −1.8]), and from randomization to 2 weeks postpartum (−2.6 vs +1.2 kg, mean difference=−3.8 kg, 95% CI [−5.9, −1.7]). They also had a lower proportion of LGA babies (9% vs. 26%, odds ratio=0.28, 95% CI [0.09, 0.84]). Conclusions The intervention resulted in lower GWG and lower prevalence of LGA newborns. PMID:25164259

  7. The Effect of Sleep Health Behavioral Education on the Depression of Pregnant Women With Sleep Disorders: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Elham; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Hagani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 79% of the pregnant women experience sleep disorders and 70% of pregnant women experience some symptoms of the depression. Physiologic, hormonal, and physical changes of pregnancy can predispose mothers to depression these disorders before, during, and after childbirth and might be aggravated by neglecting health behavior. Health behavior education might be useful for the management of depression in pregnant women. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sleep health behavioral education on the improvement of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial, performed on 96 pregnant women with sleep disorder diagnosed according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Tools for data collection included demographic questionnaire and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Easy and accessible sampling was done. Participants were randomly (simple) allocated to intervention and control groups. In intervention group, sleep health behavior education was presented during a four-hour session held in weeks 22, 23, 24, and 25; then the patients were followed up to fill out the BDIQ in follow-up session at weeks 29 and 33 of pregnancy. The control group received no intervention and only received routine prenatal care. The results were assessed by Chi-square tests, independent-samples t-test, and Fischer’s exact-test by SPSS 16. Results: A statistically significant change was reported in the severity of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders in the intervention group in comparison to the control group at weeks 29 (P < 0.000) and 33 (P < 0.00). Conclusions: Sleep health behavioral education improves depression in pregnant women who are experiencing insomnia. Findings from this study add support to the reported effectiveness of sleep health behavioral education in the prenatal care and clinical management of insomnia in pregnancy. PMID:25763271

  8. Qigong Improves Quality of Life in Women Undergoing Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Meng, Zhiqiang; Milbury, Kathrin; Bei, Wenying; Zhang, Ying; Thornton, Bob; Liao, Zhongxing; Wei, Qi; Chen, Jiayi; Guo, Xiaoma; Liu, Luming; McQuade, Jennifer; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy may lead to side-effects undermining patients’ quality of life (QOL). While mind-body practices such as qigong appear to improve QOL in cancer survivors, little is known about benefits for patients undergoing radiotherapy. Thus, this RCT examined the efficacy of a qigong intervention on QOL in women with breast cancer during and after treatment. Methods Ninety-six women with breast cancer were recruited from a cancer center in Shanghai, China, and randomized to the qigong (N=49) or waitlist control (N=47) group. Women in the qigong group attended 5 weekly classes over 5–6 weeks of radiotherapy. QOL outcomes (i.e., depressive symptoms, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and overall QOL) and cortisol slopes were assessed at baseline, during and at the end of treatment, and 1 and 3 months later. Results The mean age of the women was 46 years (range 25–64); stage 0 (7%) stage I (25%), stage II (40%) and stage III (28%); with over half (54%) having undergone mastectomy surgery. Multilevel analyses revealed that women in the qigong group reported less depressive symptoms over time than in the control group (P=.05). Women with elevated depressive symptoms at radiotherapy onset reported less fatigue (P<.01) and better overall QOL (P<.05) in the qigong compared to the control group. Findings were clinically significant. No significant differences were found for sleep disturbance and cortisol slopes. Conclusion Qigong may have therapeutic effects in the management of QOL in women receiving radiotherapy for breast cancer. Benefits were particularly evident for patients with pre-intervention elevated levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:23355182

  9. Taking Control: Non-Surgical Treatment Options for Urinary Incontinence in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... is urinary incontinence (UI)? Taking Control (5-minute video) Click on the video above for an introduction ... Are there other women like me? (8-minute video) Urinary incontinence happens to women of all ages ...

  10. Effect of dietary intervention on serum lignan levels in pregnant women - a controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mother's diet during pregnancy is important, since plant lignans and their metabolites, converted by the intestinal microflora to enterolignans, are proposed to possess multiple health benefits. Aim of our study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention affects lignan concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. Methods A controlled dietary intervention trial including 105 first-time pregnant women was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity health clinics. The intervention included individual counseling on diet and on physical activity, while the controls received conventional care. Blood samples were collected on gestation weeks 8-9 (baseline) and 36-37 (end of intervention). The serum levels of the plant lignans 7-hydroxymatairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, cyclolariciresinol, and pinoresinol, and of the enterolignans 7-hydroxyenterolactone, enterodiol, and enterolactone, were measured using a validated method. Results The baseline levels of enterolactone, enterodiol and the sum of lignans were higher in the control group, whereas at the end of the trial their levels were higher in the intervention group. The adjusted mean differences between the baseline and end of the intervention for enterolactone and the total lignan intake were 1.6 ng/ml (p = 0.018, 95% CI 1.1-2.3) and 1.4 ng/mg (p = 0.08, 95% CI 1.0-1.9) higher in the intervention group than in the controls. Further adjustment for dietary components did not change these associations. Conclusion The dietary intervention was successful in increasing the intake of lignan-rich food products, the fiber consumption and consequently the plasma levels of lignans in pregnant women. Trial registration ISRCTN21512277, http://www.isrctn.org PMID:20932282

  11. Adiposity and postural balance control: Correlations between bioelectrical impedance and stabilometric signals in elderly Brazilian women

    PubMed Central

    Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira; de Carvalho Rodrigues, Érika; de Oliveira, Juliana Flávia; de Sá Ferreira, Arthur; Dias, Cristina Márcia; dos Santos Silva, André Luís

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between body adiposity and postural control in elderly women. INTRODUCTION: Aging and obesity account for a significant portion of healthcare spending. Life expectancy is increasing worldwide, and Rio de Janeiro has the largest proportion of elderly residents of all Brazilian states. METHODS: A total of 45 women underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis, waist circumference measurements, weight and height measurements, and stabilometric tests in eight different stance conditions (opened and closed bases with both eyes opened and closed and right and left tandem and unilateral stances with eyes opened). During unilateral stances, the number of hand or foot contacts was counted. RESULTS: Weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fat percentage, and fat mass showed statistically significant (p<0.05) and positive correlations with the number of contacts made during unilateral stances. The subjects with greater fat mass showed significantly higher anterior-posterior standard deviation and range when their eyes were closed. The sway area was also greater for this group in opened base when their eyes were closed. DISCUSSION: The results relating body adiposity and postural control can be explained by the difficulty of maintaining a greater quantity of body fat mass within the limits of the individual support base, especially while assuming a unilateral stance. CONCLUSION: The subjects with a greater fat mass exhibited poor balance control, indicating that body adiposity level was associated with postural control in the elderly women examined in the present study. PMID:22179151

  12. Antenatal telephone support intervention with and without uterine artery Doppler screening for low risk nulliparous women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of routine antenatal visits provided to low risk nulliparous women has been reduced in the UK, acknowledging this change in care may result in women being less satisfied with their care and having poorer psychosocial outcomes. The primary aim of the study was to investigate whether the provision of proactive telephone support intervention (TSI) with and without uterine artery Doppler screening (UADS) would reduce the total number of antenatal visits required. A secondary aim was to investigate whether the interventions affected psychological outcomes. Methods A three-arm randomised controlled trial involving 840 low risk nulliparous women was conducted at a large maternity unit in North East England. All women received antenatal care in line with current UK guidance. Women in the TSI group (T) received calls from a midwife at 28, 33 and 36weeks and women in the telephone and Doppler group (T?+?D) received the TSI and additional UADS at 20weeks gestation. The main outcome measure was the total number of scheduled and unscheduled antenatal visits received after 20weeks gestation. Results The median number of unscheduled (n?=?2.0), scheduled visits (n?=?7.0) and mean number of total visits (n?=?8.8) were similar in the three groups. The majority (67%) of additional antenatal visits were made to a Maternity Assessment Unit because of commonly occurring pregnancy complications. Additional TSI+/UADS was not associated with differences in clinical outcomes, levels of anxiety, social support or satisfaction with care. There were challenges to the successful delivery of the telephone support intervention; 59% of women were contacted at 29 and 33weeks gestation reducing to 52% of women at 37weeks. Conclusions Provision of additional telephone support (with or without UADS) in low risk nulliparous women did not reduce the number of unscheduled antenatal visits or reduce anxiety. This study provides a useful insight into the reasons why this client group attend for unscheduled visits. Trial registration ISRCTN62354584 PMID:24685072

  13. A Pilot Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Electroacupuncture for Women with Pure Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanfang; Liu, Baoyan; Wu, Jiani; Du, Ruosang; Liu, Xiaoxu; Yu, Jinna; Liu, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is a potential conservative therapy for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). There is limited evidence to support its effectiveness due to the poor quality of existing studies. Methods We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial to preliminarily assess the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) in women with pure SUI. A total of 80 women with pure SUI were randomly assigned to receive EA with deep needling at BL33 and BL35 (n = 40) or sham EA with non-penetrating needling at sham acupoints (n = 40) three sessions per week for 6 weeks. The women were followed for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the amount of urine leakage measured by a 1-hour pad test after 6 weeks. The secondary outcomes included the 72-hour incontinence episode frequency (IEF), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score, and patient self-evaluation of therapeutic effect. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the trial. Results The median decrease from baseline of urine leakage measured by the 1-hour pad test was 2.5 g [interquartile range (IQR): 1.80–14.6 in the EA group, which was greater than the median decrease of 0.05 g (IQR: -2.80–+0.50) in the sham EA group after 6 weeks (p<0.01). The differences between groups in the decrease from baseline of 72-hour IEF became statistically significant at week 30 with a median decrease of 3.25 g (IQR: 1.25–5.69) in the EA group, and a median decrease of 1.00 g (IQR: -0.69–+2.88) in the sham EA group (p = 0.01). The participants in the EA group showed greater decreases in ICIQ-SF score and higher ratings in the help they received from the treatment than those in the sham EA group at weeks 6,18 and 30 (all p<0.05). No obvious AEs were observed in either group. Conclusion EA may effectively and safely relieve urinary incontinence symptoms and improve quality of life in women with pure SUI. EA demonstrated more than a placebo effect. Since this is a pilot study, results should be interpreted with caution. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02445573. PMID:26960195

  14. Effects of a Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Repeat Mammography Screening in Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Molina, Yamile; Roshani, Daem

    2014-01-01

    Background Although mammography use has increased in developed countries, regular screening in developing countries including Iran remains low. Multiple frameworks, including the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), have been used to understand screening practices among Iranians. The HBM includes intrapersonal constructs such as perceptions of breast cancer and mammography. The TPB includes interpersonal and environmental constructs, such as perceived control and subjective norms. Objectives The current study had 2 objectives: (1) to examine changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening in women receiving either intervention and women in the control group and (2) to compare changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening across the 2 interventions. Methods One hundred eight-four women from 3 randomly selected health centers in Sanandaj, Iran, participated. Eligibility criteria were being 50 years or older, having received a mammogram in the past 2 to 3 years, and no intention to obtain a mammogram within the next year. Results The TPB and HBM participants exhibited greater changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and were more likely to have a mammogram relative to control participants. The TPB and HBM participants exhibited comparable changes in constructs and repeat mammography. Conclusion Findings suggest both interventions equally improved mammography screening. Additional studies are furthermore warranted to address nonadherent Iranian womens needs in line with these conceptual models. Implications for Practice Use of the HBM and TPB constructs in clinical practice may be helpful to promote continued screening among this population. PMID:25122130

  15. Women's Ways of Leading: A Qualitative Content Analysis to Determine Leadership Messages Contained in Literature of National Panhellenic Conference Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fechner, Andrea M.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented the leadership messages sent to women in 16 of the National Panhellenic Conference groups' official literature. The purpose of the study was to provide detailed descriptive analysis using excerpts from the official literature to show both traditional and non-traditional (women's ways of leading) theoretical themes as well as…

  16. War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Riffat Moazam

    This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

  17. Effects of resistance training on sarcopenic obesity index in older women: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, André Bonadias; Paiva, Flávio Macedo Lahud; Gauche, Rafael; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Lima, Ricardo Moreno

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) on sarcopenic obesity (SO) in older women. 243 older women underwent body composition measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the SO index was calculated. This randomized controlled trial adopted from the baseline sample, 113 volunteers (67.0±5.2years) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n=64) or an experimental group (EG, n=69). The EG took part in a 24-week RT program, conducted three times per week. Body composition measurements were repeated at the end of the training program. RT induced a significant increase in fat-free mass (P<0.01), but not decrease in fat mass in the EG. Moreover, the SO index was also significantly improved in the EG (P<0.01), while it decreased significantly in the CG (P<0.01). It is concluded that RT is an effective approach to promote body composition alterations in older women, and it might improve SO-related phenotypes. PMID:27057600

  18. Adiposity changes after a 1-year aerobic exercise intervention among postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Friedenreich, C M; Woolcott, C G; McTiernan, A; Terry, T; Brant, R; Ballard-Barbash, R; Irwin, M L; Jones, C A; Boyd, N F; Yaffe, M J; Campbell, K L; McNeely, M L; Karvinen, K H; Courneya, K S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on adiposity outcomes that may be involved in the association between physical activity and breast cancer risk. Design: This study was a two-centre, two-armed, randomized controlled trial. The 1-year-long exercise intervention included 45 min of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise five times per week, with at least three of the sessions being facility based. The control group was asked not to change their activity and both groups were asked not to change their diet. Subjects: A total of 320 postmenopausal, sedentary, normal weight-to-obese women aged 50–74 years who were cancer-free, nondiabetic and nonhormone replacement therapy users were included in this study. Measurements: Anthropometric measurements of height, weight and waist and hip circumferences; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of total body fat; and computerized tomography measurements of abdominal adiposity were carried out. Results: Women in the exercise group exercised a mean of 3.6 days (s.d.=1.3) per week and 178.5 min (s.d.=76.1) per week. Changes in all measures of adiposity favored exercisers relative to controls (P<0.001). The mean difference between groups was: −1.8 kg for body weight; −2.0 kg for total body fat; −14.9 cm2 for intra-abdominal fat area; and −24.1 cm2 for subcutaneous abdominal fat area. A linear trend of greater body fat loss with increasing volume of exercise was also observed. Conclusion: A 1-year aerobic exercise program consistent with current public health guidelines resulted in reduced adiposity levels in previously sedentary postmenopausal women at higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:20820172

  19. Cervico-occipital Posture in Women With Migraine: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Gabriela Natália; Dach, Fabíola; Chaves, Thais Cristina; Pinheiro, Carina Ferreira; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Speciali, José Geraldo

    2016-04-01

    Study Design Case-control study. Background Previous studies have assessed forward head posture in patients with migraine using photographs. To date, no study has compared postural differences using both radiographs and photographs. Objective To determine the differences in head extension posture between women with migraine and healthy women assessed with radiographic and photographic measures. Methods Thirty-three women (mean ± SD age, 32 ± 11.3 years) with migraine and 33 matched controls (age, 33 ± 12.6 years) participated. Radiographs were used to measure the high cervical angle (HCA), the angle between the most inferior line from the occipital surface to the posterior portion of C1 and the posterior surface of the odontoid process of C2, and the vertical distance between C0 and C1 (C0-C1). Photographs and commercially available software were used to assess the craniovertebral angle (CVA). Results None of the outcomes differed significantly between women with migraine and control participants. Outcomes for women with migraine were HCA, 66.1° (95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.2°, 68.1°); CVA, 46.1° (95% CI: 45.0°, 47.1°); and C0-C1, 8.5 mm (95% CI: 7.7, 9.2). Outcomes for the control group were HCA, 67.9° (95% CI: 66.5°, 69.3°); CVA, 44.5° (95% CI: 43.2°, 45.7°); and C0-C1, 8.7 mm (95% CI: 7.9, 9.4). Relationships between the frequency (r = -0.42, P = .01, R (2) = 10%) of migraine and the HCA were found. Conclusion This study demonstrated that women with migraine did not exhibit forward head posture compared to women with no history of headache in either radiographic or photographic postural analysis. However, there was a weak association of the frequency of migraine attacks with a variation in the HCA as assessed by radiographs. Level of Evidence Differential diagnosis/symptom prevalence, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(4):251-257. Epub 8 Mar 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6166. PMID:26954270

  20. Genitourinary tract infections in pregnancy and low birth weight: case-control study in Australian aboriginal women.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R; Read, A W; Straton, J A; Stanley, F J; Morich, P

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the association between genital and urinary tract infections in pregnant Aboriginal women and low birth weight. DESIGN--Retrospective case-control study controlling for potential confounding variables. SETTING--Western Australia from 1985 to 1987. SUBJECTS--All Aboriginal women (n = 269) who had given birth to singleton infants weighing 2250 g or less (cases), and 269 randomly selected Aboriginal women who had given birth to singleton infants weighing 3000 g or more (controls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Proportions of women in case and control groups who had had genital and urinary tract infections; odds ratios for low birth weight when genitourinary tract infection was present; population attributable fraction of low birth weight to genitourinary tract infection. RESULTS--At the time of delivery 51% of women in the case group (109/215) had genitourinary tract infections compared with 13% of controls (35/266). After controlling for potential confounding variables the odds ratio for giving birth to infants weighing 2250 g or less when genitourinary tract infection was present was 4.0 (95% confidence interval 2.3 to 7.0). The proportion of infants with low birth weight attributable to genitourinary tract infection in the whole population of Aboriginal women was 32% (95% confidence interval 17% to 49%). CONCLUSIONS--There was a strong association between low birth weight and the presence of genitourinary tract infections in Aboriginal women both during pregnancy and at the time of delivery. A community intervention trial of screening and treatment of genitourinary infections in this population is recommended. PMID:1760603

  1. The influence of ethnic group variation on victimization and help seeking among Latino women.

    PubMed

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal violence research on Latinos has largely ignored the ethnic group variations that are included under the pan-ethnic term Latino. The current study adds to the literature by utilizing a national sample of Latino women to examine the interpersonal victimization experiences and help-seeking responses to victimization by ethnic group. The sample was drawn from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas Study (SALAS; Cuevas & Sabina, 2010) that surveyed 2,000 self-identified adult Latino women. For the purpose of this study, victimization in the United States was examined among Mexican ethnics (73.3% of sample), Cuban ethnics (14%), and other ethnics (12.8%). Mexican ethnicity was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of experiencing any, physical, sexual, threat, and stalking victimization. Findings also show that higher levels of Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with decreased odds of experiencing any victimization, whereas Anglo orientation, as measured by the Brief ARSMA-II (Cuéllar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995), was associated with greater odds of experiencing any victimization. Anglo orientation was significantly associated with formal help seeking. Taken as a whole, these findings emphasize the importance of bilingual and culturally competent services and also reveal that culturally competent services includes developing an understanding of the cultural differences between Latino ethnic groups. Specifically, service providers should be aware that Latinos of Mexican ethnicity may face unique risks for victimization. PMID:25111549

  2. Predictors of Plasma DDT and DDE Concentrations among Women Exposed to Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB)

    PubMed Central

    Bornman, Riana M.S.; Archer, Janet I.; Kudumu, Mwenda O.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Wilson, Ralph E.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined predictors of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels among residents in homes sprayed with DDT for malaria control with the aim of identifying exposure-reduction strategies. Methods: The present analysis included 381 women enrolled in the Study of Women and Babies (SOWB) during 2010–2011, from eight South African villages in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) occurred in half of the villages. Questionnaires regarding various demographic and medical factors were administered and blood samples were obtained. We classified the women into three exposure groups by type of residence: unsprayed village (n = 175), IRS village in household with a low likelihood of DDT use (non-DDT IRS household, n = 106), IRS village in household with a high likelihood of DDT use (DDT IRS household, n = 100). We used multivariable models of natural log-transformed DDT plasma levels (in micrograms per liter) and DDE (in micrograms per liter) to identify predictors for each group. Results: Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in unsprayed villages were 0.3 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.1–0.9] and 1.7 (IQR: 0.7–5.5), respectively. Median levels of DDT and DDE among women in DDT IRS households were 2.6 (IQR: 1.1–6.6) and 8.5 (IQR: 4.7–18.0), respectively. In unsprayed villages, women with water piped to the yard, rather than a public tap, had 73% lower DDT (95% CI: –83, –57%) and 61% lower DDE (95% CI: –74, –40%) levels. In DDT IRS households, women who reported taking more than six actions to prepare their home before IRS (e.g., covering water and food) had 40% lower DDT levels (95% CI: –63, –0.3%) than women who took fewer than four actions. Conclusion: The predictors of DDT and DDE plasma levels identified in the present study may inform interventions aimed at decreasing exposure. Among households where DDT is likely to be used for IRS, education regarding home preparations may provide an interventional target. Citation: Whitworth KW, Bornman RM, Archer JI, Kudumu MO, Travlos GS, Wilson RE, Longnecker MP. 2014. Predictors of plasma DDT and DDE concentrations among women exposed to indoor residual spraying for malaria control in the South African Study of Women and Babies (SOWB). Environ Health Perspect 122:545–552; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307025 PMID:24577839

  3. Food group preferences and energy balance in moderately obese postmenopausal women subjected to brisk walking program.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Sophie; Vallée, Karine; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Joffroy, Sandra; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Auneau, Gérard; Mauriège, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of a 16-week walking program on food group preferences and energy balance of sedentary, moderately obese (body mass index, 29-35 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal Caucasian women, aged 60 ± 5 years old. One hundred and fifty-six volunteers were subjected to 3 sessions/week of 45 min of walking at 60% of heart rate reserve. Total energy intake (TEI) and food group preferences (3-day dietary record), total energy expenditure (TEE, 3-day physical activity diary), cardiorespiratory fitness (2-km walking test), anthropometry, and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) were measured before and after walking. Data were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA with repeated measures on 1 factor (time). The modest increase in TEE of 151 ± 24 kcal/day (p < 0.0001) leads to body weight, fat mass losses, and waist girth reduction (p < 0.0001). TEI remained unchanged despite a slight decrease in carbohydrate intake and a minor increase in protein intake (p < 0.05). Analysis of food records revealed a decreased consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and sweet and fatty foods (p < 0.01), but an increase in oil consumption (p < 0.0001) after walking. Women with the highest body weight loss showed the greatest reduction in the consumption of fruits, sugar, sweet foods, and fatty foods (p < 0.05). Women with the greatest fat mass loss showed the highest decrease in fatty food intake (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although our walking program changed some food group consumption patterns, body weight loss was primarily because of the increased TEE. PMID:26140417

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods. All women treated with FCM for anemia during pregnancy between 2010 and 2012 at our institution were included. A matched control group was selected, including women who either were nonanemic or had anemia but were not considered for intravenous iron. Main outcome measures were maternal safety and pregnancy outcomes. Results. The study included 128 patients (FCM: 64; control: 64). Median FCM dose was 1000 mg and median gestational age at the time of first treatment was 34 weeks and 6 days. Median Hb increased from 8.4 g/dL (interquartile range 7.7; 8.9 g/dL) at the first FCM administration to 10.7 g/dL (9.8; 11.5 g/dL; n = 46 with available Hb at delivery) at the time of delivery, achieving levels similar to those in the control group (10.8 g/dL [9.8; 11.8 g/dL; n = 48]). No treatment-related adverse events were reported and no statistically significant differences in pregnancy outcomes were observed between groups. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this case control study, FCM was a safe and efficient treatment of anemia during pregnancy. PMID:26688686

  5. Safety and Efficacy of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Anemic Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pels, Anouk; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia during pregnancy is commonly caused by iron deficiency and can have severe consequences for both the mother and the developing fetus. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in pregnant women. Methods. All women treated with FCM for anemia during pregnancy between 2010 and 2012 at our institution were included. A matched control group was selected, including women who either were nonanemic or had anemia but were not considered for intravenous iron. Main outcome measures were maternal safety and pregnancy outcomes. Results. The study included 128 patients (FCM: 64; control: 64). Median FCM dose was 1000 mg and median gestational age at the time of first treatment was 34 weeks and 6 days. Median Hb increased from 8.4 g/dL (interquartile range 7.7; 8.9 g/dL) at the first FCM administration to 10.7 g/dL (9.8; 11.5 g/dL; n = 46 with available Hb at delivery) at the time of delivery, achieving levels similar to those in the control group (10.8 g/dL [9.8; 11.8 g/dL; n = 48]). No treatment-related adverse events were reported and no statistically significant differences in pregnancy outcomes were observed between groups. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this case control study, FCM was a safe and efficient treatment of anemia during pregnancy. PMID:26688686

  6. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18–45 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%), vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%), malodor 5 (4.5%), pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%), and dysuria 1 (0.9%). The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30%) cases, of which 18 (54.5%) were C. albicans and 15 (45.5%) non-albicans Candida (NAC) infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n = 10), C. tropicalis (n = 3), and C. krusei (n = 2). BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p = 0.001) and vulval itching/irritation (p = 0.007) was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management. PMID:26351613

  7. A comparison of field methods to assess body composition in a diverse group of sedentary women.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Aluf, Ana; Vincent, Linda; Cooper, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Accurate assessment of body composition is essential in the evaluation of obesity. While laboratory methods are commonly used to assess fat mass, field measures (e.g., skinfold thickness [SKF] and bioelectrical impedance [BIA]) may be more practical for screening large numbers of individuals in intervention studies. In this study, a correlational design was used among 46 racially and ethnically diverse, sedentary women (mean age = 25.73 years) to (a) compare the percentage of body fat as determined by SKF and the upper body BIA and (b) examine the effects of body mass index (BMI), racial/ethnic background, age, and stage of the menstrual cycle on differences in the estimated percentage of body fat obtained using the SKF and BIA. Overall, a significant correlation between SKF and BIA (r = .98, p < .001) was found, with similar findings among Black, Hispanic and White non-Hispanic women. The mean differences between BIA and SKF were not significantly correlated with BMI, age, race/ethnicity or stage of the menstrual cycle. Data from this study suggest that BIA showed similar body fat prediction values compared with SKF and may be a viable alternative to SKF among diverse groups of healthy women. Additional testing and comparison of these field methods with the laboratory methods of hydro-densitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is recommended to further determine whether BIA devices can be routinely recommended as an alternative to the SKF. PMID:19022781

  8. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%), vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%), malodor 5 (4.5%), pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%), and dysuria 1 (0.9%). The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30%) cases, of which 18 (54.5%) were C. albicans and 15 (45.5%) non-albicans Candida (NAC) infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n = 10), C. tropicalis (n = 3), and C. krusei (n = 2). BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p = 0.001) and vulval itching/irritation (p = 0.007) was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management. PMID:26351613

  9. Motivational Groups Support Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and use of Risk Reduction Behaviors in HIV Positive Nigerian Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Essien, James E.; Ekong, Ernest; Higgins, Melinda; Teplinskiy, Ilya; Adewuyi, Modupe Falilatu

    2013-01-01

    Nigerian women comprise the fastest growing group of persons with AIDS in Africa. Antiretroviral therapy has transformed the course of HIV/AIDS to a treatable, chronic illness worldwide. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a group intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) to promote adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and use of risk reduction behaviors (RRB) among HIV-infected women in Nigeria. Recruited participants (n=60) were randomly assigned to the motivational group or the health promotion program (HPP) control group. The 6 month follow-up results indicate that, compared to the control group, MI participants reported significantly higher levels of adherence to ART, higher knowledge of HIV, higher use of condoms/protection during sexual encounters and decision-making not to have sex when no protection was available. The MI participants also had fewer mean number of sexual partners. MI in group format shows promise in promoting adherence to ART and use of RRB in HIV-infected Nigerian women. PMID:23437496

  10. Asymptomatic group B streptococcal bacteriuria among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care. PMID:26510270

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, M.; Pegels, E.; Oviedo, P.; Pereyra, E.; Vergara, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramón Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4%) > levofloxacin (93.5%) > ciprofloxacin (64.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7%) was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 μg/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women. PMID:24031210

  12. Art therapy improves experienced quality of life among women undergoing treatment for breast cancer: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Svensk, A-C; Oster, I; Thyme, K E; Magnusson, E; Sjödin, M; Eisemann, M; Aström, S; Lindh, J

    2009-01-01

    Women with breast cancer are naturally exposed to strain related to diagnosis and treatment, and this influences their experienced quality of life (QoL). The present paper reports the effect, with regard to QoL aspects, of an art therapy intervention among 41 women undergoing radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer. The women were randomized to an intervention group with individual art therapy sessions for 1 h/week (n = 20), or to a control group (n = 21). The WHOQOL-BREF and EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-BR23, were used for QoL assessment, and administrated on three measurement occasions, before the start of radiotherapy and 2 and 6 months later. The results indicate an overall improvement in QoL aspects among women in the intervention group. A significant increase in total health, total QoL, physical health and psychological health was observed in the art therapy group. A significant positive difference within the art therapy group was also seen, concerning future perspectives, body image and systemic therapy side effects. The present study provides strong support for the use of art therapy to improve QoL for women undergoing radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer. PMID:19473224

  13. Group Interventions were not Effective for Female Turkish Migrants with Recurrent Depression – Recommendations from a Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Walter; Berry, John W.

    2010-01-01

    We tested group interventions for women with a Turkish migration background living in Austria and suffering from recurrent depression. N = 66 participants were randomized to: (1) Self-Help Groups (SHG), (2) Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) Groups, and (3) a Wait-List (WL) Control condition. Neither SHG nor CBT were superior to WL. On an individual basis, about one third of the participants showed significant improvements with respect to symptoms of depression. Younger women, women with a longer duration of stay in Austria and those who had encountered a higher number of traumatic experiences, showed increased improvement of depressive symptoms. The results suggest that individual treatment by ethnic, female psychotherapists should be preferred to group interventions. PMID:21976784

  14. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for myocardial perfusion and diastolic function—reference control values for women

    PubMed Central

    Bakir, May; Wei, Janet; Nelson, Michael D.; Mehta, Puja K.; Haftbaradaran, Afsaneh; Jones, Erika; Gill, Edward; Sharif, Behzad; Slomka, Piotr J.; Li, Debiao; Shufelt, Chrisandra L.; Minissian, Margo; Berman, Daniel S.; Bairey Merz, C. Noel

    2016-01-01

    Angina, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) are more common in women and are associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is established for assessment of left ventricular (LV) morphology and systolic function and is increasingly used to assess myocardial perfusion and diastolic function. Indeed, stress CMRI allows measurement of myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) using semi-quantitative techniques, and quantification of LV volumetric filling patterns provides valuable insight into LV diastolic function. The utility of these two techniques remains limited, because reference control values for MPRI and LV diastolic function in asymptomatic middle-aged, women have not previously been established. To address this limitation, we recruited twenty women, without clinical cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors, with normal maximal Bruce protocol exercise treadmill testing. Subjects underwent CMRI (1.5 tesla) using a standardized protocol of adenosine stress and rest perfusion and LV cinematic imaging. Commercially available with automated CMRI segmentation was used for calculation of MPRI, LV filling profiles, and ejection fraction. Mean age was 54±9 years and mean body mass index was 25±4 kg/m3. The exercise treadmill testing results demonstrated a normotensive group with normal functional capacity and hemodynamic response. We report reference control values for semi-quantitative MPRI as well as measures of LV systolic and diastolic function including ejection fraction, stroke volume, peak filling rate (PFR), PFR adjusted for end-diastolic volume (EDV) and stroke volume, time to PFR, and EDV index. The data herein provide reference values for MPRI and diastolic function in a cohort of healthy, middle-aged of women. These reference values may be used for comparison with a variety of patient populations, including women with CMD and HFpEF. PMID:26885495

  15. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for myocardial perfusion and diastolic function-reference control values for women.

    PubMed

    Bakir, May; Wei, Janet; Nelson, Michael D; Mehta, Puja K; Haftbaradaran, Afsaneh; Jones, Erika; Gill, Edward; Sharif, Behzad; Slomka, Piotr J; Li, Debiao; Shufelt, Chrisandra L; Minissian, Margo; Berman, Daniel S; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Thomson, Louise E J

    2016-02-01

    Angina, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) are more common in women and are associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is established for assessment of left ventricular (LV) morphology and systolic function and is increasingly used to assess myocardial perfusion and diastolic function. Indeed, stress CMRI allows measurement of myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) using semi-quantitative techniques, and quantification of LV volumetric filling patterns provides valuable insight into LV diastolic function. The utility of these two techniques remains limited, because reference control values for MPRI and LV diastolic function in asymptomatic middle-aged, women have not previously been established. To address this limitation, we recruited twenty women, without clinical cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors, with normal maximal Bruce protocol exercise treadmill testing. Subjects underwent CMRI (1.5 tesla) using a standardized protocol of adenosine stress and rest perfusion and LV cinematic imaging. Commercially available with automated CMRI segmentation was used for calculation of MPRI, LV filling profiles, and ejection fraction. Mean age was 54±9 years and mean body mass index was 25±4 kg/m(3). The exercise treadmill testing results demonstrated a normotensive group with normal functional capacity and hemodynamic response. We report reference control values for semi-quantitative MPRI as well as measures of LV systolic and diastolic function including ejection fraction, stroke volume, peak filling rate (PFR), PFR adjusted for end-diastolic volume (EDV) and stroke volume, time to PFR, and EDV index. The data herein provide reference values for MPRI and diastolic function in a cohort of healthy, middle-aged of women. These reference values may be used for comparison with a variety of patient populations, including women with CMD and HFpEF. PMID:26885495

  16. Academic detailing and adherence to guidelines for Group B streptococci prenatal screening: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) recommend universal prenatal screening for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) to identify candidates for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent early onset neonatal GBS infection. Interventions to promote physician adherence to these guidelines are imperative. This study examined the effectiveness of academic detailing (AD) of obstetricians, compared with CPG mailshot and no intervention, on the screening of pregnant women for GBS. Methods A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in the medical cooperative of Porto Alegre, Brazil. All obstetricians who assisted in a delivery covered by private health insurance managed by the cooperative in the 3 months preceding the study (n = 241) were invited to participate. The obstetricians were randomized to three groups: direct mail (DM, n = 76), AD (n = 76) and control (C, n = 89, no intervention). Those in the DM group were sent guidelines on GBS. The AD group received the guidelines and an educational visit detailing the guidelines, which was conducted by a trained physician. Data on obstetrician age, gender, time since graduation, whether patients received GBS screening during pregnancy, and obstetricians who requested screening were collected for all participant obstetricians for 3 months before and after the intervention, using database from the private health insurance information system. Results Three months post-intervention, the data showed that the proportion of pregnant women screened for GBS was higher in the AD group (25.4%) than in the DM (15.9%) and C (17.7%) groups (P = 0.023). Similar results emerged when the three groups were taken as a cluster (pregnant women and their obstetricians), but the difference was not statistically significant (Poisson regression, P = 0.108). Additionally, when vaginal deliveries were analyzed separately, the proportion screened was higher in the AD group (75%) than in the DM group (41.9%) and the C group (30.4%) (chi-square, P < 0.001). Conclusions The results suggest that AD increased the prevalence of GBS screening in pregnant women in this population. PMID:23510061

  17. Evaluation of a Group Program Designed to Increase Androgyny in Feminine Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulanick, Nancy A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Pre- and post-treatment measures of sex role orientation, assertiveness, and attainment of individual goals were obtained for 51 female participants. The one-year follow-up showed that the group subjected to principles of assertiveness training and consciousness raising were superior to the control group in androgyny, masculinity, and…

  18. Regular physical activity reduces the effects of Achilles tendon vibration on postural control for older women.

    PubMed

    Maitre, J; Serres, I; Lhuisset, L; Bois, J; Gasnier, Y; Paillard, T

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to determine in what extent physical activity influences postural control when visual, vestibular, and/or proprioceptive systems are disrupted. Two groups of healthy older women: an active group (74.0 ± 3.8 years) who practiced physical activities and a sedentary group (74.7 ± 6.3 years) who did not, underwent 12 postural conditions consisted in altering information emanating from sensory systems by means of sensory manipulations (i.e., eyes closed, cervical collar, tendon vibration, electromyostimulation, galvanic vestibular stimulation, foam surface). The center of foot pressure velocity was recorded on a force platform. Results indicate that the sensory manipulations altered postural control. The sedentary group was more disturbed than the active group by the use of tendon vibration. There was no clear difference between the two groups in the other conditions. This study suggests that the practice of physical activities is beneficial as a means of limiting the effects of tendon vibration on postural control through a better use of the not manipulated sensory systems and/or a more efficient reweighting to proprioceptive information from regions unaffected by the tendon vibration. PMID:24853711

  19. The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. Methods and design The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44–50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25–29.9 kg/m2) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n = 28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n = 26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). Discussion The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether a relatively low intensity, health professional led intervention will achieve better weight control in pre-menopausal women than a self-directed intervention. The results will add to the scant body of literature on obesity prevention methods at an under-researched high-risk life stage, and inform the development of population-based interventions. Trial registration ACTRN12611000064909 PMID:24156558

  20. Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of…

  1. Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)

  2. Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of

  3. Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

  4. Elevator Group Control Using Multiagent Task-Oriented Reinforcement Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, M. A. S.; Murata, Junichi; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    In this paper, a reinforcement learning method is proposed that optimizes passenger service in elevator group systems. Task-oriented reinforcement learning using multiple agents is applied in the control system in allocating immediate landing calls to the elevators and operating them intelligently in attaining better service in this stochastic dynamic domain. The proposed system shows better adaptive performance in different traffic profiles with faster convergence compared to the other learning elevator group control system.

  5. Safety and efficacy of antenatal milk expressing for women with diabetes in pregnancy: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Della A; Jacobs, Susan; Amir, Lisa H; Davis, Peter; Walker, Susan P; McEgan, Kerri; Opie, Gillian; Donath, Susan M; Moorhead, Anita M; Ford, Rachael; McNamara, Catharine; Aylward, Amanda; Gold, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many maternity providers recommend that women with diabetes in pregnancy express and store breast milk in late pregnancy so breast milk is available after birth, given (1) infants of these women are at increased risk of hypoglycaemia in the first 24 h of life; and (2) the delay in lactogenesis II compared with women without diabetes that increases their infant's risk of receiving infant formula. The Diabetes and Antenatal Milk Expressing (DAME) trial will establish whether advising women with diabetes in pregnancy (pre-existing or gestational) to express breast milk from 36 weeks gestation increases the proportion of infants who require admission to special or neonatal intensive care units (SCN/NICU) compared with infants of women receiving standard care. Secondary outcomes include birth gestation, breastfeeding outcomes and economic impact. Methods and analysis Women will be recruited from 34 weeks gestation to a multicentre, two arm, unblinded randomised controlled trial. The intervention starts at 36 weeks. Randomisation will be stratified by site, parity and diabetes type. Women allocated to the intervention will be taught expressing and encouraged to hand express twice daily for 10 min and keep an expressing diary. The sample size of 658 (329 per group) will detect a 10% difference in proportion of babies admitted to SCN/NICU (85% power, α 0.05). Data are collected at recruitment (structured questionnaire), after birth (abstracted from medical record blinded to group), and 2 and 12 weeks postpartum (telephone interview). Data analysis: the intervention group will be compared with the standard care group by intention to treat analysis, and the primary outcome compared using χ2 and ORs. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics approval will be obtained from participating sites. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented to clinicians, policymakers and study participants. Trial registration number Australian Controlled Trials Register ACTRN12611000217909. PMID:25358679

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Psycho-Education Intervention by Midwives in Reducing Childbirth Fear in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Toohill, Jocelyn; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Buist, Anne; Turkstra, Erika; Ryding, Elsa-Lena

    2014-01-01

    Background Childbirth fear is associated with increased obstetric interventions and poor emotional and psychological health for women. The purpose of this study is to test an antenatal psycho-education intervention by midwives in reducing women's childbirth fear. Methods Women (n = 1,410) attending three hospitals in South East Queensland, Australia, were recruited into the BELIEF trial. Participants reporting high fear were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 170) or control (n = 169) groups. All women received a decision-aid booklet on childbirth choices. The telephone counseling intervention was offered at 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. The control group received usual care offered by public maternity services. Primary outcome was reduction in childbirth fear (WDEQ-A) from second trimester to 36 weeks’ gestation. Secondary outcomes were improved childbirth self-efficacy, and reduced decisional conflict and depressive symptoms. Demographic, obstetric & psychometric measures were administered at recruitment, and 36 weeks of pregnancy. Results There were significant differences between groups on postintervention scores for fear of birth (p < 0.001) and childbirth self-efficacy (p = 0.002). Decisional conflict and depressive symptoms reduced but were not significant. Conclusion Psycho-education by trained midwives was effective in reducing high childbirth fear levels and increasing childbirth confidence in pregnant women. Improving antenatal emotional well-being may have wider positive social and maternity care implications for optimal childbirth experiences. PMID:25303111

  7. Daughters of Abya Yala: Native Women Regaining Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderete, Wara, Ed.; And Others

    This book compiles testimonies of the struggles, everyday life, and accomplishments of Indian women from Central and South America. Following an introduction to the increasing role of Indian women in international forums and indigenous organizations, the words of individual women describe the problems that affect them and their determination to…

  8. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. 4001.3 Section 4001.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups....

  9. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. 4001.3 Section 4001.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups....

  10. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. 4001.3 Section 4001.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups....

  11. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. 4001.3 Section 4001.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups....

  12. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. 4001.3 Section 4001.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups....

  13. Home ovulation tests and stress in women trying to conceive: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tiplady, S.; Jones, G.; Campbell, M.; Johnson, S.; Ledger, W.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does the use of a digital home ovulation test have any effect on the level of stress in women seeking to conceive? SUMMARY ANSWER No difference was found in levels of stress between women using digital ovulation tests to time intercourse compared with women who were trying to conceive without any additional aids: in addition, their use did not negatively impact time to conception in users but may provide additional benefits, including an increased understanding of the menstrual cycle, reassurance and confidence in focusing conception attempts to the correct time in the cycle. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY It has been suggested that timing of intercourse in such a way that it coincides with ovulation by using ovulation tests can lead to emotional distress; however, no study has been conducted to investigate this hypothesis specifically, until now. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION The study was performed over two complete menstrual cycles as a prospective, randomized, controlled trial including quantitative and qualitative methods. The intervention (test) group were given digital ovulation tests to time intercourse to the most fertile time of the cycle and the control group were provided with the current National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for increasing the chances of conception (intercourse every 2–3 days) and asked not to use any additional methods to time when ovulation occurs. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND METHODS A total of 210 women who were seeking to conceive were recruited from the general UK population. A total of 115 women were randomized to the test group and 95 to the control group through block randomization. The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) were used to measure subjective stress levels, the Short-Form 12 health survey was used as a measure of general health and well-being and urine samples were measured for biochemical markers of stress including urinary cortisol. Qualitative data were collected in the form of a telephone interview upon study completion. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no evidence for a difference either in total stress as measured using the PSS or in total positive or negative affect using the PANAS questionnaire between the test and control groups at any time point for the duration of the study. During cycle 1, for example, on Day 6, the difference in total stress score (test–control) was −0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) −2.47 to 1.24] and on the day of the LH surge, it was 0.53 (95% CI −1.38 to 2.44). In addition, no correlation was observed between time trying to conceive and levels of stress, or between age and levels of stress, and no evidence was found to show that stress affected whether or not a pregnancy was achieved. There is also no evidence that the biochemistry measurements are related to whether a pregnancy was achieved or of a difference in biochemistry between the treatment groups. The use of digital ovulation tests did not negatively affect time to conception and with an adequately sized study, could potentially show improvement. To ensure that the results of this study were not affected by chance, we used a number of different methods for measuring stress, each of which had been independently validated. LIMITATIONS AND REASONS FOR CAUTION Randomization occurred before the start of the study because of the need to provide the ovulation tests in readiness for Day 6 of the first cycle. As a consequence, a number of women fell pregnant during this period (22 and 13 in the test and control groups, respectively). A further 15 women were either lost to follow-up or withdrew consent prior to study start. Pregnancy rate was higher overall in the test group, so to ensure that there were sufficient data from women who failed to become pregnant in the test group, we implemented an additional biased recruitment. This second cohort may have been different from the first, although no significant differences were observed between the two phases of recruitment for any of the information collected upon admission to the study. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Women who seek medical advice while trying to conceive should not be discouraged by health care professionals from using digital ovulation tests in order to time intercourse. The cohort of women recruited to this study initially had no evidence of infertility and were looking to conceive in a non-medical setting. A separate study to assess the impact of home ovulation tests in a subfertile population would be of interest and complementary to the present study. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS This study was funded by SPD Swiss Precision Diagnostics, GmbH, manufacturer of Clearblue® pregnancy and ovulation tests. SPD Development Company Ltd is a wholly owned subsidiary of SPD Swiss Precision Diagnostics GmbH; together referred to as SPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER NCT01084304 (www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:23081872

  14. Experiences and Status of Chinese Rural Women: Differences among Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slimmer, Virginia M.; Kejing, Dai

    In Old China, working women had no rights in such matters as politics, economy, culture, society, and family life. Women were governed by the Chinese feudal society tradition. When "new" China was founded in 1949, working women made up the 7.5 percent of the total work force. By 1983, the number of working women had increased to 36.5 percent. In…

  15. Faculty Writing Groups: A Support for Women Balancing Family and Career on the Academic Tightrope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Sharon; Young, Gabrielle; Badenhorst, Cecile; Goodnough, Karen; Hesson, J.; Joy, Rhonda; McLeod, Heather; Pickett, Sarah; Stordy, Mary; Vaandering, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative research project explored the experiences of women who juggle the demands of family or parenthood while engaging in academic careers at a faculty of education. The researcher-participants consisted of 11 women; 9 women provided a written narrative, and all women participated in the data analysis. The data consisted of the…

  16. Sex hormones affect language lateralisation but not cognitive control in normally cycling women.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Weis, Susanne; Hausmann, Markus

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". Natural fluctuations of sex hormones during the menstrual cycle have been shown to modulate language lateralisation. Using the dichotic listening (DL) paradigm, a well-established measurement of language lateralisation, several studies revealed that the left hemispheric language dominance was stronger when levels of estradiol were high. A recent study (Hjelmervik et al., 2012) showed, however, that high levels of follicular estradiol increased lateralisation only in a condition that required participants to cognitively control (top-down) the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) response. This finding suggested that sex hormones modulate lateralisation only if cognitive control demands are high. The present study investigated language lateralisation in 73 normally cycling women under three attention conditions that differed in cognitive control demands. Saliva estradiol and progesterone levels were determined by luminescence immunoassays. Women were allocated to a high or low estradiol group. The results showed a reduced language lateralisation when estradiol and progesterone levels were high. The effect was independent of the attention condition indicating that estradiol marginally affected cognitive control. The findings might suggest that high levels of estradiol especially reduce the stimulus-driven (bottom-up) aspect of lateralisation rather than top-down cognitive control. PMID:26145565

  17. The effect of intensity controlled aerobic dance exercise on aerobic capacity of middle-aged, overweight women.

    PubMed

    Gillett, P A; Eisenman, P A

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intensity controlled exercise on the aerobic capacity of overweight, middle-aged women. Thirty-eight moderately overweight women, ages 35-57, participated in a 16-week dance-exercise program. Random assignment was made to an experimental group (n = 20) in which intensity of exercise was controlled and prescribed, and a control group (n = 18) in which exercise was of an intensity typical to commercial aerobic classes. Prior to the onset of training, and at the completion of 16 weeks, the following fitness tests were administered: Aerobic capacity expressed as VO2 max, body composition analysis, blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting heart rate, muscular endurance, and flexibility. T-tests, ANCOVA, and gain-score analyses were utilized to evaluate data. Both groups showed small changes in weight, percent fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), muscular endurance, and flexibility, but these changes were statistically nonsignificant. The VO2 max for the experimental group increased 41%, while the VO2 max for the control group increased 22% (p less than 0.05). The results suggest that the cardiovascular fitness changes for overweight, middle-aged women are greater when exercise intensity and progression are tailored to their age and fitness level. PMID:3423310

  18. Dialogical Exposure with Traumatically Bereaved Bosnian Women: Findings from a Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hagl, Maria; Powell, Steve; Rosner, Rita; Butollo, Willi

    2015-11-01

    Objective In this trial, we compared the relative efficacy of dialogical exposure group treatment using Gestalt empty-chair method with a supportive group in the treatment of symptoms stemming from traumatic loss in a post-war society. Methods One-hundred and nineteen women whose husbands were either killed or registered as missing during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina were quasi-randomized to seven sessions of group treatment with dialogical exposure or to an active control condition. Results Both interventions resulted in significant improvement from baseline to post-treatment for both kinds of loss, in terms of post-traumatic symptoms, general mental health and grief reactions, with the exception of depression and traumatic grief in the control condition. Regarding mean effect sizes (Cohen's d), pre-treatment to post-treatment improvements were moderate (d = 0.56) for the dialogical exposure group and small (d = 0.34) for the supportive group. Treatment gains were maintained at least until the 1-year follow-up. In controlled comparisons, dialogical exposure was superior concerning traumatic grief (Cohen's d = 0.37) and post-traumatic avoidance (d = 0.73) at post-treatment. Conclusions Results show that short-term dialogical exposure group treatment was moderately effective in treating traumatically bereaved women. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message Research attests to high levels of symptoms among post-war civil populations, in particular, when a loved one was killed, which can lead not only to trauma reactions but also to severe separation distress. Grieving the loss of a loved one is hampered if the death remains unconfirmed. Unconfirmed loss could be conceptualized as unfinished business in terms of Gestalt therapy, which offers empty-chair dialogue for resolving unfinished business and grief. Dialogical exposure therapy (DET) supports the client in gaining awareness of and expressing his or her inner dialogues concerning the traumatic event, using Gestalt empty-chair method. Short-term DET was effective in treating traumatically bereaved women but showed little additional effects in comparison with a supportive group treatment, so further research is warranted. PMID:25256361

  19. Thyroid function: comparison of women in late pregnancy with control women of reproductive age in regions of dietary iodine excess.

    PubMed

    Du, Quxiao; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Li

    2013-07-01

    Three hundred pregnant women and 300 women of reproductive age (controls) were selected from regions with a dietary iodine excess to evaluate thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions. Fasting morning urine and venous blood samples were collected. Urinary iodine concentration, serum free tri-iodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone (sTSH), serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) levels were determined. Iodine levels were excessive in 83.7% of pregnant women and 80.7% of the control women. The former showed lower rates of total thyroid disease and subclinical hypothyroidism than the latter (21.7% vs 29.7%, P < 0.05; 19.7% vs 27.3%, P < 0.05). The FT3 level, FT4 level, and TGAb positive rate of pregnant women were lower than that in the controls (P < 0.05). Thus, both excessive iodine intake and pregnancy can influence the thyroid and autoimmune thyroid functions of women. PMID:23858522

  20. Detection of Group B Streptococcus in Brazilian pregnant women and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Filho, Didier Silveira; da Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Nascimento, Thiago César; de Toledo Vieira, Marcel; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2010-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is still not routinely screened during pregnancy in Brazil, being prophylaxis and empirical treatment based on identification of risk groups. This study aimed to investigate GBS prevalence in Brazilian pregnant women by culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated to the enrichment culture, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated bacteria, so as to support public health policies and empirical prophylaxis. After an epidemiological survey, vaginal and anorectal specimens were collected from 221 consenting laboring women. Each sample was submitted to enrichment culture and sheep blood agar was used to isolate suggestive GBS. Alternatively, specific PCR was performed from enrichment cultures. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for isolated bacteria by agar diffusion method. No risk groups were identified. Considering the culture-based methodology, GBS was detected in 9.5% of the donors. Twenty five bacterial strains were isolated and identified. Through the culture-PCR methodology, GBS was detected in 32.6% specimens. Bacterial resistance was not detected against ampicillin, cephazolin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin, whereas 22.7% were resistant to erythromycin and 50% were resistant to clindamycin. GBS detection may be improved by the association of PCR and enrichment culture. Considering that colony selection in agar plates may be laboring and technician-dependent, it may not reflect the real prevalence of streptococci. As in Brazil prevention strategies to reduce the GBS associated diseases have not been adopted, prospective studies are needed to anchor public health policies especially considering the regional GBS antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. PMID:24031585

  1. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Suriani; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Latiff, Khalib A.; Saad, Hazizi A.; Majid, Latifah A.; Othman, Fadlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B) and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A). Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01). Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively). Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08), BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01). Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients. PMID:25685394

  2. Findings from Focus Groups Indicating what Chinese American immigrant women think about breast cancer and breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Lin, Frances; Menon, Usha; Nail, Lillian; Lutz, Kristin F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore beliefs of Chinese American, immigrant women related to breast cancer and mammography. Design Qualitative description with semi-structured focus groups. Setting Metropolitan Portland, Oregon. Participants Thirty eight foreign-born Chinese women, age 40 and older, in five focus groups. Methods Focus group discussions in Chinese were audio taped, transcribed, and translated into English. Using a process of directed content analysis, group transcripts were coded for themes based on the discussion guide. Results Three main themes emerged from the analysis: knowledge and beliefs; support, communication, and educational needs; and access to care. Subthemes included beliefs such as barriers and facilitators to screening and perceptions about personal breast cancer risk. Several women were profoundly affected by the negative breast cancer-related experiences of relatives and friends. Some common myths remain about causes and treatment of breast cancer. Conclusions Although Chinese American immigrant women share beliefs with other minority women in the United States, some culturally-related barriers such as alienation due to cultural reasons for not sharing diagnosis with anyone and beliefs about the efficacy of Eastern versus Western medicine may affect adherence to screening and treatment. Facilitators included being told to get the test and getting screened for the sake of the family, while erroneous information about the cause of breast cancer such as diet and stress remained. Primary care providers such as advanced practice nurses should take into account culturally driven motivations and barriers to mammography adherence among Chinese American immigrant women. Provider-client interactions should involve more discussion about women’s breast cancer risks and screening harms and benefits. Such awareness could open a dialogue around breast cancer that is culturally sensitive and non-threatening to the patient. Information may need to be tailored to women individually or targeted to sub-ethnic groups rather than using generic messages for all Asian immigrant women. PMID:22537294

  3. Control of the upper body accelerations in young and elderly women during level walking

    PubMed Central

    Mazzà, Claudia; Iosa, Marco; Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2008-01-01

    Background The control of the head movements during walking allows for the stabilisation of the optic flow, for a more effective processing of the vestibular system signals, and for the consequent control of equilibrium. In young individuals, the oscillations of the upper body during level walking are characterised by an attenuation of the linear acceleration going from pelvis to head level. In elderly subjects the ability to implement this motor strategy is reduced. The aim of this paper is to go deeper into the mechanisms through which the head accelerations are controlled during level walking, in both young and elderly women specifically. Methods A stereophotogrammetric system was used to reconstruct the displacement of markers located at head, shoulder, and pelvis level while 16 young (age: 24 ± 4 years) and 20 older (age: 72 ± 4 years) female volunteers walked at comfortable and fast speed along a linear pathway. The harmonic coefficients of the displacements in the medio-lateral (ML), antero-posterior (AP), and vertical (V) directions were calculated via discrete Fourier transform, and relevant accelerations were computed by analytical double differentiation. The root mean square of the accelerations were used to define three coefficients for quantifying the attenuations of the accelerations from pelvis to head, from pelvis to shoulder, and from shoulder to head. Results The coefficients of attenuation were shown to be independent from the walking speed, and hence suitable for group and subject comparison. The acceleration in the AP direction was attenuated by the two groups both from pelvis to shoulder and from shoulder to head. The reduction of the shoulder to head acceleration, however, was less effective in older women, suggesting that the ability to exploit the cervical hinge to attenuate the AP acceleration is challenged in this population. Young women managed to exploit a pelvis to shoulder attenuation strategy also in the ML direction, whereas in the elderly group the head acceleration was even larger than the pelvis acceleration. Conclusion The control of the head acceleration is fundamental when implementing a locomotor strategy and its loss could be one of the causes for walking instability in elderly women. PMID:19014631

  4. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Sæteren, Berit

    2016-04-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and focus group interviews, was used. The sample consisted of 19 schoolchildren, aged 12-13 years, 3 of whom were victimized. Six individual interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted. Findings show that support groups contribute to the cessation of bullying and improvements remain 3 months later. The support groups experience feeling important and helping others. It is important for the school nurse and teachers to follow up with victimized children, in collaboration with their parents, to help the victim to no longer be a victim and to take control. PMID:26072469

  5. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment.

    PubMed

    Perry, Courtney D; Degeneffe, Dennis; Davey, Cynthia; Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Reicks, Marla

    2016-01-01

    Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40-60 years) increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354) in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185) received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169) received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48). Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change. PMID:27231927

  6. Mechanisms of postural control in alcoholic men and women: biomechanical analysis of musculoskeletal coordination during quiet standing.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Sullivan EV; Rose J; Pfefferbaum A

    2010-03-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive sway during quiet standing is a common sequela of chronic alcoholism even with prolonged sobriety. Whether alcoholic men and women who have remained abstinent from alcohol for weeks to months differ from each other in the degree of residual postural instability and biomechanical control mechanisms has not been directly tested.METHOD: We used a force platform to characterize center-of-pressure biomechanical features of postural sway, with and without stabilizing conditions from touch, vision, and stance, in 34 alcoholic men, 15 alcoholic women, 22 control men, and 29 control women. Groups were matched in age (49.4 years), general intelligence, socioeconomic status, and handedness. Each alcoholic group was sober for an average of 75 days.RESULTS: Analysis of postural sway when using all 3 stabilizing conditions versus none revealed diagnosis and sex differences in ability to balance. Alcoholics had significantly longer sway paths, especially in the anterior-posterior direction, than controls when maintaining erect posture without balance aids. With stabilizing conditions the sway paths of all groups shortened significantly, especially those of alcoholic men, who demonstrated a 3.1-fold improvement in sway path difference between the easiest and most challenging conditions; the remaining 3 groups, each showed a approximately 2.4-fold improvement. Application of a mechanical model to partition sway paths into open-loop and closed-loop postural control systems revealed that the sway paths of the alcoholic men but not alcoholic women were characterized by greater short-term (open-loop) diffusion coefficients without aids, often associated with muscle stiffening response. With stabilizing factors, all 4 groups showed similar long-term (closed loop) postural control. Correlations between cognitive abilities and closed-loop sway indices were more robust in alcoholic men than alcoholic women.CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in sway and closed-loop activity during quiet standing with stabilizing factors shows some differential expression in men and women with histories of alcohol dependence. Nonetheless, enduring deficits in postural instability of both alcoholic men and alcoholic women suggest persisting liability for falling.

  7. Human rights versus legal control over women's reproductive self-determination.

    PubMed

    Uberoi, Diya; de Bruyn, Maria

    2013-01-01

    States have a duty under international human rights law to protect people's health. Nonetheless, while some health-related policies and laws protect basic human rights, others violate fundamental rights when they criminalize, prohibit, and restrict access to necessary health services. For example, laws and regulations related to protection of life from conception, contraception, actions of pregnant women, and abortion can harm women and place women and health care providers in jeopardy of legal penalization. Given the adverse consequences of punitive and restrictive laws related to pregnancy, advocates, civil society groups, human rights groups, and government institutions must work together to promote, protect, and fulfill women's fundamental reproductive rights. PMID:25006084

  8. The Influence of Perception Training on Communication Between Polarized Groups of Officers and Inmates at the Colorado Women's Correctional Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Denamae Dawson

    Those who wish to bring about positive communication between two groups with strongly polarized attitudes cannot do so merely by bringing the groups together for interaction. A study of inmates and officers at a women's prison revealed the potential of perception training for changing initially polarized conceptions. Analyses of subjects'…

  9. The Influence of Perception Training on Communication Between Polarized Groups of Officers and Inmates at the Colorado Women's Correctional Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Denamae Dawson

    Those who wish to bring about positive communication between two groups with strongly polarized attitudes cannot do so merely by bringing the groups together for interaction. A study of inmates and officers at a women's prison revealed the potential of perception training for changing initially polarized conceptions. Analyses of subjects'

  10. A Pilot Study of a Group-Based HIV and STI Prevention Intervention for Lesbian, Bisexual, Queer, and Other Women Who Have Sex with Women in Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Weaver, James; Navia, Daniela; Este, David

    2015-06-01

    Limited research has evaluated interventions to reduce HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) vulnerability among lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women, and other women who have sex with women. The Queer Women Conversations (QWC) study examined the effectiveness of a group-based psycho-educational HIV/STI intervention with LBQ women in Toronto and Calgary, Canada. We conducted a nonrandomized cohort pilot study. Participants completed a pre-test, post-test, and 6-week follow-up. The primary outcome was sexual risk practices, while secondary objectives included intrapersonal (self-esteem, STI knowledge, resilient coping, depression), interpersonal (safer sex self-efficacy), community (community connectedness, social support), and structural (sexual stigma, access to healthcare) factors. The study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov. Forty-four women (mean age 28.7 years) participated in a weekend retreat consisting of six consecutive sessions tailored for LBQ women. Sessions covered a range of topics addressing behavioral and social-structural determinants of HIV/STI risk, including STI information, safer sex negotiation skills, and addressing sexual stigma. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, sexual risk practices (β2=-2.96, 95% CI -4.43, -1.50), barrier use self-efficacy (β2=1.52, 95% CI 0.51, 2.53), STI knowledge (β2=4.41, 95% CI 3.52, 5.30), and sexual stigma (β2=-2.62, 95% CI -3.48, -1.75) scores showed statistically significant changes 6 weeks post-intervention. Initial increases in safer sex self-efficacy, social support, and community connectedness were not sustained at 6-week follow up, highlighting the need for booster sessions or alternative approaches to address social factors. Study results may inform HIV/STI prevention interventions, sexual health care provision, and support services tailored for LBQ women. PMID:25867642

  11. Lipschitz control of geodesics in the Heisenberg group.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Robert Dan

    2010-12-01

    Monge first posed his (L{sup 1}) optimal mass transfer problem: to find a mapping of one distribution into another, minimizing total distance of transporting mass, in 1781. It remained unsolved in R{sup n} until the late 1990's. This result has since been extended to Riemannian manifolds. In both cases, optimal mass transfer relies upon a key lemma providing a Lipschitz control on the directions of geodesics. We will discuss the Lipschitz control of geodesics in the (subRiemannian) Heisenberg group. This provides an important step towards a potential theoretic proof of Monge's problem in the Heisenberg group.

  12. Exploring Young Women's Perceptions of the Effectiveness and Safety of Maladaptive Weight Control Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Subich, Linda Mezydlo

    2002-01-01

    Despite emerging awareness that maladaptive perceptions regarding weight control techniques may be important in the development of women's disturbed eating behaviors, no research has examined perceptions of weight control techniques as a function of women's placement on the eating disorder continuum. Study examines perceptions of the effectiveness…

  13. 2007 Presidential Address: Fear of Losing Control--Power, Perfectionism, and the Psychology of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    2008-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence and popular culture suggest that fear of losing control of oneself is common among North American women, yet there is little in the way of data or theory to show why so many women fear loss of control or how to help them to leave that fear behind. In this article a commonly accepted definition of self-regulation is examined…

  14. Controlling Images, Media, and Women's Development: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Tonya R.

    2009-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and controlling images are embedded in the cultural textbook of cinema. Women are disempowered and marginalized by these images, and it is important to explore the existence and prevalence of these images in order to examine their effects on women's development. A review of the literature concerning controlling images and the

  15. Controlling Images, Media, and Women's Development: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Tonya R.

    2009-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and controlling images are embedded in the cultural textbook of cinema. Women are disempowered and marginalized by these images, and it is important to explore the existence and prevalence of these images in order to examine their effects on women's development. A review of the literature concerning controlling images and the…

  16. Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanton, Carmela R.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.

  17. Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043

  18. Use of online safety decision aid by abused women: effect on decisional conflict in randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eden, Karen B.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Messing, Jill T.; Bloom, Tina L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Gielen, Andrea C.; Clough, Amber S.; Barnes-Hoyt, Jamie S.; Glass, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background An Internet safety decision aid was developed to help abused women understand their risk for repeat and near-lethal intimate partner violence, clarify priorities related to safety, and develop an action plan customized to these priorities. Purpose The overall purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a safety decision aid compared with usual safety planning (control) delivered through a secure website, using a multi-state randomized controlled trial design. The paper evaluated the effectiveness of the safety decision aid in reducing decisional conflict after a single use by abused women. Design Randomized controlled trial referred to as IRIS, Internet Resource for Intervention and Safety Participants Abused women who spoke English (N = 708) were enrolled in a four-state, randomized controlled trial. Intervention and Control The intervention was an interactive safety decision aid with personalized safety plan; the control condition was usual safety planning resources. Both were delivered to participants through the secure study website. Main Outcome Measures This paper compared women’s decisional conflict about safety: total decisional conflict and the four subscales of this measure (feeling: uninformed, uncertain, unclear about safety priorities; and sensing lack of support) between intervention/control conditions. Data were collected 3/2011–5/2013 and analyzed 1/2014–3/2014. Results Immediately following the first use of the interactive safety decision aid, intervention women had significantly lower total decisional conflict than control women, controlling for baseline value of decisional conflict (p=0.002, effect size=.12). After controlling for baseline values, the safety decision aid group had significantly greater reduction in feeling uncertain (p=0.006, effect size=.07), and in feeling unsupported (p=0.008, effect size=.07) about safety than the usual safety planning group. Conclusions Abused women randomized to the safety decision aid reported less decisional conflict about their safety in the abusive intimate relationship after one use compared to women randomized to the usual safety planning condition. PMID:25547929

  19. Characterization of a Normal Control Group: Are they Healthy?

    PubMed Central

    Aine, CJ; Sanfratello, L; Adair, JC; Knoefel, JE; Qualls, C; Lundy, SL; Caprihan, A; Stone, D; Stephen, JM

    2013-01-01

    We examined the health of a control group (18–81 years) in our aging study, which is similar to control groups used in other neuroimaging studies. The current study was motivated by our previous results showing that one third of the elder control group had moderate to severe white matter hyperintensities and/or cortical volume loss which correlated with poor performance on memory tasks. Therefore, we predicted that cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, high cholesterol) within the control group would account for significant variance on working memory task performance. Fifty-five participants completed 4 verbal and spatial working memory tasks, neuropsychological exams, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and blood tests to assess vascular risk. In addition to using a repeated measures ANOVA design, a cluster analysis was applied to the vascular risk measures as a data reduction step to characterize relationships between conjoint risk factors. The cluster groupings were used to predict working memory performance. The results show that higher levels of systolic blood pressure were associated with: 1) poor spatial working memory accuracy; and 2) lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple brain regions. In contrast, higher levels of total cholesterol corresponded with increased accuracy in verbal working memory. An association between lower FA values and higher cholesterol levels were identified in different brain regions from those associated with systolic blood pressure. The conjoint risk analysis revealed that Risk Cluster Group 3 (the group with the greatest number of risk factors) displayed: 1) the poorest performance on the spatial working memory tasks; 2) the longest reaction times across both spatial and verbal memory tasks; and 3) the lowest FA values across widespread brain regions. Our results confirm that a considerable range of vascular risk factors are present in a typical control group, even in younger individuals, which have robust effects on brain anatomy and function. These results present a new challenge to neuroimaging studies both for defining a cohort from which to characterize `normative' brain circuitry and for establishing a control group to compare with other clinical populations. PMID:24060318

  20. A qualitative evaluation of online chat groups for women completing a psychological intervention for female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hucker, Alice; McCabe, Marita P

    2014-01-01

    Because of the embarrassment that can surround female sexual dysfunctions, online interventions offer an anonymous and private treatment alternative. Recently, an online cognitive-behavioral treatment for female sexual dysfunctions was evaluated. Although significant improvements were observed in sexual functioning, the treatment was primarily a behavioral intervention because of difficulties with engaging participants in cognitive therapy over e-mail. To address this limitation, the use of chat groups was incorporated into a new online treatment for female sexual dysfunctions-the PursuingPleasure program. Thirty-eight women participated in the PursuingPleasure chat groups. The goals of the chat groups were to address and overcome challenges as women progressed through PursuingPleasure and to create a social support network where group therapy processes could be used. The chat groups aimed to address misunderstandings, monitor changes, and receive feedback. A qualitative analysis of the chat groups revealed that they helped to facilitate the cognitive-affective aspects of the program, as well as fulfill their other intended functions. This study demonstrates how the use of chat groups in the online treatment of female sexual dysfunctions is a useful addition to Internet-based treatment. Feedback suggests that the chat groups were one of the most helpful aspects of the program, although a small group of women reported finding the groups unhelpful. PMID:23768099

  1. The Black Woman Worker: A Minority Group Perspective on Women at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    1986-01-01

    Being black and female is a double disadvantage in the labor market. Black women work in higher proportions than other women, but their wages are less and many have undesirable jobs. Some black women are experiencing more employment success, but as racial discrimination lessens, they face sexism. (VM)

  2. A Group-Based Program of Emotional Recovery for Younger Women Following Myocardial Infarction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Michele J.; Buchanan, Marla J.

    2007-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of illness, disability, and death among women in Canada. Myocardial infarction (MI) accounts for almost half of these deaths yearly. The purpose of this study was to understand younger women's experience of recovery from MI. A purposive sample consisting of six younger women diagnosed with MI participated in …

  3. Moving beyond safe sex to women-controlled safe sex: A concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kamila A.; Coleman, Christopher L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Jemott, Loretta S.

    2011-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of a conceptual analysis of women-controlled safe sex. Background Women bear disproportionate burdens from sexually-related health compromising outcomes. Imbalanced societal gender and power positions contribute to high morbidities. The expression, women-controlled safe sex, aims to empower women to gain control of their sexual lives. Few researchers focus on contextualized socio-cultural definitions of sexual safety among women. Data Sources The sample included scientific literature from Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Sociological Abstracts. Papers were published 2000–2010. Review Methods Critical analyses of literature about women-controlled safe sex were performed using Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis methods. The search focused on social and cultural influences on sexual practices aimed at increasing women’s control over their sexual safety. Results The analysis uncovered five attributes of women-controlled safe sex: technology; access to choices; women at-risk; “condom migration” panic; and communication. Three antecedents included: male partner influence; body awareness; and self-efficacy. Consequences were categorized as positive or negative. Nine surrogate terms included: empowerment; gender power; female-controlled sexual barrier method; microbicides; diaphragm; sexual negotiation and communication; female condom; women-initiated disease transmission prevention; and spermicides. Finally, a consensus definition was identified: a socio- culturally influenced multilevel process for initiating sexual safety by women deemed at-risk for sexually-related dangers, usually sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV/AIDS. Conclusion This concept analysis described current significance, uses, and applications of women-controlled safe sex in the scientific literature. The authors clarified its limited nature and conclude that additional conceptual refinement in nursing is necessary to influence women’s health. PMID:22111843

  4. Determinants of Weight Gain Prevention in Young Adult and Midlife Women: Study Design and Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of overweight and obesity through body weight reduction has been monumentally ineffective as few individuals are able to sustain weight loss. Rather than treating weight gain once it has become problematic, prevention of weight gain over time may be more effective. Objective The aim of this research is to preclude the burden of adult obesity in women by identifying the determinants of weight gain prevention. The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to compare a weight gain prevention intervention delivered by the registered dietitian versus counselor. Methods This is a 12-month parallel-arm weight gain prevention RCT designed to increase self-efficacy, self-regulation, outcome expectations and family and social support through the use of a nutrition education intervention in women, aged 18-45 years, from the Urbana-Champaign (Illinois, USA) area. Women have been randomized to registered dietitian, counselor or wait-list control groups (August 2014) and are undergoing weekly nutrition education sessions for four months, followed by monthly sessions for eight months (through August 2015). Outcome measures, including: (1) dietary intake, (2) physical activity, (3) anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, (4) biochemical markers of health, (5) eating behaviors and health perceptions, and (6) mediators of behavior change, were collected before the intervention began (baseline) and will be collected at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of the study. Results In total, 87 women have been randomized to intervention groups, and 81 women have completed first week of the study. Results are expected in early 2016. Conclusions This RCT is one of the first to examine weight gain prevention in women across normal, overweight, and obese body mass index categories. Results of this research are expected to have application to evidence-based practice in weight gain prevention for women and possibly have implication for policy regarding decreasing the encumbrance of overweight and obesity in the United States. PMID:25831450

  5. 76 FR 31543 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Register on Thursday, April 21, 2011 (76 FR 22336). Persons who wish to present oral comments at the... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on proposed rulemaking....

  6. Control Group Studies of Suicide Survivors: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews empirical studies of suicide survivors with designs that include control groups. Discusses investigations individually with respect to those in which participating survivors are friends or combination of different relationships to deceased, parents of deceased child, and spouses. Discusses commonalities of findings and most frequent…

  7. Summary of beam quality diagnostics and control working group

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, John; Piot, Philippe; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    The working group on beam quality, diagnostics, and control at the 12th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. The generation of bright charged-particle beams (in particular electron and positron beams), along with state-of-the-art beam diagnostics and synchronization were discussed.

  8. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  9. 76 FR 22336 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This document contains...: LPD: PR (REG-118761-09), Internal Revenue Service, PO Box 7604, Ben Franklin Station, Washington,...

  10. 26 CFR 1.267(f)-1 - Controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.267(f)-1 Controlled groups. (a) In general—(1) Purpose. This... § 1.1502-13. See also, sections 269 (acquisitions to evade or avoid income tax) and 482...

  11. Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

  12. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Methods A five group design included a comparison group and a 2 × 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. Results At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Conclusions Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial intervention period, but only dietary changes persisted Enhanced social support and the ability to interact with others during the show were not effective complementary intervention components as conducted in this trial. Future research to strengthen the ability of this approach to achieve long term effects may offer even more promising outcomes. PMID:24373253

  13. Innovative psycho-educational program to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a before and after controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Universal interventions to prevent postnatal mental disorders in women have had limited success, perhaps because they were insufficiently theorised, not gender-informed and overlooked relevant risk factors. This study aimed to determine whether an innovative brief psycho-educational program for mothers, fathers and first newborns, which addressed salient learning needs about infant behaviour management and adjustment tasks in the intimate partner relationship, prevented postpartum mental health problems in primiparous women. Methods A before and after controlled study was conducted in primary care in seven local government areas in Victoria, Australia. English-speaking couples with one-week old infants were invited consecutively to participate by the maternal and child health nurse at the universal first home visit. Two groups were recruited and followed sequentially: both completed telephone interviews at four weeks and six months postpartum and received standard health care. Intervention group participants were also invited to attend a half-day program with up to five couples and one month old infants, facilitated by trained, supervised nurses. The main outcome was any Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) diagnosis of Depression or Anxiety or Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Anxiety, or Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood in the first six months postpartum. Factors associated with the outcome were established by logistic regression controlling for potential confounders and analysis was by intention to treat. Results In total 399/646 (62%) women were recruited; 210 received only standard care and 189 were also offered the intervention; 364 (91%) were retained at follow up six months postpartum. In women without a psychiatric history (232/364; 64%), 36/125 (29%) were diagnosed with Depression or Anxiety or Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Anxiety, or Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood in the control group, compared with 16/107 (15%) in the intervention group. In those without a psychiatric history, the adjusted odds ratio for diagnosis of a common postpartum mental disorder was 0.43 (95% CI 0.21, 0.89) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusions A universal, brief psycho-educational group program for English-speaking first time parents and babies in primary care reduces de novo postpartum mental disorders in women. A universal approach supplemented by an additional program may improve effectiveness for women with a psychiatric history. Trial registration ACTRN 12605000567628. PMID:20653934

  14. Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach) and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. Discussion This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174 PMID:21867502

  15. [Colonization with group B streptococcus in pregnant women taken into the care of unit K and hospitalized in the department of obstetric pathology].

    PubMed

    Szponar, M; Gali?ski, J; Bolt, L; Ordyniec, E

    1992-01-01

    Colonization with group B streptococci (GBS) in 714 pregnant women was investigated. Among 232 were hospitalised in department of pathological pregnancy and 512 were under ambulatory control. In 13.4% of hospitalised patients and 2.8% healthy pregnant women the colonization of vagina or throat with GBS was stated. The greatest percentage of vagina colonization was found in patients hospitalised in connection with gestosis or because of abortions, premature delivery and inanimate fetus. No correlation was found between range of GBS colonization and trimester of pregnancy. Almost all GBS strains proved to be susceptible for commonly used antibiotics but resistant to biseptol (88.2%). Patients of hospitalised group were more often colonized not only GBS but also other potentially pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:1304502

  16. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of group psychoeducation versus group support in the maintenance of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-didactically delivered curriculum based group psychoeducation has been shown to be more effective than both group support in a specialist mood disorder centre in Spain (with effects lasting up to five years), and treatment as usual in Australia. It is unclear whether the specific content and form of group psychoeducation is effective or the chance to meet and work collaboratively with other peers. The main objective of this trial is to determine whether curriculum based group psychoeducation is more clinically and cost effective than unstructured peer group support. Methods/design Single blind two centre cluster randomised controlled trial of 21 sessions group psychoeducation versus 21 sessions group peer support in adults with bipolar 1 or 2 disorder, not in current episode but relapsed in the previous two years. Individual randomisation is to either group at each site. The groups are carefully matched for the number and type of therapists, length and frequency of the interventions and overall aim of the groups but differ in content and style of delivery. The primary outcome is time to next bipolar episode with measures of the therapeutic process, barriers and drivers to the effective delivery of the interventions and economic analysis. Follow up is for 96 weeks after randomisation. Discussion The trial has features of both an efficacy and an effectiveness trial design. For generalisability in England it is set in routine public mental health practice with a high degree of expert patient involvement. Trial Registration ISRCTN62761948 Funding National Institute for Health Research, England. PMID:21777426

  17. Earlier Joint Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking and Low Perceived Self-control as Predictors of Later Poor Health for Women in their Mid-60s

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenshu; Finch, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The current study was designed to assess the prospective relationship between the earlier joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and low perceived self-control (X¯ age = 40-48) and later health problems (X¯ age = 65.2) within a community sample of understudied females. Methods: The participants were given self-administered questionnaires. Results: The results of the growth mixture model suggested 5 joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and perceived self-control, which consisted of 1 at-risk group (chronic smoking and low perceived self-control), 1 low-risk group (infrequent or nonsmoking and high perceived self-control), and 3 intermediate groups (i.e., high on one factor and low on the other). The results from logistic regression analyses supported a model by which (a) women in the at-risk group, in comparison with the low-risk group, were more likely to report 5 or more diseases (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.81; p < .001) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 5.98; p < .001); (b) women in the at-risk group as compared with women in the intermediate groups were also more likely to report 5 or more diseases (AOR = 2.36; p < .05) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 2.86; p < .01); and (c) women in the intermediate group were more likely to report 5 or more diseases (AOR = 2.04; p < .05) and poor or very poor general health (AOR = 2.09; p < .05) than women in the low-risk group. Conclusions: The findings highlight the significance of targeting dispositional factors (e.g., perceived self-control) in conjunction with smoking in designing programs for promoting the health of women in midlife. PMID:22193579

  18. A systematic review of training interventions addressing sexual violence against marginalized at-risk groups of women.

    PubMed

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-12-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with sexual violence. A systematic review was applied. Inclusion criteria were English language published between 2003 and 2013; reporting on delivery and/or evaluation; focusing on any form of sexual violence; delivered to professionals, affected or at-risk women; targeting migrant, at-risk women or domestic workers. Data were extracted on the setting, content, evaluation process and target population. Four studies which focused on prevention or responding to sexual violence were included. One study provided sexual violence training to vulnerable female and one provided a HIV prevention intervention to marginalized women. Learning objectives included increasing knowledge around issues of sexual violence and/or gender and human rights, prevention and response strategies. Two studies aimed to train trainers. All studies conducted an outcome evaluation and two a process evaluation. It seems there is a gap on participatory empowerment training for marginalized women. Community train-the-trainer interventions are imperative to protect themselves and deal with the risk of sexual violence. PMID:26590245

  19. Exploring Iranian Women's Perceptions regarding Control and Prevention of Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Eileen; Escandon, Socorro; Lamyian, Minoor; Ahmadi, Fazlolah; Setoode, Sam Mohammad; Golkho, Shokoofe

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian women's perceptions, behaviors, and beliefs related to breast cancer screening, breast cancer, and follow up care. A qualitative descriptive inquiry with both individual and focus group interviews was conducted in Tehran with 31 Farsi-speaking women, age 35 to 65 years of age. A constant comparison…

  20. Assessing the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.

    2012-04-01

    Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.

  1. Depression and Obesity/Overweight Association in Elderly Women: a Community-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Seyed Mehdi; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2015-11-01

    Overweight/obesity and depression are common among women especially in the elderly and can lead to unfavorable outcomes. We aimed to determine the association of overweight with depression and also to find any correlation of depression with some anthropometric indices in old women. A total of 94 depressed elderly women were compared with 99 non-depressed controls. The structured diagnostic interview based on DSM-IV were performed to diagnose depression, and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was completed to rate it. Anthropometric indices were measured and compared between groups. Pearson correlation coefficients were determined for linear relations between variables. Odds Ratio of obesity and overweight in depressed subjects comparing with normal participants was 1.45 (95%CI=0.63-3.32). A significant correlation was observed between BMI and GDS score (r=0.231, P-value=0.001). Total body fat (P-value=0.001) and BMI (P-value=0.016) were significantly higher in depressed women than non-depressed women. Despite the significantly higher total body fat and BMI among old women with depression, only a weak correlation was seen between BMI and GDS score. PMID:26786989

  2. Group therapy in a general practice setting for frequent attenders: a controlled study of mothers with pre-school children

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Pauline; Turk, Theresa

    1988-01-01

    The frequent attendance of women suffering from anxiety and depression is a common problem in general practice and the problems are often externalized through the women's children. A small controlled study was carried out in a general practice surgery to see whether demand for medical attention by mothers of pre-school children would decrease after they attended a discussion group. Twenty women who fulfilled the study criteria of more than double the national average consultation rate for their age group and of having at least one pre-school child, were sequentially allocated to a treatment or control group. The group therapy was held over two terms of 10 sessions, each of 90 minutes, and was led by a psychologist and a general practitioner. Consultation rates (including surgery visits, house calls and prescription requests) were recorded for five consecutive six-month periods before and after the intervention. At follow-up six months after the end of the treatment a significant reduction in consultation rate had been achieved and maintained by the treated group compared with the controls (P<0.01). This study shows the value of attending to the cause of frequent consultation as well as to the complaints presented. PMID:3267741

  3. Risky business: focus-group analysis of sexual behaviors, drug use and victimization among incarcerated women in St. Louis.

    PubMed

    Millay, Tamara A; Satyanarayana, Veena A; O'Leary, Catina C; Crecelius, Robert; Cottler, Linda B

    2009-09-01

    Incarcerated women report multiple vulnerabilities and, yet, are under-represented in research. This study used focus-group methodology to explore high-risk sexual behaviors, drug use, and victimization among female offenders in St. Louis. Inmates of the St. Louis Medium Security Institution (MSI) were invited to participate in one of five focus groups between May and September 2005 in preparation for an NIH/NINR HIV-prevention intervention study among female offenders in Drug Court. The focus group sample of 30 women was 70% African-American, with a mean age of 36 years. Results indicated that oral sex was the most common sex trade activity. Consistent with the literature, condom usage was described as irregular. In terms of drug use, participants reported that crack was most commonly used, with binges often lasting for several days. Regarding victimization, women frequently reported sexual abuse in childhood, and some described abusive relationships as adults. Participants also reported being beaten and raped by customers, which led to their concealing knives in purses and razors under the tongue. Consequently, perpetrated violence, including murder, was reported as protection against further violence. These findings confirm the vulnerability of this population of women who are at high risk for HIV. Effective HIV-prevention interventions are needed to assist these incarcerated women in making lifestyle changes during incarceration and sustaining them after release. PMID:19533363

  4. Testosterone and mood dysfunction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome compared to subfertile controls.

    PubMed

    Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Saxby, Brian K; Kuczmierczyk, Andrew

    2011-06-01

    Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been found to suffer from fertility problems and mood dysfunction. To control for any effect of fertility problems, the present study compared mood dysfunction in women with PCOS to non-PCOS women with fertility problems. Seventy-six women with PCOS and 49 subfertile controls reported their anxiety, depression and aggression levels, and the relationship between mood and testosterone (T) was assessed. Controlling for age and BMI using MANCOVA, women with PCOS were significantly more neurotic (had difficulty coping with stress) than controls, had more anger symptoms, were significantly more likely to withhold feelings of anger and had more quality of life problems related to the symptoms of their condition (acne, hirsutism, menstrual problems and emotions). In a subgroup of 30 women matched on age, BMI and ethnicity, it was found that women with PCOS were significantly more anxious and depressed than controls. T was not generally correlated with mood states. This is the first study to identify problems with neuroticism and withholding anger in women with PCOS. These mood problems appear to be mainly attributable to PCOS symptoms, though other factors, such as hypoglycaemia, cannot be ruled out. PMID:21473679

  5. Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.; Maibodi, M.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.

  6. Nonproliferation and arms control technology working group. RD database focus group. 1996 annual report. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In response to guidance from the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Group (NPAC TWG), the Proliferation Modeling Focus Group (PMFG) formulated objectives and terms of reference from which to conduct its activities. A major recommendation of this group in its report last year was that NPAC TWG needed to establish a separate focus group to develop and implement communications and data sharing within the larger NPAC TWG and among its various focus groups. The need was recognized for communicating and data sharing at both classified and unclassified levels. In response to this recommendation, the NPAC TWG established the Research and Development Database Focus Group. To facilitate our communication needs, it was decided to use a three-tier approach on three parallel communications networks: the Internet`s World Wide Web, Secret Internet Protocol Router Network`s (SIPRNET) INTELINK-S, and Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System`s (JWICS) INTELINK. Since all three networks at all classification levels use WEB browsers (Mosaic, Netscape, Microsoft`s Navigator, and others) and Internet tools to search and display data, and all networks are or could be made available to all members, it was propitious to use them as the infrastructure for NPAC TWG`s information sharing requirements.

  7. Consumption of Calcium-Fortified Cereal Bars to Improve Dietary Calcium Intake of Healthy Women: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer T.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Radcliffe, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day) (intervention) to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control). At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d) when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001) or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001) periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01508689 PMID:25941810

  8. Modular distributor for controlling group of electric drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhomenko, A. I.; Koshman, V. I.; Petrichenko, V. F.; Gorotov, V. D.; Abara, L. P.

    1985-04-01

    A series of modular distributors, RASK, was developed for controlling a group of electric drives in coal mines or other mines, where a large number of contractors must be protectively enclosed. Unlike conventional distributors with three electromagnets for circuit closing, circuit opening, and zero-sequence protection respectively, a RASK distributor has only one main electromagnet for circuit closing. The other two functions are performed by small auxiliary electromagnets, their number being equal to the number of controlled drives and additional contactors being provided for their operation as intermediate relays. Such a distributor not only switches drives on or off, selectively and independently rather than sequentially, but also commutates the arc-quenching circuits. All circuits can be controlled by current signals transmitted over two or three wires, either all or only some controlled circuits to be closed or opened, and all circuits can be opened simultaneously for zero-sequence protection. The advantages of fewer components are appreciable reduction of metal content.

  9. Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control

    PubMed Central

    Dellar, Rachael C; Dlamini, Sarah; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2015-01-01

    Introduction At the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, adolescent girls and young women aged 1524 contribute a disproportionate ~30% of all new infections and seroconvert 57 years earlier than their male peers. This agesex disparity in HIV acquisition continues to sustain unprecedentedly high incidence rates, and preventing HIV infection in this age group is a pre-requisite for achieving an AIDS-free generation and attaining epidemic control. Discussion Adolescent girls and young women in southern Africa are uniquely vulnerable to HIV and have up to eight times more infection than their male peers. While the cause of this vulnerability has not been fully elucidated, it is compounded by structural, social and biological factors. These factors include but are not limited to: engagement in age-disparate and/or transactional relationships, few years of schooling, experience of food insecurity, experience of gender-based violence, increased genital inflammation, and amplification of effects of transmission co-factors. Despite the large and immediate HIV prevention need of adolescent girls and young women, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to reduce their risk. The exclusion of adolescents in biomedical research is a huge barrier. School and community-based education programmes are commonplace in many settings, yet few have been evaluated and none have demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Promising data are emerging on prophylactic use of anti-retrovirals and conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention in these populations. Conclusions There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural interventions are urgently needed for epidemic control. In the interim, a pragmatic approach of integrating existing HIV prevention efforts into broader sexual reproductive health services is a public health imperative. PMID:25724504

  10. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  11. Comparison of NNA Agar Culture and Selective Broth Culture for Detection of Group B Streptococcal Colonization in Women

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, W. Michael; Holland-Staley, Carol A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of a selective broth culture for the improved detection of genital tract or anorectal carriage of group B streptococci (GBS) in pregnant women. In order to verify this recommendation in our laboratory, we compared the sensitivity of Todd-Hewitt medium with gentamicin and nalidixic acid (SBM) with our current method of direct plating on blood agar medium containing neomycin and nalidixic acid (NNA). Five hundred consecutive cervicovaginal and anorectal specimens submitted for GBS culture were included in the study. Swabs were plated onto NNA and the swabs were immersed in SBM, followed by overnight incubation at 35°C. On the following day, the NNA plates were examined for colonies typical of GBS and the organisms were identified by the CAMP test or by latex agglutination. SBM cultures were subcultured onto blood agar and CNA agar plates, and the plates were reincubated for 24 h. Negative specimens from either medium were incubated for an additional 24 h and were examined again before finalization of the results. GBS were recovered from 78 specimens by both methods; from SBM only for 17 specimens (sensitivity, 86%) and from NNA only for 16 specimens (sensitivity, 85%). A moderate to heavy growth of Enterococcus faecalis was observed on plates containing NNA-positive, SBM-negative specimens. Competitive growth studies suggested that E. faecalis suppressed the growth potential of GBS in SBM. Our study suggests that direct plating on NNA, as a single method, is equivalent in sensitivity to SBM for the recovery of GBS, and the results are often available 24 h sooner. However, it appears that both direct plating and selective broth amplification techniques are required for the maximum level of identification of colonization with GBS in pregnant women. PMID:9666009

  12. PTS performance by flight- and control-group macaques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.

  13. Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD) loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength) are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks. Methods/Design A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen), bone formation (osteocalcin), and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16) to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal mechanical loads and postural control as mediators of fracture risk. Discussion Results of this study will provide preliminary evidence regarding the value of Tai Chi as an intervention for decreasing fracture risk in osteopenic women. They will also inform the feasibility, value and potential limitations related to the use of pragmatic designs for the study of Tai Chi and related mind-body exercise. If the results are positive, this will help focus future, more in-depth, research on the most promising potential mechanisms of action identified by this study. Trial registration This trial is registered in Clinical Trials.gov, with the ID number of NCT01039012. PMID:20193083

  14. RN-to-MSN students' attitudes toward women experiencing homelessness: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Chung-Park, Min; Hatton, Diane; Robinson, Linda; Kleffel, Dorothy

    2006-08-01

    When health professionals, including RNs, have negative attitudes toward women experiencing homelessness, they create barriers to services. It is incumbent on nursing faculty to develop curricula that address homelessness and associated stereotypes, as well as to prepare students to provide safe and appropriate care to the homeless population. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the attitudes of RN-to-MSN students toward mothers living with their children in a transitional shelter. A convenience sample of 10 students enrolled in a community health nursing course at a university in southern California participated in the study. Two focus groups were conducted: one before and one after a 15-week clinical experience. Data analysis revealed that during the clinical experience, students discovered that they, or perhaps an individual like them, could become homeless. Their attitudes and views changed to include a bigger picture of homelessness, described by public health nursing researchers as "moving upstream." This article suggests strategies for integrating clinical experiences with socioeconomically vulnerable individuals into undergraduate nursing curricula. PMID:16915991

  15. Gastrointestinal Complications of Ferrous Sulfate in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jafarbegloo, Esmat; Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some pregnant women discontinue iron supplements consumption due to Gastrointestinal (GI) complications, whereas pregnancy induces the same complications physiologically. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess GI complications of ferrous sulfate in pregnant women. Patients and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 176 pregnant women referred to prenatal care clinic of Maryam Hospital from April 2011 to February 2012. Pregnant women with Hb ≥ 13.2 gr/dL at 13th - 18th weeks of gestation were selected based on the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to the ferrous sulfate and placebo groups. The ferrous sulfate group (n = 90) received a 50-mg ferrous sulfate tablet daily from the 20th week to the end of pregnancy and the placebo group (n = 89) received one placebo tablet in the same way. All participants were visited twice at 24th - 28th and 32nd - 36th weeks to assess the GI complications as well as Hb level to determine the Hb changes in two groups. Chi-square test, t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used to analyze the data. P value of < 0.05 and confidence level of 95% were considered as statistically significant. Results: None of the GI complications were significantly different between the ferrous sulfate and placebo groups at 24th - 28th and 32nd - 36th weeks. Hemoglobin drop lower than 10.5 gr/dL at 24th - 28th weeks or lower than 11 g/dL at 32nd - 36th weeks was not observed in any cases. Conclusions: It can be concluded that GI complications in pregnant women using ferrous sulfate are mostly caused by physiologic changes of pregnancy rather than ferrous sulfate; therefore, it is not reasonable to stop using ferrous sulfate due to GI complications. PMID:26430520

  16. Effect of aging on carotid baroreflex control of blood pressure and leg vascular conductance in women.

    PubMed

    Credeur, Daniel P; Holwerda, Seth W; Boyle, Leryn J; Vianna, Lauro C; Jensen, Areum K; Fadel, Paul J

    2014-05-15

    Recent work suggests that β-adrenergic vasodilation offsets α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in young women, but this effect is lost after menopause. Given these age-related vascular changes, we tested the hypothesis that older women would exhibit a greater change in vascular conductance following baroreflex perturbation compared with young women. In 10 young (21 ± 1 yr) and 10 older (62 ± 2 yr) women, mean arterial pressure (MAP; Finometer), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO; Modelflow), total vascular conductance (TVC), and leg vascular conductance (LVC, duplex-Doppler ultrasound) were continuously measured in response to 5-s pulses of neck suction (NS; -60 Torr) and neck pressure (NP; +40 Torr) to simulate carotid hypertension and hypotension, respectively. Following NS, decreases in MAP were similar between groups; however, MAP peak response latency was slower in older women (P < 0.05). Moreover, at the time of peak MAP, increases in LVC (young, -11.5 ± 3.9%LVC vs. older, +19.1 ± 7.0%LVC; P < 0.05) and TVC were greater in older women, whereas young women exhibited larger decreases in HR and CO (young, -10 ± 3% CO vs. older, +0.8 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05). Following NP, increases in MAP were blunted (young, +14 ± 1 mmHg vs. older, +8 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.05) in older women, whereas MAP response latencies were similar. Interestingly, decreases in LVC and TVC were similar between groups, but HR and CO (young, +7.0 ± 2% CO vs. older, -4.0 ± 2% CO; P < 0.05) responses were attenuated in older women. These findings suggest that older women have greater reliance on vascular conductance to modulate MAP via carotid baroreflex, whereas young women rely more on cardiac responsiveness. Furthermore, older women demonstrate a blunted ability to increase MAP to hypotensive stimuli. PMID:24682393

  17. Testing a Violence-Prevention Intervention for Incarcerated Women Using a Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kim, Woo Jong; Fedock, Gina; Bybee, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Beyond Violence (BV), a new prevention program for women with assaultive offenses, demonstrated feasibility in previous studies. This study's purpose is to assess the efficacy of BV using a randomized control trial. Method: Eligible women were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) and the experimental condition (BV). Measures of

  18. Race, Gender, and Social Control: Voices of Imprisoned Native American and White Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Luana

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the differing experiences of Native American and white women in prison. A literature review and unstructured interviews with 31 women in a Montana state prison concentrate on relationships between prisoners and guards, sexual harassment, mind-altering drugs, and prisoners' responses to multiple forms of control. Recommends new approach…

  19. Testing a Violence-Prevention Intervention for Incarcerated Women Using a Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kim, Woo Jong; Fedock, Gina; Bybee, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Beyond Violence (BV), a new prevention program for women with assaultive offenses, demonstrated feasibility in previous studies. This study's purpose is to assess the efficacy of BV using a randomized control trial. Method: Eligible women were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) and the experimental condition (BV). Measures of…

  20. Psychological Separation, Self-Control, and Weight Preoccupation among Elite Women Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Myrna L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined weight preoccupation among 55 elite women swimmers from 5 universities. Results showed that 10.9% of respondents could be characterized as "weight preoccupied," a percentage comparable to general population of college women. Athletes reported using significantly more benign than punitive self-control strategies, suggesting for them,…

  1. Everyday Conflict and Stress among Older African American Women: Findngs from a Focus Group Study and Pilot Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, Patricia Flynn; Dunigan, Robert; Hawkins, Robert L.; Weitzman, Eben A.; Levkoff, Sue E.

    2002-01-01

    Three focus groups examined stress and conflict among 30 older African American women in Boston. Stress stemmed from worries about functional disability, accessing transportation, conflicts with family and peers, and grandchildren's lack of respect. Participants tended to use avoidant strategies to deal with stress and conflict. A training program…

  2. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

  3. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.

  4. Differential Therapeutic Outcomes of Community-Based Group Interventions for Women and Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Paula T.

    2011-01-01

    Two community-based group therapies, emotion focused versus goal oriented, are compared among women exposed to intimate partner violence (n = 46) and their children (n = 48) aged between 6 and 12 years. A series of repeated measures analyses are employed to evaluate the effects of time from baseline to postintervention following random assignment.

  5. Everyday Conflict and Stress among Older African American Women: Findngs from a Focus Group Study and Pilot Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzman, Patricia Flynn; Dunigan, Robert; Hawkins, Robert L.; Weitzman, Eben A.; Levkoff, Sue E.

    2002-01-01

    Three focus groups examined stress and conflict among 30 older African American women in Boston. Stress stemmed from worries about functional disability, accessing transportation, conflicts with family and peers, and grandchildren's lack of respect. Participants tended to use avoidant strategies to deal with stress and conflict. A training program

  6. Preliminary Efficacy of Group Medical Nutrition Therapy and Motivational Interviewing among Obese African American Women with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephania T.; Oates, Veronica J.; Brooks, Malinda A.; Shintani, Ayumi; Jenkins, Darlene M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the efficacy and acceptability of a group medical nutritional therapy (MNT) intervention, using motivational interviewing (MI). Research Design & Method. African American (AA) women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participated in five, certified diabetes educator/dietitian-facilitated intervention sessions targeting carbohydrate, fat, and fruit/vegetable intake and management. Motivation-based activities centered on exploration of dietary ambivalence and the relationships between diet and personal strengths. Repeated pre- and post-intervention, psychosocial, dietary self-care, and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed using generalized least squares regression. An acceptability assessment was administered after intervention. Results. Participants (n = 24) were mostly of middle age (mean age 50.8 ± 6.3) with an average BMI of 39 ± 6.5. Compared to a gradual pre-intervention loss of HbA1c control and confidence in choosing restaurant foods, a significant post-intervention improvement in HbA1c (P = 0.03) and a near significant (P = 0.06) increase in confidence in choosing restaurant foods were observed with both returning to pre-intervention levels. 100% reported that they would recommend the study to other AA women with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. The results support the potential efficacy of a group MNT/MI intervention in improving glycemic control and dietary self-care-related confidence in overweight/obese AA women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25243082

  7. MyPyramid-omega-3 fatty acid nutrition education intervention may improve food groups and omega-3 fatty acid consumption in university middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Yen, Wan-Ju J; Lewis, Nancy M

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the impact of a nutrition education intervention on food groups and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption in middle-aged women. We hypothesized that participants who received educational materials about n-3 fatty acids would have a higher consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids than the MyPyramid group. The first phase of this study used the qualitative method to identify the beliefs and interests of middle-aged women about the topic of nutrition. Data were collected using semistructured individual interviews. Phase 2 was a quantitative study to assess the effectiveness of MyPyramid to improve dietary intake and self-efficacy after a 6-week online nutrition education intervention using a blog for university middle-aged female staff. The impact of n-3 fatty acid education on food consumption and self-efficacy was also assessed. Eight female staff (aged 45-65 years) in a Midwestern university participated in the interviews. Data were coded, and 3 themes emerged: "health," "lifestyle," and "availability." Eighty-eight middle-aged women participated in the intervention study and were randomized into either an intervention group or a control group. The overall consumption of the food groups was lower than the MyPyramid recommendation, except in the meat and beans group. There was a trend that participants were less certain to include n-3 fatty acids than whole grains in their diets. Using MyPyramid and supplementary information about n-3 fatty acids did not significantly affect participants' dietary consumption or self-efficacy to increase consumption from the food groups or to increase n-3 fatty acid consumption. Blog-based nutrition education is acceptable for this target population. PMID:23399660

  8. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba extract on sexual desire in postmenopausal women in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Pebdani, Mina Amiri; Taavoni, Simin; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Haghani, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the menopausal period, sexual desire may decrease. Therefore, restoring the sexual desire may help to improve sexual functioning in this group of women. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on sexual desire in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: In this triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 80 healthy female volunteers attending three healthcare centers of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) were enrolled. The instrument of this study had two main parts. The first part covered the personal characteristics of the volunteers and the second part used the Sabbatsberg Sexual Rating Scale (SSRS) to subjectively evaluate sexual desire before and after intervention. The participants received GBE at a dose of 120-240 mg (n = 40) or received placebo (n = 40) daily for 30 days. The results were analyzed using Mann–Whitney test. All analyses were performed using SPSS software. Results: The sexual desire was significantly improved in the GBE group compared to the placebo group (P = 0.02). Conclusions: In this study, we found that GBE had a positive effect on sexual desire of menopausal women; thus, these findings support the positive effect of GBE on the sexual function of menopausal women. PMID:24949064

  9. The Effect of Education on Sexual Health of Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaviani, Maasumeh; Rahnavard, Tahereh; Azima, Sara; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Asadi, Nasrin; Sayadi, Mehrab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexuality constitutes an important part of women’s life. Healthy and proper sexual functioning is one of the signs of physical and mental health. The present study aimed to identify the effect of education on sexual health of women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 80 married women at reproductive age were randomly divided into a control and an education group. These women participated in this study based on self-reporting of having hypoactive sexual desire disorder. After six weekly educational sessions regarding sexual health, percentage of changes in sexual desire was assayed using Hurlbert index of sexual desire. Independent and paired t-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: After the intervention, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the sexual desire score (P<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference within groups in this regard (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that educational intervention regarding sexual health was effective for the women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Thus, establishing sexual health education units in different health centers is highly necessary. These centers can help couples to promote their sexual knowledge and treat their sexual dysfunctions. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012101911032N2 PMID:25349850

  10. Coercive control and abused women's decisions about their pets when seeking shelter.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Jennifer L; Khaw, Lyndal; Ridgway, Marcella D; Weber, Cheryl; Miles, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    The importance of pets in families, especially during major life stressors, is well documented. Research suggests links between pet ownership and intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored abused women's decisions about pets when seeking help from a shelter. Interviews were conducted with 19 women who were pet owners. Using grounded theory methods, two patterns emerged surrounding abusers' treatment of pets, bonds to pets, women's decisions about pets upon seeking shelter, and future plans for pets. The presence of coercive control was central to these patterns. Women also discussed their experiences with and needs from shelter professionals and veterinarians with implications for practice. PMID:23670287

  11. Body Image and Quality of Life in a Group of African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks; Thomas, Dana-Marie; Ard, Jamy D.

    2010-01-01

    African American (AA) women's preference for a larger body size and underestimation of their body weight may affect the relationship between their body weight and weight-related quality of life (QOL). We wanted to examine the relationship between weight-related QOL and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of overweight AA women. Thirty-three…

  12. Unconscious Communication of Internalized Oppression among African American Women: A Small Group Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Laura Kathleen

    This paper attempts to fill the gap in the field of communication concerning African American women. It postulates that the African American woman's unique experience with both racism and sexism influences specific types of communication when she is called upon to communicate solely with other African American women. It builds upon the…

  13. Women's Stereotypic Roles: A Replication and Standardization of the AWS and PAQ for Selected Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Edwin E.; And Others

    A replication of two previous studies, this study examined the effect of both sex and ethnicity on attitudes toward women, self-reported masculinity-femininity, and masculine-feminine stereotypic attitudes. The Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) were administered to 367 college students (112 Anglos,…

  14. Body Image and Quality of Life in a Group of African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks; Thomas, Dana-Marie; Ard, Jamy D.

    2010-01-01

    African American (AA) women's preference for a larger body size and underestimation of their body weight may affect the relationship between their body weight and weight-related quality of life (QOL). We wanted to examine the relationship between weight-related QOL and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of overweight AA women. Thirty-three

  15. Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape Concerns among a Group of College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines three potential factors that might mediate the relationship between reading women's magazines and body shape and size concern. Finds that health and fitness magazine reading by college-aged women was linked directly to body shape concerns, indirectly through beliefs about men's thinness expectations. Explains that beauty and fashion…

  16. Evaluation of Culture and PCR Methods for Diagnosis of Group B Streptococcus Carriage in Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, R; Dallal, MM Soltan; Mehrabadi, JF; Heidarzadeh, S; Pourmand, MR

    2012-01-01

    Background: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the most important cause of morbidity and mortality among newborns especially in developing countries. It has been shown that the screening approach rather than the identification of maternal clinical risk factors for early-onset neonatal GBS disease is more effective in preventing early-onset GBS neonatal disease. The objective of this study was to detect GBS among clinical samples of women using PCR and standard microbiological culture. Methods: Samples were taken from 375 women at 28–38 weeks of gestation during six month from January 15 till June 15, 2011 from a hospital in Tehran, Iran. Samples were tested by standard culture using Todd–Hewitt broth, blood agar and by PCR targeting the cfb gene. Results: Among the 375 women, 35 (9.3%) were identified as carriers of group B streptococci on the basis of the results of the cultures of specimens, compared to 42 (11.2 %) on the basis of PCR assay. Conclusion: We found that GBS can be detected rapidly and reliably by a PCR assay in vaginal secretions from women at the time of delivery. This study also showed that the rate of incidence of GBS is high in Iranian women. PMID:23113150

  17. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards antenatal vaccines, group B Streptococcus and clinical trial participation in pregnancy: an online survey

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Fiona; Stevens, Zoe; Plumb, Jane; Hughes, Rhona; Voysey, Merryn; Heath, Paul T; Snape, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore factors influencing the likelihood of antenatal vaccine acceptance of both routine UK antenatal vaccines (influenza and pertussis) and a hypothetical group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccine in order to improve understanding of how to optimise antenatal immunisation acceptance, both in routine use and clinical trials. Setting An online survey distributed to women of childbearing age in the UK. Participants 1013 women aged 18–44 years in England, Scotland and Wales. Methods Data from an online survey conducted to gauge the attitudes of 1013 women of childbearing age in England, Scotland and Wales to antenatal vaccination against GBS were further analysed to determine the influence of socioeconomic status, parity and age on attitudes to GBS immunisation, using attitudes to influenza and pertussis vaccines as reference immunisations. Factors influencing likelihood of participation in a hypothetical GBS vaccine trial were also assessed. Results Women with children were more likely to know about each of the 3 conditions surveyed (GBS: 45% vs 26%, pertussis: 79% vs 63%, influenza: 66% vs 54%), to accept vaccination (GBS: 77% vs 65%, pertussis: 79% vs 70%, influenza: 78% vs 68%) and to consider taking part in vaccine trials (37% vs 27% for a hypothetical GBS vaccine tested in 500 pregnant women). For GBS, giving information about the condition significantly increased the number of respondents who reported that they would be likely to receive the vaccine. Health professionals were the most important reported source of information. Conclusions Increasing awareness about GBS, along with other key strategies, would be required to optimise the uptake of a routine vaccine, with a specific focus on informing women without previous children. More research specifically focusing on acceptability in pregnant women is required and, given the value attached to input from healthcare professionals, this group should be included in future studies. PMID:27098824

  18. Controlled teleportation with the control of two groups of agents via entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Man; Yang, Chui-Ping

    2015-03-01

    We present a way for implementing controlled teleportation of an arbitrary unknown pure state of a qutrit with the control of two groups of agents via entanglement. In our proposal, the sender can successfully teleport the qutrit state to a distant receiver with the help of all agents. However, if one agent in each group does not cooperate, the receiver cannot gain any information (including amplitude information or phase information or both) about the qutrit state to be teleported. Since a qubit is a special case of a qutrit when the state lies in a fixed two-dimensional subspace of the qutrit, the present proposal can be also applied in the implementation of controlled teleportation of an arbitrary unknown pure state of a qubit with many control agents in two groups. We note that our proposal is the first one to use two groups of agents to achieve controlled teleportation.

  19. A Randomized Control Trial of a Chronic Care Intervention for Homeless Women with Alcohol Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n=82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a Primary Care Provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a Care Manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  20. A randomized control trial of a chronic care intervention for homeless women with alcohol use problems.

    PubMed

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2015-04-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n = 82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a primary care provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a care manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest that screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  1. Greater anterior insula activation during anticipation of food images in women recovered from anorexia nervosa versus controls

    PubMed Central

    Oberndorfer, Tyson; Simmons, Alan; McCurdy, Danyale; Strigo, Irina; Matthews, Scott; Yang, Tony; Irvine, Zoe; Kaye, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict food consumption and become severely emaciated. Eating food, even thinking of eating food, is often associated with heightened anxiety. However, food cue anticipation in AN is poorly understood. Fourteen women recovered from AN and 12 matched healthy control women performed an anticipation task viewing images of food and object images during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing anticipation of food versus object images between control women and recovered AN groups showed significant interaction only in the right ventral anterior insula, with greater activation in recovered AN anticipating food images. These data support the hypothesis of a disconnect between anticipating and experiencing food stimuli in recovered AN. Insula activation positively correlated with pleasantness ratings of palatable foods in control women, while no such relationship existed in recovered AN, which is further evidence of altered interoceptive function. Finally, these findings raise the possibility that enhanced anterior insula anticipatory response to food cues in recovered AN could contribute to exaggerated sensitivity and anxiety related to food and eating. PMID:23993362

  2. Using self-determination theory to promote physical activity and weight control: a randomized controlled trial in women.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marlene N; Vieira, Paulo N; Coutinho, Sílvia R; Minderico, Cláudia S; Matos, Margarida G; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2010-04-01

    Behavior change interventions are effective to the extent that they affect appropriately-measured outcomes, especially in experimental controlled trials. The primary goal of this study was to analyze the impact of a 1-year weight management intervention based on self-determination theory (SDT) on theory-based psychosocial mediators, physical activity/exercise, and body weight and composition. Participants were 239 women (37.6 +/- 7.1 years; 31.5 +/- 4.1 kg/m(2)) who received either an intervention focused on promoting autonomous forms of exercise regulation and intrinsic motivation, or a general health education program (controls). At 12 months, the intervention group showed increased weight loss (-7.29%,) and higher levels of physical activity/exercise (+138 +/- 26 min/day of moderate plus vigorous exercise; +2,049 +/- 571 steps/day), compared to controls (P < 0.001). Main intervention targets such as more autonomous self-regulation (for treatment and for exercise) and a more autonomous perceived treatment climate revealed large effect sizes (between 0.80 and .96), favoring intervention (P < 0.001). Results suggest that interventions grounded in SDT can be successfully implemented in the context of weight management, enhancing the internalization of more autonomous forms of behavioral regulation, and facilitating exercise adherence, while producing clinically-significant weight reduction, when compared to a control condition. Findings are fully consistent with previous studies conducted within this theoretical framework in other areas of health behavior change. PMID:20012179

  3. Cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women with menopause symptoms: findings from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Tomás, Eija; Luoto, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is a period that may predispose one to a decrease in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and quality of life. A study was carried out to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women displaying symptoms of menopause. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on data from a six-month randomised controlled trial (n = 151). The women in the intervention group engaged in an unsupervised session of at least 50 minutes of physical activity four times a week. The control group continued their physical activity as before. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated in terms of maximal oxygen consumption, lean muscle mass, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. A bootstrap technique was utilised to estimate uncertainty around the point estimate for ICER associated with the intervention. The mean total cost in the intervention group was €1,307 (SEM: €311) and in the control group was €1,253 (SEM: €279, p = 0.10) per person. The mean intervention cost was €208 per person. After six months of the behaviour-change intervention, the ICER was €63 for a 1 ml/kg/min improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, the additional cost per one-gram increase in lean muscle mass was €126, and the cost per QALY gained was €46. According to the findings, physical activity among menopausal women was cost-effective for cardiorespiratory fitness, for lean muscle mass, and for QALYs gained, since the intervention was more effective than the actions within the control group and the additional effects of physical activity were gained at a very low price. From the societal perspective, the intervention used may promote ability to work and thereby save on further costs associated with early retirement or disability pension if the physical-activity level remains at least the same as during the intervention. PMID:26258804

  4. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Tiffany L.; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Sharonda; Townsend, Sh'Nese; Ard, Jamy D.; Meneses, Karen; Partridge, Edward E.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2015-01-01

    Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n = 355) provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10), and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall) data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m2) and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16) and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group). Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake. PMID:25821595

  5. Randomized clinical trial comparing affect regulation and supportive group therapies for victimization-related PTSD with incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Ford, Julian D; Chang, Rocío; Levine, Joan; Zhang, Wanli

    2013-06-01

    Traumatic victimization and associated problems with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and affect dysregulation are prevalent among incarcerated women, but there is limited evidence to support psychotherapeutic interventions for these problems in this underserved population. A group psychotherapy designed to enhance affect regulation without trauma memory processing-Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET)-was compared to a supportive group therapy (SGT) in a randomized clinical trial with 72 incarcerated women with full or partial PTSD. Both interventions achieved statistically significant reductions in PTSD and associated symptom severity and increased self-efficacy. Dropout rates for both interventions were low (<5%). TARGET was more effective than SGT in increasing sense of forgiveness toward others who have caused harm in the past. Group therapy that teaches affect regulation may enhance incarcerated women's ability to achieve affective resolution (forgiveness) while also reducing their victimization-related PTSD and associated symptoms. Experiential-focused supportive group therapy also may reduce victimization-related PTSD and associated symptoms. Both group therapy approaches warrant further study with this vulnerable population. PMID:23611076

  6. Multiscale entropy identifies differences in complexity in postural control in women with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Busa, Michael A; Jones, Stephanie L; Hamill, Joseph; van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2016-03-01

    Loss of postural center-of-pressure complexity (COP complexity) has been associated with reduced adaptability that accompanies disease and aging. The aim of this study was to identify if COP complexity is reduced: (1) in those with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) compared to controls; (2) when vision is limited compared to remaining intact; and (3) during more demanding postural conditions compared to quiet standing. Additionally, we explored the relationship between the COP complexity and disease severity, fatigue, cutaneous sensation and central motor drive. Twelve women with MS and 12 age-matched controls were tested under quiet standing and postural maximal lean conditions with normal and limited vision. The key dependent variable was the complexity index (CI) of the center of pressure. We observed a lower CI in the MS group compared to controls in both anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) directions (p's<0.002), during the performance of maximal self-regulated leans (AP: p<0.001; ML: p=0.018), and under limited vision (AP: p=0.001; ML: p=0.006). No group-by-vision interaction (p>0.05) was observed, indicating that limiting vision did not impact COP complexity differently in the two groups. Decreased cutaneous sensitivity was associated with lower CI values in the AP direction among those with MS (r(2)=0.57); all other measures did not exhibit significant relationships. The findings reported here suggest that (1) MS is associated with diminished COP complexity under both normal and challenging postures, and (2) complexity is strongly correlated with cutaneous sensitivity, suggesting the unique contribution of impaired somatosensation on postural control deficits in persons with MS. PMID:26979875

  7. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely given that >150 million women, many of childbearing age, are involved in microfinance globally. PMID:24812071

  8. LIF and LIF‑R expression in the endometrium of fertile and infertile women: A prospective observational case‑control study.

    PubMed

    Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Prapas, Yannis; Petousis, Stamatios; Milias, Stefanos; Ravanos, Konstantinos; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Mavromatidis, George; Haitoglou, Constantinos; Prapas, Nikolaos; Rousso, David

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and LIF receptor (LIF‑R) in the endometrium of fertile and infertile women during the implantation window. A prospective study was conducted between March 2013 and March 2015 at Iakentro, Infertility Treatment Center (Thessaloniki, Greece) and the 3rd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Thessaloniki, Greece). The patient group consisted of women diagnosed with infertility, whereas the control group consisted of women who had delivered at least one live newborn (fertile women). An endometrial biopsy was obtained using a Pipelle on day 7 or 8 post‑ovulation, and the expression of LIF and LIF‑R was assessed by immunohistochemistry in epithelial and stromal cells. Primary outcomes included positive cellular percentage, staining intensity and H‑score. P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. Overall, 45 women were included in the present analysis (15 fertile women and 30 infertile women). Mean age was 32.8±6.0 years for the fertile group, and 37.6±3.7 for the infertile group. LIF and LIF‑R expression was significantly reduced in the epithelial cells of infertile women (P=0.05 and P=0.006, respectively). However, no significant differences were detected with regards to the expression of LIF in stromal cells (P=0.95). In addition, LIF‑R expression was relatively higher in the stromal cells of the fertile group; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.10). In conclusion, endometrial expression of LIF and LIF‑R is significantly reduced in the epithelial cells of infertile women. Expression patterns of LIF‑R in stromal cells require further research in order to achieve definitive results. PMID:27082016

  9. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Therapist-Assisted, Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Women with Maternal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Nicole E.; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D.; Dirkse, Dale

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum depression impacts up to 15% of Canadian women following childbirth. Remarkably, many women suffering from this disorder do not receive appropriate treatment. The aim of this study was to conduct a parallel-group randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of Therapist-Assisted Internet-delivered Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TA-ICBT) for the treatment of postpartum depression. This study was registered with the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials (ISRCTN: 85456371) and received funding from Canadian Institutes of Health Research (#101526) and the Saskatchewan Health Research Foundation. Fifty women who gave birth to an infant in the past year, who scored above 10 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and who resided in Saskatchewan, Canada were eligible to participate. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either TA-ICBT (n = 25) or waitlist control (n = 25). The efficacy of the treatment was investigated at baseline and at seven- to 10-week follow-up. TA-ICBT participants were also contacted four-weeks following treatment completion. Symptoms of postpartum depression decreased more for participants in the TA-ICBT group (average reduction of 6.24 points on the EPDS; n = 21 included in analyses) compared to those participants in the waitlist control group (average reduction of 2.42 points on the EPDS; n = 20 included in analyses), and these results were clinically significant and maintained at four-week follow-up. TA-ICBT participants demonstrated a reduction in postnatal anxiety, general stress, and parental distress, and an increase in psychological and environmental quality of life when compared to the waitlist control participants. Study implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN85456371 PMID:26930488

  10. Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Korean American Women: A Mixed-Methods Study Using Surveys and Focus Group Interviews.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Kreps, Gary L; Lee, Eunice E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high risk of cancer to the population, Korean Americans are known to have lower knowledge about cancer related information and a lower level of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. This indicates the necessity of cancer interventions targeting the Korean American population. To reach this population effectively, it is imperative to understand Korean Americans' cancer information seeking behaviors. This study (a) identified cancer information sources that are trusted and used by Korean American women and (b) examined how general media exposure and trust in cancer information sources are related to the use of these sources. It also (c) explored perceived usefulness and limitations of cancer information sources. A mixed methods study using seven focus group interviews with 34 Korean American women and surveys with 152 Korean American women was conducted in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area from 2011 to 2012. The results indicate that Korean American women viewed health care professionals as the most trusted cancer information source but used the Internet and Korean ethnic media more often for cancer information seeking because of language, cultural, and economic barriers. Korean American women were most likely to obtain cancer information from media they used frequently for general purposes. Correlations between usage frequency and trust in doctor/health providers and the Internet as cancer information sources were negligible. When seeking cancer information, important factors for Korean American women were accessibility, affordability, and language proficiency, cultural sensitivity, meeting immediate needs, understandability, convenience, and reliability of cancer information sources. Findings from this study support developing interventions using Korean language media, including print, television and the Internet for health promotion and cancer prevention targeting Korean American women. PMID:25950369

  11. Real-time PCR targeting the sip gene for detection of group B Streptococcus colonization in pregnant women at delivery.

    PubMed

    Bergseng, Hakon; Bevanger, Lars; Rygg, Marite; Bergh, Kare

    2007-02-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important aetiological agent of serious neonatal infections. A rapid and sensitive method for the detection of GBS colonization in pregnant women at delivery could make intrapartum screening for GBS possible. A real-time PCR method targeting the sip gene of GBS in pregnant women at delivery has been evaluated. The performance of the real-time PCR was compared with optimized GBS culture. Separate vaginal and rectal swabs were collected from women hospitalized at the delivery department at St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from January 15 through May 2005. The specimens were cultured on selective blood agar plates and in selective broth and examined by real-time PCR. Of samples from 251 women, 87 (34.7%) were GBS positive by culture and 86 (34.3%) were positive by PCR. Using GBS culture as the 'gold standard', the sensitivity of real-time PCR was 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.90-0.99) and specificity was 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.97-1.00). In two women the PCR was positive and the culture negative. Additional analysis using cylE PCR substantiates that these two women were true GBS carriers with negative GBS culture. The rate of GBS colonization was lower in vaginal specimens than in rectal specimens both by culture and PCR. The real-time PCR assay is fast, highly sensitive and specific for detecting GBS colonization in pregnant women at delivery, and has the potential for intrapartum detection of GBS colonization. Both vaginal and rectal samples are required to achieve highest possible detection rate. PMID:17244804

  12. Patient and Physician Decision Styles and Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Use in Older Women: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Protocol 369901

    PubMed Central

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; Faul, Leigh Anne; Luta, George; Makgoeng, Solomon B.; Isaacs, Claudine; Taylor, Kathryn; Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Tallarico, Michelle; Barry, William T.; Cohen, Harvey J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Physician and patient decision styles may influence breast cancer care for patients ≥ 65 years (“older”) because there is uncertainty about chemotherapy benefits in this group. We evaluate associations between decision-making styles and actual treatment. Methods Data were collected from women treated outside of clinical trials for newly diagnosed stage I to III breast cancer (83% response) from January 2004 through April 2011 in 75 cooperative group sites. Physicians completed a one-time mailed survey (91% response), and clinical data were abstracted from charts. Patient decision style was measured on a five-point scale. Oncologists' preference for prescribing chemotherapy was based on standardized vignettes. Regression and multiple imputation were used to assess associations between chemotherapy and other variables. Results There were 1,174 women seen by 212 oncologists; 43% of women received chemotherapy. One-third of women preferred to make their own treatment decision. Patient and physician decision styles were independently associated with chemotherapy. Women who preferred less physician input had lower odds of chemotherapy than women who preferred more input (odds ratio [OR] = 0.79 per 1-point change; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.97; P = .02) after considering covariates. Patients whose oncologists had a high chemotherapy preference had higher odds of receiving chemotherapy (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.80 to 3.89; P < .001) than those who saw oncologists with a low preference. Conclusion Physicians' and older patients' decision styles are each associated with breast cancer chemotherapy use. It will be important to re-evaluate the impact of decision styles when there is greater empirical evidence about the benefits and risks of chemotherapy in older patients. PMID:22614985

  13. Oxytocin Levels are Lower in Premenopausal Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Compared to Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kujath, Amber S.; Quinn, Lauretta; Elliott, Mary E.; Varady, Krista A.; LeCaire, Tamara J.; Carter, C. Sue; Danielson, Kirstie K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OT), a hormone most commonly associated with parturition and lactation, may have additional roles in diabetes complications. We determined OT levels in premenopausal women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) compared to nondiabetic controls; and examined associations of OT with health behaviors, clinical factors, biomarkers, kidney function, and bone health. Lower OT was hypothesized for T1DM. Methods Cross-sectional study of premenopausal women with T1DM (n=88) from the Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study, a population-based cohort of incident T1DM cases, and matched nondiabetic controls (n=74). Results Women with T1DM had lower OT levels than controls adjusting for caffeine and alcohol use (p=0.03). Health behaviors associated with OT differed between women with and without T1DM: OT was negatively associated with hormonal contraceptive use (quantified as lifetime contraceptive estrogen exposure) in women with T1DM (p=0.003) while positively related to hormonal contraceptive use (quantified as never/former/current) in controls (p<0.001). OT had a positive association with adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio and leptin) in women with T1DM and a negative relationship with adiposity (weight gain) in controls. In T1DM only, OT was positively associated with caffeine intake (p=0.01) and negatively associated with alcohol use (p=0.01). OT was not related to glycemic control, kidney function, or bone health in T1DM. Conclusions OT levels are lower in women with T1DM than matched controls. OT also has opposing associations with hormonal contraceptives and adiposity in women with and without T1DM. Research is needed to determine if the altered OT milieu in T1DM is associated with other health outcomes. PMID:25044726

  14. [Women and smoking. A challenge for the tobacco control policy in Germany].

    PubMed

    Fleitmann, S; Dohnke, B; Balke, K; Rustler, C; Sonntag, U

    2010-02-01

    In Germany, smoking rates among women have been slightly declining since 2003. However, smoking rates among young women and girls are high and are reaching the smoking rates of their male counterparts. Only about half of pregnant smokers below the age of 25 stop smoking. Women and girls with low education and low level jobs, those who are unemployed, as well as single parents have the highest smoking rates. The tobacco industry promotes smoking behavior of women and girls through marketing campaigns, thus, systematically counteracting smoking prevention activities. Within the framework of the annual conference 2008 of the Federal Drug Commissioner on the theme of "Women and Smoking", recommendations for a gender-specific tobacco control policy in Germany were developed. The main demands relate to the necessity of a targeted policy approach which takes into account the needs and life circumstances of women and girls, the development of integrated prevention programs for pregnant women, improved medical and preventive care, the involvement of women from the media and culture, from health professions and politics to promote a smoke-free culture, gender-specific research, and the improvement of tobacco control legislation. FACT (Frauen aktiv contra Tabak e.V.) actively supports the implementation of these policy recommendations. PMID:20069267

  15. Contextualizing older women's body images: Time dimensions, multiple reference groups, and age codings of appearance.

    PubMed

    Krekula, Clary

    2016-01-01

    The article sheds light on older women's body images and problematizes assumptions that women's aging is more painful and shameful than men's aging since men are not expected to live up to youthful beauty norms, the so-called double standard of aging hypothesis. Based on 12 qualitative interviews with women from the age of 75 from the Swedish capital area, I argue that older women have access to a double perspective of beauty, which means that they can relate to both youthful and age-related beauty norms. The results also illustrate that women's body image is created in a context where previous body images are central and that this time perspective can contribute toward a positive body image. Further, the results show how age codings of appearance-related qualities create a narrow framework for older women's body images and point to the benefits of shifting the analytical focus toward a material-semiotic body where corporeality and discourse are seen as interwoven. PMID:26744085

  16. Control group response variability in short-term toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.C.; Shimp, C.; Wang, Q.; Shukla, R.; Fulk, F.

    1995-12-31

    The US EPA`s National Reference Toxicant Database (NRTDB) has afforded an excellent opportunity to examine and document variability in responses within control groups (i.e. zero concentration of the toxicant.) The NRTDB has compiled acute and chronic reference toxicant test results for eight species and currently contains results for 32 laboratories and generally eight to ten tests for a species within each laboratory. The Ceriodaphnia dubia Survival and Reproduction test and the Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Survival and Growth test are the most frequently represented chronic tests with 331 and 144 sets of test data, respectively. For this presentation, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction data, expressed as total numbers of young in the test period, and fathead minnow survival and growth data were analyzed using a variance components model. The information regarding the control population is useful in examining the sources of inter and intralaboratory variability of chronic testing. In addition, this control population response variability information will be valuable for characterizing what can be termed as ``practically equivalent responses`` between a control and an effluent. The preliminary analysis indicates considerable between-test variability; however, this variability is not consistent across laboratories. Results of further exploration on this issue will be presented.

  17. The Development of Guidelines for Community College Peer Group Counseling Evolving From a Study of Programs for Adult Re-Entry Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elledge, Muriel K.

    The effectiveness of peer group counseling on self-concept among adult re-entry women in Women's Education Development Incentive (WENDI) programs and other related programs was studied to develop a set of guidelines for community college peer group counseling. The study involved using the Adult Nowicke-Strickland Internal-External Scale for pre-…

  18. Benefits of repeated individual dietary counselling in long-term weight control in women after delivery.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Johanna; Isolauri, Erika; Poussa, Tuija; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2015-10-01

    As pregnancy may trigger overweight in women, new means for its prevention are being sought. The aim here was to investigate the effect of individual dietary counselling during and after pregnancy on post-partum weight and waist circumference up to 4 years post-partum. A cohort of women (n = 256) were randomized to receive repeated individual dietary counselling by a nutritionist during and after pregnancy, or as controls not receiving dietary counselling, from the first trimester of pregnancy until 6 months after delivery. Counselling aimed to bring dietary intake into line with recommendations, with particular focus on the increase in the intake of unsaturated fatty acids instead of saturated. Pre-pregnancy weight was taken from welfare clinic records. Weight and waist circumference were measured at 4 years after delivery. The proportion of overweight women increased from 26% prior to pregnancy to 30% at 4 years after delivery among women receiving dietary counselling, as against considerably more, from 32% to 57%, among controls. The prevalence of central adiposity was 31% in women receiving dietary counselling, 64% in controls. Likewise, both the risk of overweight (odds ratio: 0.23, 0.08-0.63, P = 0.005) and central adiposity (odds ratio: 0.18, 0.06-0.52, P = 0.002) were lower in women receiving dietary counselling compared with controls. Repeated dietary counselling initiated in early pregnancy can be beneficial in long-term weight control after delivery. PMID:24521459

  19. Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Samantha J.; Chivers, Meredith L.

    2016-01-01

    Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women’s gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men’s attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men’s initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women’s were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems. PMID:27088358

  20. Adverse pregnancy outcomes with assisted reproductive technology in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ae Ra; Cha, Sun Wha; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jin Yeong; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Inn Soo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate adverse pregnancy outcomes in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with obese-PCOS and control groups. Methods Women with PCOS who underwent assisted reproductive technology (ART) from August, 2003 to December, 2007, were considered. A total of 336 women with PCOS were included in the study group and 1,003 infertile women who had tubal factor as an indication for ART were collected as controls. They were divided into four groups: a non-obese PCOS group, obese-PCOS group, non-obese tubal factor group, and obese tubal factor group, with obesity defined by a body mass index over 25 kg/m2, and reviewed focusing on the basal characteristics, ART outcomes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Results There was no difference among the groups' the clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate. Regarding adverse pregnancy outcomes, the miscarriage rate, multiple pregnancy rate, and prevalence of preterm delivery and pregnancy induced hypertension were not different among the four groups. The incidence of small for gestational age infant was higher in the PCOS groups than the tubal factor groups (p<0.02). On the other hand, the morbidity of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was not high in the non-obese PCOS group but was in the obese groups. And in the obese PCOS group, the newborns were heavier than in the other groups (p<0.02). Conclusion Non-obese PCOS presents many differences compared with obese PCOS, not only in the IVF-parameters but also in the morbidity of adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially in GDM and fetal macrosomia. PMID:22384427

  1. Improved Postoperative Pain Control for Cytoreductive Surgery in Women With Ovarian Cancer Using Patient-Controlled Epidural Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Yumi; Yun, Jung Yeon; Yeon, Seungmin; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have compared different methods of postoperative pain management in abdominal laparotomy patients; however, the conclusions have been inconsistent and controversial. This study aimed to compare the pain scores and complications of patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer and used either patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) or patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain management. We hypothesized that PCEA would be superior to PCA for postoperative pain management in ovarian cancer surgery. Materials and Methods The medical records of women who underwent ovarian cancer surgery in 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Pain scores for postoperative days (PODs) 0 to 5 days and the incidence of complications were examined and compared in patients who received PCEA and PCA. Means were compared using an independent sample t test or Wilcoxon rank sum test, and proportions were compared using Fisher exact test or a χ2 test at each time point. A mixed-effects model was applied to determine correlations among repeated measurements. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results Of the 105 study patients, 38 received PCEA and 67 received PCA. Pain scores were significantly lower in the PCEA group than the PCA group at POD 0 (2.47 ± 1.75 vs 4.39 ± 1.17; P < 0.001), 1 (2.65 ± 1.02 vs 3.32 ± 1.09; P < 0.001), and 3 (2.17 ± 1.13 vs 2.79 ± 1.08; P = 0.011), and tended to be lower in the PCEA group at PODs 2, 4, and 5. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia provided significantly better pain relief as analyzed by a mixed-effect model. Complications were not significantly different between both groups. There was no significant difference in pain relief between both groups at PODs 4 and 5. Conclusions Patient-controlled epidural analgesia was more effective for postoperative pain management compared with PCA from POD 0 to POD 3 in patients with ovarian cancer who underwent cytoreductive surgery, without increasing the morbidity. PMID:26825838

  2. Efficacy of advice from healthcare professionals to pregnant women on avoiding constrictive clothing around the trunk: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Kenji; Kato, Sachiko; Sasaki, Aiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kakee, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Noguchi, Yuko; Aoki, Tomoko; Inoue, Eisuke; Nitta, Chieko; Ishii, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As a component of midwife care, eliminating clothing that constricts the trunk has been shown to markedly elevate the uterine fundus, soften the uterus and abdomen, and reduce the abdominal wall tension in women admitted to hospital due to the risk of miscarriage or premature delivery. However, no prospective study has conclusively verified the efficacy of avoiding constrictive clothes around the trunk in pregnant women. We aim to verify the efficacy of instructing pregnant women to wear loose clothing that does not constrict the trunk to reduce the risk of premature birth and improve quality of life (QoL) during pregnancy. Methods and analysis We will conduct a randomised controlled trial of pregnant women scheduled to deliver at the National Center for Child Health and Development in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 616 pregnant women, from whom written informed consent will be obtained, will be allocated randomly to an intervention group or a control group. Women in the control group will be provided with anaemia prevention leaflets at 20 weeks’ gestation and skin-care leaflets at 30 weeks’ gestation. Women in the intervention group will be provided with the same leaflets and will also receive health advice from health professionals to avoid constrictive clothing around the trunk. The primary outcome will be a difference between these groups in the frequency of any one of the following category variables: (1) cervical length <30 mm up to 28 weeks’ gestation, (2) hospital admission for threatened premature delivery, or (3) premature delivery. Secondary outcomes will include QoL during pregnancy, maternal state of health, and status of fetal development. Ethics and dissemination The Institutional Review Board and Ethics Committee at the National Center for Child Health and Development, Japan, has approved this study. Our findings will be widely disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number UMIN000016853. PMID:26423851

  3. Limiting weight gain in overweight and obese women during pregnancy to improve health outcomes: the LIMIT randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is a significant global health problem, with the proportion of women entering pregnancy with a body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2 approaching 50%. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with a well-recognised increased risk of adverse health outcomes both for the woman and her infant, however there is more limited information available regarding effective interventions to improve health outcomes. The aims of this randomised controlled trial are to assess whether the implementation of a package of dietary and lifestyle advice to overweight and obese women during pregnancy to limit gestational weight gain is effective in improving maternal, fetal and infant health outcomes. Methods/Design Design: Multicentred randomised, controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria: Women with a singleton, live gestation between 10+0-20+0 weeks who are obese or overweight (defined as body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2), at the first antenatal visit. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Eligible, consenting women will be randomised between 10+0 and 20+0 weeks gestation using a central telephone randomisation service, and randomisation schedule prepared by non-clinical research staff with balanced variable blocks. Stratification will be according to maternal BMI at trial entry, parity, and centre where planned to give birth. Treatment Schedules: Women randomised to the Dietary and Lifestyle Advice Group will receive a series of inputs from research assistants and research dietician to limit gestational weight gain, and will include a combination of dietary, exercise and behavioural strategies. Women randomised to the Standard Care Group will continue to receive their pregnancy care according to local hospital guidelines, which does not currently include routine provision of dietary, lifestyle and behavioural advice. Outcome assessors will be blinded to the allocated treatment group. Primary Study Outcome: infant large for gestational age (defined as infant birth weight ≥ 90th centile for gestational age). Sample Size: 2,180 women to detect a 30% reduction in large for gestational age infants from 14.40% (p = 0.05, 80% power, two-tailed). Discussion This is a protocol for a randomised trial. The findings will contribute to the development of evidence based clinical practice guidelines. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12607000161426 PMID:22026403

  4. Predictors of Irrational Parenthood Cognitions in an Iranian Group of Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Farzadi, Laya; Ghasemzadeh, Aliyeh; Bahrami-asl, Zahra; Shirdel, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate possible predictors of irrational parenthood cognitions among infertile women seeking treatment. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 300 women who visited an Infertility Center in Iran during 2010 were studied. A pre-validated inventory was used to assess irrational parenthood cognitions. Potential predictors of the total irrational parenthood cognitions score were assessed. Results Mean irrational parenthood cognition score was 39.7(Range 0–56). Through bivariate analysis, the score on irrational parenthood cognition was inversely correlated with age and positively correlated with length of time seeking for infertility treatment and length of time expecting pregnancy. In a multivariate model, infertile women with higher education, especially academic education, or those with higher economic status were less likely to have irrational parenthood cognitions. However, higher motherhood motivation, no previous experience of pregnancy and being under social pressure, from others around, increased the likelihood of having irrational parenthood cognitions. Conclusions Some variables such as female spouse’s educational level and being under social pressure can independently predict irrational parenthood cognitions among infertile women that may be of use in designing health promotion plans in order to target the vulnerable women. PMID:25756990

  5. Decreasing prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 antibodies in selected groups of women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berntsson, Matilda; Tunbck, Petra; Ellstrm, Agneta; Krantz, Ingela; Lwhagen, Gun-Britt

    2009-11-01

    High estimates of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) seroprevalence have been reported for women who were pregnant in Sweden in the 1980s, probably reflecting sexual risk-taking during the 1960s and 1970s. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the HSV-2 seroprevalence in pregnant women and in the female attendees at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in Sweden at the beginning of the 21st century and to compare the results with those of earlier Swedish studies. Sera were collected during the period 2000 to 2002 from 299 pregnant women at an antenatal clinic and from 290 female attendees at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in Gothenburg. To enable comparison with earlier seroprevalence data the same test method was used; Helix pomatia antigen in an enzyme-linked immunoassay. The overall HSV-2 prevalence was 10.4% for the pregnant women and 25.2% for the female attendees at the clinic for sexually transmitted infections. The seroprevalence of HSV-2 in pregnant women appears to have decreased in Sweden during the past decade, which may reflect changes in sexual behaviour. PMID:19997695

  6. The telling my story quilting workshop: innovative group work with older African American women transitioning out of homelessness.

    PubMed

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois Jean

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the use of a quilting workshop as a strategy for helping older African American women address the consequences of their homeless experience. In this examination, four studies are addressed: the original, the re-analysis, the interviews, and the quilting intervention. The relationship of quilting to group work and social support is described, and the use of quilting in the Telling My Story homeless research project is demonstrated. The researchers used the lay definition of quilting that implies the general meaning of attaching many disparate and unique pieces of material together into a whole. The researchers also describe the relevance of the group work method inherent in the quilting workshop in helping women successfully transition out of homelessness and progress in their recovery from its consequences. PMID:19921762

  7. Vitamin D Status in Preeclamptic and Non-preeclamptic Pregnant Women: A Case-Control Study in the North West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadin, Bita; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Pourteymour Fard Tabrizi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are few studies on the vitamin D status in preeclamptic women. The objective of this case-control study was to determine vitamin D status, in preeclamptic women and compare it with that of healthy pregnant controls. Methods: Forty preeclamptic women, aged 18 to 45yr and forty age- and pregnancy weight-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured and its levels of <10, 10-30, 30-90 and >90 nanogram per milliliter (ng/ml) were considered as vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency, sufficiency, and toxicity, respectively. Results: Sixty and forty percent of preeclamptic women were vitamin D deficient and insufficient, while in the control group they were 10% and 90%, respectively. No significant difference was found in the median intake of vitamin D between preeclamptic and non preeclamptic women (1.45 and 1.20µg/day respectively), but serum 25(OH)D concentration was significantly lower in preeclamptic cases compared to controls (10.09 ± 6.66 and 15.73 ± 5.85ng /ml respectively, P= 0.002) . Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is common among preeclamptic and non-preeclamptic pregnant women in the north-west of Iran. Preeclampsia can cause decreasing of serum level of 25(OH)D. PMID:26634196

  8. An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, Sherryl A.; Robinson, John W. . E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S.; Keats, Melanie R.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

  9. Reaching the poor with health interventions: programme-incidence analysis of seven randomised trials of women's groups to reduce newborn mortality in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Houweling, Tanja A J; Morrison, Joanna; Alcock, Glyn; Azad, Kishwar; Das, Sushmita; Hossen, Munir; Kuddus, Abdul; Lewycka, Sonia; Looman, Caspar W; Magar, Bharat Budhathoki; Manandhar, Dharma S; Akter, Mahfuza; Dube, Albert Lazarous Nkhata; Rath, Shibanand; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Tripathy, Prasanta; Costello, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Background Efforts to end preventable newborn deaths will fail if the poor are not reached with effective interventions. To understand what works to reach vulnerable groups, we describe and explain the uptake of a highly effective community-based newborn health intervention across social strata in Asia and Africa. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of seven randomised trials of participatory women's groups to reduce newborn mortality in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Malawi. We analysed data on 70 574 pregnancies. Socioeconomic and sociodemographic differences in group attendance were tested using logistic regression. Qualitative data were collected at each trial site (225 focus groups, 20 interviews) to understand our results. Results Socioeconomic differences in women's group attendance were small, except for occasional lower attendance by elites. Sociodemographic differences were large, with lower attendance by young primigravid women in African as well as in South Asian sites. The intervention was considered relevant and interesting to all socioeconomic groups. Local facilitators ensured inclusion of poorer women. Embarrassment and family constraints on movement outside the home restricted attendance among primigravid women. Reproductive health discussions were perceived as inappropriate for them. Conclusions Community-based women's groups can help to reach every newborn with effective interventions. Equitable intervention uptake is enhanced when facilitators actively encourage all women to attend, organise meetings at the participants’ convenience and use approaches that are easily understandable for the less educated. Focused efforts to include primigravid women are necessary, working with families and communities to decrease social taboos. PMID:26246540

  10. Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance education program that can be adopted by universities, to assess whether aspects of the program need to be strengthened, and also to indicate how long the effects of the program last and at which point in time refresher sessions may be necessary. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01338428 PMID:23702221

  11. Attitudes About Sexual Activity Among Postmenopausal Women in Different Ethnic Groups: A Cross-sectional Study in Jahrom, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Javadpour, Shohreh; Mosalanejad, Leili; Parnian, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function is affected by personal and interpersonal factors, familial and social traditions, culture, religion, menopause, and aging. So, ethnicity is a determining factor in sexual function. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and attitudes towards sexuality in postmenopausal women among three different ethnic groups in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women between 50 and 89 years who referred to Honoree clinic, Jahrom in 2013. Among the study participants, 42.4% were Arab, 33.5% were Persian, and 24.1% were Lor. Data were collected about women's socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual function. The descriptive statistics were used for demographic variables. Moreover, ANOVA, post hoc (LSD) was used. Besides, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The participants' mean age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI <26.55) and only 147 women (18.5%) had normal sexual function (FSFI >26.55). Sexual dysfunction was 75.3% in Arabs, 83.2% in Persians, and 86.1% in Lors. Besides, the most prevalent sexual dysfunction was dyspareunia in Arabs and arousal disorder in Persians and Lors. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that sexual dysfunction is considerable among postmenopausal women. The most prevalent sexual dysfunction was dyspareunia in Arabs and arousal disorder in Persians and Lors. PMID:26962483

  12. One angry woman: Anger expression increases influence for men, but decreases influence for women, during group deliberation.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jessica M; Peter-Hagene, Liana C

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether expressing anger increases social influence for men, but diminishes social influence for women, during group deliberation. In a deception paradigm, participants believed they were engaged in a computer-mediated mock jury deliberation about a murder case. In actuality, the interaction was scripted. The script included 5 other mock jurors who provided verdicts and comments in support of the verdicts; 4 agreed with the participant and 1 was a "holdout" dissenter. Holdouts expressed their opinions with no emotion, anger, or fear and had either male or female names. Holdouts exerted no influence on participants' opinions when they expressed no emotion or fear. Participants' confidence in their own verdict dropped significantly, however, after male holdouts expressed anger. Yet, anger expression undermined female holdouts: Participants became significantly more confident in their original verdicts after female holdouts expressed anger-even though they were expressing the exact same opinion and emotion as the male holdouts. Mediation analyses revealed that participants drew different inferences from male versus female anger, which created a gender gap in influence during group deliberation. The current study has implications for group decisions in general, and jury deliberations in particular, by suggesting that expressing anger might lead men to gain influence, but women to lose influence over others (even when making identical arguments). These diverging consequences might result in women potentially having less influence on societally important decisions than men, such as jury verdicts. PMID:26322952

  13. A Pilot Study of a Readiness Group to Increase Initiation of Smoking Cessation Services among Women in Residential Addiction Treatment.

    PubMed

    Guydish, Joseph; Gruber, Valerie A; Le, Thao; Tajima, Barbara; Andrews, K Blakely; Leo, Hannah; Zura, Shaina K; Miller, Roland; Tsoh, Janice Y

    2016-04-01

    This study implemented a smoking cessation readiness group (RG) in two women-focused residential substance abuse treatment programs, with the aim of engaging women in smoking cessation services. The primary outcome was defined as attending at least one cessation group after the RG ended. The RG combined features of the Expert Systems (ES) approach with a practice quit attempt. ES is an interactive system which tailors intervention to the smokers' stage of change, while the practice quit attempt rehearses the process of quitting smoking. As a secondary aim we tested whether incentives, used to promote participation and engagement in the RG, would increase initiation of smoking cessation services. Participants (N=75) were women smokers enrolled in two residential programs, and intention to quit smoking was not required for participation. Twelve participant cohorts were randomly assigned to receive the RG with or without incentives. Following the RG intervention, 38.7% of participants (n=29) attended at least one smoking cessation session. Both the number of RG sessions attended and a successful practice quit attempt predicted the later use of cessation services, while incentives did not. From pre- to post-RG, participants reported decreased cigarettes per day (CPD: 11.8 vs. 7.6, p<.0001) and decreased nicotine dependence as measured by the Heaviness Smoking Index (HSI: 2.3 vs. 1.8, p<.001). The 3-session group-format RG intervention was associated with initiation of smoking cessation services and with changes in smoking behavior. PMID:26825975

  14. Creatine supplementation and resistance training in vulnerable older women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gualano, Bruno; Macedo, André Regis; Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Takayama, Liliam; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lucia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation, associated or not with resistance training, in vulnerable older women. A 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed. Sixty subjects were assigned to compose the following groups: placebo (PL), creatine supplementation (CR), placebo with resistance training (PL+RT), and creatine supplementation with resistance training (CR+RT). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after 24weeks. The primary outcome was muscle strength, as assessed by one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests. Secondary outcomes included appendicular lean mass, bone mass, biochemical bone markers, and physical function tests. The changes in 1-RM leg press were significantly greater in the CR+RT group (+19.9%) than in the PL (+2.4%) and the CR groups (+3.7%), but not than in the PL+RT group (+15%) (p=0.002, p=0.002, and p=0.357, respectively). The CR+RT group showed superior gains in 1-RM bench press (+10%) when compared with all the other groups (p≤0.05). The CR+RT group (+1.31%) showed greater appendicular lean mass accrual than the PL (-1.2%), the CR (+0.3%), and the PL+RT groups (-0.2%) (p≤0.05). The CR and the PL+RT groups experienced comparable gains in appendicular lean mass (p=0.62), but superior to those seen in the PL group. Changes in fat mass, bone mass and serum bone markers did not significantly differ between the groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, creatine supplementation combined with resistance training improved appendicular lean mass and muscle function, but not bone mass, in older vulnerable women. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01472393. PMID:24530883

  15. Experiences of breastfeeding and vulnerability among a group of HIV-positive women in Durban, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Seidel, G; Sewpaul, V; Dano, B

    2000-03-01

    While international guidelines are currently being drawn up about HIV and infant feeding practices, and national and regional guidelines are under discussion in South Africa, there have been remarkably few studies that have sought to elicit HIV-positive mothers' experiences of breastfeeding and of paediatric infection. There is an urgent need to document this 'grass roots' knowledge in different sites, and for this data to be used to inform policy development, and for advocacy and counselling purposes. This qualitative investigation reports on the experiences and decisions taken around breastfeeding by a peer support group of 13 HIV-positive mothers meeting at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban. In this study, the particular focus of information-giving and decision-making as to breast or formula feed is concerned with the impact on individual HIV-positive women and their babies. The most significant finding is that at no stage during their pregnancy were any of these mothers given information about the risks of HIV transmission through breastmilk. The study data were elicited in an in-depth group discussion, and individual women were invited to re-enact their stories in a follow-up discussion for clarification purposes. The women also discussed how they dealt with problems surrounding confidentiality in cases where few have been able to disclose their status to the extended family. There have been renewed calls for further investment in counsellors, with an enhanced role for community activists as peer educators. While there are severe resource constraints and low morale among many overworked nurses, one of the general problems in hospital settings remains the vertical health paradigm. This does not accommodate women's experiences, preferences, social networks and lay knowledge, and inhibits many women from becoming full participants in decisions affecting their own and their family's health. PMID:10731232

  16. Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S H; Cooley, E L; Sewell, D R; Leavitt, N

    1994-06-01

    Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control was measured with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but not depression, was associated with more external locus of control. For self-esteem, severity of disturbance, rather than diagnosis, seemed to be of primary importance. Also, lower self-esteem scores were correlated significantly with higher levels of externality for both depressed and schizophrenic women but not for well controls. The present study indicates that self-esteem and locus of control are related to depression differently in low socio-economic status (SES) African-American women than in previously studied middle SES depressed whites. The findings emphasize the need for more normative studies to clarify the complex relations among SES, race, emotional disturbance, self-esteem, and locus of control. PMID:8045092

  17. Treatment of condylomata acuminata with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The results of treatment of condylomata acuminata of the anogenital region in pregnant women are presented. All patients were treated between the 28th and 35th weeks of gestation. The laser surgery was done in 23 patients. One laser procedure was done in 14 women. In 5 patients we performed two and in 4 women 3 laser therapies. Complete destruction of pathological changes was obtained and no recurrences were diagnosed. There were no clinical signs of HPV infection in all neonates. In the authors' opinion the use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control is an efficient and safe method in the treatment of condylomata acuminata in pregnant women. Colposcopic control allows us to discover and coagulate the bleeding spots using the defocused laser beam with low power density.

  18. [The static and dynamic profiles of urethral pressure in women with stress incontinence and in healthy controls].

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, R; Doganov, N; Vasilev, N; Iarŭkov, A; Raĭcheva, I

    1994-01-01

    The study presents the results of urethral pressure profile measurements in 3 groups of women: continent nulliparous, continent parous and stress incontinent women. The maximum urethral closure pressure, the functional urethral length and the length of continence zone are compared. The healthy control groups (both parous and nulliparous) show much higher maximum urethral closure pressures than those mentioned in literature. No difference is evident between continent parous and continent nulliparous which suggests that vaginal delivery at term does not necessarily impair urethral sphincteric function. On the other hand women with similar age and parity with stress incontinence have a marked decrease of maximum urethral closure pressure at rest and demonstrate inability to increase it by volitional contraction of the pelvic floor. These findings support the idea of the leading role of sphincteric incompetence in stress incontinence. The functional urethral length and the length of continence zone show no significant differences among the investigated groups which implies that they are of no importance for the occurrence of stress incontinence. PMID:7793518

  19. Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L; Kenny, Anne M; Walsh, Stephen J; Abourizk, Robin H; Bruno, Richard S; Lipcius, Rosanne; Fall, Pamela; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa; Prestwood, Karen M; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2013-12-01

    Soy foods contain several components, notably, isoflavones and amino acids, that may improve cardiovascular health. We evaluated the long-term effect of soy protein and/or soy isoflavones supplementation on serum lipids and inflammatory markers using a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-control, clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women older than 60 years. We hypothesized that soy protein, in combination with isoflavones, would have the largest positive effect on coronary heart disease risk factors (serum lipids and inflammatory markers) compared with either intervention alone and that, within groups receiving isoflavones, equol producers would have more positive effects on coronary heart disease risk factors than nonequol producers. After a 1-month baseline period, participants were randomized into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g/d) and isoflavone tablets (105 mg/d isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein and placebo tablets, control protein and isoflavone tablets, or control protein and placebo tablets. T Tests were used to assess differences between equol and nonequol producers. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone tablets did not differ among groups, and compliance with study powder and tablets was 79% and 90%, respectively. After 1 year, in the entire population, there were either no or little effects on serum lipids and inflammatory markers, regardless of treatment group. Equol producers, when analyzed separately, had significant improvements in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratios (-5.9%, P = .02; -7.2%, P = .04 respectively). Soy protein and isoflavone (either alone or together) did not impact serum lipids or inflammatory markers. Therefore, they should not be considered an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease because of lipid modification in healthy late postmenopausal women lacking the ability to produce equol. PMID:24267042

  20. Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial?,??

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Kelsey M.; Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L.; Kenny, Anne M.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Abourizk, Robin H.; Bruno, Richard S.; Lipcius, Rosanne; Fall, Pamela; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa; Prestwood, Karen M.; Kerstetter, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Soy foods contain several components, notably, isoflavones and amino acids, that may improve cardiovascular health. We evaluated the long-term effect of soy protein and/or soy isoflavones supplementation on serum lipids and inflammatory markers using a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-control, clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women older than 60 years. We hypothesized that soy protein, in combination with isoflavones, would have the largest positive effect on coronary heart disease risk factors (serum lipids and inflammatory markers) compared with either intervention alone and that, within groups receiving isoflavones, equol producers would have more positive effects on coronary heart disease risk factors than nonequol producers. After a 1-month baseline period, participants were randomized into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g/d) and isoflavone tablets (105 mg/d isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein and placebo tablets, control protein and isoflavone tablets, or control protein and placebo tablets. T Tests were used to assess differences between equol and nonequol producers. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone tablets did not differ among groups, and compliance with study powder and tablets was 79% and 90%, respectively. After 1 year, in the entire population, there were either no or little effects on serum lipids and inflammatory markers, regardless of treatment group. Equol producers, when analyzed separately, had significant improvements in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratios (?5.9%, P = .02; ?7.2%, P = .04 respectively). Soy protein and isoflavone (either alone or together) did not impact serum lipids or inflammatory markers. Therefore, they should not be considered an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease because of lipid modification in healthy late postmenopausal women lacking the ability to produce equol. PMID:24267042

  1. Efficacy and safety of Baweidihuang-wan in women with overactive bladder: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongil; Choi, Changmin; Ahn, Insuk; Ryu, Ikhan; Choi, Minsun; Lee, Younsuk; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the efficacy and safety of Baweidihuang-wan (BWDH) in women with overactive bladder (OAB) and to investigate whether BWDH is more effective in OAB diagnosed as kidney yang deficiency pattern by the Korean medical pattern identification. The design of this study was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. One hundred eighty-six women with OAB were randomized to treatment (n=93) or control group (n=93). Participants received BWDH or placebo three times a day for eight weeks. Efficacy was assessed by overactive bladder symptom score and 3-day bladder diary. Subgroup analysis was conducted between kidney yang deficiency pattern and other patterns according to the Korean medical pattern identification. One hundred sixty-four participants completed this trial. The treatment group has improved in OABSS score, Total micturitions per 24 hr, Daytime micturitions per 24 hr, Total count of urgency, and Total urgency score over the control group, but differences were not statistically significant. By a subgroup analysis, OABSS score, total micturitions per 24 hr, total count of urgency and total urgency score improved most in the treatment group with the kidney yang deficiency pattern but this was also not statistically significant. No obvious adverse events were found in the use of BWDH. In conclusion, this trial did not show significant difference between BWDH and placebo in women with OAB. However BWDH tended to improve urinary frequency and urgency in OAB, especially diagnosed as kidney yang deficiency pattern. Further additional research will be needed. PMID:25356135

  2. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01490281 PMID:22336292

  3. Polarity Control in Group-III Nitrides beyond Pragmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohn, Stefan; Stolyarchuk, Natalia; Markurt, Toni; Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Collazo, Ramón; Courville, Aimeric; Di Felice, Rosa; Sitar, Zlatko; Vennéguès, Philippe; Albrecht, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the polarity of polar semiconductors on nonpolar substrates offers a wealth of device concepts in the form of heteropolar junctions. A key to realize such structures is an appropriate buffer-layer design that, in the past, has been developed by empiricism. GaN or ZnO on sapphire are prominent examples for that. Understanding the basic processes that mediate polarity, however, is still an unsolved problem. In this work, we study the structure of buffer layers for group-III nitrides on sapphire by transmission electron microscopy as an example. We show that it is the conversion of the sapphire surface into a rhombohedral aluminum-oxynitride layer that converts the initial N-polar surface to Al polarity. With the various AlxOyNz phases of the pseudobinary Al2O3 -AlN system and their tolerance against intrinsic defects, typical for oxides, a smooth transition between the octahedrally coordinated Al in the sapphire and the tetrahedrally coordinated Al in AlN becomes feasible. Based on these results, we discuss the consequences for achieving either polarity and shed light on widely applied concepts in the field of group-III nitrides like nitridation and low-temperature buffer layers.

  4. Risk factors for Group B Streptococcus colonisation and disease in Gambian women and their infants

    PubMed Central

    Le Doare, K.; Jarju, S.; Darboe, S.; Warburton, F.; Gorringe, A.; Heath, P.T.; Kampmann, B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives To determine risk factors for GBS colonisation in Gambian mothers and in their infants from birth to day 60–89 of age. Methods Swabs and breastmilk from mothers/infant pairs were collected and cultured on selective agar. Negative samples were analysed for GBS DNA via real-time PCR. Positive isolates were serotyped using multiplex PCR and gel-agarose electrophoresis. Results Seven hundred and fifty women/infant pairs were recruited. 253 women (33.7%) were GBS-colonised at delivery. The predominant serotypes were: V (55%), II (16%), III (10%), Ia (8%) and Ib (8%). 186 infants were colonised (24.8%) at birth, 181 (24.1%) at 6 days and 96 at day 60–89 (14%). Infants born before 34 weeks of gestation and to women with rectovaginal and breastmilk colonisation at delivery had increased odds of GBS colonisation at birth. Season of birth was associated with increased odds of persistent infant GBS colonisation (dry season vs. wet season AOR 2.9; 95% CI 1.6–5.2). Conclusion GBS colonisation is common in Gambian women at delivery and in their infants to day 60−89 and is dominated by serotype V. In addition to maternal colonisation, breastmilk and season of birth are important risk factors for infant GBS colonisation. PMID:26763186

  5. Gender, Discrimination Beliefs, Group-Based Guilt, and Responses to Affirmative Action for Australian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckmann, Robert J.; Feather, N. T.

    2007-01-01

    Views of a selection committee's decision to promote a woman over a man on the basis of affirmative action were studied in a random sample of Australians (118 men and 111 women). The relations between perceptions of workplace gender discrimination, feelings of collective responsibility and guilt for discrimination, and judgments of entitlement to…

  6. Appeals Court Rejects Charge that NCAA Forced Women's Group Out of Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Cheryl M.

    1984-01-01

    A court decision rejecting the charge of the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (A.I.A.W.) that the National Collegiate Athletics Association forced it out of operation by engaging in anticompetitive actions to induce members to leave the A.I.A.W. is discussed, including excerpts of the court's opinion. (MSE)

  7. Nutrition Knowledge and Milk and Milk Product Consumption in a Group of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster-Coull, Lisa; Sabry, Jean Henderson

    1993-01-01

    To examine the relationship between nutrition knowledge and milk/milk product consumption by women, data were collected from 457 female office employees. Statistically significant relationships were found between level of nutrition knowledge and age, education, and occupation. No statistically significant relationships between nutrition knowledge…

  8. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Premicroalbuminuria among Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ziaee, Amir; Oveisi, Sonia; Ghorbani, Azam; Hashemipour, Sima; Mirenayat, Maryamsadat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the association between premicroalbuminuria and metabolic syndrome in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Methods: In this case – control study, we analyzed the medical records of 78 women from an endocrinology outpatient center of Booali hospital in Qazvin city in Iran during 2008 to 2010. Anthropometric characteristics, Albumin/Creatinine Ratio (ACR), Lipid profile, Liver enzyme concentration, and occurrence of metabolic syndrome were compared between the two groups. Premicroalbuminuria was defined as ACR>7mg/g. Results: Mean age of patients with PCOS was 27.2± 2.5 years and mean age of 63 controls was 26.9±2.4 years. Premicroalbuminuria was found in 53.8% of PCOS and 33.3% of control group (p value=0.015). Again, patients with PCOS divided in two groups: ACR>7mg/g and ACR<7mg/g. Higher serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, blood pressure and more waist circumference were seen in PCOS patients with ACR>7mg/g. Fifty percent of patients with PCOS and ACR>7mg/g fulfilled criteria of metabolic syndrome; whereas no case of metabolic syndrome was found in PCOS patients with ACR<7mg/g. Conclusions: Premicroalbuminuria is more prevalent in patients with PCOS compared to normal individuals. Metabolic syndrome is more frequently seen in patients with PCOS and premicroalbuminuria against patients with ACR<7mg/g. PMID:23283052

  9. A pilot study of a randomized controlled trial of yoga as an intervention for PTSD symptoms in women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Karen S; Dick, Alexandra M; DiMartino, Dawn M; Smith, Brian N; Niles, Barbara; Koenen, Karestan C; Street, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that affects approximately 10% of women in the United States. Although effective psychotherapeutic treatments for PTSD exist, clients with PTSD report additional benefits of complementary and alternative approaches such as yoga. In particular, yoga may downregulate the stress response and positively impact PTSD and comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms. We conducted a pilot study of a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-session Kripalu-based yoga intervention with an assessment control group. Participants included 38 women with current full or subthreshold PTSD symptoms. During the intervention, yoga participants showed decreases in reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms. The assessment control group, however, showed decreases in reexperiencing and anxiety symptoms as well, which may be a result of the positive effect of self-monitoring on PTSD and associated symptoms. Between-groups effect sizes were small to moderate (0.08-0.31). Although more research is needed, yoga may be an effective adjunctive treatment for PTSD. Participants responded positively to the intervention, suggesting that it was tolerable for this sample. Findings underscore the need for future research investigating mechanisms by which yoga may impact mental health symptoms, gender comparisons, and the long-term effects of yoga practice. PMID:24668767

  10. Gender and tuberculosis control: perspectives on health seeking behaviour among men and women in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Johansson, E; Long, N H; Diwan, V K; Winkvist, A

    2000-05-01

    This study explores the perspectives of tuberculosis patients on which factors influenced their health seeking behaviour, with special reference to gender differentials in terms of delays in health seeking. In 1996, a multi-disciplinary research team carried out 16 focus group discussions. The study was done in four districts in Vietnam, both in the south and north of the country and in urban and rural areas. Qualitative analysis of data was performed following general principles of modified grounded theory technique. Participants in the focus groups described three main factors as contributing to delay in health seeking. These were fear of social isolation, economic constraints and inadequate staff attitudes and poor quality of health services. A model illustrating different factors influencing health seeking was elaborated and served as a basis for discussion of the findings. The main factor contributing to delay among women was described as fear of social isolation from the family or the community. Stigma was described as closely related to contextual factors such as gender-roles, socio-economic status and level of education and seemed to be mediated via denial and concealment of tuberculosis diagnosis and disease, thus causing delay. The main factor contributing to delay among men was described as fear of individual costs of diagnosis and treatment. Staff attitudes and quality of health service facilities were described as not always corresponding to people's expectations of appropriate health services. Women saw themselves and were seen by others as being more sensitive than men to poor service conditions and staff attitudes. A typical feature of the described health seeking behaviour of men was that they neglected symptoms until the disease reached a serious stage, by which time they tended to go directly to public health services without first visiting private health practitioners. Women, on the other hand, were described as having a tendency to seek out private services and practice self-medication before seeking care at public services. In conclusion, there is a need for better understanding of behavioural factors and for developing strategies, that take these into account. Health workers need to better understand gender and social aspects of tuberculosis control, particularly aspects that influence the likelihood for achieving equity in diagnosis and cure. PMID:10899643

  11. Effects of a Multi-Disciplinary Lifestyle Intervention on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Young Women with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Share, Bianca L.; Naughton, Geraldine A.; Obert, Philippe; Peat, Jennifer K.; Aumand, Elizabeth A.; Kemp, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Young women are under-represented in cardiovascular disease research, with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factor interventions generally targeting older adults. Furthermore, appropriate study designs for young women remain uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of a 12 week multi-disciplinary lifestyle intervention on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women with abdominal obesity. Methods Women aged 18–30 y with abdominal obesity [waist circumference (WC) ≥ 80 cm] were randomised to a 12 week lifestyle intervention (n = 26) of physical activity, nutrition education and cognitive behavioural therapy, or a wait-list control group (n = 17). Both groups completed anthropometric, biochemical, nutrition and fitness testing, at pre (0 weeks) and post (12 weeks), with intervention participants completed follow-up testing at 24 weeks. Results Results from a linear mixed model showed no between-group differences, other than increased physical activity in the intervention group, at post. In the intervention group alone, positive within-group changes were observed in WC, waist-hip-ratio (WHR), waist-height-ratio (WHtR), resting heart rate, blood pressure, predicted VO2max, and total energy intake. Most changes were maintained at 24 weeks post-intervention. Similar within-group improvements were observed in control participants in WC, WHR, WHtR, and systolic blood pressure but no changes were detected in physical activity and nutrition. Conclusions Cardiometabolic risk factors were decreased as a result of a lifestyle intervention in young women with abdominal obesity. It is difficult to describe observations in the control group without greater understanding of the behaviour of wait-list participants. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001017819 PMID:26114854

  12. Wii-Workouts on Chronic Pain, Physical Capabilities and Mood of Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; de Souza, Cíntia Pereira; Lattari, Eduardo; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa Ferreira; Mura, Gioia; Machado, Sérgio; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is a public health problem and older women have higher incidence of this symptom, which affect body balance, functional capacity and behavior. The purpose of this study was to verifying the effect of exercises with Nintendo Wii on CLBP, functional capacity and mood of elderly. Thirty older women (68 ± 4 years; 68 ± 12 kg; 154 ± 5 cm) with CLBP participated in this study. Elderly individuals were divided into a Control Exercise Group (n = 14) and an Experimental Wii Group (n = 16). Control Exercise Group did strength exercises and core training, while Experimental Wii Group did ones additionally to exercises with Wii. CLBP, balance, functional capacity and mood were assessed pre and post training by the numeric pain scale, Wii Balance Board, sit to stand test and Profile of Mood States, respectively. Training lasted eight weeks and sessions were performed three times weekly. MANOVA 2 x 2 showed no interaction on pain, siting, stand-up and mood (P = 0.53). However, there was significant difference within groups (P = 0.0001). ANOVA 2 x 2 showed no interaction for each variable (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences within groups in these variables (P < 0.05). Tukey's post-hoc test showed significant difference in pain on both groups (P = 0.0001). Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests identified no significant differences on balance (P > 0.01). Capacity to Sit improved only in Experimental Wii Group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, physical exercises with Nintendo Wii Fit Plus additional to strength and core training were effective only for sitting capacity, but effect size was small. PMID:26556092

  13. Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Chen, Lynn

    2014-11-23

    This study had two purposes: (i) to explore differences in sexual function between women with gynecological or rectal cancer after related pelvic-area treatments and women without cancer; and (ii) to investigate the relationships among body image, anxiety and depression, sexual relationship power, sexual self-schema, and female sexual function. The participants (n = 139) were recruited through Internet cancer support groups and women's health organizations in the USA. Six structured questionnaires were mailed, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that women with gynecological or rectal cancer had significantly worse sexual function than women without cancer. Having gynecological/rectal cancer and a negative sexual self-schema were significantly related to poor sexual function. Furthermore, sexual self-schema moderated the relationship between sexual relationship power and female sexual function. Healthcare providers could give more attention to sexual issues in women who have undergone treatment for gynecological or rectal cancer, especially for those with a negative sexual self-schema and high sexual relationship power, which might improve these women's quality of life. PMID:25417724

  14. A randomised controlled trial on hypolipidemic effects of Nigella Sativa seeds powder in menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increased tremendously among menopausal women, and there is an increasing demand for alternative therapies for managing factors like dyslipidemia that contribute to CVD development. Methods In this study, Nigella sativa was evaluated for its hypolipidemic effects among menopausal women. In a randomised trial, hyperlipidemic menopausal women were assigned to treatment (n = 19) or placebo groups (n = 18), and given N. sativa or placebo for two months after their informed consents were sought. At baseline, blood samples were taken and at one month intervals thereafter until one month after the end of the study. Results The results showed that N. sativa significantly improved lipid profiles of menopausal women (decreased total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride, and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol) more than the placebo treatment over 2 months of intervention. One month after cessation of treatment, the lipid profiles in the N. sativa-treated group tended to change towards the pretreatment levels. Conclusions N. sativa is thought to have multiple mechanisms of action and is cost-effective. Therefore, it could be used by menopausal women to remedy hypercholesterolemia, with likely more benefits than with single pharmacological agents that may cause side effects. The use of N. sativa as an alternative therapy for hypercholesterolemia could have profound impact on the management of CVD among menopausal women especially in countries where it is readily available. PMID:24685020

  15. Stress Exposure and Depression in Disadvantaged Women: The Protective Effects of Optimism and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Larkin, Jill; Lemay, Edward P., Jr.; Brown, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors predicted that the individual protective factors of optimism and perceived control over acute and chronic stressors would buffer the relations between acute and chronic stress exposure and severity of depression, controlling for household income, in a sample of financially disadvantaged women. Ninety-seven African…

  16. Effects of Acute 60 and 80% V[o.sub.2]max Bouts of Aerobic Exercise on State Anxiety of Women of Different Age Groups across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard H.; Thomas, Tom R.; Hinton, Pam S.; Donahue, Owen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on state anxiety of women while controlling for iron status (hemoglobin and serum ferritin). Participants were 24 active women, ages 18-20 years (n=12) and 35-45 years (n=12). In addition to a nonexercise control condition, participants completed one…

  17. Self-hypnosis for intrapartum pain management in pregnant nulliparous women: a randomised controlled trial of clinical effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Downe, S; Finlayson, K; Melvin, C; Spiby, H; Ali, S; Diggle, P; Gyte, G; Hinder, S; Miller, V; Slade, P; Trepel, D; Weeks, A; Whorwell, P; Williamson, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective (Primary) To establish the effect of antenatal group self-hypnosis for nulliparous women on intra-partum epidural use. Design Multi-method randomised control trial (RCT). Setting Three NHS Trusts. Population Nulliparous women not planning elective caesarean, without medication for hypertension and without psychological illness. Methods Randomisation at 28–32 weeks’ gestation to usual care, or to usual care plus brief self-hypnosis training (two × 90-minute groups at around 32 and 35 weeks’ gestation; daily audio self-hypnosis CD). Follow up at 2 and 6 weeks postnatal. Main outcome measures Primary: epidural analgesia. Secondary: associated clinical and psychological outcomes; cost analysis. Results Six hundred and eighty women were randomised. There was no statistically significant difference in epidural use: 27.9% (intervention), 30.3% (control), odds ratio (OR) 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64–1.24], or in 27 of 29 pre-specified secondary clinical and psychological outcomes. Women in the intervention group had lower actual than anticipated levels of fear and anxiety between baseline and 2 weeks post natal (anxiety: mean difference −0.72, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.28, P = 0.001); fear (mean difference −0.62, 95% CI −1.08 to −0.16, P = 0.009) [Correction added on 7 July 2015, after first online publication: ‘Mean difference’ replaced ‘Odds ratio (OR)’ in the preceding sentence.]. Postnatal response rates were 67% overall at 2 weeks. The additional cost in the intervention arm per woman was £4.83 (CI −£257.93 to £267.59). Conclusions Allocation to two-third-trimester group self-hypnosis training sessions did not significantly reduce intra-partum epidural analgesia use or a range of other clinical and psychological variables. The impact of women's anxiety and fear about childbirth needs further investigation. Tweetable abstract Going to 2 prenatal self-hypnosis groups didn't reduce labour epidural use but did reduce birth fear & anxiety postnatally at < £5 per woman. PMID:25958769

  18. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Associated With Aerobic Exercise on Body Fat and Lipid Profile in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alex S; Pina, Fábio Luiz; Dodero, Soraya R; Silva, Danilo R; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Sugihara Júnior, Paulo; Fernandes, Rodrigo R; Barbosa, Décio S; Cyrino, Edilson S; Tirapegui, Julio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of 8 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation associated with aerobic exercise on body fat and lipid profile on obese women. We performed a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial with 28 obese women who received 3.2 g/day of CLA or 4 g/day of olive oil (placebo group) while performing an 8-week protocol of aerobic exercise. Dietary intake (food record), body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and biochemical analysis (blood sample) were assessed before and after the intervention period. Independent of CLA supplementation, both groups improved (p < .05) oxygen uptake (CLA group, 13.2%; PLC group, 14.8%), trunk fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -0.5%), leg fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -1.6%), and total body fat (CLA group, -1.7%; PLC group, -1.3%) after the 8-week intervention. No main effect or Group × Time interaction was found for total cholesterol, triglycerides, and plasma lipoproteins (p > .05). We conclude that CLA supplementation associated with aerobic exercise has no effect on body fat reduction and lipid profile improvements over placebo in young adult obese women. PMID:26402730

  19. Pregnancy and Lactation Alter Biomarkers of Biotin Metabolism in Women Consuming a Controlled Diet123

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Cydne A; West, Allyson A; Gayle, Antoinette; Lucas, Lauren K; Yan, Jian; Jiang, Xinyin; Malysheva, Olga; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biotin functions as a cofactor for several carboxylase enzymes with key roles in metabolism. At present, the dietary requirement for biotin is unknown and intake recommendations are provided as Adequate Intakes (AIs). The biotin AI for adults and pregnant women is 30 μg/d, whereas 35 μg/d is recommended for lactating women. However, pregnant and lactating women may require more biotin to meet the demands of these reproductive states. Objective: The current study sought to quantify the impact of reproductive state on biotin status response to a known dietary intake of biotin. Methods: To achieve this aim, we measured a panel of biotin biomarkers among pregnant (gestational week 27 at study entry; n = 26), lactating (postnatal week 5 at study entry; n = 28), and control (n = 21) women who participated in a 10- to 12-wk feeding study providing 57 μg of dietary biotin/d as part of a mixed diet. Results: Over the course of the study, pregnant women excreted 69% more (vs. control; P < 0.001) 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIA), a metabolite that accumulates during the catabolism of leucine when the activity of biotin-dependent methylcrotonyl–coenzyme A carboxylase is impaired. Interestingly, urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl-carnitine (3-HIA-carnitine), a downstream metabolite of 3-HIA, was 27% lower (P = 0.05) among pregnant (vs. control) women, a finding that may arise from carnitine inadequacy during gestation. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected in plasma biotin, urinary biotin, or urinary bisnorbiotin between pregnant and control women. Lactating women excreted 76% more (vs. control; P = 0.001) of the biotin catabolite bisnorbiotin, indicating that lactation accelerates biotin turnover and loss. Notably, with respect to control women, lactating women excreted 23% less (P = 0.04) urinary 3-HIA and 26% less (P = 0.05) urinary 3-HIA-carnitine, suggesting that lactation reduces leucine catabolism and that these metabolites may not be useful indicators of biotin status during lactation. Conclusions: Overall, these data demonstrate significant alterations in markers of biotin metabolism during pregnancy and lactation and suggest that biotin intakes exceeding current recommendations are needed to meet the demands of these reproductive states. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127022. PMID:25122647

  20. Religion, male violence, and the control of women: Pakistani Muslim men in Bradford, UK.

    PubMed

    Macey, M

    1999-03-01

    This paper examines Pakistani Muslim male violence in the public and private spheres in Bradford, UK. The article also explores the relationship between male violence and ideas of culture and religion. The material used was collected over a 4-year period from students and staff in further and higher education institutions; working women (prostitutes); survivors of domestic violence; police personnel who work with Asian women fleeing domestic violence or forced marriages; and staff of a children's society working with teenage prostitutes. Methodologies included lectures, seminars, focus groups, and interviews. Findings reveal that there is a difference between male and female attitudes towards Islam. Some men are using it to justify violence against women, while women of all ages and backgrounds are using it as a source of strength and to negotiate (with ingenuity and humor) the cultural and religious requirements which men try to impose upon them. PMID:12295341

  1. Effect of selenium on markers of risk of pre-eclampsia in UK pregnant women: a randomised, controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Rayman, Margaret P; Searle, Elizabeth; Kelly, Lynne; Johnsen, Sigurd; Bodman-Smith, Katherine; Bath, Sarah C; Mao, Jinyuan; Redman, Christopher W G

    2014-07-14

    Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Se intake or status has been linked to the occurrence of pre-eclampsia by our own work and that of others. We hypothesised that a small increase in the Se intake of UK pregnant women of inadequate Se status would protect against the risk of pre-eclampsia, as assessed by biomarkers of pre-eclampsia. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial, we randomised 230 primiparous pregnant women to Se (60 ?g/d, as Se-enriched yeast) or placebo treatment from 12 to 14 weeks of gestation until delivery. Whole-blood Se concentration was measured at baseline and 35 weeks, and plasma selenoprotein P (SEPP1) concentration at 35 weeks. The primary outcome measure of the present study was serum soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1), an anti-angiogenic factor linked with the risk of pre-eclampsia. Other serum/plasma components related to the risk of pre-eclampsia were also measured. Between 12 and 35 weeks, whole-blood Se concentration increased significantly in the Se-treated group but decreased significantly in the placebo group. At 35 weeks, significantly higher concentrations of whole-blood Se and plasma SEPP1 were observed in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group. In line with our hypothesis, the concentration of sFlt-1 was significantly lower at 35 weeks in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group in participants in the lowest quartile of Se status at baseline (P= 0039). None of the secondary outcome measures was significantly affected by treatment. The present finding that Se supplementation has the potential to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women of low Se status needs to be validated in an adequately powered trial. PMID:24708917

  2. The Effects of Physical Activity and Physical Activity plus Diet Interventions on Body Weight in Overweight or Obese Women who are Pregnant or in Postpartum: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Choi, JiWon; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) and PA plus diet interventions in managing weight among overweight or obese (OW/OB) pregnant or postpartum women. Methods Four databases were searched for randomized controlled studies published between January 2000 and December 2011 that reported weight change outcomes of PA interventions in OW/OB pregnant or postpartum women. PA alone as well as PA plus diet interventions were included. Results Of 681 abstracts identified, 11 were included (7 trials with pregnant women and 4 trials with postpartum women). Overall, we found that PA interventions were effective for OW/OB pregnant as well as postpartum women. On average, pregnant women in the intervention groups gained 0.91 kg less (95% CI: −1.76, −0.06) compared to those in the usual care groups. Postpartum women in the intervention groups significantly lost more body weight (−1.22 kg; 95% CI: −1.89, −0.56) than those in the control groups. In the subgroup analyses by PA intervention types, supervised PA plus diet interventions were the most effective. Conclusions PA plus diet interventions may require more than advice; supervised PA programs or personalized prescription/goals are needed to prevent excessive weight gain for OW/OB pregnant women and excessive weight retention for OW/OB postpartum women. PMID:23480971

  3. No association between alcohol supplementation and autoantibodies to DNA damage in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Mahabir, S; Baer, D J; Johnson, L L; Frenkel, K; Dorgan, J F; Cambell, W; Hartman, T J; Clevidence, B; Albanes, D; Judd, J T; Taylor, P R

    2005-08-01

    Alcohol consumption is linked to increased breast cancer risk. Since oestrogens increase breast cancer risk, possibly through oxidative damage, and we have shown that alcohol consumption increases serum oestrogens, we tested whether moderate alcohol supplementation increased oxidative DNA damage among healthy postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy in a randomized controlled crossover study. We used serum 5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine (5-HMdU) autoantibodies (aAbs) as a marker of oxidative DNA damage. The results showed no evidence for increased or decreased levels of oxidative DNA damage among women who consumed 15 g or 30 g alcohol per day for 8 weeks compared with women in the 0 g alcohol group. We conclude that among healthy women, it is possible that an 8-week trial of moderate alcohol supplementation might be too short to make enough 5-HMdU aAbs to compare differences by alcohol dose. In future studies, a panel of biomarkers for DNA damage should be used. PMID:16030435

  4. Effect of hyoscine-N-butyl bromide rectal suppository on labor progress in primigravid women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Makvandi, Somayeh; Tadayon, Mitra; Abbaspour, Mohammadreza

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the effects of hyoscine-N-butyl bromide (HBB) rectal suppository on labor progress in primigravid women. Methods A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out on 130 primigravid women admitted for spontaneous labor. The women were recruited based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomized into the experimental (n = 65) and control group (n = 65). In the beginning of the active phase of labor, 20 mg of HBB rectal suppository was administered to the experimental group, while a placebo suppository was administered to the control group. Cervical dilatation and duration of active phase and second stage of labor were recorded. Results The rate of cervical dilatation was 2.6 cm/h in the experimental and 1.5 cm/h in the control group (P < 0.001). The active phase and the second stage of labor were significantly shorter in the experimental group (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the fetal heart rate, maternal pulse rate, blood pressure, and the APGAR score 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Conclusion Use of HBB rectal suppository in the active management of labor can shorten both the active phase and second stage of labor without significant side-effects. Registration No IRCT138804282204N1. PMID:21495198

  5. Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

  6. Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

  7. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, H. M.; Dawkins, J.; Rattray, C.; Wharfe, G.; Reid, M.; Gordon-Strachan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been used for many years as an anti-inflammatory agent. We tested the efficacy of Noni in women with dysmenorrhea. Method. We did a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 100 university students of 18 years and older over three menstrual cycles. Patients were invited to participate and randomly assigned to receive 400?mg Noni capsules or placebo. They were assessed for baseline demographic variables such as age, parity, and BMI. They were also assessed before and after treatment, for pain, menstrual blood loss, and laboratory variables: ESR, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume. Results. Of the 1027 women screened, 100 eligible women were randomized. Of the women completing the study, 42 women were randomized to Noni and 38 to placebo. There were no significant differences in any of the variables at randomization. There were also no significant differences in mean bleeding score or pain score at randomization. Both bleeding and pain scores gradually improved in both groups as the women were observed over three menstrual cycles; however, the improvement was not significantly different in the Noni group when compared to the controls. Conclusion. Noni did not show a reduction in menstrual pain or bleeding when compared to placebo. PMID:23431314

  8. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, H M; Dawkins, J; Rattray, C; Wharfe, G; Reid, M; Gordon-Strachan, G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been used for many years as an anti-inflammatory agent. We tested the efficacy of Noni in women with dysmenorrhea. Method. We did a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 100 university students of 18 years and older over three menstrual cycles. Patients were invited to participate and randomly assigned to receive 400 mg Noni capsules or placebo. They were assessed for baseline demographic variables such as age, parity, and BMI. They were also assessed before and after treatment, for pain, menstrual blood loss, and laboratory variables: ESR, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume. Results. Of the 1027 women screened, 100 eligible women were randomized. Of the women completing the study, 42 women were randomized to Noni and 38 to placebo. There were no significant differences in any of the variables at randomization. There were also no significant differences in mean bleeding score or pain score at randomization. Both bleeding and pain scores gradually improved in both groups as the women were observed over three menstrual cycles; however, the improvement was not significantly different in the Noni group when compared to the controls. Conclusion. Noni did not show a reduction in menstrual pain or bleeding when compared to placebo. PMID:23431314

  9. The Relative Importance of Systolic Versus Diastolic Blood Pressure Control and Incident Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease in Women

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Tiffany M.; Glynn, Robert J.; Buring, Julie E.; Creager, Mark A.; Ridker, Paul M.; Pradhan, Aruna D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Prospective data regarding risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD) are sparse, especially among women; the relative contribution of systolic versus diastolic blood pressure control for incident PAD has not been well-studied. We evaluated the association of self-reported blood pressure control with incident symptomatic PAD in middle-aged and older women. Methods We examined the relationship between reported hypertension and incident confirmed symptomatic PAD (n=178) in 39,260 female health professionals aged ≥45 years without known vascular disease at baseline. Median follow-up was 13.3 years. Women were grouped according to presence of reported isolated diastolic (IDH), isolated systolic (ISH), or combined systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH) using cut-points of 90 and 140 mmHg for diastolic and systolic blood pressure, respectively. SBP and DBP were modeled as continuous and categorical exposures. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs), including adjustment for CV risk factors, were derived from Cox proportional hazards models. Results Adjusted HRs compared to women without reported hypertension were 1.0 (0.4–2.8) for IDH, 2.0 (1.3–3.1) for ISH, and 2.8 (1.8–4.5) for SDH. There was a 43% increased adjusted risk per 10 mmHg of reported SBP (95% CI 27–62%) and a gradient in risk according to SBP category (<120, 120–139, 140–159, and ≥160 mmHg); HRs were 1.0, 2.3, 4.3, and 6.6 (p-trend<0.001), respectively. Reported DBP, while individually predictive in models excluding SBP, was not predictive after adjustment for SBP. Conclusions These prospective data suggest a strong prognostic role for uncontrolled blood pressure and, particularly, uncontrolled systolic blood pressure in the development of peripheral atherosclerosis in women. PMID:21730007

  10. Correlation of Serum Lipoprotein Ratios with Insulin Resistance in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffarzad, Aisa; Amani, Reza; Mehrzad Sadaghiani M.D.3, Mahzad; Darabi, Masoud; Cheraghian, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR), occurring in most infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to assess the relationships between lipoprotein ratios and IR in PCOS women. Materials and Methods Thirty six infertile women with PCOS selected based on Androgen Excess Society (AES) criteria and 29 healthy women matched for age were recruited to this case-control study. After physical measurements, fasting serum glucose (Glu), insulin and lipid profile levels [triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)] were measured, while lipoprotein ratios (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C) were calculated. IR was also calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR. The optimal cutoffs of lipoprotein ratios in relation to HOMA-IR were calculated based on the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis using the area under curve (AUC). Results Waist circumference (WC), insulin levels, HOMA-IR, TG levels, and all lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher, while HDL-C was lower in PCOS group as compared to healthy controls. All lipoprotein ratios, TG levels, and WC are significantly correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Among lipoprotein ratios, the highest AUC of the ROC belonged to TG/HDL-C ratio with sensitivity of 63.6% and specificity of 84.4% (TG/HDL-C>3.19) as a marker of IR in infertile PCOS women. Conclusion Lipoprotein ratios, particularly TG/HDL-C, are directly correlated with insulin levels and can be used as a marker of IR (HOMA-IR) in infertile PCOS patients. PMID:27123197

  11. Intravaginal Misoprostol for Cervical Ripening and Labor Induction in Nulliparous Women: A Double-blinded, Prospective Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Hao-Ping; Fan, Jian-Xia; Yu, Hong; Sun, Li-Zhou; Chen, Lian; Chang, Qing; Zhao, Nai-Qing; Di, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Background: In China, no multicenter double-blinded prospective randomized controlled study on labor induction has been conducted till now. This study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravaginal accurate 25-μg misoprostol tablets for cervical ripening and labor induction in term pregnancy in nulliparous women. Methods: This was a double-blinded, prospective randomized controlled study including nulliparous women from 6 university hospitals across China. Subjects were randomized into misoprostol or placebo group with the sample size ratio set to 7:2. Intravaginal 25-μg misoprostol or placebo was applied at an interval of 4 h (repeated up to 3 times) for labor induction. Primary outcome measures were the incidence of cumulative Bishop score increases ≥3 within 12 h or vaginal delivery within 24 h. Safety assessments included the incidences of maternal morbidity and adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes. Results: A total of 173 women for misoprostol group and 49 women for placebo were analyzed. The incidence of cumulative Bishop score increases ≥3 within 12 h or vaginal delivery within 24 h was higher in the misoprostol group than in the placebo (64.2% vs. 22.5%, relative risk [RR]: 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–6.0). The incidence of onset of labor within 24 h was significantly higher in the misoprostol group than in the placebo group (48.0% vs. 18.4%, RR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2–5.7); and the induction-onset of labor interval was significantly shorter in the misoprostol group (P = 0.0003). However, there were no significant differences in the median process time of vaginal labor (6.4 vs. 6.8 h; P = 0.695), incidence (39.3% vs. 49.0%, RR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4–1.5) and indications (P = 0.683) of cesarean section deliveries, and frequencies of maternal, fetal/neonatal adverse events between the groups. Conclusion: Intravaginal misoprostol 25 μg every 4 h is efficacious and safe in labor induction and cervical ripening. PMID:26481739

  12. An Implication of Health Sector Reform for Disadvantaged Women's Struggle for Birth Control: A Case of Kurdish Rural-Urban Migrant Women in Van, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Him, Miki Suzuki; Hoşgör, Ayşe Gündüz

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we examine how socioeconomically disadvantaged women are affected by health sector reform and family planning policy changes in Turkey through a case study of Kurdish women's struggles for birth control. In Turkey, a family planning program became relatively marginalized in primary health care services as a result of health sector reform as well as a shift of population policy toward a moderately pronatal approach. We argue that an emerging health care system would leave disadvantaged women unable to benefit from contraceptives and would perpetuate reproductive health inequalities between women in the country. PMID:24134209

  13. Evaluation of the Granada agar plate for detection of vaginal and rectal group B streptococci in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gil, E G; Rodríguez, M C; Bartolomé, R; Berjano, B; Cabero, L; Andreu, A

    1999-08-01

    Granada medium was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in vaginal and rectal swabs compared with selective Columbia blood agar and selective Lim broth. From May 1996 to March 1998, 702 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation) participated in this three-phase study; 103 (14.7%) of these women carried GBS. In the first phase of the experiment (n = 273 women), vaginorectal specimens were collected on the same swab; the sensitivities of Granada tube, selective Columbia blood agar, and Lim broth were 31.4, 94.3, and 74.3%, respectively. In the second and third phases (n = 429 women), vaginal and rectal specimens were collected separately; the sensitivities of Granada plate, selective Columbia blood agar, and Lim broth (subcultured at 4 h on selective Columbia agar in the second phase and at 18 to 24 h in Granada plate in the third phase) were 91.1, 83.9, and 75%, respectively, in the second phase and 88.5, 90.4, and 63.5%, respectively, in the third phase. There were no statistically significant differences in GBS recovery between the Granada agar plate and selective Columbia blood agar, but the Granada plate provided a clear advantage; the characteristic red-orange colonies produced overnight by GBS can be identified by the naked eye and is so specific that further identification is unnecessary. The use of the Granada tube and Lim broth did not result in increased isolation of GBS. In conclusion, the Granada agar plate is highly sensitive for detecting GBS in vaginal and rectal swabs from pregnant women and can provide results in 18 to 24 h. PMID:10405415

  14. Evaluation of the Granada Agar Plate for Detection of Vaginal and Rectal Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Gil, E. García; Rodríguez, M. C.; Bartolomé, R.; Berjano, B.; Cabero, L.; Andreu, A.

    1999-01-01

    Granada medium was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in vaginal and rectal swabs compared with selective Columbia blood agar and selective Lim broth. From May 1996 to March 1998, 702 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation) participated in this three-phase study; 103 (14.7%) of these women carried GBS. In the first phase of the experiment (n = 273 women), vaginorectal specimens were collected on the same swab; the sensitivities of Granada tube, selective Columbia blood agar, and Lim broth were 31.4, 94.3, and 74.3%, respectively. In the second and third phases (n = 429 women), vaginal and rectal specimens were collected separately; the sensitivities of Granada plate, selective Columbia blood agar, and Lim broth (subcultured at 4 h on selective Columbia agar in the second phase and at 18 to 24 h in Granada plate in the third phase) were 91.1, 83.9, and 75%, respectively, in the second phase and 88.5, 90.4, and 63.5%, respectively, in the third phase. There were no statistically significant differences in GBS recovery between the Granada agar plate and selective Columbia blood agar, but the Granada plate provided a clear advantage; the characteristic red-orange colonies produced overnight by GBS can be identified by the naked eye and is so specific that further identification is unnecessary. The use of the Granada tube and Lim broth did not result in increased isolation of GBS. In conclusion, the Granada agar plate is highly sensitive for detecting GBS in vaginal and rectal swabs from pregnant women and can provide results in 18 to 24 h. PMID:10405415

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Physical Activity among Insufficiently Active Women Following Their Participation in a Mass Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Aoife; Murphy, Niamh; Bauman, Adrian; Chey, Tien

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of a community based, low-contact intervention on the physical activity habits of insufficiently active women. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Participants: Inactive Irish women. Method: A population sample of women participating in a mass 10 km event were up followed at 2 and 6 months, and those who had…

  16. Serotype-Specific Cell-Mediated Immunity Associated With Clearance of Homotypic Group B Streptococcus Rectovaginal Colonization in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Gaurav; Adrian, Peter V; Shiri, Tinevimbo; Izu, Alane; Cutland, Clare L; Buchmann, Eckhart J; Madhi, Shabir A

    2016-06-15

    We investigated the association between group B Streptococcus (GBS) serotype-specific capsular polysaccharide cellular immunity, measured with enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) interferon γ release assay at 20 weeks gestation in pregnant women, and its effect on rectovaginal serotype-specific GBS colonization up to 37 weeks gestation. Among women colonized by serotype III at enrollment, interferon γ ELISPOT positivity was more common in those in whom colonization was cleared (44.4%) than in those in whom colonization persisted (7.4%; P = .008), with a similar trend observed for serotype Ia. Presence of serotype-specific capsular polysaccharide cell-mediated immunity contributes to the clearance of GBS rectovaginal colonization. PMID:27029777

  17. Adjunctive estrogen treatment in women with chronic schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Nejatisafa, Ali Akbar; Amini, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Larijani, Bagher; Kashani, Ladan; Raisi, Firoozeh; Kamalipour, Abbas

    2003-09-01

    The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia postulates that estrogen exerts a protective effect against schizophrenia and that this partly explains the observed sex differences in premorbid adjustment, onset age, treatment response, and illness course. It has been suggested that estrogen supplementation can augment the treatment effects of antipsychotics. The purpose of the present investigation was to access the efficacy of ethinyl estradiol as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of premenopausal women with chronic schizophrenia in an 8-week, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Eligible participants in the study were 32 women of childbearing age with schizophrenia. All patients were inpatients, in the active phase of illness, and met DSM-IV criteria for chronic schizophrenia. Patients were allocated in a random fashion, 16 to haloperidol 15 mg/day plus ethinyl estradiol 0.05 mg/day and 16 to haloperidol 15 mg/day plus placebo for an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Although both protocols significantly decreased the score of the positive, negative, and general psychopathological symptoms over the trial period, the combination of haloperidol and ethinyl estradiol showed a significant superiority over haloperidol alone in the treatment of positive and general psychopathology symptoms as well as Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores. Although the means Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale (ESRS) for the placebo group were higher than ethinyl estradiol group, the differences were not significant over the trial. A significant difference was observed between the overall mean biperiden dosages in the two groups. The results of this study suggest that estrogen may be an effective adjuvant agent in the management of women of childbearing age with chronic schizophrenia. Nevertheless, results of larger controlled trials are needed before recommendation for a broad clinical application can be made. PMID:14499318

  18. De-constructing 'choice': the social imperative and women's use of the birth control pill.

    PubMed

    Granzow, Kara

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the social construction of 'choice' in women's use of the oral contraceptive birth control pill. Using social and historical critiques of neo-liberalism, it is argued that the contemporary priority placed on 'choice' positions women in contradictory ways-requiring them to be both 'choosing' reproductive subjects and reproductive subjects with very few options. The paper works to de-construct contemporary understandings of choice and finds that women's use of the birth control pill is less an exercise of idealized individual agency than it is an act of repetition, tied to ambiguity around what a lived experience of choice might be. To elaborate elements of the theoretical discussion, findings from a qualitative study of women's use of the oral contraceptive are discussed. These reveal that women's articulations of 'choice' challenge the notion of genuinely available and viable alternatives for women, and demonstrate how the use of a technology can silence understandings of contraception as something other than an individual responsibility. PMID:17364713

  19. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus among pregnant women and control subjects in China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei; Sui, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Qian, Ai-Dong; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis E infection, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is an important global public health concern, with particularly high mortality in pregnant women. China is generally judged to be an HEV-endemic area, but epidemiological data for HEV among pregnant women are limited. Between June 2011 and July 2013, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by pregnant women in China. Nine-hundred and ninety pregnant women who visited hospitals for antenatal follow-up or medication in Qingdao and Weihai and 965 control subjects matched by age, gender and residence were examined for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme immunoassays. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in all 1,955 samples was 20.7%. In pregnant women, 16.2% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive whereas, in control subjects 25.3% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive, (P < 0.01). For anti-HEV IgM detection, 62 (3.2%) of the 1,955 serum samples were positive and the seroprevalence in pregnant women and control subjects was 2.6% and 3.6%, respectively. Age, contact with cats, contact with pigs and exposure to soil were found to be associated with HEV infection. These findings demonstrated the high prevalence of HEV and the considerable potential for the transmission of HEV infection in pregnant women in China. PMID:25164987

  20. Bonds to the homeland: Patterns and determinants of women's transnational travel frequency among three immigrant groups in Germany.

    PubMed

    Iarmolenko, Svitlana; Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2016-04-01

    Technology developments have changed immigrants' adaptation patterns in modern societies, allowing immigrants to sustain dense, complex connections with homeland while adjusting in the host country, a new phenomenon termed transnationalism. As empirical studies on immigrant transnationalism are still scarce, the purpose of this study was to investigate mean levels and determinants of a core component of transnationalism-transnational travel. Hypotheses were based on context of exiting homeland, living conditions in Germany and demographic and sociocultural variables. Transnational travel behaviour was assessed as frequency of return trips in three immigrant groups in Germany: ethnic Germans, Russian Jews and Turks. Interviews were conducted with 894 women participants from these groups. Results showed substantial transnational travel behaviour in all groups with Turks reporting higher levels than ethnic Germans and Russian Jews. Interindividual differences in transnational travel within groups were also examined. Results indicated similarities (e.g. network size in home country related positively to transnational travel frequency in all groups) and group-specific associations (e.g. co-ethnic identifying related positively to transnational travel frequency among Turks, but negatively for the other groups). Our study highlights the need for a new understanding of immigration and emphasises the consideration of group-specific mechanisms in transnational travel behaviour. PMID:25620296

  1. What British women say matters to them about donating an aborted fetus to stem cell research: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Naomi

    2008-06-01

    This is the first investigation into what matters to British women when they think about donating an aborted fetus to research, and how stem cell research and therapies might influence their views. Tissue derived from the aborted fetus is considered "the right tool for the job" in some stem cell laboratories. Research using tissue derived from aborted fetuses is permitted in Britain, while deliberate abortion to provide fetal tissue for research is illegal. Investigators are advised to seek women's agreement to donate the fetus after they have signed the consent form for the abortion, and stem cell researchers seek fetuses aborted under the 'social' grounds of the Abortion Act 1967. This research was based on focus groups with women who had both had a termination and had not had a termination. It found that initial enthusiasm for the donation of the aborted fetus for medical research, which was understood as a good thing, diminished as participants gained information and thought more carefully about the implications of such a decision. Lack of knowledge about how aborted fetuses are treated as scientific objects in the stem cell laboratory provoked concerns about mishandling, and invoked in some participants what we have called the duty of care which women feel towards babies and children. The duty of care might apply to other research using aborted fetuses. But what makes stem cell research more troubling is its association with renewal, regeneration, and immortality which participants understood as somehow reinstating and even developing the fetus' physical existence and social biography, the very thing abortion is meant to eliminate. By the end of the focus groups, participants had co-produced a tendency to refuse to donate aborted fetuses. PMID:18375029

  2. Examination of weight control practices in a non-clinical sample of college women.

    PubMed

    Hayes, S; Napolitano, M A

    2012-09-01

    The current study examined healthy weight control practices among a sample of college women enrolled at an urban university (N=715; age=19.87±1.16; 77.2% Caucasian; 13.4% African American, 7.2% Asian, 2.2% other races). Participants completed measures as part of an on-line study about health habits, behaviors, and attitudes. Items from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire were selected and evaluated with exploratory factor analysis to create a healthy weight control practices scale. Results revealed that college women, regardless of weight status, used a comparable number (four of eight) of practices. Examination of racial differences between Caucasian and African American women revealed that normal weight African American women used significantly fewer strategies than Caucasian women. Of note, greater use of healthy weight control practices was associated with higher cognitive restraint, drive for thinness, minutes of physical activity, and more frequent use of compensatory strategies. Higher scores on measures of binge and disinhibited eating, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and depressive symptoms were associated with greater use of healthy weight control practices by underweight/normal weight but not by overweight/obese college women. Results suggest that among a sample of college females, a combination of healthy and potentially unhealthy weight control practices occurs. Implications of the findings suggest the need for effective weight management and eating disorder prevention programs for this critical developmental life stage. Such programs should be designed to help students learn how to appropriately use healthy weight control practices, as motivations for use may vary by weight status. PMID:23086250

  3. Bone Mineral Density in Young Women With Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Results of a Three-Year Randomized Controlled Trial of Physiological Transdermal Estradiol and Testosterone Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Calis, Karim A.; Kalantaridou, Sophia N.; Vanderhoof, Vien H.; Koziol, Deloris; Troendle, James F.; Reynolds, James C.; Nelson, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Women with primary ovarian insufficiency have significantly lower serum estradiol and T levels compared with regularly menstruating women. They also have significantly reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of hormone replacement in maintaining BMD in these young women. Design and Setting: This was a randomized, double-blind, single-center, placebo-controlled clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health clinical center (Bethesda, Maryland). Participants: Young women with primary ovarian insufficiency participated in the study. Interventions: We compared the effect of estradiol and progestin replacement (n = 72) vs estradiol, progestin, and T replacement (n = 73) on BMD. We also compared findings with a contemporaneous control group of normal women (n = 70). All patients received transdermal estradiol (100 μg/d) plus oral medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg/d (12 d/mo) for a 3-month run-in period before being randomized in a double-blinded fashion to the addition of transdermal T (150 μg/d) or placebo. Main Outcome Measure: Change in BMD at the femoral neck was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: At screening, patients had significantly lower femoral neck BMD compared with control women (0.77 vs 0.81 g/cm2, P = .001) and did not differ in body mass index, age at menarche, or education level. Normal control women lost femoral neck BMD over the study period, whereas patients on estradiol and progestin therapy gained BMD; and at the end of the study period, femoral neck BMD of patients on estradiol and progestin therapy did not differ from that of control women (0.80 g/cm2 in both groups, P = .9). The addition of T showed no further benefit (percentage change in BMD 3.9 vs 2.4, respectively, P = .9). Nonetheless, using a repeated-measures model, the T group achieved a mean BMD in the femoral neck 0.015 g/cm2 higher than the placebo group at 3 years (95% confidence interval −0.005 to 0.034, P = .13). Similar findings were observed in the lumbar spine BMD as well. Conclusion: Long-term physiological transdermal estradiol replacement in combination with oral medroxyprogesterone acetate restores mean femoral neck BMD to normal in young women with spontaneous 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency. However, the addition of physiological transdermal T replacement did not provide additional benefit. PMID:24905063

  4. Proud2Bme: Exploratory research on care and control in young women's online eating disorder narratives.

    PubMed

    Hipple Walters, Bethany; Adams, Samantha; Broer, Tineke; Bal, Roland

    2016-05-01

    Illness narratives have been studied to understand the patient's point of view. These narratives are becoming more prolific, accessible, and specialized, thanks to the improved Internet access and the growth of health-specific online communities. This article analyses illness narratives posted on a Dutch eating disorder website hosted by a treatment centre. Specifically, we look at 'care of the self' and 'control'. The young women wrote about controlling situations with disordered eating as a self-care tool, about being controlled by the disorder and about regaining control over the disorder. The website, with the opportunity for constant, unseen supervision, coercion through comments, and steering through edits and comments, revealed various modalities of control. While issues of control and eating disorders have been explored by others, little work has been done on how the control experienced by the young women (coercion on the individual, the body as the object of control, and the modality of pressure and supervision) interact, how control is presented in stories for a recovery-focused, monitored website, and how the website directs the content. As recovery-focused, therapist-led website is likely to continue growing, understanding how and why young women talk about care and control in the context of such websites is an important topic. PMID:25769694

  5. Engaging South Asian women with type 2 diabetes in a culturally relevant exercise intervention: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Alamelu; Nimbal, Vani C; Ivey, Susan L; Wang, Elsie J; Madsen, Kristine A; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined the efficacy of a culturally relevant exercise program in improving glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among South Asian women with type 2 diabetes, compared with usual care. Methods This was a randomized controlled 8-week pilot study of Bollywood dance among South Asian women with type 2 diabetes. The intervention consisted of 1 h Bollywood dance classes offered twice per week. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c. The effect of attendance on this outcome was also examined. Results The intervention group demonstrated a decrease in HbA1c from baseline (−0.18% (0.2%); p=0.018) compared with a non-significant increase in the usual care group (+0.03% (0.2%)); p value for difference between groups was 0.032. Participants attending at least 10 of 16 sessions had a statistically significant reduction in weight (−0.69 kg (0.76 kg)) compared with those attending fewer sessions (+0.86 kg (0.71 kg)). Conclusions These results support culturally relevant dance as a successful exercise intervention to promote HbA1c control, compared with usual care. Trial registration number NCT02061618. PMID:26566446

  6. Can Intrapartum Cardiotocography Predict Uterine Rupture among Women with Prior Caesarean Delivery?: A Population Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Malene M.; Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Krebs, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiotocographic abnormalities recorded during labour in women with prior caesarean delivery (CD) and complete uterine rupture with those recorded in controls with prior CD without uterine rupture. Study Design Women with complete uterine rupture during labour between 1997 and 2008 were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (n = 181). Cases were validated by review of medical records and 53 cases with prior CD, trial of labour, available cardiotocogram (CTG) and complete uterine rupture were included and compared with 43 controls with prior CD, trial of labour and available CTG. The CTG tracings were assessed by 19 independent experts divided into groups of three different experts for each tracing. The assessors were blinded to group, outcome and clinical data. They analyzed occurrence of defined abnormalities and classified the traces as normal, suspicious, pathological or pre-terminal according to international guidelines (FIGO). Results A pathological CTG during the first stage of labour was present in 77% of cases and in 53% of the controls (OR 2.58 [CI: 0.96–6.94] P = 0.066). Fetal tachycardia was more frequent in cases with uterine rupture (OR 2.50 [CI: 1.0–6.26] P = 0.053). Significantly more cases showed more than 10 severe variable decelerations compared with controls (OR 22 [CI: 1.54–314.2] P = 0.022). Uterine tachysystole was not correlated with the presence of uterine rupture. Conclusion A pathological cardiotocogram should lead to particular attention on threatening uterine rupture but cannot be considered a strong predictor as it is common in all women with trial of labour after caesarean delivery. PMID:26872018

  7. The power of women on April 27.

    PubMed

    Khumalo, B

    1994-04-01

    Women make up 54% of voters in South Africa. A delegation of 80 groups representing 2 million women under the Women' National Coalition delivered many research reports on women's issues (e.g., rape, violence, women's status, women workers' rights) to the Transitional Executive Council. If political parties want women to support them, they need to address the inequalities and discrimination women encounter at work, in their homes, and in society. The research findings were a result of 23 focus groups and will be used to draft a Women's Charter. The Coalition will use the Charter to bring about maximum equality within the constitutional framework. The research revealed that sexual harassment at work was more common than was recognized. Black women reported that men of all races in responsible positions seek sex for jobs or for promotion. 50% of women are raped. 1 of 6 women are beaten by their partner. In the past, women's groups were not well supported because White women tended to be satisfied with the status quo. Specifically, they had a servant, leisure time, and a high standard of living. Women are starting to understand that they can be forces of change. A common thread among the diversity of women in the research was a desire for control of their lives. Other issues emerging from the research were women and law, women at work, women and violence, and political awareness among women. The women call for changes in marital law to make sure that women are considered as majors. For example, they should be able to buy property and sign contracts. Women want equal pay for work of equal value, equal treatment when applying for a job. Women want society, including family members, not to ignore domestic violence. They also call on authorities and police to respond more vigorously to domestic violence. Women are becoming more involved in politics, locally, regionally, and nationally. PMID:12287660

  8. Program in Business Communication at the University of Texas at Austin. A Pre-Test-Post-Test and Experimental-Control Group Analysis of the Personnel Department's Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James D.; Kerr, Deborah

    A study used pretests/posttests and experimental/control groups to evaluate four business communication skills (BCS) programs conducted with employees at the University of Texas at Austin. Of 91 BCS participants, 86 were women and ages for all participants ranged from 20 to 61 years. Del Gaizo's four levels of evaluation (happiness index, learning…

  9. Exercising Choice and Control--Women with Learning Disabilities and Contraception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This research project used semi-structured in-depth interviews to ask women with learning disabilities about the experience of being prescribed contraception. It also asked general practitioners about their prescribing practices through a postal survey. A service user group was involved at different stages of the project. Most of the women…

  10. Single Older Women Who Applied for the Giving Life More Lustre Course: Are They the Target Group that Was Aimed for?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremers, Ismay P.; Steverink, Nardi; Albersnagel, Frans A.; Slaets, Joris P. J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the women who applied for the self-management of well-being course Giving life more LUSTRE can be considered the target group that was intended. By comparing the course applicants with a random sample of community dwelling single women, it was found that, as expected, course applicants scored worse on…

  11. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  12. A Modest Proposal for Control of Prejudice and Group Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1971-01-01

    Notes that much human activity is monotonous, arduous, or degrading and that most low-caste groups eventually revolt. Suggests that humans use chimpanzees as a permanent minority group that will serve simultaneously as laborers and scapegoats. (MB)

  13. Taking pictures to take control: Photovoice as a tool to facilitate empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic minority women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Teti, Michelle; Pichon, Latrice; Kabel, Allison; Farnan, Rose; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Poor and racial/ethnic minority women comprise the majority of women living with HIV (WLH) in the United States. Race, gender, class, and HIV-based stigmas and inequities limit women’s powers over their health and compromise their quality of life. To help WLH counter this powerlessness, we implemented a photovoice project called Picturing New Possibilities (PNP), and explored how women experienced empowerment through photovoice. PNP participants (N = 30) photographed their life experiences, attended 3 group discussions and a community exhibit of their photos, and completed a follow-up interview. We used strategies of Grounded Theory to identify key empowerment themes. Participants described empowerment through enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, critical thinking skills, and control. Our findings suggest that photovoice is an important tool for WLH. It offers women a way to access internal strengths and use these resources to improve their quality of life and health. PMID:24064314

  14. Immigration Transition and Depressive Symptoms: Four Major Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Rendell Endowed, Marjorie O.; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the U.S. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of and less severe symptoms than non-immigrants (p < .01). When controlling for background characteristics, self-reported racial/ethnic identity and immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R2=.01, p<.05). PMID:24875592

  15. Validation of wet mount microscopy against Trichomonas culture among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Gunasekara, U; Barua, A; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

    2015-06-01

    Wet mount microscopy is the most commonly used diagnostic method for trichomoniasis in clinical diagnostic services all over the world including Sri Lanka due to its availability, simplicity and is relatively inexpensive. However, Trichomonas culture and PCR are the gold standard tests. Unfortunately, neither the culture nor PCR is available for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is important to validate the wet mount microscopy as it is the only available diagnostic test and has not been validated to date in Sri Lanka. The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of wet mount microscopy against gold standard Trichomonas culture among clinic based population of reproductive age group women in Western province, Sri Lanka. Women attending hospital and institutional based clinics were enrolled. They were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis by culture and wet mount microscopy. There were 601 participants in the age group of 15-45 years. Wet mount microscopy showed 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive (PPV) and 98% negative predictive values (NPV) (P=0.001, kappa=0.803) respectively against the gold standard culture. The area under the ROC curve was 0.840. Sensitivity of wet mount microscopy is low. However it has high validity and reliability as a specific diagnostic test for trichomoniasis. If it is to be used among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka, a culture method could be adopted as a second test to confirm the negative wet mount for symptomatic patients. PMID:26691246

  16. Does Nordic walking improves the postural control and gait parameters of women between the age 65 and 74: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Kocur, Piotr; Wiernicka, Marzena; Wilski, Maciej; Kaminska, Ewa; Furmaniuk, Lech; Maslowska, Marta Flis; Lewandowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To assess the effect of 12-weeks Nordic walking training on gait parameters and some elements of postural control. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-seven women aged 65 to 74 years were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into a Nordic Walking group (12 weeks of Nordic walking training, 3 times a week for 75 minutes) and a control group. In both study groups, a set of functional tests were conducted at the beginning and at the end of the study: the Forward Reach Test (FRT) and the Upward Reach Test (URT) on a stabilometric platform, and the analysis of gait parameters on a treadmill. [Results] The NW group showed improvements in: the range of reach in the FRT test and the URT test in compared to the control group. The length of the gait cycle and gait cycle frequency also showed changes in the NW group compared to the control group. [Conclusion] A 12-week NW training program had a positive impact on selected gait parameters and may improve the postural control of women aged over 65 according to the results selected functional tests. PMID:26834341

  17. Does Nordic walking improves the postural control and gait parameters of women between the age 65 and 74: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kocur, Piotr; Wiernicka, Marzena; Wilski, Maciej; Kaminska, Ewa; Furmaniuk, Lech; Maslowska, Marta Flis; Lewandowski, Jacek

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] To assess the effect of 12-weeks Nordic walking training on gait parameters and some elements of postural control. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-seven women aged 65 to 74 years were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into a Nordic Walking group (12 weeks of Nordic walking training, 3 times a week for 75 minutes) and a control group. In both study groups, a set of functional tests were conducted at the beginning and at the end of the study: the Forward Reach Test (FRT) and the Upward Reach Test (URT) on a stabilometric platform, and the analysis of gait parameters on a treadmill. [Results] The NW group showed improvements in: the range of reach in the FRT test and the URT test in compared to the control group. The length of the gait cycle and gait cycle frequency also showed changes in the NW group compared to the control group. [Conclusion] A 12-week NW training program had a positive impact on selected gait parameters and may improve the postural control of women aged over 65 according to the results selected functional tests. PMID:26834341

  18. Successful use of "Hour 1" transfer of sperm microinjected oocytes in natural cycles of poor responder women: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Cesare; Linari, Antonella; Micara, Giulietta; Tranquilli, Daniela; Gambaro, Agnese Maria Lourdes; Bezerra Espinola, Maria Salome

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the successful use of "Hour 1" transfer of sperm microinjected oocytes in natural cycles of poor responder women. Seventy women were selected from 92 consecutive poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) in a natural cycle at our Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Unit from September 2009 to July 2013, and randomly distributed in two homogeneous groups: Group A or B. Women in Group A (35) underwent transfer within 1 h after ICSI; Group B (35, control group) underwent transfer 3 days after ICSI. In Group A, seven clinical pregnancy and one miscarriage occurred; in Group B, eight clinical pregnancies and two miscarriages were observed. Pregnancy, miscarriage, term pregnancy and overall live birth rates' difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Difference between the two groups in terms of timing, type of delivery and newborn birthweight was not observed. Neither ectopic pregnancy nor multiple pregnancies occurred. "Hour 1" uterine transfer of ICSI oocytes, still to be considered with caution because of the relatively low number of observations of the pilot study, deserves further attention on a larger scale, and might be evaluated for clinical and financial effectiveness in other clinical settings. PMID:26654862

  19. Soy and legume seeds as sources of isoflavones: selected individual determinants of their consumption in a group of perimenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study The aim of this study was to analyze selected individual determinants of consumption of soy products and legumes by menopausal women. The analyzed individual characteristics included the level of general self-efficacy, optimism, and satisfaction with life. The study, using a questionnaire for the assessment of food product consumption frequency, and psychological tests (GSES, LOT-R, SWLS), was conducted in a group of 320 women aged between 45 and 55 years. Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation and the Kruskal-Wallis test with the Dunn test for multiple comparisons were used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). Material and methods The analyzed 45-55-year-old women consumed legume seeds several times a month on average, while the frequency of soy/soy product consumption was lower than once a month. Statistical analysis revealed that the frequency of soy product consumption increased with the level of self-efficacy, optimism and satisfaction with life (p < 0.01). Also the increased frequency of legume seed consumption was associated with higher level of optimism and satisfaction with life (p < 0.01). Results Intergroup comparisons of the average consumption frequency of these products confirmed that legume seeds were significantly more frequently chosen by women characterized by high rather than low levels of optimism (3.36 vs. 2.62, p < 0.001) and satisfaction with life (3.36 vs. 2.65, p < 0.01). Also soy products were preferred significantly more often by women with higher levels of optimism (2.00 vs. 1.38, p < 0.05) and satisfaction with life (2.02 vs. 1.39, p < 0.05). Conclusions The consumption of legume seeds, and especially soy products, was revealed to be very low among perimenopausal women, and varied depending on the analyzed individual traits, with a tendency to more frequent ingestion by individuals with higher levels of self-efficacy, optimism, and satisfaction with life. PMID:26327825

  20. HIV-infected Women's Perspectives on the Use of the Internet for Social Support: A Potential Role for Online Group-based Interventions.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Oni J; Shah, Pooja A; Haughton, Lorlette J; Horvath, Keith J; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2015-01-01

    While the development and implementation of HIV-related online interventions has expanded, few have been tailored for women or have leveraged Web 2.0's capabilities to provide social support. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 women with HIV at an urban community health center to understand their perspectives on the potential role of the Internet and the use of an online group format to provide social support. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. We identified six themes: a need for groups and increased sense of connectedness, convenience and accessibility, trust as a precondition for participating, online groups as a potential facilitator or barrier to expression, limited digital access and literacy, and privacy concerns. Overall, women were highly supportive of online group-based interventions but acknowledged the need for increased digital access and Internet navigation training. Hybrid (in-person and online) interventions may be most useful for women with HIV. PMID:25749532

  1. Androgen receptor (CAG)n polymorphism and androgen levels in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Robeva, Ralitsa; Tanev, Dobromir; Andonova, Silvia; Kirilov, Georgi; Savov, Alexey; Stoycheva, Milena; Tomova, Analia; Kumanov, Philip; Rashkov, Rasho; Kolarov, Zlatimir

    2013-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder that affects mainly females. Therefore, interrelations between the reproductive and immune system have been assumed. Considering the complex influence of hormones and receptors, we aimed to investigate the influence of androgens and androgen receptor (AR) polymorphism in women with SLE. One hundred and sixteen patients and 44 healthy women were investigated. Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations and AR (CAG)n polymorphism were determined. SLE patients had significantly lower levels of total and free testosterone and DHEAS in comparison with the controls. No differences in the CAG repeat length between the groups were established. Women with two alleles carrying more than 22 CAG repeats had significantly higher levels of SHBG (101.51 ± 61.81 vs. 69.22 ± 45.93 nmol/l, p = 0.015) and DHEAS (3.11 ± 2.65 vs. 2.11 ± 3.06 μmol/l, p = 0.007) and a tendency to higher testosterone concentrations (2.35 ± 2.10 vs. 1.71 ± 1.70 nmol/l, p = 0.056) in comparison with other women. The CAG repeat length in the relatively longer (CAG)n allele was inversely related to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/ACR index (r = -0.258, p = 0.009). In conclusion, the androgen receptor (CAG)n polymorphism is not related to the development of SLE, but it could modulate the severity of the lupus chronic damages as well as the androgen levels in women. PMID:23388696

  2. Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of a Novel Dissonance-Based Group Treatment for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan; Menke, Katharine S.; Marti, C. Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conduct a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Method Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Body Acceptance Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Results Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (χ2[6] = 34.1, p < .001), producing large effects for thin-ideal internalization (d = 0.79), body dissatisfaction (d = 1.14), and blinded interview-assessed eating disorder symptoms (d = .95), and medium effects for dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). Conclusions This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment. PMID:25577189

  3. 'I think my future will be better than my past': examining support group influence on the mental health of HIV-infected Rwandan women.

    PubMed

    Walstrom, Paige; Operario, Don; Zlotnick, Caron; Mutimura, Eugene; Benekigeri, Chantal; Cohen, Mardge H

    2013-01-01

    Urgent need exists for improved psychological services among HIV-infected women in post-genocide Rwanda. Psychological problems associated with trauma and sexual violence (i.e., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) place women at increased risk for sexual risk behaviour, low health-seeking behaviour, delay of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and reduced ART adherence. We explored experiences of HIV-infected Rwandan women attending psychosocial support groups and their narratives about how participation affected their mental health and HIV treatment. Focus group discussions examined participants' reasons for support group attendance, perceived psychological benefit of support groups, influence on ART adherence, and other influences on health behaviors and attitudes. Rwandan women (aged 18-65) were randomly selected from 10 health clinic-facilitated support groups for HIV-infected trauma survivors in Kigali. Results identified positive psychological and physical changes as well as behaviour changes in relationships with men, which participants attributed to support group attendance. Data showed significant improvement in mental health, ART adherence and HIV serostatus disclosure resulting from group attendance. Participants acknowledged limitations of support groups with respect to addressing poverty and hunger. Implementing psychosocial support groups may leverage clinical outcomes and rejuvenate the well-being of HIV-infected women with interpersonal trauma and/or PTSD and depressive symptoms, particularly those from post-conflict countries. PMID:22812728

  4. Group vs. individual exercise interventions for women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Both during and after treatment, cancer survivors experience declines in physical and psychosocial quality of life (QoL). Prior research indicates that exercise interventions alleviate problems in physical functioning and some aspects of psychological functioning. For survivors seeking social support, exercise programs that are conducted in group settings may foster optimal QoL improvement (by addressing additional issues related to isolation, social support) over individually-based exercise programs. Methods We reviewed literature on group cohesion in exercise studies, and conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that group as compared to individual exercise interventions for breast cancer survivors would show greater improvement in QoL. Results As currently implemented, group exercise interventions showed no advantage. However, they typically did not provide any evidence that they capitalized upon potentially beneficial group processes. Conclusions Future exercise intervention studies could investigate the effect on QoL of deliberately using group dynamics processes, such as team building experiences and group goal setting to foster group cohesion. PMID:20607139

  5. Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4–8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. Method/design A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. Discussion This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752 PMID:23714411

  6. Long-Term Effects of Self-Control on Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior among Urban Minority Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Kenneth W.; Scheier, Lawrence M.; Acevedo, Bianca; Grenard, Jerry L.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2011-01-01

    High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners) in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample) reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19%) reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8%) reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and sexual behaviors. PMID:22470274

  7. Effect of different types of exercise on postural balance in elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcio R; da Silva, Rubens A; Dascal, Juliana B; Teixeira, Denilson C

    2014-01-01

    Different types of exercise are indicated for the elderly to prevent functional capacity limitations due to aging and reduce the risk of falls. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different exercises (mini-trampoline, MT; aquatic gymnastics, AG and general floor gymnastics, GG) on postural balance in elderly women. Seventy-four physically independent elderly women, mean age 69±4 years, were randomly assigned to three intervention groups: (1) MT (n=23), (2) AG (n=28), and (3) GG (n=23). Each group performed physical training, including cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and sensory-motor exercises for 12 weeks. To determine the effects on each intervention group, five postural balance tasks were performed on a force platform (BIOMEC 400): the two-legged stand with eyes open (TLEO) and two-legged stand with eyes closed (TLEC); the semi-tandem stand with eyes open (STEO) and semi-tandem stand with eyes closed (STEC) and the one-legged stand. Three trials were performed for each task (with 30s of rest between them) and the mean was used to compute balance parameters such as center of pressure (COP) sway movements. All modalities investigated such as the MT, AG and GG were significantly (P<0.05) efficient in improving the postural balance of elderly women after 12 weeks of training. These results provide further evidence concerning exercise and balance for promoting health in elderly women. PMID:25239512

  8. Cancer Treatment Adherence among Low-Income Women with Breast or Gynecologic Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Patient Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Ell, Kathleen; Vourlekis, Betsy; Xie, Bin; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances R.; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Muderspach, Laila; Russell, Christy; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2009-01-01

    Background We implemented a controlled randomized trial that compared two interventions -provision of written resource navigation information (enhanced usual care (EUC)) versus written information plus patient navigation (TPN) aimed at improving adjuvant treatment adherence and follow-up among 487 low-income, predominantly Latinas with breast or gynecologic cancer. Methods Women are randomized to either TPN or EUC. We assess chemotherapy, radiation and hormone therapy and follow-up over 12 months. Breast and gynecologic patients are analyzed separately. Results Overall adherence rates were (87-94%) and there were no significant differences between TPN and EUC groups. Among women with breast cancer, 90% of EUC and 88% of TPN patients completed chemotherapy (14% EUC-26% TPN had delayed completion), 2% EUC-4% TPN failed to complete, and 8% EUC-7% TPN refused, chemotherapy. Radiation treatment adherence was similar between groups 90% completed (40% EUC-42% TPN delayed completion); in both groups, 2% failed completion and 8% refused radiation. Among gynecologic patients, 87% EUC-94% TPN completed chemotherapy (41% EUC-31% TPN with delays), 7% EUC-6% TPN failed completion and 6% EUC refused chemotherapy; 87% EUC-84% TPN completed radiation (51% EUC-42% TPN with delays), 5% EUC-8% TPN failed completion and 8% EUC-5% TPN refused radiation. Conclusions Treatment adherence across randomized groups was notably higher than reported in previous studies, suggesting that active telephone patient navigation or written resource informational materials may facilitate adherence among low-income, predominantly Hispanic women. Adherence may have also been facilitated by federal-state Breast and Cervical Cancer treatment funding. PMID:19551881

  9. Reach of the Montana Cancer Control Program to Women with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Froehlich-Grobe, Katherine; Shropshire, William C; Zimmerman, Heather; Van Brunt, Jim; Betts, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Women with disabilities have lower screening rates for breast and cervical cancer with some evidence suggesting that people with disabilities experience higher cancer mortality and may receive a different course of treatment. This study examined whether women with and without disabilities using Montana Cancer Control Program (MCCP) differ in use of breast (BCS) and cervical (CCS) screening services, receipt of and follow up for inconclusive or abnormal results, and compliance with BCS and CCS US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations. Study participants were women eligible for MCCP screening services between November 2012 and October 2014, with eligibility based on insurance status (underinsured/no insurance), income requirements (<200 % poverty based on income/household size), and age. The data derive from participa