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1

Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

2015-01-01

2

Impact of a Participatory Intervention with Women’s Groups on Psychological Distress among Mothers in Rural Bangladesh: Secondary Analysis of a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs) are a major cause of disability among women and disproportionately affect lower income countries. Interventions to address PCMDs are urgently needed in these settings, and group-based and peer-led approaches are potential strategies to increase access to mental health interventions. Participatory women’s health groups led by local women previously reduced postpartum psychological distress in eastern India. We assessed the effect of a similar intervention on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. Method We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 18 clusters and an estimated population of 532,996. Nine clusters received an intervention comprising monthly meetings during which women’s groups worked through a participatory learning and action cycle to develop strategies for improving women’s and children’s health. There was one group for every 309 individuals in the population, 810 groups in total. Mothers in nine control clusters had access to usual perinatal care. Postpartum psychological distress was measured with the 20-item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) between six and 52 weeks after delivery, during the months of January to April, in 2010 and 2011. Results We analysed outcomes for 6275 mothers. Although the cluster mean SRQ-20 score was lower in the intervention arm (mean 5.2, standard deviation 1.8) compared to control (5.3, 1.2), the difference was not significant (? 1.44, 95% CI 0.28, 3.08). Conclusions Despite promising results in India, participatory women’s groups focused on women’s and children’s health had no significant effect on postpartum psychological distress in rural Bangladesh. PMID:25329470

Clarke, Kelly; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Tasmin; Aumon, Bedowra Haq; Hossen, Mohammed Munir; Beard, James; Costello, Anthony; Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Prost, Audrey; Fottrell, Edward

2014-01-01

3

Effect of a participatory intervention with women's groups on birth outcomes in Nepal: cluster-randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods We pair-matched 42 geopolitical clusters in Makwanpur district, Nepal, selected 12 pairs randomly, and randomly assigned one of each pair to intervention or control. In each intervention cluster (average population 7000), a female facilitator convened nine women's group meetings every month. The facilitator supported groups through an action-learning cycle in which they identified local perinatal problems and formulated strategies

Dharma S Manandhar; David Osrin; Bhim Prasad Shrestha; Natasha Mesko; Joanna Morrison; Kirti Man Tumbahangphe; Suresh Tamang; Sushma Thapa; Dej Shrestha; Bidur Thapa; Jyoti Raj Shrestha; Angie Wade; Josephine Borghi; Madan Manandhar

2004-01-01

4

Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

2008-01-01

5

Diabetic sexual dysfunction: A comparative study of 160 insulin treated diabetic men and women and an age-matched control group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual dysfunction is a well-known complication in diabetic men, though only a few studies concern sexual dysfunction in diabetic women. Most previous studies are noncomparative. This study reports results from a comparative study of 160 consecutive insulin-treated diabetic outpatients (80 men and 80 women) and a control group (40 men and 40 women) seeing their general practitioner. The age range

Søren Buus Jensen

1981-01-01

6

The efficacy of a mind-body-spirit group for women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of women with breast cancer are seeking alternatives to standard group support in coping with their illness. This study examines outcomes for 181 women with breast cancer randomized to either a 12-week standard group support or a 12-week complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) support intervention. Participants in the CAM group were taught the use of meditation, affirmation, imagery

Elizabeth F. Targ; Ellen G. Levine

2002-01-01

7

Effectiveness of Healthy Relationships Video-Group—A Videoconferencing Group Intervention for Women Living with HIV: Preliminary Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Abstract Introduction: Expanded access to efficacious interventions is needed for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLH) in the United States. Availability of “prevention with (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV)] positives” interventions in rural/remote and low HIV prevalence areas remains limited, leaving WLH in these communities few options for receiving effective behavioral interventions such as Healthy Relationships (HR). Offering such programs via videoconferencing groups (VGs) may expand access. This analysis tests the effectiveness of HR-VG (versus wait-list control) for reducing sexual risk behavior among WLH and explores intervention satisfaction. Subjects and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial unprotected vaginal/anal sex occasions over the prior 3 months reported at the 6-month follow-up were compared across randomization groups through zero-inflated Poisson regression modeling, controlling for unprotected sex at baseline. Seventy-one WLH were randomized and completed the baseline assessment (n=36 intervention and n=35 control); 59 (83% in each group) had follow-up data. Results: Among those who engaged in unprotected sex at 6-month follow-up, intervention participants had approximately seven fewer unprotected occasions than control participants (95% confidence interval 5.43–7.43). Intervention participants reported high levels of satisfaction with HR-VG; 84% reported being “very satisfied” overall. Conclusions: This study found promising evidence for effective dissemination of HIV risk reduction interventions via VGs. Important next steps will be to determine whether VGs are effective with other subpopulations of people living with HIV (i.e., men and non-English speakers) and to assess cost-effectiveness. Possibilities for using VGs to expand access to other psychosocial and behavioral interventions and reduce stigma are discussed. PMID:24237482

Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Ayesha; Lynn, Vickie; Glueckauf, Robert

2014-01-01

8

Group medical visits in the follow-up of women with a BRCA mutation: design of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background BRCA mutation carriers have a 40-80% life-time risk of developing breast cancer. They may opt for yearly breast cancer surveillance or for prophylactic mastectomy. Both options show increased survival rates. It is a complex choice to be made between these two options. As a result most women experience high levels of distress and high needs for information. To fulfill the needs for psychosocial support and information we have introduced group medical consultations (GMCs). A GMC provides individual medical visits conducted within a group. This 90 minute group-visit with 8-12 patients gives patients the opportunity to spend more time with their clinician and a behavioral health professional and learn from other patients experiencing similar topics. However, it should be noted that group sessions may increase fear in some patients or influence their decision making. Methods/design In this randomized controlled trial, 160 BRCA mutation carriers diagnosed maximally 2 years ago are recruited from the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either the GMC intervention group (onetime participation in a GMC instead of a standard individual visit) or to a usual care control group. Primary outcome measures are empowerment and psychological distress (SCL 90). Secondary outcome measures are fear of cancer, information needs before the consultation and the received information, self-examination of the breasts, patient satisfaction, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Data are collected via self-reported questionnaires 1 week before the visit, and at 1 week and at 3 months follow-up. A pilot study was conducted to test all procedures and questionnaires. Discussion The possibility for interaction with other BRCA mutation carriers within a medical visit is unique. This study will assess the effectiveness of GMCs for BRCA mutation carriers to improve empowerment and decrease distress compared to individual visits. If GMCs prove to be effective and efficient, implementation of GMCs in regular care for BRCA mutation carriers will be recommended. Trial registration The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01329068) PMID:21864353

2011-01-01

9

Support groups for battered women: Research on their efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of 12 support groups for women victims of domestic assault revealed substantial benefits associated with group participation. A total of 76 women responded to an assessment package before, immediately after, and six months following the group. Significant improvements were found in self-esteem, belonging support, locus of control, less traditional attitudes towards marriage and the family, perceived stress, and

Leslie M. Tutty; Bruce A. Bidgood; Michael A. Rothery

1993-01-01

10

Where women take control.  

PubMed

On the Philippines island of Panay, south of Luzon and Mindoro in the province of Capiz, women's development projects were supported by the Philippine Agriculture Department, the Manila office of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and funded by the UN Population Fund. The island population survives mostly on the fishing industry, which has suffered from chronic overfishing and devastation of mangrove swamps by development of fish farms. The population is very poor, with little opportunity to raise the living standards of the next generation. Access to maternal and child health care and family planning is limited or nonexistent; fertility is 4-6 children per woman. The Governor of Capiz's program has contributed to the formation of 30 women's groups of 829 women, who play central roles in village development efforts. Their investments have generated over 200,000 pesos or $7700 in savings. The approach was to concentrate on basic development first, followed by family planning. In Libas village, near the capital of Capiz Province, the first women's group formed in 1990. There were 34 members, who were trained in community organization, small business development, financing, and family welfare (nutrition, health, and family planning). The initial loans were for $75 and were to be repaid within the year. Many invested in fish vending of their husband's catches, or vegetable gardens, or the raising of pigs, ducks, and chickens. All loans were repaid, and the women were able to save about 20-30 pesos a month. Many have invested their savings in maintaining the education of their children. Family planning has been accepted by all members, who before the group's formation did not practice any family planning. The president of the Libas Group, Rose Antion, reported that the group was strong as a unit and gained influence over the family and the community; the women's status has increased, and confidence has been gained. The next project will be the construction of a fish processing plant, which will help the economy of the entire region. PMID:12287490

Hinrichsen, D

1994-01-01

11

Women Nurturing Women: A Woman's Group Using Hypnotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information regarding rationale, objectives, format, and insights from a women's psychotherapy group where self-hypnosis and working in trance were major components. The group was designed to promote emotional, psychological, and physiological healing, and to facilitate women in learning how to give and receive nurturing. Describes…

Forester-Miller, Holly

1999-01-01

12

The effect of participatory women's groups on infant feeding and child health knowledge, behaviour and outcomes in rural Bangladesh: a controlled before-and-after study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite efforts to reduce under-5 mortality rates worldwide, an estimated 6.6 million under-5 children die every year. Community mobilisation through participatory women's groups has been shown to improve maternal and newborn health in rural settings, but little is known about the potential of this approach to improve care and health in children after the newborn period. Methods Following on from a cluster-randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of participatory women's groups on maternal and neonatal health outcomes in rural Bangladesh, 162 women's groups continued to meet between April 2010 and December 2011 to identify, prioritise and address issues that affect the health of children under 5?years. A controlled before-and-after study design and difference-in-difference analysis was used to assess morbidity outcomes and changes in knowledge and practices related to child feeding, hygiene and care-seeking behaviour. Findings Significant improvements were measured in mothers’ knowledge of disease prevention and management, danger signs and hand washing at critical times. Significant increases were seen in exclusive breast feeding for at least 6?months (15.3% (4.2% to 26.5%)), and mean duration of breast feeding (37.9?days (17.4 to 58.3)). Maternal reports of under-5 morbidities fell in intervention compared with control areas, including reports of fever (?10.5% (?15.1% to ?6.0%)) and acute respiratory infections (?12.2% (?15.6% to ?8.8%)). No differences were observed in dietary diversity scores or immunisation uptake. Conclusions Community mobilisation through participatory women's groups can be successfully adapted to address health knowledge and practice in relation to child's health, leading to improvements in a number of child health indicators and behaviours. PMID:25472635

Younes, Leila; Houweling, Tanja A J; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Haq, Bedowra; Nahar, Tasmin; Hossen, Munir; Beard, James; Copas, Andrew; Prost, Audrey; Costello, Anthony; Fottrell, Edward

2015-01-01

13

BREAST CANCER GROUP WOMEN'S HEALTH INTERDISCIPLINARY  

E-print Network

BREAST CANCER GROUP May 2009 WOMEN'S HEALTH INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH CENTER [WHIRC] #12;2 Table of Contents Page Introduction to the Women's Health Interdisciplinary Research Center (WHIRC) 3 Overview Cancer Prevention 27 Aging and Breast Cancer 30 Slone Epidemiology Center Black Women's Health Study

Spence, Harlan Ernest

14

Women in Mixed Groups: Some Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the research dealing with women in leadership roles within groups of both sexes. Some research indicates a reluctance of women to assume leadership roles. Other findings indicate women are more likely to be strong leaders when the task solution is given. (LPG)

Mamola, Claire

1979-01-01

15

Evaluating Culturally Responsive Group Work with Black Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a culturally congruent group treatment model, entitled "Claiming Your Connections" (CYC) aimed at reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress, and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black women. Method: A total of 58 Black women recruited from health…

Jones, Lani V.; Warner, Lynn A.

2011-01-01

16

Evaluation of a group based cognitive behavioural therapy programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities: protocol for a mixed methods controlled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background Menstrual pain which is severe enough to impact on daily activities is very common amongst menstruating females. Research suggests that menstrual pain which impacts on daily functioning may be even more prevalent amongst those with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, little research attention has focused on pain management programmes for those with intellectual disabilities. The aims of this pilot study were to develop and evaluate a theory-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities. Methods/Design The study utilised a mixed methods controlled clinical trial to evaluate elements from a CBT programme called Feeling Better (McGuire & McManus, 2010). The Feeling Better programme is a modular, manualised intervention designed for people with an intellectual disability and their carers. The programme was delivered to 36 young women aged 12 – 30 years who have a Mild - Moderate Intellectual Disability, split between two conditions. The treatment group received the Feeling Better intervention and the control group received treatment as usual. To evaluate the effectiveness of the programme, measures were taken of key pain variables including impact, knowledge, self-efficacy and coping. Process evaluation was conducted to examine which elements of the programme were most successful in promoting change. Discussion Participants in the intervention group were expected to report the use of a greater number of coping strategies and have greater knowledge of pain management strategies following participation in the intervention and at three month follow-up, when compared to control group participants. A significant advantage of the study was the use of mixed methods and inclusion of process evaluation to determine which elements of a cognitive behavioural therapy programme work best for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN75567759 PMID:25201648

2014-01-01

17

ABO blood group, secretor state, and susceptibility to recurrent urinary tract infection in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABO blood group and secretor state was determined in 319 women with recurrent urinary tract infection and compared with those of a control group of 334 women of similar age ranges. Women of blood groups B and AB who are non-secretors of blood group substances showed a significant relative risk of recurrent urinary tract infection of 3.12 (95% confidence limits,

D F Kinane; C C Blackwell; R P Brettle; D M Weir; F P Winstanley; R A Elton

1982-01-01

18

The Effectiveness of Dream Interpretation Groups for Women Undergoing a Divorce Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

22 separated and divorcing women in four 8-week dream interpretation groups were compared to 12 women in a wait-list control condition in terms of changes in anxiety, depression, coping, self-esteem, and insight into their dreams. Results indicated that the women who participated in dream interpretation groups differed from women in the wait-list control group in self-esteem and insight. Thus, dream

Dana R. Falk; Clara E. Hill

1995-01-01

19

Alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and caffeine in relation to breast cancer risk in young women. UK National Case-Control Study Group.  

PubMed Central

The UK National Case-Control Study Group has examined the relationship between smoking (both own smoking and passive), alcohol consumption and caffeine consumption and the risk of breast cancer. A total of 755 women with breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 36, each with an age-matched general population control, were interviewed, and detailed information on reproductive, contraceptive and medical history, personal attributes and habits were obtained. Additional data on passive smoking were obtained from a subgroup of women. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in breast cancer risk between subjects who had ever smoked as much as one cigarette per day and those who had not [relative risk (RR) = 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-1.26]. Most relative risks for passive smoking exceeded unity, but there was little evidence of significant trends with increasing exposure. The lack of effect of own smoking, and the fact that such smokers are also themselves exposed to the effects of passive smoking, makes any relationship between exposure to others' smoking and breast cancer risk implausible. Alcohol consumption during the year prior to diagnosis and at ages 18 and 25 was examined. Consumers of 0.1-4.9 and 5.0-14.9 g per day generally had non-significantly increased risks compared with never drinkers, but consumers of more than 15 g per day had reduced risks. PMID:8018520

Smith, S. J.; Deacon, J. M.; Chilvers, C. E.

1994-01-01

20

Interpersonal Group Therapy for Women Experiencing Bulimia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…

Choate, Laura

2010-01-01

21

A Qualitative Assessment of Weight Control among Rural Kansas Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To explore weight control beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and practices among rural Kansas women, and to characterize the relationship of these women with their primary-care providers around weight control. Design: Qualitative research using focus groups. Setting: Three separate communities of rural Kansas. Participants: Six focus groups

Ely, Andrea C.; Befort, Christie; Banitt, Angela; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra

2009-01-01

22

African American Muslim Women: An Invisible Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is written about Islam and African American women or men from a psychosocial perspective. Most of the literature is on the historical and political development of the Nation of Islam, and the differences among the male leaders. This focus obscures the fact that the majority of African Americans Muslims belong to traditional Islamic groups. Drawing upon a variety of

Karen Fraser Wyche

2004-01-01

23

Joining and Socialization in Open Source Women's Groups: an Exploratory Study of KDE-Women  

E-print Network

activities in KDE Women. Leveraging literatures on group membership roles and sociali- zation, and adopting understanding of women's groups in open source. Keywords: women's group, membership roles, joining, in particular, the role online grass roots women's groups may play in such involvement. An understanding

Boyer, Edmond

24

Smoking cessation for weight-concerned women: Group vs. individually tailored, dietary, and weight-control follow-up sessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postcessation weight gain is of concern to many female cigarette smokers. A multidisciplinary treatment combining psychological, dietary, and exercise components followed a 2-week smoking cessation program. Participants were randomly assigned to receive six follow-up relapse prevention sessions (in a group format or in an individually tailored format) directed by trained representatives from clinical psychology, dietary counseling, and exercise physiology. As

Amy L. Copeland; Pamela D. Martin; Paula J. Geiselman; Carla J. Rash; Darla E. Kendzor

2006-01-01

25

Enabling Older Homeless Minority Women to Overcome Homelessness by Using a Life Management Enhancement Group Intervention  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the importance of a life management enhancement (LME) group intervention for older minority women in developing personal control and self-confidence in social relationships as they overcome homelessness. Women in the treatment group showed significantly greater personal control and higher levels of self-confidence following the six-week intervention than women in the control group. Increasing personal control and developing self-confidence in social relationships can help individuals achieve desired outcomes as a result of their actions, efforts, and abilities. These attributes can help women increase and sustain appropriate coping methods and overcome homelessness. PMID:19212866

Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.

2010-01-01

26

Focus Groups Identified Women's Perceptions of Dairy Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus groups were conducted with 39 Caucasian women (ages 30–55 years) to gain insight regarding their thoughts and feelings toward dairy foods. Women resided in Virginia; all had at least a high school education. Themes characterizing the group discussions were identified. Women knew that dairy foods were a good source of calcium and discussed it in relation to osteoporosis. Although

Leslie F. Hagy; Denise Brochetti; Susan E. Duncan

2000-01-01

27

Personal Transformation: A Group Therapy Program for Saudi Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A personal transformation group therapy program was designed to help Saudi women function more effectively in their daily lives. The major cognitive idea of these groups was to enable women to better understand their thinking patterns so that they could learn techniques to change. Personal transformation group topics included: Self-Esteem;…

Pharaon, Nora Alarifi

28

Group Profiles of Women as Tourists and Purchasers of Souvenirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes women tourists andforms group profiles of them. The42 women represented early adulthood (ages 17-42) and middle adulthood (ages 43-65) and werefrequent travelers who purchased many souvenirs. Qualitative analysis yieldedfive group profiles of women tourists based on the emergent themes of trip-planning and souvenir-purchasing styles: (a) goalattainment travelers preplanned their trips and made both planned and unplanned purchases;

Luella F. Anderson; Mary A. Littrell

1996-01-01

29

From the inside Out: Group Work with Women of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will present two models for conducting group work with Women of Color (WOC): the SisterCircle Approach and the Group Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of group work that can assist group workers to conduct individual and group-level…

Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.

2014-01-01

30

Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

2011-01-01

31

5-HT1A Receptor Binding is Increased After Recovery from Bulimia Nervosa Compared to Control Women and is Associated with Behavioral Inhibition in Both Groups  

PubMed Central

Objective Because altered serotonin (5-HT) function appears to persist after recovery from bulimia nervosa (RBN), we investigated the 5-HT1A receptor, which could contribute to regulation of appetite, mood, impulse control, or the response to antidepressants. Method Thirteen RBN individuals were compared to 21 healthy control women (CW) using positron emission tomography and [carbonyl-11C]WAY100635 ([11C]WAY). Results RBN had a 23–34% elevation of [11C]WAY binding potential (BP)P in subgenual cingulate, mesial temporal, and parietal regions after adjustments for multiple comparisons. For CW, [11C]WAY BPP was related negatively to novelty seeking, whereas for RBN, [11C]WAY BPP was related positively to harm avoidance and negatively related to sensation seeking. Discussion Alterations of 5-HT1A receptor function may provide new insight into efficacy of 5-HT medication in BN, as well as symptoms such as the ability to inhibit or self-control the expression of behaviors related to stimulus seeking, aggression, and impulsivity. PMID:20872754

Bailer, Ursula F.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Frank, Guido K.; Price, Julie C.; Meltzer, Carolyn C.; Mathis, Chester A.; Geyer, Mark A.; Wagner, Angela; Becker, Carl R.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Kaye, Walter H.

2014-01-01

32

Childhood sexual abuse. Women's health when starting in group therapy.  

PubMed

Childhood sexual abuse has been shown to be common among adult women, 15-30% in prevalence studies, and among mentally ill women, 25-77%. These women often suffer from depression, anxiety, sexual and relationship problems. Suicide attempts and self-destructive behaviour are common. Within the Department of Psychiatry at Lund University Hospital, 45 women with experiences of childhood sexual abuse were offered a 2-year-long trauma-focused group therapy. They were well educated but 27% were unemployed. Nearly half of the group had made suicide attempts, 87% had had suicidal thoughts and, according to the questionnaire SCL-90, they were suffering from psychiatric symptoms significantly to a greater degree than both a general group and a clinical group with mixed diagnoses. According to the questionnaire ISSI, they were less well socially integrated than both a general group and a clinical group, and the degree of social adjustment according to the questionnaire SAS-SR was lower than in a general group. The study shows that childhood sexually abused women seeking therapy are a symptom-burdened group. These women probably need psychiatric treatment of a particular character. Special group therapy for these women can potentially improve their health. PMID:14985151

Lundqvist, Gunilla; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hansson, Kjell

2004-01-01

33

The "Comadre" Group Approach: A Wellness-Based Group Model for Monolingual Mexican Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "comadre" approach to group counseling with immigrant Mexican women creates an environment of sisterhood, trust, support, and education. This article describes a wellness-based, comadre pilot group designed to support monolingual Spanish-speaking, Mexican-born women who recently immigrated to the United States. The need for the group and group

Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Sand, Jennifer K.; Brucato, Toni; Ortega, Jessica

2006-01-01

34

Psychometric Evaluation of the Midlife Women’s Symptom Index (MSI) in Multiethnic Groups  

PubMed Central

The Midlife Women’s Symptom Index (MSI) was designed to measure menopausal symptoms specifically in a multiethnic sample of midlife women. This study is a psychometric property test to evaluate MSI among 512 multiethnic groups of midlife women (White, Hispanic, African American, and Asian American). Across the ethnic groups, MSI had an adequate internal consistency in all subdomains except psychosomatic symptoms. The item-to-total correlation coefficients of “lost weight” and “nosebleeds” were less than 0.20 among all ethnic groups. The discriminant validity was confirmed among all ethnic groups except Asian Americans. Overall, MSI may work better for Whites and not as well for Asian Americans, compared with other ethnic groups. Additional studies with diverse groups of multiethnic midlife women are needed, however, to confirm MSI psychometric properties. PMID:20606074

Lee, Bokim; Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

2011-01-01

35

The Mothering of Women Abused by Their Partner: An Outcome Evaluation of a Group Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of an outcome evaluation of a mothering group intervention with women abused by their partners are presented, based on measurements of intervention and control groups before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. At Time 1, both groups reported moderate well-being, high parental self-efficacy, and low mothering-related…

Peled, Einat; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Perel, Guy

2010-01-01

36

Sexual Enhancement Groups for Dysfunctional Women: An Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three groups of women with sexual dysfunction were evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment. Two groups did not involve partner participation, while the third group included partners on two occasions. Results for all groups were similar. The question of whether orgasm through coitus alone is a reasonable goal is raised and challenged. (Author)

Leiblum, Sandra R.; Ersner-Hershfield, Robin

1977-01-01

37

Impact of group psychological interventions on pregnancy rates in infertile women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the efficacy of two different group psychological interventions on viable pregnancy rates in women experiencing infertility of less than 2 years’ duration.Design: Prospective, controlled, single-blind, randomized study.Setting: Large tertiary-care teaching hospital.Patient(s): One hundred eighty-four women who had been trying to get pregnant for 1 to 2 years.Intervention(s): Participants were randomized into a 10-session cognitive-behavioral group, a standard

Alice D Domar; Diane Clapp; Ellen A Slawsby; Jeffery Dusek; Bruce Kessel; Melissa Freizinger

2000-01-01

38

Women's Peer Groups and Choice of Career. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of women's college peer groups in aiding women to continue along or in encouraging them to drop out of certain career paths was investigated. During an ethnographic phase, freshmen were interviewed; during the survey phase a survey instrument was administered to sophomores. Respondents were from predominately black Bradford University…

Holland, Dorothy C.; Eisenhart, Margaret A.

39

Doing Theodicy: An Empirical Study of a Women's Prayer Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of a weekly women's prayer group in a small northern English town discusses how participants resolve tensions which may arise from unanswered prayer. The most important mechanism in that process is the informal ‘chatting’ which precedes the period of formal prayer. The author concludes that women actively conduct a ‘ritual of theodicy’ to rescue their worldview from chaos.

Abby Day

2005-01-01

40

The Vaginal Bacterial Communities of Japanese Women Resemble Those of Women in Other Racial Groups  

PubMed Central

To determine if different racial groups shared common types of vaginal microbiota we characterized the composition and structure of vaginal bacterial communities in asymptomatic and apparently healthy Japanese women in Tokyo, Japan and compared them with those of White and Black women from North America. The composition of vaginal communities was compared based on community profiles of terminal restriction fragments of 16S rRNA genes and phylogenetic analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences of the numerically dominant bacterial populations. The types of vaginal communities found in Japanese women were similar to those of Black and White women. As with White and Black women, most vaginal communities were dominated by lactobacilli, and only four species of Lactobacillus (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. gasseri) were commonly found. Communities dominated by multiple species of lactobacilli were common in Japanese and White women, but rare in Black women. The incidence in Japanese women of vaginal communities with several non-Lactobacillus species at moderately high frequencies was intermediate between Black women and White women. The limited number of community types found among women in different ethnic groups suggests that host genetic factors, including the innate and adaptive immune systems, may be more important in determining the species composition of vaginal bacterial communities than are cultural and behavioral differences. PMID:19912342

Zhou, Xia; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Davis, Catherine C.; Suzuki, Haruo; Brown, Celeste J.; Schutte, Ursel; Pierson, Jacob D.; Forney, Larry J.

2009-01-01

41

The “Comadre” Group Approach: A Wellness-Based Group Model for Monolingual Mexican Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “comadre” approach to group counseling with immigrant Mexican women creates an environment of sisterhood, trust, support, and education. This article describes a wellness-based, comadre pilot group designed to support monolingual Spanish-speaking, Mexican-born women who recently immigrated to the United States. The need for the group and group development and process are described. The 10-week pilot group is described illustrating

Andrea Dixon Rayle; Jennifer K. Sand; Toni Brucato; Jessica Ortega

2006-01-01

42

Housework, children, and women's wages across racial-ethnic groups.  

PubMed

Motherhood affects women's household labor and paid employment, but little previous research has explored the extent to which hours of housework may explain per child wage penalties or differences in such penalties across racial-ethnic groups. In this paper, I use longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data to examine how variations in household labor affect the motherhood penalty for White, Black, and Hispanic women. In doing so, I first assess how children affect hours of household labor across these groups and then explore the extent to which this household labor mediates the relationship between children and wages for these women. I find that household labor explains a portion of the motherhood penalty for White women, who experience the most dramatic increases in household labor with additional children. Black and Hispanic women experience slight increases in housework with additional children, but neither children nor housework affects their already low wages. PMID:24767591

Parrott, Heather Macpherson

2014-07-01

43

A Qualitative Assessment of Weight Control Among Rural Kansas Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore weight control beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and practices among rural Kansas women, and to characterize the relationship of these women with their primary care providers around weight control. Design Qualitative research using focus groups. Setting and Participants Six focus groups among 31 women from 3 separate communities of rural Kansas during the fall, 2006. Intervention Two focus groups in each community, each of two-hour duration. A focus group moderator’s guide was used to explore the roles of individuals, primary care practice teams, and communities around weight control. Main Outcome Measures and Analysis This study used a qualitative analysis with an iterative process and standard techniques. The analysis team summarized central findings, descriptive topic areas, and general themes. Results There were five broad themes that emerged from these focus groups. These are lack of support from primary care providers, primary care offices as community resources, lack of resources for promoting dietary change but adequate resources for physical activity, the importance of group support and inclusiveness, and a need for more intensive interventions for weight control. Conclusions and Implications Rural populations have an above-average prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities. Rural communities need better approaches for addressing the obesity epidemic. PMID:19411055

Ely, Andrea C.; Befort, Christie; Banitt, Angela; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra

2009-01-01

44

Not Far Enough: Women vs. Smoking. A Workshop for Women's Group and Women's Health Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights from a series of papers on the role of smoking in women's disease and death, women's smoking behavior, and the role of the tobacco industry are included in this document. Conference participants included public health and women's organizations. Brief summaries of the papers introduce the document. An outline of network strategies…

National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

45

The impact of women's groups on gender vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the impact of workshops on health and gender conducted through extension programs under Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS) in the city of São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The method was based on participatory research and action-based research. Women's groups were organized in two locations in the city. The first group was attended

Centro de Ciências

46

The Effects of 16 Hour Long Marathon Groups on the Ways that Female Drug Users Perceive Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the effectiveness of three 16-hour-long unstructured marathon groups composed of female illicit drug users in a woman's prison (N=78), using evaluative adjective pairs of the semantic differential concept Women. Marathon groups rated women as more successful and more pleasurable than did controls. (JAC)

Page, Richard C.

1984-01-01

47

Women's experiences of participation in a feminist group for women with complex mental health issues.  

PubMed

A sample of women (n = 5) participated in a qualitative service evaluation concerning an open-ended, therapeutic group for women only. Data analysis followed suggestions by Halcomb and Davidson (2006). Main themes derived from the evaluation included: 'Groups are different from individual work', 'Belonging/ not being alone', 'Performance in the group', 'The group as a safety net', 'Life improvements and hope for the future' and 'The extent of emotional despair felt'. In this paper, several sub-themes within the main themes and relevant theories and implications for theory and service provision are discussed. PMID:25517122

Clements Eaton, Emma Catherine; Cox, Rachel

2015-01-01

48

Mixing it Up: Integrating Men and Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Prevention Groups  

PubMed Central

Aims The current study was conducted to examine the impact of mixing genders in HIV prevention intervention groups targeted toward HIV positive men and women. Methods Men (N=310) and women (N=126) participated in a randomized clinical trial testing a behavioral risk reduction/ medication adherence intervention versus a general health control condition administered to small mixed gender groups. Gender composition of groups was examined in relation to participant group attendance and group satisfaction measures through correlations and logistic regression. Results Significant regression models were found for men in the risk reduction condition and for women in the general health condition, however, regression models were not significant for women in the risk reduction condition and men in the general health condition. Discussion The findings indicate that mixing genders in risk reduction interventions for men and women living with HIV/AIDS has no negative impact on women’s group satisfaction and may positively impact men’s group satisfaction. This calls into question the assumption that gender sensitive material will always make individuals uncomfortable within mixed gender groups. Implications for practice and policy In practice, mixed gender intervention groups can be a helpful option for delivering programs to diverse populations especially when resources are limited within community-based services providers and AIDS service organizations. Conclusion Although more thorough investigation is needed about the consequences and possible benefits of mixing genders within HIV prevention intervention groups, this study supports the idea that mixing genders may be a viable option, in practice, without sacrificing the integrity of the intervention. PMID:25525414

Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Kalichman, Seth C.

2014-01-01

49

Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups  

PubMed Central

Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N?=?12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed. PMID:23423547

Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.

2012-01-01

50

Phase III double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized trial of adjuvant tamoxifen vs. tamoxifen and fenretinide in postmenopausal women with positive receptors (EB193): an intergroup trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.  

PubMed

Fenretinide and tamoxifen have additive antitumor effects preclinically. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind adjuvant trial in breast cancer patients treated for 5 years with tamoxifen, with or without fenretinide. Between October 1995 and October 1999, 426 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were randomized. Patients were monitored for efficacy and toxicity. Four hundred and nineteen patients were evaluable. The study was terminated early due to slow accrual. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in DFS, TTR or survival. More patients stopped treatment early on the fenretinide arm than on placebo (P = 0.02). Grade 3/4 toxicities, including visual problems and musculoskeletal complaints were more common in patients receiving fenretinide (P = 0.007). A Night Blindness Questionnaire was used to monitor nyctalopia, which was slightly, but not significantly, more common on fenretinide. In this underpowered study, no significant difference was observed in efficacy between treatment groups. This trial provides important toxicity information about fenretinide, a retinoid that has been used in the prevention setting, because it is the only placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized study ever performed. PMID:20878269

Rao, Ruta D; Cobleigh, Melody A; Gray, Robert; Graham, Mark L; Norton, Larry; Martino, Silvana; Budd, George Thomas; Ingle, James N; Wood, William C

2011-12-01

51

Women and Spirituality: An Experiential Group for Female Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spirituality has received increasing attention as an area to be considered in counseling and college student development, but little has been written about specific interventions to address college students' spiritual needs. The authors present the format, content, and outcomes of an experiential group that was established to facilitate women's…

Soet, Johanna; Martin, Heidi

2007-01-01

52

Effects of exercise therapy on bone mineral density in early postmenopausal women: a controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The purpose of this article is to determine the effect of a well-designed combined aerobic, resistance, and extension\\u000a exercise program on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. The population comprised 45 postmenopausal women,\\u000a who exercised over 12 months (exercise group), and 36 women who served as a non-training control group. BMD of the hip, and\\u000a lumbar spine was

Shilin Deng

2009-01-01

53

Group differences in pain modulation: pain-free women compared to pain-free men and to women with TMD.  

PubMed

Previously reported differences in sensitivity to experimental pain stimuli between the sexes, as well as between temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients and healthy control subjects, may be attributable in part to group differences in two pain modulatory mechanisms: the baroreceptor reflex arc and the endogenous opioid system. Twenty-two pain-free (PF) men, 20 PF women and 20 women with TMD underwent two testing sessions in which heat pain and ischemic arm pain threshold and tolerance were measured during both sessions, but followed relaxation during one session and laboratory stress tasks during the other. Blood pressure (BP) and plasma -endorphin (E) concentration were measured during a baseline rest and during the stress or relaxation periods. PF men's threshold and tolerance for heat pain, but not for ischemic pain, exceeded that of PF women's during both sessions. PF women and TMD women did not differ in sensitivity to either pain modality; however, significantly lower ischemic pain threshold (IPTh) was linked to oral contraceptive use in PF women but not TMD patients. In the men alone, higher baseline systolic BP (SBP) was correlated with higher heat pain threshold on both days and heat pain tolerance on the stress day. Conversely, in TMD women, higher baseline SBP was correlated with lower ischemic pain tolerance (IPTol) on both days; BP and pain sensitivity were not related in PF women. In men, but not in PF or TMD women, stress systolic and diastolic BP were positively correlated with heat pain threshold and tolerance and higher diastolic reactivity to stress were correlated with higher heat pain and IPTh and tolerance. On the stress day, higher baseline E level was strongly associated with higher IPTol in PF women but marginally associated with lower IPTol in TMD women. Thus, it appears that a BP-related analgesic mechanism (probably baroreceptor-mediated) predominates in PF men, while an endogenous opioid mechanism predominates in PF women. Stress enhances the expression of these central mechanisms. Female TMDs appear unable to effectively engage normal pain-inhibitory systems; opioid receptor desensitization and/or downregulation are probably implicated, because TMDs' production of E appears normal. PMID:11972994

Bragdon, Edith E; Light, Kathleen C; Costello, Nancy L; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Bunting, Shelley; Bhalang, Kanokporn; Maixner, William

2002-04-01

54

Our Place at the Table: An Introduction to the Special Issue on Women's Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes that the goal for this issue is to help move the study of women's groups beyond survival and recovery issues to the thriving that can and does occur for women through their participation in women's groups. This collection of articles helps build on a growing body of literature attempting to study women's groups as a phenomena in their…

Kees, Nathalie L.

1999-01-01

55

A Qualitative Study of an Internet-Based Support Group for Women with Sexual Distress Due to Gynecologic Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet-based support groups for cancer patients have been studied extensively; very few have focused on gynecologic cancer.\\u000a We pilot-tested a web-based support group for gynecologic cancer patients and assessed women’s perceptions of the intervention.\\u000a Twenty-seven gynecologic cancer patients were randomized to an immediate intervention or a waitlist control group. Women participated\\u000a in a 12-week, web-based support group focusing on sexuality-related

David Wiljer; Sara Urowitz; Lisa Barbera; Meredith L. Chivers; Naa Kwarley Quartey; Sarah E. Ferguson; Matthew To; Catherine C. Classen

56

A Qualitative Analysis of Women’s Experiences in Single-Gender versus Mixed-Gender Substance Abuse Group Therapy  

PubMed Central

The present study of women with substance use disorders used grounded theory to examine women’s experiences in both the Women’s Recovery Group (WRG) and a mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC). Semi-structured interviews were completed in 2005 by twenty-eight women in a U.S. metropolitan area. Compared to GDC, women in WRG more frequently endorsed feeling safe, embracing all aspects of one’s self, having their needs met, feeling intimacy, empathy, and honesty. Additionally, group cohesion and support allowed women to focus on gender-relevant topics supporting their recovery. These advantages of single gender group therapy can increase treatment satisfaction and improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23607675

Greenfield, Shelly F.; Cummings, Amanda M.; Kuper, Laura E.; Wigderson, Sara B.; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

2013-01-01

57

Attitudes and approaches to vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a focus group qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective The impact of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy and women's coping strategies were evaluated through international focus groups. Methods Three-hour focus groups of three to five postmenopausal women who had symptoms of vaginal atrophy but had not sought treatment were conducted in Canada, Sweden, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Participants were asked about their experience with menopause and vaginal atrophy, including use of non-prescription treatments and their interactions with health-care providers. Women were classified as one of five personality types, based on their interaction with the world (individualism or belonging) and strategies for coping with stress (control or liberation). Results Vaginal atrophy was not recognized as a medical condition by focus group participants, and women had not used treatments for vaginal atrophy apart from non-prescription lubricants. Women who had discussed vaginal atrophy symptoms with their doctor felt their concerns were dismissed as a normal part of aging, and they did not receive counseling about treatment options such as low-dose estrogen therapy. Those whose coping strategy involved dominance, combatting, or individualism were more likely to seek treatment than those whose strategy involved submission, acceptance, or belonging. Women who used control to cope with menopausal changes were more likely to respond to information validated by perceived experts than were those who used a strategy of release. Conclusions Women's reactions to their vaginal atrophy varied according to personality. Use of a personality-based approach to patient counseling may encourage patients to discuss vaginal atrophy with their health-care provider and seek treatment. PMID:24083795

2014-01-01

58

Will the Reality condom help to empower women? Focus groups urged.  

PubMed

The newly approved Reality condom is the first female-controlled method to offer protection from both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, aggressive, creative promotional approaches must be developed to enable women to overcome initial distaste with the bulkiness of the device and discomfort with touching their own genitalia. A focus group format has been effective in creating positive attitudes toward the condom among low-income black women--a population group that has traditionally lacked power in the sexual decision-making process. Attitudinal changes occurred once black women received education about their high risk of contracting acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (Although African-Americans comprise only 12% of the US population, they account for 29% of total AIDS cases and 53% of cases of AIDS in women.) Less acceptance of the female condom is anticipated among Hispanic women due to its conspicuousness and fears of accusations of infidelity from their husbands. Teenagers and college students--another sector lacking sexual negotiation skills and comfort in touching their own bodies--will be targeted for future focus group discussions. PMID:12286997

1993-07-01

59

Lower genital tract infections in infertile Nigerian women compared with controls.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possibility that infertile Nigerian women have a higher rate of cervical colonisation with pathogenic and facultative organisms than fertile controls. DESIGN--The prevalence of common microorganisms in the vagina and endocervical canals of infertile women was compared with that of pregnant controls. SETTING--The Obafemi Awolowo University Hospital Maternity Centre. SUBJECTS--92 infertile women were compared with 86 pregnant controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--rates of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms in cases and controls. RESULTS--The rate of isolation of Neisseria gonorrheae was 17.4% among infertile women compared with 10.5% in the group of pregnant women (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in the rate of isolation of Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms. High rates of isolation of microorganisms were observed in both groups. However, women with secondary infertility had higher rate of carriage of Neisseria gonorrheae, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as compared with women with primary infertility. Nearly 15% of infertile women had previous episodes of pelvic inflammatory disease and 26% had had induced abortions. A positive history of vaginal discharge was a poor predictor of vagina and endocervical carriage of microorganisms. CONCLUSIONS--High rates of pathogenic organisms exist in the lower genital tract of infertile women and controls. Women with secondary infertility are more likely to have pathogenic organisms than women with primary infertility. A policy of routinely screening women for lower genital tract infections should be pursued in this population because of the high rate of infection. PMID:7635492

Okonofua, F E; Ako-Nai, K A; Dighitoghi, M D

1995-01-01

60

Optimal Pair Matching With Two Control Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to detect hidden biases due to failure to control for an unobserved covari- ate, some observational or nonrandomized studies include two control groups selected to systematically vary the unobserved covariate. Comparisons of the treated group and two control groups must, of course, control for imbalances in observed covariates. Using the three groups, we form pairs optimally matched

Bo Lu; Paul R. ROSENBAUM

2004-01-01

61

Effect of Education through Support ­Group on Early Symptoms of Menopause: a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Menopause is one of the most important crises in the life of women. The control of menopause symptoms is a main challenge in providing care to this population. So, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of education through support ­group on early symptoms of menopause. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial 124 postmenopausal women who had a health records in Valiasr participatory health center of Eslamshahr city were participated. These women were allocated by block randomization method into support group (62 women) and control group (62 women).Women in support group was assigned into 6 groups. Three 60-minutes educational sessions were conducted in 3 sequential weekly sessions. Early menopausal symptoms were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention by using Greene scale (score ranged from 0 to 63). Data analysis was performed by ANCOVA statistical test. Results: There were no statistical differences between two groups in demographic characteristics and the total score of the Greene scale before intervention. The mean score of the Greene scale in support group was statistically less than control group 4 weeks after intervention. The number of hot flashes in the support group was significantly lower than control group, 4 weeks after intervention.Conclusion: Education through support group was effective in reducing the early symptoms of menopause. Thus, this educational method can be used as an appropriate strategy for enhancing women’ health and their dealing with annoying symptoms of menopause. PMID:25709980

Sehhatie Shafaie, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan; Jafari, Maryam

2014-01-01

62

Weight Loss Maintenance in African–American Women: Focus Group Results and Questionnaire Development  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND African-American women are disproportionately affected by obesity. Weight loss can occur, but maintenance is rare. Little is known about weight loss maintenance in African-American women. OBJECTIVES (1) To increase understanding of weight loss maintenance in African-American women; (2) to use the elicitation procedure from the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to define the constructs of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control regarding weight loss and maintenance; and (3) to help develop a relevant questionnaire that can be used to explore weight loss and maintenance in a large sample of African Americans. DESIGN Seven focus groups were conducted with African-American women: four with women successful at weight loss maintenance, three with women who lost weight but regained it. Discussions centered on weight loss and maintenance experiences. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-seven African-American women. APPROACH Content analysis of focus group transcripts. RESULTS Weight loss maintainers lost 22% of body weight. They view positive support from others and active opposition to cultural norms as critical for maintenance. They struggle with weight regain, but have strategies in place to lose weight again. Some maintainers struggle with being perceived as sick or too thin at their new weight. Regainers and maintainers struggle with hairstyle management during exercise. The theoretical constructs from TPB were defined and supported by focus group content. CONCLUSIONS A weight loss questionnaire for African Americans should include questions regarding social support in weight maintenance, the importance of hair management during exercise, the influence of cultural norms on weight and food consumption, and concerns about being perceived as too thin or sick when weight is lost. PMID:17415617

Goodrick, G. Kenneth; Pavlik, Valory; Markesino, Jennifer; Laws, Donna Y.; Taylor, Wendell C.

2007-01-01

63

Phase III double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized trial of adjuvant tamoxifen vs. tamoxifen and fenretinide in postmenopausal women with positive receptors (EB193): an intergroup trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fenretinide and tamoxifen have additive antitumor effects preclinically. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind\\u000a adjuvant trial in breast cancer patients treated for 5 years with tamoxifen, with or without fenretinide. Between October\\u000a 1995 and October 1999, 426 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were randomized. Patients were\\u000a monitored for efficacy and toxicity. Four hundred and nineteen patients were evaluable. The

Ruta D. Rao; Melody A. Cobleigh; Robert Gray; Mark L. Graham; Larry Norton; Silvana Martino; George Thomas Budd; James N. Ingle; William C. Wood

64

Group Process in the single-gender Women's Recovery Group compared with mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling  

PubMed Central

Enhanced affiliation among members is thought to provide increased support for women in single-gender compared with mixed-gender group therapy for substance use disorders (SUDs) and to provide a potential mechanism of action for its efficacy. In a Stage I trial of single-gender versus mixed-gender group therapy for SUDs we examined affiliative statements made by members in two group treatments, single-gender Women's Recovery Group (WRG) and mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC). Twenty-eight WRG and 17 GDC group therapy tapes were coded and compared for five types of affiliative statements. Three types of affiliative statements (agreement, supportive, and completing a thought) were highly correlated and were more frequent in WRG than GDC (D=0.882, p=0.27). In GDC, women were more likely to provide an affiliative statement to a male group member than any other combination of directionality (p<0.01). Compared with mixed-gender, single-gender group therapy for SUDs may enhance support through greater frequency of affiliative statements. PMID:24294145

Greenfield, Shelly F.; Kuper, Laura E.; Cummings, Amanda M.; Robbins, Michael S.; Gallop, Robert J.

2013-01-01

65

Group Cognitive—Behavioral Therapy and Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Nonpurging Bulimic Individual A Controlled Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of group cognitive—behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating. Fifty-six women with nonpurging bulimia were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: CBT, IPT, or a wait-list control (WL). Treatment was administered in small groups that met for 16 weekly sessions. At posttreatment, both group CBT and group IPT treatment conditions

Denise E. Wilfley; Christy F. Telch; Elise M. Rossiter; John A. Schneider; LuAnn Sifford; Susan D. Raeburn

2000-01-01

66

Women with Childhood ADHD: Comparisons by Diagnostic Group and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared adult women with childhood ADHD to adult women without childhood ADHD and to adult men with childhood\\u000a ADHD. The participants, all from a larger longitudinal study, included 30 women and 30 men (approximately age 23 to 24) with\\u000a childhood ADHD, and 27 women without ADHD. Women with childhood ADHD were matched to comparison women on age, ethnicity,

Dara E. Babinski; William E. Pelham Jr; Brooke S. G. Molina; Daniel A. Waschbusch; Elizabeth M. Gnagy; Jihnhee Yu; Margaret H. Sibley; Aparajita Biswas

67

Online Support Groups for Women with Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Feasibility Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the feasibility and acceptability of an online peer support group intervention for women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Feasibility, participation rates, participant satisfaction, and preliminary outcomes are examined from a 1999 to 2000 study of online peer support groups for women with MBC. Thirty women with MBC were randomly assigned to either an immediate online support condition

Ruvanee P. Vilhauer; Martha K. McClintock; Alicia K. Matthews

2010-01-01

68

How did formative research inform the development of a women’s group intervention in rural Nepal?  

PubMed Central

Inability to reduce neonatal and maternal mortality in poor countries is sometimes blamed on a lack of contextual knowledge about care practices and care-seeking behavior. There is a lack of knowledge about how to translate formative research into effective interventions to improve maternal and newborn health. We describe the findings of formative research and how they were used to inform the development of such an intervention in rural Nepal. Formative research was carried out in four parts. Part 1 involved familiarization with the study area and literature review, and parts 2, 3 and 4 involved community mapping, audit of health services, and qualitative and quantitative studies of perinatal care behaviors. Participatory approaches have been successful at reducing neonatal mortality and may be suitable in our context. Community mapping and profiling helped to describe the community context, and we found that community-based organizations often sought to involve the Female Community Health Volunteer in community mobilization. She was not routinely conducting monthly meetings and found them difficult to sustain without support and supervision. In health facilities, most primary care staff were in post, but doctors and staff nurses were absent from referral centers. Mortality estimates reflected under-reporting of deaths and hygiene and infection control strategies had low coverage. The majority of women give birth at home with their mother-in-law, friends and neighbors. Care during perinatal illness was usually sought from traditional healers. Cultural issues of shyness, fear and normalcy restricted women’s behavior during pregnancy, birth and the postpartum period, and decisions about her health were usually made after communications with the family and community. The formative research indicated the type of intervention that could be successful. It should be community-based and should not be exclusively for pregnant women. It should address negotiations within families, and should tailor information to the needs of local groups and particular stakeholders such as mothers-in-law and traditional healers. The intervention should not only accept cultural constructs but also be a forum in which to discuss ideas of pollution, shame and seclusion. We used these guidelines to develop a participatory, community-based women’s group intervention, facilitated through a community action cycle. The success of our intervention may be because of its acceptability at the community level and its sensitivity to the needs and beliefs of families and communities. PMID:19057563

Morrison, J; Osrin, D; Shrestha, B; Tumbahangphe, KM; Tamang, S; Shrestha, D; Thapa, S; Mesko, N; Manandhar, DS; Costello, A

2012-01-01

69

Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups  

PubMed Central

Background According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women’s experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. Results A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Conclusion Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern. PMID:24148317

2013-01-01

70

Low-dose dexamethasone as a treatment for women with heavy menstrual bleeding: protocol for response-adaptive randomised placebo-controlled dose-finding parallel group trial (DexFEM)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) diminishes individual quality-of-life and poses substantial societal burden. In HMB endometrium, inactivation of cortisol (by enzyme 11? hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?HSD2)), may cause local endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency and hence increased angiogenesis and impaired vasoconstriction. We propose that ‘rescue’ of luteal phase endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency could reduce menstrual bleeding. Methods and analysis DexFEM is a double-blind response-adaptive parallel-group placebo-controlled trial in women with HMB (108 to be randomised), with active treatment the potent oral synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, which is relatively resistant to 11?HSD2 inactivation. Participants will be aged over 18?years, with mean measured menstrual blood loss (MBL) for two screening cycles ?50?mL. The primary outcome is reduction in MBL from screening. Secondary end points are questionnaire assessments of treatment effect and acceptability. Treatment will be for 5?days in the mid-luteal phases of three treatment menstrual cycles. Six doses of low-dose dexamethasone (ranging from 0.2 to 0.9?mg twice daily) will be compared with placebo, to ascertain optimal dose, and whether this has advantage over placebo. Statistical efficiency is maximised by allowing randomisation probabilities to ‘adapt’ at five points during enrolment phase, based on the response data available so far, to favour doses expected to provide greatest additional information on the dose–response. Bayesian Normal Dynamic Linear Modelling, with baseline MBL included as covariate, will determine optimal dose (re reduction in MBL). Secondary end points will be analysed using generalised dynamic linear models. For each dose for all end points, a 95% credible interval will be calculated for effect versus placebo. Ethics and dissemination Dexamethasone is widely used and hence well-characterised safety-wise. Ethical approval has been obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee (12/SS/0147). Trial findings will be disseminated via open-access peer-reviewed publications, conferences, clinical networks, public lectures, and our websites. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01769820; EudractCT 2012-003405-98. PMID:25588784

Warner, P; Weir, C J; Hansen, C H; Douglas, A; Madhra, M; Hillier, S G; Saunders, P T K; Iredale, J P; Semple, S; Walker, B R; Critchley, H O D

2015-01-01

71

Body fat distribution, blood pressure and blood glucose in Egyptian obese women undergoing a weight control program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In a sample of 92 obese healthy women, 35 of them were chosen to follow a weight control program comprising both caloric restriction and exercise for three months. They were matched for age and weight with the remaining 57 women who also served as a control group. The entire sample was further stratified according to age into two categories

S. M. El-Shebini; S. T. Tapozada; L. M. Hanna

1993-01-01

72

Reclaiming the Maiden: Use of Archetypes in a 6-Week Women's Empowerment Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to describe a 6-week, semi-structured group counseling experience for university women students (undergraduate and graduate) from diverse backgrounds exploring archetypes and using group empowerment skills. Theoretical perspectives on women's empowerment groups and the use of archetypes in counseling are discussed as…

Singh, Anneliese; Hofsess, Christy D.

2011-01-01

73

The Use of the Courts by Women's Groups to Obtain Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how women's groups have made use of litigation strategy to gain favorable policy decisions from the U.S. Supreme Court. The litigation strategies associated with four groups are discussed in the major portion of the report. These groups are: (1) the National Women's Suffrage Association (NWSA), active from 1869 to 1875; (2) the…

O'Connor, Karen

74

Predictors of plasma concentrations of DDE and PCBs in a group of U.S. women.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated predictors of plasma concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a group of 240 women, controls from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study. We considered personal attributes such as age, serum cholesterol, region of residence, adiposity, lactation, and dietary intake. DDE levels increased 0.17 ppb/year of age (p = 0.0003), and PCBs increased 0.08 ppb (p = 0.0001). DDE and PCBs increased 0.20 (p = 0.02) and 0.13 ppb (p = 0.001), respectively, per 10 mg/dl serum cholesterol. Women living in the western United States had higher levels of DDE (mean = 11.0 ppb; p = 0.003), and women in the Northeast and Midwest had higher levels of PCBs (mean = 5.6 ppb; p = 0.0002) as compared to women from other parts of the country (mean DDE = 6.3; mean PCBs = 4. 5 ppb). Levels of DDE could not be predicted from consumption of meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and grains. There was a positive association between fish consumption and PCB concentrations among women in the Northeast and Midwest. Using data from the cases in the nested case-control study to assess the predictive ability of the models, we confirmed that the most reliable predictors of DDE were age and serum cholesterol, and the most important predictors of PCBs were age, serum cholesterol, and residence in the Midwest or Northeast. The null results for the majority of the food variables suggest that specific dietary factors, other than fish, are not currently a substantial contributor to human exposure to DDE and PCBs. PMID:9872720

Laden, F; Neas, L M; Spiegelman, D; Hankinson, S E; Willett, W C; Ireland, K; Wolff, M S; Hunter, D J

1999-01-01

75

The Impact of Group Psychological Interventions on Distress in Infertile Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infertile women express higher levels of distress than fertile women, with distress peaking between the 2nd and 3rd year. The purpose of this study was to determine whether group psychological interventions could prevent this surge. One hundred eighty-four women who had been trying to conceive between 1 and 2 years were randomized into either a cognitive–behavioral group, a support group,

Alice D. Domar; Diane Clapp; Ellen Slawsby; Bruce Kessel; John Orav; Melissa Freizinger

2000-01-01

76

Migraine aura or transient ischemic attacks? A five-year follow-up case-control study of women with transient central nervous system disorders in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Migraine aura may be difficult to differentiate from transient ischemic attacks and other transient neurological disorders in pregnant women. The aims of the present study were to investigate and diagnose all pregnant women with transient neurological disorders of suspected central nervous system origin, and to compare this group with a control group of pregnant women with regard to vascular

Janne Marit Ertresvg; Lars Jacob Stovner; Lene Ekern Kvavik; Hans-Jorgen Johnsen; John-Anker Zwart; Grethe Helde; Gunnar Bovim

2007-01-01

77

Exercise and Movement as an Adjunct to Group Therapy for Women with Chronic Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of techniques to promote movement and exercise were used as an adjunct to therapy in an ongoing support group for women with severe and chronic mental health problems. Three women and a therapist had met weekly for 16 weeks at the time of this writing. A short case history of each of the women including a psychiatric assessment,

Linda Naylor Dench

2002-01-01

78

Stressors Influencing Middle Eastern Women's Perceptions of the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Focus Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand Australia-dwelling Middle Eastern women's lack of service utilization in cardiovascular health, we undertook a study to investigate their understandings and meanings of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors. Eight focus groups were conducted in community settings with Turkish, Persian, and Arab women. We found that the women understated their risk of CVD, faced many barriers in

Leila Gholizadeh; Michelle DiGiacomo; Yenna Salamonson; Patricia M. Davidson

2011-01-01

79

Promoting women's human rights: A qualitative analysis of midwives' perceptions about virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'  

PubMed

Objectives To explore midwives' perceptions regarding virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions', and how these practices can be debated from a gender perspective. Methods An international group of 266 midwives answered an open-ended question in a Web survey. The great majority came from the Western world, among them, the majority were from Europe. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Three themes emerged: misogynistic practices that cement the gender order, which revealed how the respondents viewed virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions'; raising public awareness and combatting practices that demean women, which were suggested as strategies by which to combat these practices; and promoting agency in women and providing culturally sensitive care, which were considered to improve health care encounters. Conclusions Virginity control and hymen 'reconstructions' are elements of patriarchy, whereby violence and control are employed to subordinate women. To counter these practices, macro and micro-level activities are needed to expand women's human rights in the private and the public spheres. Political activism, international debates, collaboration between sectors such as health care and law-makers may lead to increased gender equality. A women-centred approach whereby women are empowered with agency will make women more capable of combatting virginity control and hymen 'reconstruction'. PMID:25472698

Christianson, Monica; Eriksson, Carola

2014-12-01

80

Microlevel determinants of blood pressure among women of two ethnic groups in a periurban area of Kolkata city, India.  

PubMed

Blood pressure (BP) trends vary cross-culturally, and studies on the risk factors associated with hypertension are limited in periurban regions of India. This study was conducted to examine the effect of socioeconomic factors (income, expenditure, activity time) and anthropometric measurements (skinfolds of biceps, triceps, subscapular, supra iliac, and body mass index) on 102 Munda (tribe) and 135 Pod (caste) women of childbearing age in a periurban area of Kolkata city. Results indicate that Munda women had significantly higher diastolic BP in the 30+ age group. However, no difference in the systolic and diastolic BP was observed between the two groups, when the socioanthropometric factors were controlled as covariates. Also, according to the JNC (JNC, 2004, The JNC 7 Report NIH Publication No. 04-5230) classification of hypertension, no significant difference in hypertension was noted between the women of the two social groups. But the risk factors associated with hypertension varied between the two ethnic groups. Expenditure on alcohol and activity time was associated with hypertension among the Munda, while body mass index was significantly associated with hypertension among the Pod women. Alcohol consumption is a rare phenomenon among Indian women. Yet, Munda women in this transitional periurban environment, in spite of high poverty were more inclined to spent their earnings in alcohol consumption (due to their cultural preferences), increasing the risk of hypertension in their childbearing age. PMID:17420997

Ghosh, Rohini

2007-01-01

81

Influence of a support group for young women with disabilities on sense of belonging.  

PubMed

Women and girls with disabilities face obstacles to community participation and social acceptance. Consequently, as adolescent women with disabilities mature into adulthood, they may have difficulty feeling that they belong both in the general community and in the community of all women. The positive impact of peer support groups for young women with disabilities on their sense of belonging has been underinvestigated. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with 9 members of a well-established empowerment support group for young women with disabilities to explore how the group might foster a sense of belonging to the general community as well as a sense of shared womanhood. Results revealed that self-confidence and disability pride stemming from participation in the group were essential in helping the women counteract exclusionary messages from the outside world. The group provided an opportunity to develop a positive disability identity and to gain new information regarding the ability and right to identify as women. Reciprocal bonds with other group members helped cultivate feelings of belonging. In turn, the women communicated their empowered identities and the disability rights information they learned in the group to their friends, family, and community members. The group offered the women various platforms to assert their right to belong and, therefore, to participate in the world as women and as independent members of their broader communities. These results show how peer support groups for young women with disabilities can positively influence their sense of belonging both within the group and in the world outside the group. PMID:24660692

Mejias, Norma J; Gill, Carol J; Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa

2014-04-01

82

Collective Action and Community Development: Evidence from Women's Self-Help Groups in Rural Indiaa  

E-print Network

villages in one of the poorest districts in rural India in which to establish SHGs for women. After two years of exposure to the intervention, women in treatment villages were more likely to participate engagement than women in control villages. To investigate the sources of cooperation further, we conducted

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

83

Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Cancer Incidence in the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) Randomized Controlled Trial evaluated the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on chronic disease incidence, with breast cancer and colorectal cancer as primary outcomes. The trial protocol also listed ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer as outcomes that may be favorably affected by the intervention. Methods A total of 48835 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned during 1993–1998 to a DM intervention (n = 19541) or comparison (usual diet; n = 29294) group and followed up for an average of 8.1 years. The intervention goal was to reduce total fat intake to 20% of energy and to increase consumption of vegetables, fruits, and grains. Cancer outcomes were verified by pathology report review. We used weighted log-rank tests to compare incidence of invasive cancers of the ovary and endometrium, total invasive cancer, and invasive cancers at other sites between the groups. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Ovarian cancer risk was lower in the intervention than in the comparison group (P = .03). Although the overall ovarian cancer hazard ratio (HR) was not statistically significantly less than 1.0, the hazard ratio decreased with increasing intervention duration (Ptrend = .01). For the first 4 years, the risk for ovarian cancer was similar in the intervention and control groups (0.52 cases per 1000 person-years in the intervention group versus 0.45 per 1000 person-years in the comparison group; HR = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 1.84); over the next 4.1 years, the risk was lower in the intervention group (0.38 cases per 1000 person-years in the intervention group versus 0.64 per 1000 person-years in the comparison group; HR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.96). Risk of cancer of the endometrium did not differ between the groups (P = .18). The estimated risk of total invasive cancer was slightly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.01; P = .10). Conclusions A low-fat dietary pattern may reduce the incidence of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women. PMID:17925539

Prentice, Ross L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Caan, Bette; Hubbell, F. Allan; Anderson, Garnet L.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Pettinger, Mary; Lane, Dorothy S.; Lessin, Lawrence; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Singh, Baljinder; Khandekar, Janardan; Shikany, James M.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Chlebowski, Rowan T.

2009-01-01

84

A case-control study of factors associated with HIV infection among black women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To identify social, behavioral and epidemiologic factors associated with HIV infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected black women residing in North Carolina. DESIGN: A case-control study conducted in August 2004 in North Carolina. METHODS: Cases were 18-40-year-old women with HIV infections diagnosed from 2003-2004. Controls were 18-40-yearold, HIV-negative heterosexually active women recruited from HIV testing sites. Five focus group discussions were also conducted with women not participating in the case-control study. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses of 31 cases and 101 controls showed that HIV-positive women were more likely to receive public assistance [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1, 26.0], to report a history of genital herpes infection (aOR 10.6; 95% CI 2.4, 47.2), and were less likely to have discussed a variety of sexual and behavioral issues relevant to risk of HIV infection with their male partners (aOR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.8). Focus group participants indicated that financial and social demands created competing challenges for making HIV prevention a priority. CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate communication between black women and their sexual partners may create barriers to sexual and behavioral risk reduction. A multidimensional approach that addresses both biological factors such as herpes infection and socioeconomic factors may be needed to reduce HIV transmission in this population. PMID:17128690

Forna, Fatu M.; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; Adimora, Adaora A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Leone, Peter; Brooks, John T.; Marks, Gary; Greenberg, Alan

2006-01-01

85

Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Results Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p?groups. Conclusions Tribulus terrestris may safely and effectively improve desire in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted. PMID:24773615

2014-01-01

86

Joining and Socialization in Open Source Women's Groups: An Exploratory Study of  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This research investigates how women’s groups facilitate people’s participation in the open source community by examining\\u000a the joining activities in KDE Women. Leveraging literatures on group membership roles and socialization, and adopting a qualitative research method, a joining\\u000a script of different kinds of participants was identified. It is found that members developed organizational and leadership\\u000a skills and were engaged in

Yixin Qiu; Katherine J. Stewart; Kathryn M. Bartol

2010-01-01

87

Longitudinal Treatment Effectiveness Outcomes of a Group Intervention for Women and Children Exposed to Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social support can moderate negative effects of domestic violence for exposed women and children. Also, interventions targeting exposed women and children simultaneously have been shown to be more effective than those focused on children only. Since group interventions can provide such support, our study examined the effectiveness of a 10-week community-based psycho-educational group intervention for women and children. Mothers' (n?=?36)

Archana Basu; Johanna C. Malone; Alytia A. Levendosky; Stacie Dubay

2009-01-01

88

Self-perception of women after mastectomy as an ego defence mechanism. Comparison with a group of healthy women  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study Analysis of changes in self-perception in post-mastectomy patients and its comparison with self-perception of healthy women. Material and methods The subjects of this study were 50 women. The main group was post-mastectomy patients involved in the meetings of the Amazons Club (25 women). The reference group consisted of 25 healthy women. The method used in the study was the ACL (Adjective Check List) test, identifying 37 dimensions of self-image. Oncological patients completed a test twice (for current and pre-cancer self-image), and healthy women once – for current self. Both groups were selected similarly in respect of education level for the purpose of ensuring a similar level of insight. Results Retrospective self-image and the current one in the Amazon women group were highly convergent. Existing differences include a reduced need for achievement and dominance, and a lower level of self-confidence. However, the comparison of current self-images in both groups showed a large discrepancy of the results. The Amazon women assess themselves in a much more negative way. Also, their self-image is self-contradictory in certain characteristics. Conclusions Mastectomy is a difficult experience requiring one to re-adapt and to accept oneself thereafter. The way of thinking about oneself is a defence mechanism helping to cope. The work with patients programmes must, therefore, focus on identifying their emotions and thoughts, especially on those they do not want to accept because of the perceived pressure from the environment to effectively and quickly deal with this difficult situation. The increasing acceptance of personal limitations may help the affected women to adjust psychologically faster and easier. PMID:23788875

Zió?kowska, Patrycja; Kowalska, Monika

2012-01-01

89

A randomized, controlled trial of mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) for women with cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to gather data on the efficacy of a newly developed psychosocial group intervention for cancer patients, called mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT). One hundred and eleven women with a variety of cancer diagnoses were paired by age and randomized to either an eight-week MBAT intervention group or a wait-list control group. Ninety-three participants (84%)

Daniel A. Monti; Caroline Peterson; Elisabeth J. Shakin Kunkel; Walter W. Hauck; Edward Pequignot; Lora Rhodes; George C. Brainard

2006-01-01

90

An elevator characterized group supervisory control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elevator group supervisory control system is used to supervise multiple elevators, ensuring that they are operated efficiently. A novel elevator supervisory control system was developed which improves plural control parameters according to users' requests. The proposed approach employs fuzzy theory and an expert system. The effectiveness of the control system was confirmed by simulations

T. Tobita; A. Fujino; H. Inaba; K. Yoneda; T. Ueshima

1991-01-01

91

Measurement of Attitudes of Rural Women Towards Self-Help Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's SHGs and to develop their capabilities through training programmes for harnessing

M. S. Meena; Dilip Jain; H. R. Meena

2008-01-01

92

Measurement of Attitudes of Rural Women towards Self-Help Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism of empowerment and development of women as well as being on efficient mode of promoting group action and technology dissemination. Initiatives were undertaken at the Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET), Ludhiana to facilitate the formation of women's…

Meena, M. S.; Jain, Dilip; Meena, H. R.

2008-01-01

93

Attitude Control Working Group report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals were to establish the Attitude Control System (ACS) requirements, constraints, technology assessment, technology shortfalls, expected in the year 2000. These were based upon all missions, military and civil, for LEO and GEO. The critical ACS technology issues were identified and ACS programs developed to address these critical issues.

Reid, Daniel F.; Studer, Phillip A.

1986-01-01

94

Cancer-Related Concerns among Women Newly Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancer: An Exploration of Age Group Differences  

PubMed Central

Objective The study aimed to characterize cancer-related concerns among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. The study compared degree of cancer-related concern between young women (? 45 years), middle age women (46–64 years), and older women (? 65 years). Methods/Materials Data from women (N =243) diagnosed with primary gynecological cancer who were participating in a randomized control trial were analyzed. Women completed a measure that assessed degree of concern in twelve cancer-related domains (physical functioning, cancer treatment, emotional functioning, sexual functioning, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, relationship with others, employment, and finances). Multivariate comparisons were made between the three age groups on the cancer-related concerns. Results There were age group differences in overall cancer-related concern and specific cancer-related domains. Young women reported the greatest cancer-related concern (p < .001). They reported greater concern over emotional functioning (p < .001) and sexual functioning (p < .001) compared to the middle and older age groups. Older women reported less concern over the impact of cancer on finances (p = 007). There were no differences between age groups in concern over physical impairment, cancer treatment, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, and relationship with others. Conclusions Age may play an important role in the impact of a gynecological cancer diagnosis in domains of functioning, specifically emotional functioning, sexual functioning, and finances. Other cancer-related areas may represent more universal degree of impact. Professionals may benefit form considering the impact of cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. PMID:24346489

Myers Virtue, Shannon; Manne, Sharon L.; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Rubin, Stephen; Heckman, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Norm; Graff, John J.

2014-01-01

95

Reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes in overweight women: a pilot randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

Overweight and obesity is prevalent among women of reproductive age (42% BMI > 25 kg/m2) and parity is associated with risk of weight gain. Weight gain greater than that recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM )is also associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in women. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial is to examine the feasibility of recruiting and maintaining a cohort of pregnant women with the view of reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes. Women (BMI of 25-35 kg/m2 (n = 36)) were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were stratified by BMI and randomised to one of three groups with follow-up to six months postpartum. Women received a dietary intervention with or without breastfeeding support from a lactation consultant, or were assigned to a wait-list control group where the dietary intervention was issued at three months postpartum. Feasibility and acceptability was assessed by participation rates and questionnaire. Analysis of variance and covariance was conducted to determine any differences between groups. Sixty-nine per cent of the participants were still enrolled at six months postpartum. This pilot demonstrated some difficulties in recruiting women from antenatal clinics and retaining them in the trial. Although underpowered; the results on weight; biomarkers and breastfeeding outcomes indicated improved metabolic health. PMID:25723973

Martin, Julia; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Hure, Alexis; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E

2015-03-01

96

Change in Emotion-Regulation Strategy for Women With Metastatic Breast Cancer Following Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four relatively independent emotion-regulation constructs (suppression of negative affect, restraint, repression, and emotional self-efficacy) were tested as outcomes in a randomized trial of supportive-expressive group therapy for women with metastatic breast cancer. Results indicate that report of suppression of negative affect decreased and restraint of aggressive, inconsiderate, impulsive, and irresponsible behavior increased in the treatment group as compared with controls

Janine Giese-Davis; Cheryl Koopman; Lisa D. Butler; Catherine Classen; Matthew Cordova; Pat Fobair; Jane Benson; Helena C. Kraemer; David Spiegel

2002-01-01

97

The Meaning of “Control” for Childbearing Women in the US  

PubMed Central

Childbearing women, healthcare providers, and commentators on birth broadly identify control as an important issue during childbirth; however, control is rarely defined in literature on the topic. Here we seek to deconstruct the term control as used by childbearing women to better understand the issues and concepts underpinning it. Based on qualitative interviews with 101 parous women in the United States, we analyze meanings of control within the context of birth narratives. We find these meanings correspond to five distinct domains: self-determination, respect, personal security, attachment, and knowledge. We also find ambivalence about this term and concept, in that half our sample recognizes “you cannot control birth”. Together, these findings call into question the usefulness of the term for measuring quality or improving maternity care and highlight other concepts which may be more fruitfully explored. PMID:20579792

Namey, Emily E; Lyerly, Anne D

2010-01-01

98

What I need to know about Bladder Control for WomenBladder Control for Women  

E-print Network

OF HEALTH National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse #12;#12;Contents What are the different types. What Your Doctor Needs to Know B. Your Daily Bladder Diary C. Kegel Exercise Tips D. Medicines common in women. Many women leak urine when they exercise, laugh hard, cough, or sneeze. Often women

Baker, Chris I.

99

Centering as a Model for Group Visits Among Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain  

PubMed Central

Providing comprehensive care for chronic pelvic pain is impeded by time and resource constraints of the standard healthcare visit. To provide patient education, psychosocial support, and healthcare assessment, we developed group visits for women with chronic pelvic pain using an evidence-based, holistic nursing approach. In this article, we describe the structure of group visits, the process of conducting Centering group visits focused on empowerment, and the content of a holistic curriculum for women with chronic pelvic pain. PMID:22862426

Chao, Maria T.; Abercrombie, Priscilla D.; Duncan, Larissa G.

2012-01-01

100

Prevalence of HIV among childbearing women and women having termination of pregnancy: multidisciplinary steering group study.  

PubMed

This study sought to determine the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women, in particular those whose behavior or that of their partners put them at low-risk for infection. This was a voluntary named or anonymous HIV testing of pregnant women between November 1988-July 1990 among all women who planned to continue their pregnancies and attended clinics serving antenatal populations in Edinburgh and Dundee and those women admitted for termination of pregnancy to gynecology wards serving the pregnant populations of Dundee and outlying rural areas. 91% of the antenatal clinic attenders and 97% of women having pregnancy termination agreed to HIV testing on either a named or anonymous basis. HIV period prevalences for antenatal clinic attenders and women having pregnancy termination tested in Dundee were 0.13% and 0.85% respectively, and for antenatal clinic attenders tested in Edinburgh 0.26%. For those at low-risk, the rates for antenatal clinic attenders and women having pregnancy termination in Dundee were 0.11% and 0.13%, and for antenatal clinic attenders in Edinburgh 0.02%. In Dundee, HIV prevalence among women having a termination of pregnancy (0.95%) was significantly greater than that among antenatal clinic attenders (0.13%). HIV infection is undoubtedly occurring among low-risk women and it is clear that a policy of selective testing of those only at high-risk is inadequate for pregnant women living in areas of high prevalence such as Edinburgh and Dundee. Moreover, when studying pregnant populations in such areas, there is a need to include those undergoing pregnancy termination. PMID:1586820

Goldberg, D J; MacKinnon, H; Smith, R; Patel, N B; Scrimgeour, J B; Inglis, J M; Peutherer, J F; Urquhart, G E; Emslie, J A; Covell, R G

1992-04-25

101

Group B Streptococcus: Compliance with the information in prenatal card records and knowledge of pregnant women.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the rate of compliance on prenatal cards and the women's knowledge and feelings regarding Group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening in a maternity ward in São Paulo City, Brazil. Structured interviews and a review of prenatal card records of 391 women were performed. The GBS screening was not recorded in more than half of prenatal cards (51.4%, n = 201); 169 women reported no knowledge or not remembering the GBS screening. PMID:25702842

de Mello, Débora Silva; Tsunechiro, Maria Alice; Mendelski, Caroline Ataíde; Pierre, Sandra Abib; Silva, Atalanta Ruiz; Padoveze, Maria Clara

2015-04-01

102

An Efficient Control Method for Elevator Group Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents an efficient control approach for the elevator group control system. The essential of the method used\\u000a is based on an operation strategy with a talented algorithm. In order to analyze the performance of the presented system,\\u000a the control method was evaluated by considering different performance characteristics in the elevator group control system.\\u000a The results of the presented

Ulvi Dagdelen; Aytekin Bagis; Dervis Karaboga

2005-01-01

103

Work and Fertility Control Sequences among Younger Married Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the connections between women's employment and fertility control. The point is made that these are both ongoing processes, intersecting and mutually reinforcing each other. The correlation between work/nonwork and family size is less significant than links between work-consistency and fertility control patterns which enhance that…

Scanzoni, John

1979-01-01

104

CONTROLLED SURGERY WITH TRIVIAL LOCAL FUNDAMENTAL GROUPS   

E-print Network

We provide a proof of the controlled surgery sequence, including stabil- ity, in the special case that the local fundamental groups are trivial. Stability is a key ingredient in the construction of exotic homology manifolds ...

Pedersen, Erik; Quinn, Frank; Ranicki, Andrew

2001-11-27

105

Women’s Sexual Arousal: Effects of High Alcohol Dosages and Self-Control Instructions  

PubMed Central

The basic relationship between alcohol and women’s sexual arousal – especially genital arousal –received little research attention for nearly 30 years (e.g. Wilson & Lawson, 1978) until very recently (e.g. George et al., 2009). To investigate hypotheses based on earlier findings and Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT), two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of vaginal responding and self-reported sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, self-control instructions to maximize (versus suppress) arousal increased peak and average Vaginal Pulse Amplitude (VPA) change. Self-control also interacted with a target BAC of .08% (versus .00%) to influence latency to peak arousal onset: Intoxicated women instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to peak arousal than did intoxicated women instructed to suppress; however, sober women showed the same pattern. Also, in Experiment 1, the target BAC of .08% had no effect on VPA or subjective arousal measures. In Experiment 2, a target BAC of .10% (versus .00%) attenuated peak change and average change in VPA, but this dosage had no effects on latency to peak achieved arousal, or on subjective arousal. Instructions to maximize arousal (versus no instruction) had no effect on any arousal measures. Overall, among young moderate drinking women, alcohol had attenuating effects but only at the higher dosage. Maximize versus suppress instructions about arousal had predicted effects on arousal and interactive effects on latency, but only at the lower dosage. The findings highlight the importance of dosage and contextual factors in alcohol’s impact on the variability of women’s sexual responding. PMID:21439287

George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

2011-01-01

106

Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite a recent surge in tobacco advertising and the recent advertising ban (pending enforcement at the time of this study), there are few studies describing current cigarette marketing in India. This study sought to assess cigarette companies' marketing strategies in Mumbai, India. Methods: A two week field study was conducted in Mumbai in September 2003, observing, documenting, and collecting cigarette advertising on billboards, storefronts and at point of sale along two major thoroughfares, and performing a content analysis of news, film industry, and women's magazines and three newspapers. Results: Cigarette advertising was ubiquitous in the environment, present in news and in film magazines, but not in women's magazines or the newspapers. The four major advertising campaigns all associated smoking with aspiration; the premium brands targeting the higher socioeconomic status market utilised tangible images of westernisation and affluence whereas the "bingo" (low priced) segment advertisements invited smokers to belong to a league of their own and "rise to the taste" using intangible images. Women were not depicted smoking, but were present in cigarette advertisements—for example, a woman almost always accompanied a man in "the man with the smooth edge" Four Square campaign. Advertisements and product placements at low heights and next to candies at point of sale were easily accessible by children. In view of the iminent enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertisements, cigarette companies are increasing advertising for the existing brand images, launching brand extensions, and brand stretching. Conclusion: Cigarette companies have developed sophisticated campaigns targeting men, women, and children in different socioeconomic groups. Many of these strategies circumvent the Indian tobacco advertising ban. Understanding these marketing strategies is critical to mimimise the exploitation of loopholes in tobacco control legislation. PMID:15923471

Bansal, R; John, S; Ling, P

2005-01-01

107

Herbal medicine use during pregnancy in a group of Australian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a

Della A Forster; Angela Denning; Gemma Wills; Melissa Bolger; Elizabeth McCarthy

2006-01-01

108

An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

2010-01-01

109

Women's Employment Patterns during Early Parenthood: A Group-Based Trajectory Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on women's employment and parenthood frequently focuses on the correlates and consequences of decisions at a particular time, such as a birth. This article applies a group-based trajectory method to examine women's employment trajectories across the period of early parenthood using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N=…

Hynes, Kathryn; Clarkberg, Marin

2005-01-01

110

Social Identity, Modern Sexism, and Perceptions of Personal and Group Discrimination by Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of gender-related discrimination against the self and group were examined in women and men, with a focus on the predictive utility of modern sexism and 3 dimensions of social identification (ingroup ties, centrality, and ingroup affect). Questionnaires were completed by 321 undergraduates (206 women and 115 men), of whom 78% self-identified as White and 10% as Asian. Higher levels

James E. Cameron

2001-01-01

111

Honoring the Ways of American Indian Women: A Group Therapy Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

A culturally grounded group intervention for a typically underserved population of urban American Indian women is described. The intervention is designed to increase interpersonal connection, improve inter-tribal acceptance and trust, and enhance psychological well being of marginalized urban American Indian women. Topics used to structure the intervention were generated collaboratively with tribal community members and included self-exploration and education, aging,

Paula T. McWhirter; Rockey Robbins; Karen Vaughn; Natalie Youngbull; Derek Burks; Sadie Willmon-Haque; Suzan Schuetz; Joyce A. Brandes; Andrea Zainab Omidy Nael

2010-01-01

112

Comparing Revictimization in Two Groups of Marginalized Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines physical and sexual revictimization in a random sample of incarcerated and poor, urban, nonincarcerated women using multiple measures of physical and sexual child abuse. Researchers used hierarchical logistic regression to compare rates of revictimization and the strength of the association between child abuse and adult…

Tusher, Chantal Poister; Cook, Sarah L.

2010-01-01

113

Reflections on Cancer in the Context of Women's Health: Focus Group Discussions with Iranian Immigrant Women in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cancer prevention, culture and ethnicity have often been considered in negative terms as a variable to explain “misconceptions” and “knowledge deficits.” This study, based on data from nine focus groups with Iranian immigrant women of various ages residing in Sweden, was instead conducted to explore reasoning on cancer prevention and screening within a framework of beliefs on health, illness

Azita Emami; Carol Tishelman

2004-01-01

114

Group psychotherapy for women molested in childhood: psychological and somatic symptoms and medical visits.  

PubMed

Molested women who completed a series of 16 weekly group psychotherapy sessions conducted by social workers improved substantially regarding various aspects of psychological functioning, including self-image, coping techniques, relationship issues, and mothering. In addition, there was significant improvement in all psychological symptom scales and all global indices of symptomatic distress measured by the SCL-90-R. Furthermore, the improvement was present immediately after therapy and, with the exception of the hostility score, persisted 1 year later. Although the somatization score was reduced, the number of visits for physical symptoms did not change. The patients studied manifested characteristics typical of previously surveyed women with a history of childhood abuse, including a frequent history of major surgery (Drossman et al., 1996; Longstreth & Wolde-Tsadik, 1993; Springs & Friedrich, 1992) and, in some, a previous problem with alcohol (Springs & Friedrich, 1992; Walker et al., 1995) or drugs (Longstreth & Wolde-Tsadik, 1993; Miller & McCluskey-Fawcett, 1993; Springs & Friedrich, 1992). Also, nearly one half of the subjects had irritable bowel syndrome, the prototypical functional bowel disorder (Drossman et al., 1995; Longstreth & Wolde-Tsadik, 1993; Scarinci et al., 1994; Walker et al., 1995). Most of their baseline SCL-90-R scores were > 1 SD above the nonpatient norms. A problem inherent in assessing the long-term benefit of this study and other group psychotherapy studies is the tendency for some patients to continue similar or different forms of therapy after completing the group sessions. More than one half of patients received subsequent therapy that could have influenced their status at 1-year follow-up. However, most of the symptom dimensions and all global indices were similar 1 year posttherapy in the women who did not receive more treatment as compared to results in the women who did. Patients who received additional therapy had higher somatization scores before, immediately after, and 1 year posttherapy; scores in the other group increased 1 year posttherapy. Although the indications for subsequent therapy were not surveyed, there was an association between additional psychological care seeking and somatization. Furthermore, improvement in psychological status reflected by the phobic-anxiety score immediately posttherapy may have contributed to the decision of some patients to seek subsequent therapy. In the group without additional treatment, the loss of some of the initial somatization improvement at 1 year may have contributed to the lack of reduction in medical care visits in the combined groups. We speculate that provision of additional therapy to more patients might have had a long-term effect on somatization and reduced medical visits. We obtained complete psychological data and nearly complete medical-visit data on our patients, and our survey included 1-year follow-up. Our survey did not meet rigorous methodological standards for an outcome study, however. We surveyed only a small number of patients and did not collect similar data on an untreated control group. It was not possible to distinguish health care visits for organic versus functional disorders, but such a distinction may be artificial, because psychological factors may influence health care seeking for "organic" illness. Because our measurements came from a subset of our patients who were willing to complete the survey questionnaires, we do not know how generalizable the findings are. There is increasing awareness among health care professionals that childhood sexual abuse is common and that it may have serious and long-term psychological and medical sequelae. Our data suggest that group psychotherapy by social workers for women victims may have long-lasting psychological and somatic symptom benefits. Reduction in health care usage was not found, and this outcome may require the identification and treatment of patients who need additi PMID:9766093

Longstreth, G F; Mason, C; Schreiber, I G; Tsao-Wei, D

1998-10-01

115

Changes in Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Indices in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Undergoing Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation  

PubMed Central

Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment always attain a low cumulative pregnancy rate disaccording with the satisfactory number of oocytes. Objective. We aim to evaluate the status of coagulation and fibrinolytic system in PCOS patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) process. Method. Of the 97 women, 30 patients with PCOS composed the study group; 67 women of child-bearing age with normal endocrine function composed the control group. All participants underwent GnRH agonist standard long protocol, and plasma HCY, FVIII, FX, and D-dimer levels as well as hormone parameters were measured at day of full downregulation, hCG priming, and embryos transfer. Results. On day of full downregulation, FX levels were significantly higher in PCOS group (P < 0.01). On hCG priming day, FX and estrogen levels in PCOS group were higher than in the control group and FVIII levels were significantly lower on day of embryos transfer whereas FX and E2 levels were significantly higher in PCOS group. Conclusion. Hypercoagulable state during peri-implantation phase would probably lead to poor microcirculation of endometrium and be one of the most important disadvantages of successful implantation and subsequent clinical pregnancy. PMID:25374601

Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yong; Yan, Ling; Chuai, Yun-Hai; Liu, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yi; Li, Min; Wang, Ai-Ming

2014-01-01

116

Changes in coagulation and fibrinolytic indices in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.  

PubMed

Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) treatment always attain a low cumulative pregnancy rate disaccording with the satisfactory number of oocytes. Objective. We aim to evaluate the status of coagulation and fibrinolytic system in PCOS patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) process. Method. Of the 97 women, 30 patients with PCOS composed the study group; 67 women of child-bearing age with normal endocrine function composed the control group. All participants underwent GnRH agonist standard long protocol, and plasma HCY, FVIII, FX, and D-dimer levels as well as hormone parameters were measured at day of full downregulation, hCG priming, and embryos transfer. Results. On day of full downregulation, FX levels were significantly higher in PCOS group (P < 0.01). On hCG priming day, FX and estrogen levels in PCOS group were higher than in the control group and FVIII levels were significantly lower on day of embryos transfer whereas FX and E2 levels were significantly higher in PCOS group. Conclusion. Hypercoagulable state during peri-implantation phase would probably lead to poor microcirculation of endometrium and be one of the most important disadvantages of successful implantation and subsequent clinical pregnancy. PMID:25374601

Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yong; Yan, Ling; Chuai, Yun-Hai; Liu, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yi; Li, Min; Wang, Ai-Ming

2014-01-01

117

Support Groups, Marriage, and the Management of Ambiguity among HIV-Positive Women in Northern Nigeria  

E-print Network

be thinking. Used to these themes, however, my friend was undisturbed. I told her after the wedding that I thought her pastor was a misogynist. Why are only women to blame for marital problems, and why is it men’s responsibility to simply forgive women’s sins... Groups, Marriage, and the Management of Ambiguity among HIV-Positive Women in Northern Nigeria” Anthropol Q. 2009 ; 82(2): 369–400. Published version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/anq.0.0067. Terms of Use: http://www2.ku...

Rhine, Kathryn Angela

2009-03-01

118

Short-Term Effects of Electrical Stimulation Superimposed on Muscular Voluntary Contraction in Postural Control in Elderly Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paillard, T., C. Lafont, J.M. Soulat, R. Montoya, M.-C. Costes-Salon, and P. Dupui. Short-term effects of electrical stim- ulation superimposed on muscular voluntary contraction in pos- tural control in elderly women. J. Strength Cond. Res. 19(3):640- 646. 2005.—Thirty-two women between 62 and 75 years old were randomized into 3 groups. Each group performed a pro- gram of 4 sessions a

Thierry Paillard; Christine Lafont; Jean Marc Soulat; Richard Montoya; Marie-Claude Costes-Salon; Philippe Dupui

2005-01-01

119

High mobility group protein B1: a new biomarker of obesity in pregnant women?  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to analyze the serum levels of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in obese pregnant women, to assess the role of this protein in the pathogenesis of this disease and to evaluate its possible function as a diagnostic marker for obesity-related complications in obese women. Study participants were randomly selected, from a cohort of pregnant women afferent to our department. A total of 120 women were enrolled in this study: 60 pregnant women had normal body mass index (BMI) and 60 women resulted obese. Pre-pregnancy BMI, weight increase and HMGB1 levels were evaluated for each pregnant woman enrolled. Matching serum HMGB1 levels in two groups, our data evidenced higher levels in the obese women, with a statistically significant difference (p?=?0.0023). A significant positive univariate correlation was observed between serum HMGB1 levels and BMI in obese women. HMGB1 serum levels may therefore represent a predictive marker of disease in pregnant women (r?=?20.9 and p?=?0.0001). Further studies are needed in order to validate the role of this cytokine, with the aim of making it possible to use in clinical practice not only for diagnostic purposes, but especially for the early recognition of complications related to it. PMID:25356847

Giacobbe, A; Grasso, R; Imbesi, G; Salpietro, C D; Grasso, L; Laganà, A S; Triolo, O; Di Benedetto, A

2015-02-01

120

Improving Participation Rates for Women of Color in Health Research: The Role of Group Cohesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies\\u000a show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine\\u000a whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community\\u000a physical activity program for women

Renae L. Smith-Ray; Scherezade Mama; Jacqueline Y. Reese-Smith; Paul A. Estabrooks; Rebecca E. Lee

121

Aromatherapy massage affects menopausal symptoms in korean climacteric women: a pilot-controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok; Lee, Myeong Soo

2008-09-01

122

Obstetric outcomes for nulliparous women who received routine individualized treatment for severe fear of childbirth - a retrospective case control study  

PubMed Central

Background To study pregnancy and delivery outcomes in nulliparous women with severe FOC (fear of childbirth), all of whom had received routine treatment for their FOC and to make comparisons with a healthy reference group of nulliparous women. To study the possible relationship between the number of FOC-treatment sessions and the delivery method. Methods All nulliparous women with a diagnose FOC who received routine treatment for FOC (n?=?181) and a reference group of nulliparous women without FOC (n?=?431) at a university and a county hospital in the south east region of Sweden were analysed. Data from antenatal and delivery medical records were used to study outcome. Results The majority of women with severe FOC had a vaginal delivery. The incidence of elective CS was greater in the index group than in the reference group (p?women with a planned CS in the index group was 35 (19.4%) and in the control group 14 (3.2%). Thus, on average five women per year received an elective CS during the study years due to severe FOC. The women in the index group who wished to have a CS were similar to the other women in the index group with reference to age, BMI, chronic disease but had been in in-patient care more often during their pregnancy than those who did not ask for CS (p?=?0.009). Conclusion In this study of women treated for severe FOC, the majority gave birth vaginally and no relationship was found between number of treatment sessions and mode of childbirth. PMID:24694283

2014-01-01

123

Women from different ethnic groups and their experiences with victimization and seeking help.  

PubMed

For women who experience abuse in childhood or adulthood, the assumptions are that surviving includes seeking help. This article presents an exploratory study on the prevalence of victimization in the lives of Caucasian, African American, and Latina women, if and to whom they disclosed their victimization, and where they turned for services and support. The results indicate Caucasian women turn more to traditional, therapeutic sources compared with African American women, who tend to use tangible supports. However, when controlling for a number of key variables, the ethnic differences disappear. Implications for further research and practice conclude this article. PMID:25680802

Postmus, Judy L

2015-03-01

124

Women's evaluation of abuse and violence care in general practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial (weave)  

PubMed Central

Background Intimate partner abuse (IPA) is a major public health problem with serious implications for the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of women, particularly women of child-bearing age. It is a common, hidden problem in general practice and has been under-researched in this setting. Opportunities for early intervention and support in primary care need to be investigated given the frequency of contact women have with general practice. Despite the high prevalence and health consequences of abuse, there is insufficient evidence for screening in primary care settings. Furthermore, there is little rigorous evidence to guide general practitioners (GPs) in responding to women identified as experiencing partner abuse. This paper describes the design of a trial of a general practice-based intervention consisting of screening for fear of partner with feedback to GPs, training for GPs, brief counselling for women and minimal practice organisational change. It examines the effect on women's quality of life, mental health and safety behaviours. Methods/Design weave is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Approximately 500 women (16-50 years) seen by the GP in the previous year are mailed a short lifestyle survey containing an item to screen for IPA. Women who indicate that they were afraid of a partner/ex-partner in the last year and provide contact details are invited to participate. Once baseline data are collected, GPs are randomly assigned to either a group involving healthy relationship and responding to IPA training plus inviting women for up to 6 sessions of counselling or to a group involving basic education and usual care for women. Outcomes will be evaluated by postal survey at 6 and 12 months following delivery of the intervention. There will be an economic evaluation, and process evaluation involving interviews with women and GPs, to inform understanding about implementation and outcomes. Discussion The weave trial responds to an urgent need for more evidence on what can be achieved in primary care with regard to responding to women who experience IPA. It will provide important knowledge about the effectiveness of a brief method of screening, professional IPA training program and brief counselling for women. Trail Registration [ACTRN12608000032358] PMID:20044929

2010-01-01

125

The effect of health and nutrition education intervention on women's postpartum beliefs and practices: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background 'Sitting month' is the Chinese tradition for postpartum customs. Available studies indicate that some of the traditional postpartum practices are potentially harmful for women's health. However, no intervention study aiming at postpartum practices has been performed. In this paper we evaluated the effect of a health and nutrition education intervention, which focused on improving postpartum dietary quality and optimal health behaviors. Methods The study design was a randomized controlled trial conducted in both urban and rural area of Hubei between August 2003 and June 2004. A total of 302 women who attended the antenatal clinic during the third trimester with an uncomplicated pregnancy were recruited. Women randomized to the education intervention group in both urban and rural area received two two-hour prenatal education sessions and four postpartum counseling visits. Control group women received usual health care during pregnancy and postpartum period. Women were followed up until 42 days postpartum. Outcome measures were nutrition and health knowledge, dietary behavior, health behavior and health problems during the postpartum period. Results Women in the intervention groups exhibited significantly greater improvement in overall dietary behaviors such as consumption of fruits, vegetables, soybean and soybean products as well as nutrition and health knowledge than those in the control groups. Significantly more women in the intervention groups give up the traditional behavior taboos. The incidence of constipation, leg cramp or joint pain and prolonged lochia rubra was significantly lower in the intervention groups as compared with the control groups. Conclusion The study shows that health and nutrition education intervention enable the women take away some of the unhealthy traditional postpartum practices and decrease the prevalence of postpartum health problems. The intervention has potential for adaptation and development to large-scale implementation. Trial registration number klACTRN12607000549426 PMID:19183504

Liu, Nian; Mao, Limei; Sun, Xiufa; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping; Chen, Banghua

2009-01-01

126

Improving Participation Rates for Women of Color in Health Research: The Role of Group Cohesion  

PubMed Central

Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community physical activity program for women of color. African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N=310) completed measurements at baseline and post-intervention and participated in a social cohesion intervention to improve physical activity and dietary habits. Women were assigned to a physical activity or fruit and vegetable intervention group. Social and task cohesion was measured using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGE-Q). Attendance was recorded at each of six intervention sessions. Women were generally middle-age (M age = 46.4 years, SD=9.1) and obese (M BMI = 34.4 kg/m2, SD=7.7). The estimate of the mediated effect was significant for all group cohesion constructs, indicating both task constructs—attraction to the group’s task (SE=0.096, CI: ?0.599 to ?0.221) and group integration around the task (SE=0.060, CI: ?0.092 to ?0.328)—and social constructs—attraction to the group’s social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: ?0.546 to ?0.366) and group integration around social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: ?0.546 to ?0.366)—significantly mediated the association between group assignment and attendance. Both task and social constructs are important to improve attendance in health promotion interventions for women of color. PMID:21826476

Mama, Scherezade; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Lee, Rebecca E.

2015-01-01

127

ATLANTIC-DIP: prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus by International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.  

PubMed

Women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high-risk group for future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria significantly increase the number of women diagnosed with GDM. The long-term metabolic outcome in these women is unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using adult treatment panel-III criteria; and insulin resistance, using HOMA2-IR, in white European women with previous GDM. Using a cohort design, we invited women meeting IADPSG GDM criteria across four Irish antenatal centres between 2007 and 2010 to participate. Two hundred and sixty-five women with previous values meeting IADPSG criteria for GDM participated (44 % of the population eligible for participation). Mean age was 36.7 years (SD 5.0). These women were compared with a randomly selected control group of 378 women (mean age 37.6 years, SD 5.1) known to have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy during the same period. A total of 25.3 % of women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM met metabolic syndrome criteria, compared to 6.6 % of women with NGT [at 2.6 (SD 1.0) vs. 3.3 years (SD 0.7) post-partum]. The prevalence of HOMA2-IR >1.8 was higher in women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM (33.6 vs. 9.1 % with NGT, p < 0.001). Women with previous GDM by IADPSG criteria demonstrate a greater than threefold prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to women with NGT in pregnancy. Efforts to prevent projected long-term consequences of this should focus on interventions both in the preconception and post-partum periods. PMID:25002067

Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Shea, Paula M; Dunne, Fidelma P

2015-02-01

128

Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

2010-01-01

129

An Elevator Group Control System With a Self-Tuning Fuzzy Logic Group Controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new group controller's adaptation mechanism with fuzzy logic for elevator group control system (EGCS) applications. Instead of depending heavily on the predicted passenger traffic pattern for adaptation, the fuzzy logic group controller (FLGC) adjusts itself to suit the system's environment through a self-tuning scheme. The average-waiting-time data that reflect the measured performance results of the EGCS

Jafferi Jamaludin; N. Abd Rahim; Wooi Ping Hew

2010-01-01

130

Control of complex physically simulated robot groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actuated systems such as robots take many forms and sizes but each requires solving the difficult task of utilizing available control inputs to accomplish desired system performance. Coordinated groups of robots provide the opportunity to accomplish more complex tasks, to adapt to changing environmental conditions, and to survive individual failures. Similarly, groups of simulated robots, represented as graphical characters, can test the design of experimental scenarios and provide autonomous interactive counterparts for video games. The complexity of writing control algorithms for these groups currently hinders their use. A combination of biologically inspired heuristics, search strategies, and optimization techniques serve to reduce the complexity of controlling these real and simulated characters and to provide computationally feasible solutions.

Brogan, David C.

2001-10-01

131

A complex intervention to improve pregnancy outcome in obese women; the UPBEAT randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the widespread recognition that obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse outcomes for mother and child, there is no intervention proven to reduce the risk of these complications. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial is to assess in obese pregnant women, whether a complex behavioural intervention, based on changing diet (to foods with a lower glycemic index) and physical activity, will reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) and delivery of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. A secondary aim is to determine whether the intervention lowers the long term risk of obesity in the offspring. Methods/Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing a behavioural intervention designed to improve glycemic control with standard antenatal care in obese pregnant women. Inclusion criteria; women with a BMI ?30 kg/m2 and a singleton pregnancy between 15+0 weeks and 18+6 weeks’ gestation. Exclusion criteria; pre-defined, pre-existing diseases and multiple pregnancy. Randomisation is on-line by a computer generated programme and is minimised by BMI category, maternal age, ethnicity, parity and centre. Intervention; this is delivered by a health trainer over 8 sessions. Based on control theory, with elements of social cognitive theory, the intervention is designed to improve maternal glycemic control. Women randomised to the control arm receive standard antenatal care until delivery according to local guidelines. All women have a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 27+0- 28+6 weeks’ gestation. Primary outcome; Maternal: diagnosis of GDM, according to the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) criteria. Neonatal; infant LGA defined as >90th customised birth weight centile. Sample size; 1546 women to provide 80% power to detect a 25% reduction in the incidence of GDM and a 30% reduction in infants large for gestational age. Discussion All aspects of this protocol have been evaluated in a pilot randomised controlled trial, with subsequent optimisation of the intervention. The findings of this trial will inform whether lifestyle mediated improvement of glycemic control in obese pregnant women can minimise the risk of pregnancy complications. Trial registration Current controlled trials; ISRCTN89971375. PMID:24533897

2014-01-01

132

Special Session on the History of Women in Control Tuesday, June 18, 2013  

E-print Network

Special Session on the History of Women in Control Tuesday, June 18, 2013 12:10 ­ 1:20 pm Room 2, Renaissance Washington, DC Downtown Hotel All Women in Control and Friends of Women in Control are invited. This Special Session is open to ALL participants of the 2013 American Control Conference. Organizers: Bozenna

Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna

133

Women's roles and health: the mediating effect of perceived control.  

PubMed

Research concerning women's roles and health has revealed inconsistencies regarding the effects of work/family roles on women's health. Recent work in this area suggests that role characteristics or role quality may be more important in determining health than simple role occupancy. In addition, it has been suggested that role factors may affect health by increasing or decreasing one's perceptions of personal control over life. This study uses logistic regression techniques on data from the 1987 General Social Survey to explore the effects of roles and role quality on women's health, as well as the mediating effects of perceived control in the relationship between role factors and health. It is hypothesized that (1) role quality variables are better predictors of health than role occupancy, (2) the effects on health of roles, and role quality, are mediated by perceived control. In the role occupancy model, findings show that employment is the only role associated with health, and perceived control does modify this relationship slightly. Both high and low quality employment roles predict better health, whereas only high quality marital roles predict better health. While perceived control does mediate slightly the effects of job quality on health, the positive effects of marital status on health are suppressed slightly by perceived control. PMID:7645299

Bullers, S

1994-01-01

134

Mutual support groups to reduce alcohol consumption by pregnant women: marketing implications.  

PubMed

This paper reports on a study of social support and alcohol consumption of 153 women during pregnancy. The majority of women changed their alcohol intake patterns during pregnancy because of concern for the health of the fetus. Most women decreased the amount and frequency of drinking and changed their beverage of choice. Social support was found to be significantly related to reduction in alcohol use during pregnancy. Social support came from relationships with specific individuals and groups of individuals. Health care providers may be able to extend the range of their work by designing specific prevention strategies targeted toward the development and implementation of mutual support groups for pregnant women. The marketing discipline has identified certain characteristics of the mutual benefit association, an organization which exists exclusively for the benefit of its members. The authors propose that the mutual support group, often used to promote health-related behaviors, is a special case of the mutual benefit association; further, that appropriate application of established marketing principles and practices will be effective in promulgating the mutual support group. The authors offer a marketing strategy for the mutual support of pregnant women, a strategy which should be effective in further reducing the alcohol intake of pregnant women. PMID:10105907

Coleman, M A; Coleman, N C; Murray, J P

1990-01-01

135

Recent Trends in Elevator Group Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latest elevator systems have structural differ- ences from traditional systems, such as the use of destination calls, or multiple cars in the same hoistway. This requires the development of new elevator group control systems, which is best done by adopting modern soft-computing methods. We review some of these systems and the results of research so far, and suggest further

Sandor Markon; Ken' ichi Aoki; Masami Nakagawa; Takeshi Sudo

136

Design of Modern Elevator Group Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide good transportation services for passengers in modern buildings, a good elevator group control system (EGCS) is inevitably necessary. The viewpoint of designing the EGCS is very important. The passenger-based viewpoint proposed provides a new way to think about this system. The capacity constraint following consideration for the passengers is utilized to make the performance better. Details of elevator

Tsung-che Chiang; Li-chen Fu

2002-01-01

137

Family group decision making: protecting children and women.  

PubMed

With rising demands on child welfare, workers need to consider new options, including strategies that promote a collaborative effort of family, community, and government. Family group conferencing integrates efforts to advance child and adult safety and strengthens family unity while expanding its meaning. The conclusions in this article are based on family interviews and child protective services' file comparison from an outcome study of the Family Group Decision Making Project. PMID:10732256

Pennell, J; Burford, G

2000-01-01

138

Herbal medicine use during pregnancy in a group of Australian women  

PubMed Central

Background There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a public tertiary maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Secondary aims were to explore why women took the herbal medicine, where they received advice, what form the supplements took and if they perceived the supplements to be helpful. Methods Consecutive pregnant women were approached in the antenatal clinic and the birth centre at around 36–38 weeks gestation. A questionnaire was developed and self-administered in English, as well as being translated into the four most common languages of women attending the hospital: Cantonese, Vietnamese, Turkish and Arabic. Back translation into English was undertaken by different professional translators to verify accuracy of both words and concepts. Data collected included demographic information, model of pregnancy care and herbal supplement use. Descriptive statistics were used initially, with stratified and regression analysis to compare sub-groups. Results Of 705 eligible women, 588 (83%) agreed to participate. Of these, 88 (15%) completed the questionnaire in a language other than English. Thirty-six percent of women took at least one herbal supplement during the current pregnancy. The most common supplements taken were raspberry leaf (14%), ginger (12%) and chamomile (11%). Women were more likely to take herbal supplements if they were older, tertiary educated, English speaking, non-smokers and primiparous. Conclusion Use of herbal supplements in pregnancy is likely to be relatively high and it is important to ascertain what supplements (if any) women are taking. Pregnancy care providers should be aware of the common herbal supplements used by women, and of the evidence regarding potential benefits or harm. PMID:16780602

Forster, Della A; Denning, Angela; Wills, Gemma; Bolger, Melissa; McCarthy, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

139

Evaluating a Survivors Group Pilot for Women with Significant Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sexual abuse has been associated with trauma, low self-esteem, anger, depression and challenging behaviours. This pilot study builds on a small published literature by evaluating a survivors group (SG) for women with an intellectual disability and an educational support group (ESG) for their carers. Method: The SG was delivered weekly…

Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Howlett, Susan; Corbett, Alan

2007-01-01

140

Feminist Group Counseling with South Asian Women Who Have Survived Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how to use a feminist approach in group counseling with South Asian women who have survived intimate partner violence (IPV). South Asian culture, including gender-role expectations and attitudes about family violence, is discussed. A case study detailing a feminist counseling group conducted with this population is presented.…

Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.

2008-01-01

141

Efficacy of a Group-Based Multimedia HIV Prevention Intervention for Drug-Involved Women under Community Supervision: Project WORTH  

PubMed Central

Importance This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. Objective We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. Design, Setting, Participants, and Intervention We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Main Outcomes and Measures Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n?=?237) and 63% (n?=?194) had multiple sex partners. Results Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (??=?0.10; 95% CI?=?0.02–0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR?=?0.72; 95% CI?=?0.57–0.90). Conclusion and Relevance The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01784809 PMID:25372149

El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A.; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

2014-01-01

142

Safety planning in focus groups of Malawian women living with HIV: helping each other deal with violence and abuse.  

PubMed

In this critical ethnography, 72 HIV-infected women in Southern Malawi participated in 12 focus groups discussing the impact of HIV and violence. Our analysis, informed by a postcolonial feminist perspective, revealed women's capacity to collectively engage in safety planning. We present our findings about women's experiences based on narratives detailing how women collectively strategized safety planning efforts to mitigate the impact of violence. This study helps to fill a gap in the literature on the intersection between HIV and violence in women's lives. Strategies discussed by the women could form a basis for safety planning interventions for women in similar circumstances. PMID:24322953

Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Stevens, Patricia E; Kako, Peninnah M; Dressel, Anne

2013-11-01

143

Linking Beauty and Health Among African American Women: Using Focus Group Data to Build Culturally and Contextually Appropriate Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

African-American women suffer a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality compared to Caucasian women. Addressing racial\\/ethnic disparities in health requires the engagement of African-American women in the development of interventions that are culturally and contextually appropriate. Three age groups of African-American women who attend beauty salons (18-29; 30-49; 50+) were recruited into six focus groups. Participants reviewed a series of

Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Laura Linnan; Noel Kulik; Veronica Carlisle; Zoe Enga; Margaret Bentley

2007-01-01

144

Study on Fuzzy Algorithm of Elevator Group Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevator group control system is a complex, random, multi-objective, non-linear, uncertain decision-making problem. Fuzzy control algorithms are suitable for Elevator group control system because its algorithms are multiobjective. The algorithms optimize the elevator group control harmoniously. Simulation mode of elevator group control system is established in MATLAB in light of the property of elevator group control system and Fuzzy Control

Gu Deying; Yan Dongmei

2010-01-01

145

Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15

146

A Women's Support Group for Asian International Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International students underuse counseling services, which are grounded in Western cultural values. The authors describe a support group for Asian international students that they launched at a large midwestern university to help students feel at ease with American university life, address homesickness, language problems, and academic and social…

Carr, Joetta L.; Koyama, Miki; Thiagarajan, Monica

2003-01-01

147

Family Group Decision Making: Protecting Children and Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details implementation of the Family Group Decision Making Project in Canadian Newfoundland and Labrador among residents from Inuit and European backgrounds. Notes how the program offered solutions to problems of fostering cultural autonomy, measuring family violence, unifying families and protecting family members, and integrating child welfare…

Pennell, Joan; Burford, Gale

2000-01-01

148

The Intersection of Everyday Life and Group Prenatal Care for Women in Two Urban Clinics  

PubMed Central

Women from vulnerable populations encounter challenging circumstances that generate stress and may adversely affect their health. Group prenatal care (GPNC) incorporates features which address social stressors, and has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy outcomes and prenatal care experiences. In this qualitative study, we describe the complex circumstances in the lives of women receiving care in two urban clinics and how GPNC attenuated them. Stressors included problems with transportation and child care, demanding jobs, poverty, homelessness, difficult relationships with partners, limited family support, and frustrating health care experiences. Receiving prenatal care in groups allowed women to strengthen relationships with significant others, gain social support, and develop meaningful relationships with group leaders. By eliminating waits and providing the opportunity to participate in care, GPNC also offered sanctuary from frustrations encountered in receiving individual care. Reducing such stressors may help improve pregnancy outcomes; however, more evidence is needed on mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:22643609

Novick, Gina; Sadler, Lois S.; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Groce, Nora Ellen; Kennedy, Holly Powell

2013-01-01

149

Noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure control in normotensive pregnant women.  

PubMed

Twenty-four hour noninvasive, automatic and ambulatory control of blood pressure (BP) was carried out on 11 normotensive pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy with a Del Mar Avionics Model 1978 Pressurometer III System at 7.5 min intervals during 24 h. The patients kept a detailed record of their activities during those 24 h. BP increased from 9 AM to a peak between 7 and 10 PM. Mean (+/- SD) waking and sleeping values were 110.56 +/- 6.68 mm Hg and 96.5 +/- 10.01 mm Hg, respectively, for systolic BP, and 71.41 +/- 5.35 mm Hg and 62.82 +/- 5.47 mm Hg, respectively, for diastolic BP. There was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP between sleeping hours and waking hours. We believe that 24-h control of BP behavior in normotensive pregnant women allows us to adequately diagnose hypertensive disease in pregnancy. PMID:2610998

Margulies, M; Zin, C; Margulies, N D; Voto, L S

1989-12-01

150

Smoking cessation: using group intervention methods to treat low-income women.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking, the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, has become an increasing concern for women. Women's smoking prevalence will soon surpass men's, and the tobacco industry continues to target women in its advertising campaigns. This article presents findings from a descriptive study, including the development, implementation, and evaluation of a group intervention designed for low-income women and conducted in an urban primary care clinic. Of the 55 female smokers who agreed to complete a smoking questionnaire, nine completed the 6-week program led by two nurse practitioners. The women smoked an average of 22.7 cigarettes/day at the start of the program and 9.2 cigarettes/day at its conclusion. Of the nine women, eight moved from the precontemplation stage to preparation, and all nine quit smoking for at least 1 month during the first months after the intervention. Group intervention is presented as an effective method of smoking intervention for providers in primary care. PMID:9879076

Pohl, J M; Caplan, D

1998-12-01

151

Actions of the Burkina Faso women in physics working group at the University of Ouagadougou  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the University of Ouagadougou, the largest university in Burkina Faso, the percentage of female student enrollment in the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit was 5.1% (for all the levels) from 2006 to 2009-this rate was 2.3% for physics. For the same period, 22 women out of 455 students (4.8%) were enrolled in PhD (all the fields of the Exact and Applied Sciences Unit) and three women out of 180 students (1.7%) registered in physics PhD. During the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics in 2008, the Burkina Faso Working Group proposed some strategies to attract more women to physics and all the sciences. Some actions were initiated at the University of Ouagadougou as well as in secondary schools. These actions and the feedback of female students are presented.

Kafando, Pétronille; Zerbo, Issa

2013-03-01

152

Reproductive history of women dying of sudden cardiac death: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Reproductive history events may be risk factors for sudden coronary death (SCD) among women. A retrospective case-control study of SCD among women aged 25-64 was conducted in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The present analysis focused on a description and analysis involving the childbearing and reproductive history of 67 ever-married female SCD cases and 73 ever-married neighbourhood controls with a mean age of 54.6 and 53.4 years respectively. Information included: age and number of years married, number of children, age at first birth, cardiovascular risk factors, obstetric and gynaecological history. Age and the risk factors, history of hypertension or diabetes, cigarette intake, death of significant other and psychiatric disease, were controlled for in the analysis. More cases than controls experienced their first birth before age 20 (14 of the SCD and 7 controls). However, after adjustment for cigarette smoking status, a strong predictor of sudden cardiac death, the effect of early childbearing did not remain significant for this population. In women less than or equal to 50 years of age, childlessness was not a risk factor for SCD (1 of 16 cases and 2 of 26 controls were childless). However in women greater than 50 years of age, childlessness was a significant predictor of SCD (OR = 6.7 (1.3-32] 12 of 51 cases were childless compared to 2 of 46 controls. After adjustment for aged and other coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors, the relationship of nulliparity with sudden cardiac death remained in this age group. There was no difference in hysterectomy or miscarriage history or in the total years married between cases and controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2807661

Talbott, E O; Kuller, L H; Detre, K; Matthews, K; Norman, S; Kelsey, S F; Belle, S

1989-09-01

153

Women’s perceptions of the relationship between recent life events, transitions, and diet in midlife: findings from a focus group study  

PubMed Central

Research indicates that history and early life events and trajectories influence women’s dietary behaviors. Yet, the social context in which recent life changes occur requires greater understanding, particularly regarding changes that embody the interconnectedness of women and their families, and how those changes affect women’s dietary decisions and behaviors. The data presented here were the product of eight focus groups that we conducted in one Maryland county in the fall of 2009. Our participants were 43 women with limited financial resources aged 40–64 years. In this analysis, we focused on women’s perceptions of the relation of recent life transitions and events to the dietary decisions they made for themselves and their families. Our findings suggested that transitions and events related to household structure, health status, phases of motherhood, and shifts in financial and employment status all had the potential to have profound and immediate effects on women’s dietary decisions and resulting dietary behaviors. We used the focus group data to consider implications for developing intervention strategies designed to improve self-efficacy and negotiation skills around dietary issues as a means of promoting healthy decision-making among women in midlife, particularly in times of familial upheaval and in circumstances where financial resources are limited. PMID:22533898

Brown, Natasha A.; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Kromm, Elizabeth Edsall

2012-01-01

154

Looking Out for The Secret Wound: The Effect of E-Cognitive Group Therapy with Emotional Disclosure on The Status of Mental Health in Infertile Women  

PubMed Central

Background: Considering the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among infertile women, it seems that gynecologists, psychiatrists, and psychologists should be more attentive to identify and treat these disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of E-cognitive group therapy with emotional disclosure on mentwal health status of infertile women who are receiving assisted reproduction. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 80 infertile women who were receiving hormonal therapy or other assisted reproductive technologies (ART) were randomly allocated to the cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) group or the control group. The CBT group had a weekly 12-hour meeting for a period of three months. They also participated in some painting sessions (art therapy) and written and verbal emotional disclosure (both individually and in group presentation). The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) test and Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) were used for data gathering. Results: Results showed the level of psychological distress decreased in the control group, but not significantly. Psychological intervention in the treatment group significantly lowered the level of psychological distress; the mean score of DASS in all aspects was significant. The difference between the mean score of the two groups after intervention was significant (p=0.001) and also according to ANCOVA (p=0.002). Differences were significant between the mean scores of both groups in the PSWQ (p=0.001), Inventory Test (p=0.001), which was confirmed by ANCOVA (p=0.009). Conclusion: These finding suggest that CBT with emotional self-disclosure promotes coping strategies among infertile women. Results also show that these approaches develop mental health and decrease stress in infertile women. Using a psychiatric approach in medical settings could help infertile women to promote their adjustment with mental health problems due to of in infertility. (Registration Number: IRCT201108247407N2). PMID:25493164

Mosalanejad, Leili; Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Morshed Behbahani, Bahar

2012-01-01

155

Crowding, grouping, and gain control in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Visual paradigms are versatile tools to investigate the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Contextual modulation refers to a class of paradigms where a target is flanked by neighbouring elements, which either deteriorate or facilitate target perception. It is often proposed that contextual modulation is weakened in schizophrenia compared to controls, with facilitating contexts being less facilitating and deteriorating contexts being less deteriorating. However, results are mixed. In addition, facilitating and deteriorating effects are usually determined in different paradigms, making comparisons difficult. Here, we used a crowding paradigm in which both facilitation and deterioration effects can be determined all together. We found a main effect of group, i.e., patients performed worse in all conditions compared to controls. However, when we discounted for this main effect, facilitation and deterioration were well comparable to controls. Our results indicate that contextual modulation can be intact in schizophrenia patients. PMID:25681007

Roinishvili, Maya; Cappe, Céline; Shaqiri, Albulena; Brand, Andreas; Rürup, Linda; Chkonia, Eka; Herzog, Michael H

2015-04-30

156

Autonomic control of cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the features of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women. Material and Methods We studied 185 postmenopausal women aged 59.3±8.5 years (mean±SD) and 104 premenopausal women aged 45.1±5.8 years. Standard indices of heart rate variability (HRV) (mean heart rate, coefficient of variation, standard deviation of the NN interval (the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram with normal sinus rhythm) (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), proportion derived by dividing RR50, the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms, by the total number of NN intervals (PNN50), and power of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands in absolute values and percentages of total spectral power) and index S of synchronization between the 0.1-Hz rhythms in heart rate and photoplethysmogram were compared between these two groups at rest. We assessed the following sex hormones: estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone. Results Mean heart rate and power of LF and HF bands were significantly different (p<0.05) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The autonomic indices were similar in women with natural and surgical menopause. Some indices (coefficient of variation, SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50, and power of LF and HF bands) showed weak correlation with menopause time in women with natural menopause. In women with surgical menopause, a moderate statistically significant correlation was observed only between menopause time and S index (r=?0.41, p=0.039). In premenopausal women, only testosterone correlated weakly with coefficient of variation, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, and power of HF band. In postmenopausal women, no correlations were found. We did not find any significant relationship between autonomic indices and hot flashes, assessed by hot flash diary. Conclusion We did not find a clinically important relationship between cardiovascular autonomic control and menopausal status in women. PMID:25788843

Neufeld, Irina W.; Kiselev, Anton R.; Karavaev, Antoly S.; Prokhorov, Mikhail D.; Gridnev, Vladimir I.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I.; Bezruchko, Boris P.

2015-01-01

157

Socio-economic differences in food group and nutrient intakes among young women in Ireland.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35 years were recruited. Diet was assessed using a diet history protocol. Of the total population, 153 disadvantaged and sixty-three non-disadvantaged women were classified as plausible dietary reporters. Food group intakes, nutrient intakes and dietary vitamin and mineral concentrations per MJ of energy consumed were compared between the disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged populations, as was compliance with dietary fibre, macronutrient and micronutrient intake guidelines. The disadvantaged women had lower intakes than the non-disadvantaged women of fruit, vegetables, fish, breakfast cereals, low-fat milk and wholemeal bread (all P< 0·001), yogurt (P= 0·001), low-fat spread (P= 0·002) and fresh meat (P= 0·003). They also had higher intakes of butter, processed red meats, white bread, sugar-sweetened beverages, fried potatoes and potato-based snacks (all P< 0·001) and full-fat milk (P= 0·014). Nutritionally, the disadvantaged women had higher fat, saturated fat and refined sugar intakes; lower dietary fibre, vitamin and mineral intakes; and lower dietary vitamin and mineral densities per MJ than their more advantaged peers. Non-achievement of carbohydrate (P= 0·017), fat (P< 0·001), saturated fat (P< 0·001), refined sugar (P< 0·001), folate (P= 0·050), vitamin C (P< 0·001), vitamin D (P= 0·047) and Ca (P= 0·019) recommendations was more prevalent among the disadvantaged women. Both groups showed poor compliance with Fe and Na guidelines. We conclude that the nutritional deficits present among these socially disadvantaged women are significant, but may be potentially ameliorated by targeted food-based interventions. PMID:23721781

McCartney, Daniel M A; Younger, Katherine M; Walsh, Joanne; O'Neill, Marie; Sheridan, Claire; Kearney, John M

2013-12-14

158

The impact of obesity on balance control in community-dwelling older women.  

PubMed

Older individuals have impaired balance control, particularly those that are frail and/or have sensory deprivations. Obese individuals show faster body sway during upright stance than normal weight individuals, suggesting that they also have difficulty controlling balance even if they do not have the same sensory issues as the older people. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine if obesity is associated to a decreased balance control in older women. Postural sway of normal weight (n = 15, age = 70.8 ± 5.5 years; BMI = 22.2 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (n = 15, age = 71.7 ± 4.3 years; BMI = 27.3 ± 1.3 kg/m(2)), and obese (n = 15, age = 71.1 ± 4.3 years; BMI = 33.1 ± 3.4 kg/m(2)) women was measured with a force platform for normal quiet stance lasting for 30 s in opened and closed eyes conditions. The obese group oscillated at a faster speed than the normal weight group (vision 0.99 ± 0.29 cm/s vs. 0.70 ± 0.16 cm/s, p < 0.01; no vision 1.43 ± 0.50 cm/s vs. 0.87 ± 0.23 cm/s, p < 0.01). The obese group exhibited greater range in both axes without vision compared to the normal weight group (p < 0.05). When observing sway density parameters, the obese group also spent less time in stability zones (2 mm radius area in which the center of pressure is relatively stable), and the distance between these stability zones are greater than the normal weight group in both visual conditions (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Obesity clearly affects postural control in older women. Our results suggest that obesity has a negative impact on the capacity of older woman to adequately use proprioceptive information for posture control. As postural instability or balance control deficits are identified as a risk factor for falling, our results also suggest that obesity in older women could be considered as another potential contributing factor for falling. PMID:22318311

Dutil, Maxime; Handrigan, Grant A; Corbeil, Philippe; Cantin, Vincent; Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand; Hue, Olivier

2013-06-01

159

The Effect of Stationary Walking on the Quality of Life of the Elderly Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Aging has a profound effect on all the body organs and quality of life. One of the appropriate interventions is exercises such as walking. Nevertheless, the risk of falling and its complications are lower in stationary walking than walking on ground. Due to the higher life expectancy in women than men, the increasing number of elderly, and the low quality of life of women compared to men, this study aimed to assess the impact of stationary walking on the quality of life of the elderly women. Methods: In this clinical trial, 66 household elderly women covered by health centers of Maragheh were randomly selected and divided into experimental and control groups. Six weeks exercise intervention was conducted. The participants completed the quality of life questionnaire of the elderly, before and after the intervention. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Results: Mean scores of quality of life, in various aspects of the experimental group, before and after intervention, showed significant difference; there was no statistically significant difference in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in the mean and standard deviation of different aspects of quality of life in pre- and post-test of experiment and control groups. Conclusion: Using regular and constant exercise program such as stationary walking can increase the quality of life of the elderly women. It can improve healthy aging and having a healthy life at this age, too. Therefore, it is recommended to have stationary walking program in daily lives of the elderly. PMID:25276753

Dehi, Manijeh; Aghajari, Parvaneh; Shahshahani, Maryam; Takfallah, Leila; Jahangiri, Leila

2014-01-01

160

Empowering rural women's groups for strengthening economic linkages: some Indian experiments.  

PubMed

Through organizing informal self-help groups (SHGs), rural women in India are provided credit and extension support for various production-oriented income-generating activities. These activities usually include garment-making, embroidery, food processing, bee-keeping, basketry, gem cutting, weaving, and knitting. SHGs are self-governed, with decisions about production and marketing taken collectively, although the group leader is responsible for identifying potential marketing centers and consumers. These groups represent a new culture in rural development, breaking with traditional bureaucracy and top-down management. Informal groups empower rural women to manage rural industries and make decisions collectively for their common economic interests. Experience with SHGs in Orissa, lessons from nongovernmental organization intervention, and a model for empowering poor people in a small town in Kerala are discussed. PMID:12295206

Rajagopal

1999-05-01

161

Cervical Cancer Control for Hispanic Women in Texas: Effective Strategies from Research and Practice  

PubMed Central

Purpose Hispanic women in Texas have among the highest rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the country. Increasing regular Papanicolaou test screening and HPV vaccination are crucial to reduce the burden of cervical cancer among Hispanics. This paper presents lessons learned from community-based cervical cancer control programs in Texas and highlights effective intervention programs, methods and strategies. Methods We reviewed and summarized cervical cancer control efforts targeting Hispanic women in Texas, focusing on interventions developed by researchers at the University of Texas, School of Public Health. We identified commonalities across programs, highlighted effective methods, and summarized lessons learned to help guide future intervention efforts. Results Community-academic partnerships were fundamental in all steps of program development and implementation. Programs reviewed addressed psychosocial, cultural, and access barriers to cervical cancer control among low-income Hispanic women. Intervention approaches included lay health worker (LHW) and navigation models and used print media, interactive tailored media, photonovellas, client reminders, one-on-one and group education sessions. Conclusions Small media materials combined with LHW and navigation approaches were effective in delivering Pap test screening and HPV vaccination messages and in linking women to services. Common theoretical methods included in these approaches were modeling, verbal persuasion, and facilitating access. Adaptation of programs to an urban environment revealed that intensive navigation was needed to link women with multiple access barriers to health services. Collectively, this review reveals 1) the importance of using a systematic approach for planning and adapting cervical cancer control programs; 2) advantages of collaborative academic-community partnerships to develop feasible interventions with broad reach; 3) the use of small media and LHW approaches and the need for tailored phone navigation in urban settings; and 4) coordination and technical assistance of community-based efforts as a way to maximize resources. PMID:24398135

Fernandez, Maria E.; Savas, Lara S.; Lipizzi, Erica; Smith, Jennifer S.; Vernon, Sally W.

2014-01-01

162

The Effect of Sleep Health Behavioral Education on the Depression of Pregnant Women With Sleep Disorders: A Randomized Control Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: About 79% of the pregnant women experience sleep disorders and 70% of pregnant women experience some symptoms of the depression. Physiologic, hormonal, and physical changes of pregnancy can predispose mothers to depression these disorders before, during, and after childbirth and might be aggravated by neglecting health behavior. Health behavior education might be useful for the management of depression in pregnant women. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sleep health behavioral education on the improvement of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial, performed on 96 pregnant women with sleep disorder diagnosed according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Tools for data collection included demographic questionnaire and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Easy and accessible sampling was done. Participants were randomly (simple) allocated to intervention and control groups. In intervention group, sleep health behavior education was presented during a four-hour session held in weeks 22, 23, 24, and 25; then the patients were followed up to fill out the BDIQ in follow-up session at weeks 29 and 33 of pregnancy. The control group received no intervention and only received routine prenatal care. The results were assessed by Chi-square tests, independent-samples t-test, and Fischer’s exact-test by SPSS 16. Results: A statistically significant change was reported in the severity of depression in pregnant women with sleep disorders in the intervention group in comparison to the control group at weeks 29 (P < 0.000) and 33 (P < 0.00). Conclusions: Sleep health behavioral education improves depression in pregnant women who are experiencing insomnia. Findings from this study add support to the reported effectiveness of sleep health behavioral education in the prenatal care and clinical management of insomnia in pregnancy.

Rezaei, Elham; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Hagani, Hamid

2015-01-01

163

Group Interventions with Low-Income African American Women Recovering from Chemical Dependency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents finding from an investigation of two group therapy modalities involving 93 women with dependent children and limited education and income levels. An overview of intervention activities that participants found beneficial is presented. Programs were found to help participants develop a sense of community, reduce stress, improve…

Washington, Olivia G. M.; Moxley, David P.

2003-01-01

164

BICULTURAL RESYNTHESIS: TAILORING AN EFFECTIVENESS TRIAL FOR A GROUP OF URBAN AMERICAN INDIAN WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative study of a 6 week effectiveness trial was to describe among a group of urban American Indian women, the process of successful traditionalism in the form of bicultural resynthesis. Bicultural resynthesis represents a major current attempt on the part of the participants to integrate traditional and contemporary demands in a positive, culturally-consistent manner. The themes

Linda Napholz

165

Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

2002-01-01

166

Paraprofessionals--Changes in Minority Group Women After Four Years of College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixteen minority group women, who attended college for four years in a career opportunity program, were measured by the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) before and after their college experience. Results indicated positive personality changes on all 18 CPI scales, with significant positive changes at the .05 level on five of these…

McVey, Ronald F.; Naun, Ruth A.

167

Group Psychotherapy for Women with a History of Incest: The Research Base.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and…

Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.

1999-01-01

168

Deconstructing the Mirror's Reflection: Narrative Therapy Groups for Women Dissatisfied with Their Body  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women facing middle age and beyond are pressured by a cultural ideal of slimness. The authors review literature pertaining to the factors affecting the societal perceptions of body image and address relevant counseling interventions, specifically, group therapy based on narrative theory, that are aimed at this population.

Duba, Jill D.; Kindsvatter, Aaron; Priddy, Constance J.

2010-01-01

169

Hot flashes and cardiac vagal control during women’s daily lives  

PubMed Central

Objective The physiology of menopausal hot flashes is not well understood. The autonomic nervous system may play a role in hot flashes, but the current understanding is limited. We previously demonstrated in the laboratory that decreases in high frequency heart rate variability, an index of cardiac vagal control, occur during hot flashes relative to preceding and following periods. In the present study, we tested whether we would observe a similar phenomenon in the ambulatory setting. We additionally considered respiratory rate in these associations. Methods 21 peri- and postmenopausal women ages 40–60 reporting daily hot flashes were monitored both for physiologic and reported hot flashes and heart rate variability over a 24-hour period as they went about their daily lives. Heart rate variability estimates were derived using the band-limited variance method. The interval during the hot flash was compared to two non-flash periods prior to and following the hot flash via mixed effects models. Results Heart rate variability significantly decreased during hot flashes relative to periods preceding (b=0.31, SE=0.03 p<0.0001) and following (b=0.30, SE=0.03, p<0.0001) physiologic hot flashes (covariates: age, race, education, menopausal status, physical activity, body mass index, anxiety). Findings were comparable considering self-reported hot flashes. Findings persisted controlling for respiratory rate. Conclusions Significant decreases in cardiac vagal control occurred during hot flashes assessed during women’s daily lives. These findings extend our work in the laboratory to the ambulatory setting, further shedding light on the physiology of hot flashes and underscoring a potential role of parasympathetic function in hot flashes. PMID:22095062

Thurston, Rebecca C.; Christie, Israel C.; Matthews, Karen A.

2011-01-01

170

Waseda University Doctoral Dissertation Elevator Group Supervisory Control of  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Overview of Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) . . . . . . 1.2.1 Development History of Elevator Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Control Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Analysis of Energy Consumption of Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) based

Fernandez, Thomas

171

Perceived barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from disadvantaged neighborhoods: results from a focus groups assessment.  

PubMed

This study explored perceptions and experiences with barriers to exercise and healthy eating among women from predominately African American, disadvantaged neighborhoods. Four focus groups (n = 28) were conducted between April and May 2008 with overweight or obese women (93% African American; 34.3 ± 8.9 years; body mass index [BMI] 40.4 ± 8.5). Individual, social, and environmental factors were frequently mentioned as barriers to exercise and healthy eating. Insults from strangers about their body size (e.g., from children or people at the gym), and feelings of intimidation and embarrassment about not being able to complete exercises due to their body size were described as barriers to exercise. Lack of support and pressure from family, friends, and co-workers were barriers to healthy eating; participants experienced pressure from family and friends to eat more and were told they did not need to lose weight. Participants discussed the importance of not losing their curves; this concern needs to be considered when developing weight control programs for African American women. The findings of this qualitative study guided the development of a weight loss intervention for women from disadvantaged neighborhoods. PMID:24617795

Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Wilcox, Sara

2014-01-01

172

Space, Agency and Withdrawal: Birth Control Choices of Women in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Withdrawal (WD) is not a reliable method to prevent unwanted pregnancies, yet still a very popular form of birth control in many societies, including Turkey. We look at the relationship between the women's agency and physical space in relationship to birth control choices of women in Turkey. Agency in our context refers to women's ability to resist domination and subordination

Ibrahim Sirkeci; Dilek Cindoglu

2012-01-01

173

Group versus individual phone-based obesity treatment for rural women.  

PubMed

Rural women have among the highest rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyle, yet few studies have examined strategies for delivering state-of-the-art obesity treatment to hard-to-reach rural areas. The purpose of this pilot trial was to examine the impact and cost-effectiveness of a 6-month behavioral weight loss program delivered to rural women by phone either one-on-one with a counselor or to a group via conference call. Thirty-four rural women (mean BMI=34.4, SD=4.6) were randomized to group phone-based treatment or individual phone-based treatment. Completers analysis showed that weight loss was greater in the group condition (mean=14.9 kg=, SD=4.4) compared to the individual condition (mean=9.5 kg, SD=5.2; p=.03). Among the total sample, 62% of participants in the group condition achieved the 10% weight loss goal compared to 50% in the individual condition, and group treatment was found to be more cost-effective. Future research is warranted to examine the benefits of group phone-based treatment for long-term management of obesity among rural populations. PMID:19962115

Befort, Christie A; Donnelly, Joseph E; Sullivan, Debra K; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Perri, Michael G

2010-01-01

174

Iyengar yoga for distressed women: a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Distress is an increasing public health problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on perceived stress and psychological outcomes in distressed women and evaluated a potential dose-effect relationship. Seventy-two female distressed subjects were included into a 3-armed randomized controlled trial and allocated to yoga group 1 (n = 24) with twelve 90?min sessions over 3 months, yoga group 2 (n = 24) with 24 sessions over 3 months, or a waiting list control group (n = 24). The primary outcome was stress perception, measured by Cohen Stress Scale; secondary outcomes included state trait anxiety, depression, psychological and physical quality of life (QOL), profile of Mood States, well being, and bodily complaints. After three months, women in the yoga groups showed significant improvements in perceived stress (P = 0.003), state trait anxiety (P = 0.021 and P = 0.003), depression (P = 0.008), psychological QOL (P = 0.012), mood states being (P = 0.007), and bodily complaints well(P = 0.012) when compared to controls. Both yoga programs were similarly effective for these outcomes; however, compliance was better in the group with fewer sessions (yoga group 1). Dose effects were seen only in the analysis of group-independent effects for back pain, anxiety, and depression. These findings suggest that Iyengar yoga effectively reduces distress and improves related psychological and physical outcomes. Furthermore, attending twice-weekly yoga classes was not superior to once-weekly classes, as a result of limited compliance in the twice-weekly group. PMID:23049608

Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav; Kessler, Christian

2012-01-01

175

Barriers to disclosing and reporting violence among women in Pakistan: findings from a national household survey and focus group discussions.  

PubMed

Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic violence. Nearly one third of the 23,430 women interviewed had experienced physical violence. Only 35% of them had told anyone about it, almost always someone within their own family. Several personal and family factors were associated with disclosure. Having discussed the issue and feeling empowered to discuss violence were consistent associations. Of the 7,895 women who had suffered physical violence, only 14 had reported the matter to the police. Female focus groups said women who report violence risk their reputation and bring dishonor to the family; women fear reporting violence because it may exacerbate the problem and may lead to separation or divorce and loss of their children. Focus groups of men and women were skeptical about community leaders, councilors, and religious leaders supporting reporting of violence. They suggested setting up local groups where abused women could seek help and advice. There are strong disincentives to reporting violence in Pakistan, which are well known to women. Until better systems for reporting and dealing with reported cases are in place, domestic violence will continue to be a hidden scourge here and elsewhere. PMID:20007557

Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

2010-11-01

176

Explaining the impact of a women's group led community mobilisation intervention on maternal and newborn health outcomes: the Ekjut trial process evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few large and rigorous evaluations of participatory interventions systematically describe their context and implementation, or attempt to explain the mechanisms behind their impact. This study reports process evaluation data from the Ekjut cluster-randomised controlled trial of a participatory learning and action cycle with women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in Jharkhand and Orissa, eastern India (2005-2008).

Suchitra Rath; Nirmala Nair; Prasanta K Tripathy; Sarah Barnett; Shibanand Rath; Rajendra Mahapatra; Rajkumar Gope; Aparna Bajpai; Rajesh Sinha; Anthony Costello; Audrey Prost

2010-01-01

177

Effect of dietary intervention on serum lignan levels in pregnant women - a controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Mother's diet during pregnancy is important, since plant lignans and their metabolites, converted by the intestinal microflora to enterolignans, are proposed to possess multiple health benefits. Aim of our study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention affects lignan concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. Methods A controlled dietary intervention trial including 105 first-time pregnant women was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity health clinics. The intervention included individual counseling on diet and on physical activity, while the controls received conventional care. Blood samples were collected on gestation weeks 8-9 (baseline) and 36-37 (end of intervention). The serum levels of the plant lignans 7-hydroxymatairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, lariciresinol, cyclolariciresinol, and pinoresinol, and of the enterolignans 7-hydroxyenterolactone, enterodiol, and enterolactone, were measured using a validated method. Results The baseline levels of enterolactone, enterodiol and the sum of lignans were higher in the control group, whereas at the end of the trial their levels were higher in the intervention group. The adjusted mean differences between the baseline and end of the intervention for enterolactone and the total lignan intake were 1.6 ng/ml (p = 0.018, 95% CI 1.1-2.3) and 1.4 ng/mg (p = 0.08, 95% CI 1.0-1.9) higher in the intervention group than in the controls. Further adjustment for dietary components did not change these associations. Conclusion The dietary intervention was successful in increasing the intake of lignan-rich food products, the fiber consumption and consequently the plasma levels of lignans in pregnant women. Trial registration ISRCTN21512277, http://www.isrctn.org PMID:20932282

2010-01-01

178

Antenatal telephone support intervention with and without uterine artery Doppler screening for low risk nulliparous women: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The number of routine antenatal visits provided to low risk nulliparous women has been reduced in the UK, acknowledging this change in care may result in women being less satisfied with their care and having poorer psychosocial outcomes. The primary aim of the study was to investigate whether the provision of proactive telephone support intervention (TSI) with and without uterine artery Doppler screening (UADS) would reduce the total number of antenatal visits required. A secondary aim was to investigate whether the interventions affected psychological outcomes. Methods A three-arm randomised controlled trial involving 840 low risk nulliparous women was conducted at a large maternity unit in North East England. All women received antenatal care in line with current UK guidance. Women in the TSI group (T) received calls from a midwife at 28, 33 and 36 weeks and women in the telephone and Doppler group (T?+?D) received the TSI and additional UADS at 20 weeks’ gestation. The main outcome measure was the total number of scheduled and unscheduled antenatal visits received after 20 weeks’ gestation. Results The median number of unscheduled (n?=?2.0), scheduled visits (n?=?7.0) and mean number of total visits (n?=?8.8) were similar in the three groups. The majority (67%) of additional antenatal visits were made to a Maternity Assessment Unit because of commonly occurring pregnancy complications. Additional TSI+/–UADS was not associated with differences in clinical outcomes, levels of anxiety, social support or satisfaction with care. There were challenges to the successful delivery of the telephone support intervention; 59% of women were contacted at 29 and 33 weeks gestation reducing to 52% of women at 37 weeks. Conclusions Provision of additional telephone support (with or without UADS) in low risk nulliparous women did not reduce the number of unscheduled antenatal visits or reduce anxiety. This study provides a useful insight into the reasons why this client group attend for unscheduled visits. Trial registration ISRCTN62354584 PMID:24685072

2014-01-01

179

Online psychoeducational support for infertile women: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The study goal was to develop and test the effectiveness of a brief online education and support program for female infertility patients. METHODS: A randomized-controlled trial was conducted. Using a Solomon-four group design, 190 female patients were recruited from three US fertility centers and were randomized into two experimental and two no-treatment control groups. The psychological outcomes assessed included

Tara M. Cousineau; Traci C. Green; Evelyn Corsini; A Seibring; Marianne T. Showstack; Linda Applegarth; Marie Davidson; Mark Perloe

2008-01-01

180

Young Women with Breast Cancer: A Focus Group Study of Unmet Needs  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Young women with breast cancer suffer distress both at the time of diagnosis and afterwards. This study aimed to elucidate which issues are most disturbing to this population and which might be amenable to intervention. Methods: English-speaking women treated or involved in research at the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute for stage I–III breast cancer while aged 18–42 years were invited to participate in one of four focus groups. A trained moderator led each 90-minute audio-recorded group using a semi-structured interview guide. All transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis with NVivo software. Results: Thirty-six women participated. Three major themes emerged from the analyses of these focus groups' data: (1) participants felt different from older breast cancer patients with regard to relationships, fertility, menopausal symptoms, treatment side effects, and work/finances; (2) participants faced unique challenges transitioning into the survivorship phase of care; and (3) participants desired assistance, including connections with other young patients, help navigating the healthcare system, educational materials, and lists of appropriate counselors. Conclusion: Young women with breast cancer have unmet needs for psychosocial support, education, and symptom management, and can identify potential support that may help meet these needs. PMID:24380034

Greaney, Mary L.; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Meyer, Meghan E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Partridge, Ann H.

2013-01-01

181

The Impact of Trauma-Focused Group Therapy upon HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network “Women and Trauma” Multi-Site Study  

PubMed Central

Women in drug treatment struggle with co-occurring problems, including trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which can heighten HIV risk. This study examines the impact of two group therapy interventions on reduction of unprotected sexual occasions (USO) among women with substance use disorders (SUD) and PTSD. Participants were 346 women recruited from and receiving treatment at six community-based drug treatment programs participating in NIDA’s Clinical Trials Network. Participants were randomized to receive 12-sessions of either seeking safety (SS), a cognitive behavioral intervention for women with PTSD and SUD, or women’s health education (WHE), an attention control psychoeducational group. Participants receiving SS who were at higher sexual risk (i.e., at least 12 USO per month) significantly reduced the number of USO over 12-month follow up compared to WHE. High risk women with co-occurring PTSD and addiction may benefit from treatment addressing coping skills and trauma to reduce HIV risk. PMID:19452271

Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Killeen, Therese; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hansen, Cheri; Jiang, Huiping; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Miele, Gloria M.; Cohen, Lisa R.; Gan, Weijin; Resko, Stella M.; DiBono, Michele; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Nunes, Edward V.

2009-01-01

182

Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a home exercise programme of strength and balance retraining exercises in reducing falls and injuries in elderly women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of an individually tailored programme of physical therapy in the home (exercise group, n = 116) compared with the usual care and an equal number of social visits (control group, n = 117). SETTING: 17 general practices in Dunedin, New Zealand. SUBJECTS: Women aged 80 years and older living in the community and registered with a general practice in Dunedin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of falls and injuries related to falls and time between falls during one year of follow up; changes in muscle strength and balance measures after six months. RESULTS: After one year there were 152 falls in the control group and 88 falls in the exercise group. The mean (SD) rate of falls was lower in the exercise than the control group (0.87 (1.29) v 1.34 (1.93) falls per year respectively; difference 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.90). The relative hazard for the first four falls in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.68 (0.52 to 0.90). The relative hazard for a first fall with injury in the exercise group compared with the control group was 0.61 (0.39 to 0.97). After six months, balance had improved in the exercise group (difference between groups in change in balance score 0.43 (0.21 to 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: An individual programme of strength and balance retraining exercises improved physical function and was effective in reducing falls and injuries in women 80 years and older. PMID:9366737

Campbell, A. J.; Robertson, M. C.; Gardner, M. M.; Norton, R. N.; Tilyard, M. W.; Buchner, D. M.

1997-01-01

183

The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African…

Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

2010-01-01

184

Organizational Repertoires and Institutional Change: Women's Groups and the Transformation of U.S. Politics, 1890-1920.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses social changes brought about in the United States as a result of the women's suffrage movement. Explains that groups marginalized by existing institutions must create alternative organizations if they are to be successful. Describes political innovations used by women's groups in the struggle for voting rights. (CFR)

Clemens, Elisabeth S.

1993-01-01

185

Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and  

E-print Network

Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using such as tile-worlds models. EGSCS is the system, where the elevator group supervisory controller controls and real world problems. GNP was firstly applied to Elevator Group Supervisory Control Syste m (EGSCS

Fernandez, Thomas

186

Control Group Design: Enhancing Rigor in Research of Mind-Body Therapies for Depression  

PubMed Central

Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research. PMID:23662111

Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

2013-01-01

187

Examining the efficacy of a brief group protective behavioral strategies skills training alcohol intervention with college women.  

PubMed

College students' use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students' use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women randomized to either a PBS skills training intervention or study skills control condition. Participants attended a 45-min group session and completed online surveys pre- and postintervention (1 month and 6 months). We conducted a series of 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANCOVAs with condition and baseline mental health (anxiety/depression) as the between-subjects factors and time as the within-subjects factor. Intervention participants, relative to controls, reported significantly greater increases in PBS use and reductions in both heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consequences. The intervention was particularly effective in increasing PBS use at 1 month among participants with high anxiety. Further, tests of moderated mediation showed a significant conditional indirect effect of condition on 1-month consequences through PBS use among participants with high levels of anxiety. Findings provide preliminary support for a brief PBS-specific group intervention to reduce alcohol risk among college women, particularly anxious women. Future research is needed to strengthen the long-term effectiveness of the present approach and further explore the moderating effects of mental health. PMID:25347024

Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W; Martens, Matthew P

2014-12-01

188

Immigration transition and depressive symptoms: four major ethnic groups of midlife women in the United States.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of symptoms and less severe symptoms than nonimmigrants (p <.01). When controlling for background characteristics, self-reported racial/ethnic identity and immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R(2) =.01, p <.05). PMID:24875592

Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun James

2015-04-01

189

The Efficacy of Female Condom Skills Training in HIV Risk Reduction Among Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We evaluated the efficacy of skills training designed to increase female condom use among women. Methods. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 409 women, recruited from family planning clinics in northern California, who were randomly assigned to the experimental 4-session female condom skills training intervention or the comparison 4-session women's general health promotion intervention. Participants received condom use instructions at baseline and male and female condoms during the study. They completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Results. At 3 and 6 months, women in the experimental group were more likely than those in the comparison group to have used the female condom at least once in the prior 3 months. The increase in the percentage of sexual acts protected by female condoms from baseline to the 6-month follow-up was greater for the experimental group. The percentage of sexual acts during which any condom was employed was higher in the experimental group at 6 months. There were no group differences in male condom use. Conclusions. Outcomes suggest that skills training can increase female condom use and protected sexual acts without reducing male condom use among women. PMID:18703460

Hoff, Colleen; Gregorich, Steven E.; Grinstead, Olga; Gomez, Cynthia; Hussey, Wendy

2008-01-01

190

Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt Medium for Group B Streptococcus Screening in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ? 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ? 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andréia França; Silva, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; de Pádua, Rúbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

2015-01-01

191

A calcium-collagen chelate dietary supplement attenuates bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Menopause leads to an increased risk for osteoporosis in women. Although drug therapies exist, increasing numbers of people prefer alternative therapies such as dietary supplements, for example, calcium, vitamin D, and collagen hydrolysates for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We have previously shown that a 3-month intervention using a calcium-collagen chelate (CC) dietary supplement was efficacious in improving bone mineral density (BMD) and blood biomarkers of bone turnover in osteopenic postmenopausal women. This study reports the long-term efficacy of CC in reducing bone loss in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Thirty-nine women were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 5?g of CC containing 500?mg of elemental calcium and 200?IU vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) or control (500?mg of calcium and 200?IU vitamin D) daily for 12 months. Total body, lumbar, and hip BMD were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 12 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood was collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months to assess levels of blood biomarkers of bone turnover. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed using repeated measures analysis of variance pairwise comparisons and multivariate analysis to assess time and group interactions. The loss of whole body BMD in women taking CC was substantially lower than that of the control group at 12 months in those who completed the study and the ITT analysis, respectively (CC: -1.33% and -0.33% vs. control: -3.75% and -2.17%; P=.026, P=.035). The CC group had significantly reduced levels of sclerostin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) (P<.05), and higher bone-specific alkaline phosphatase/TRAP5b ratio (P<.05) than control at 6 months. These results support the use of CC in reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. PMID:25314004

Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Hooshmand, Shirin; Feresin, Rafaela G; Payton, Mark E; Gu, Jennifer; Arjmandi, Bahram H

2015-03-01

192

The Effect of Education on Sexual Health of Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Sexuality constitutes an important part of women’s life. Healthy and proper sexual functioning is one of the signs of physical and mental health. The present study aimed to identify the effect of education on sexual health of women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 80 married women at reproductive age were randomly divided into a control and an education group. These women participated in this study based on self-reporting of having hypoactive sexual desire disorder. After six weekly educational sessions regarding sexual health, percentage of changes in sexual desire was assayed using Hurlbert index of sexual desire. Independent and paired t-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: After the intervention, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the sexual desire score (P<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference within groups in this regard (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems that educational intervention regarding sexual health was effective for the women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Thus, establishing sexual health education units in different health centers is highly necessary. These centers can help couples to promote their sexual knowledge and treat their sexual dysfunctions. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012101911032N2 PMID:25349850

Kaviani, Maasumeh; Rahnavard, Tahereh; Azima, Sara; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Asadi, Nasrin; Sayadi, Mehrab

2014-01-01

193

Risk Factors for Group B Streptococcus Colonization Among Pregnant Women in Korea  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To identify obstetric and maternal factors related to Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization in pregnant women in Korea. METHODS The study was conducted between the years 2006-2008 in four hospitals, Cheil and Eulji hospital in Seoul, and Motae and Eulji hospital in Daejeon. We recruited 2,644 pregnant women between 35 to 37 weeks of gestation who had visited for antenatal care. Participants completed a questionnaire, and urine, vaginal and rectal specimens were obtained and cultured using selective broth media. After delivery, medical records were reviewed. RESULTS GBS colonization was significantly associated with hospital, age group, education, frequency of pregnancy, and premature rupture of membranes (PROM, more than 18 hours). After adjustment for other variables, Cheil hospital (odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.52), and the first pregnancy (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.12-4.81) remained significant. History of vaginitis showed marginal significance (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.98-2.29). CONCLUSION To prevent GBS infection of neonates, clinicians should be alert to the potentially higher risk of GBS colonization in pregnant women in their first pregnancy, and women with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) (18 hours+) or who have a history of vaginitis. PMID:22111030

Kim, Eun Ju; Oh, Kwan Young; Kim, Moon Young; Seo, Yong Soo; Shin, Jung-Hwan; Song, Young Rae; Yang, Jae-Hyug; Foxman, Betsy

2011-01-01

194

A controlled study of Hostile-Helpless states of mind among borderline and dysthymic women  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine whether women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are more likely than those with dysthymia to manifest contradictory Hostile-Helpless (HH) states of mind. A reliable rater blind to diagnosis evaluated features of such mental representations in transcripts of Adult Attachment Interviews from 12 women with BPD and 11 women with dysthymia of similar socioeconomic status (SES), all awaiting psychotherapy. In keeping with three hierarchical (non-independent) a priori predictions regarding the mental representations of women with BPD, the results were that (a) all those with BPD, compared with half the group with dysthymia, displayed HH states of mind; (b) those with BPD manifested a significantly higher frequency of globally devaluing representations; and (c) they exhibited a strong trend toward identifying with the devalued hostile caregiver (58% BPD vs. 18% dysthymic). In addition, significantly more BPD than dysthymic patients made reference to controlling behavior towards attachment figures in childhood. These findings offer fresh insights into the nature of BPD and extend previous evidence concerning affected individuals’ patterns of thinking and feeling about childhood attachment figures. PMID:17364479

LYONS-RUTH, KARLEN; MELNICK, SHARON; PATRICK, MATTHEW; HOBSON, R. PETER

2008-01-01

195

Association of Zinc, Copper and Magnesium with bone mineral density in Iranian postmenopausal women – a case control study  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of inadequate nutrition such as trace elements and vitamin deficiencies is considerable in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to compare trace elements (Zinc, Copper and Magnesium) concentration in nail, urine and serum among osteoporotic postmenopausal women with control group in Iran. Methods Forty eight postmenopausal women aged 36–60 years, were recruited, consisting 30 osteoporotic patients and 18 healthy controls. Blood, nail and urine concentration of Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma -Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) method. Their Bone Mineral Density was measured by Dual X-ray Absorption (DEXA) method. Results The urine level of trace elements had significant difference between osteoporotic groups and controls (p?groups (p?groups. Conclusion Our findings indicate that Urine Zn level could be considerable an appropriate marker for bone absorption, usage of Zn supplements in postmenopausal women may result a beneficial reduction in osteoporotic risk. PMID:24602492

2014-01-01

196

The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. Methods and design The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44–50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25–29.9 kg/m2) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n?=?28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n?=?26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). Discussion The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether a relatively low intensity, health professional led intervention will achieve better weight control in pre-menopausal women than a self-directed intervention. The results will add to the scant body of literature on obesity prevention methods at an under-researched high-risk life stage, and inform the development of population-based interventions. Trial registration ACTRN12611000064909 PMID:24156558

2013-01-01

197

78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global...GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on 6 December 2013 from...

2013-11-08

198

A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Psycho-Education Intervention by Midwives in Reducing Childbirth Fear in Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Background Childbirth fear is associated with increased obstetric interventions and poor emotional and psychological health for women. The purpose of this study is to test an antenatal psycho-education intervention by midwives in reducing women's childbirth fear. Methods Women (n = 1,410) attending three hospitals in South East Queensland, Australia, were recruited into the BELIEF trial. Participants reporting high fear were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 170) or control (n = 169) groups. All women received a decision-aid booklet on childbirth choices. The telephone counseling intervention was offered at 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. The control group received usual care offered by public maternity services. Primary outcome was reduction in childbirth fear (WDEQ-A) from second trimester to 36 weeks’ gestation. Secondary outcomes were improved childbirth self-efficacy, and reduced decisional conflict and depressive symptoms. Demographic, obstetric & psychometric measures were administered at recruitment, and 36 weeks of pregnancy. Results There were significant differences between groups on postintervention scores for fear of birth (p < 0.001) and childbirth self-efficacy (p = 0.002). Decisional conflict and depressive symptoms reduced but were not significant. Conclusion Psycho-education by trained midwives was effective in reducing high childbirth fear levels and increasing childbirth confidence in pregnant women. Improving antenatal emotional well-being may have wider positive social and maternity care implications for optimal childbirth experiences. PMID:25303111

Toohill, Jocelyn; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Buist, Anne; Turkstra, Erika; Ryding, Elsa-Lena

2014-01-01

199

Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of…

Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

2010-01-01

200

Do Innovations in Birth Control Technology Increase the Welfare of Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birth control pills and legal abortions enable single women to participate in sexual activity with much lower risk of unwanted pregnancy or childbearing. The standard view is that these innovations increase opportunities for women and therefore increase their welfare. An alternative view is that these innovations cause more single women to participate in sexual activities, reducing the bargaining power of

Aloysius Siow

201

Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

2012-01-01

202

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Nested Case-Control Study of Risk Factors in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk factors for the development of carpal tunnel syndrome in women were studied by means of a nested case-control analysis of a prospective cohort study of the health effects of oral contraception in British women. A total of 1,264 women who had a diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome reported by their general practitioner between 1968 and 1993 were compared with

Susan Ferry; Philip Hannaford; Maria Warskyj; Martyn Lewis; Peter Croft

203

Theorizing interpretation in context: A feminist ethnographic study of an elder women's writing group  

Microsoft Academic Search

My dissertation explores how the “felt,” inarticulate responses experienced while reading and listening structure and orient the interpretation of texts. Data were gathered through participant\\/observation at a writing group of professional, women writers in mid-life and older (ages 50–85). I collected and analyzed data using grounded theory modified to accommodate feminist objectives. Analysis considered not only the linguistic points of

Sarah W Chandler

2001-01-01

204

Late Life Attachment in Context: Patterns of Relating Among Men and Women from Seven Ethnic Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to develop the later life attachment literature by providing data contrasting patterns\\u000a of attachment among 616 older men and women (aged 50 to 70) from seven ethnic groups in the United States: African Americans,\\u000a English-speaking Caribbeans, Haitians, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, Eastern Europeans, and European Americans. A multivariate\\u000a analysis of the variance with ethnicity,

Katherine L. Fiori; Nathan S. Consedine; Carol Magai

2009-01-01

205

Pilot Investigation of the Circadian Plasma Melatonin Rhythm across the Menstrual Cycle in a Small Group of Women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder  

PubMed Central

Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP) and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under “unmasked”, time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P?.03) worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P?=?.025) increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (P<.05) decreased melatonin at circadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed. PMID:23284821

Shechter, Ari; Lespérance, Paul; Ng Ying Kin, N. M. K.; Boivin, Diane B.

2012-01-01

206

29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. 4001.3 Section...4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For purposes...determine that trades and businesses (whether or...

2010-07-01

207

Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant women with Social risk (ELSIPS): a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes are worse in families from black and ethnic minority groups and disadvantaged backgrounds. There is little evidence on whether lay support improves maternal and infant outcomes among women with complex social needs within a disadvantaged multi-ethnic population in the United Kingdom (UK). Method/Design The aim of this study is to evaluate a lay Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW) service for nulliparous women identified as having social risk within a maternity service that is systematically assessing social risks alongside the usual obstetric and medical risks. The study design is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in nulliparous women assessed as having social risk comparing standard maternity care with the addition of referral to the POW support service. The POWs work alongside community midwifery teams and offer individualised support to women to encourage engagement with services (health and social care) from randomisation (before 28 weeks gestation) until 6 weeks after birth. The primary outcomes have been chosen on the basis that they are linked to maternal and infant health. The two primary outcomes are engagement with antenatal care, assessed by the number of antenatal visits; and maternal depression, assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 8-12 weeks after birth. Secondary outcomes include maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, routine child health assessments, including immunisation uptake and breastfeeding at 6 weeks. Other psychological outcomes (self efficacy) and mother-to-infant bonding will also be collected using validated tools. A sample size of 1316 will provide 90% power (at the 5% significance level) to detect increased engagement with antenatal services of 1.5 visits and a reduction of 1.5 in the average EPDS score for women with two or more social risk factors, with power in excess of this for women with any social risk factor. Analysis will be by intention to treat. Qualitative research will explore the POWs' daily work in context. This will complement the findings of the RCT through a triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data on the process of the intervention, and identify other contextual factors that affect the implementation of the intervention. Discussion The trial will provide high quality evidence as to whether or not lay support (POW) offered to women identified with social risk factors improves engagement with maternity services and reduces numbers of women with depression. MREC number 10/H1207/23 Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN35027323 PMID:22375895

2012-01-01

208

Carotid intima-media thickness in mainly non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome and age-matched controls  

PubMed Central

Objective Metabolic disturbances are well-recognized clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been widely used as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CIMT in women with PCOS has been investigated in many studies, but there has been only one report in the Korean population. The aim of the present study was to compare the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in young untreated Korean women with PCOS and age-matched controls, specifically by measuring their CIMT. Methods CIMT was measured by one radiologist in 56 PCOS patients and 56 controls. To compare the CIMT according to PCOS phenotypes, women with PCOS were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of hyperandrogenism. Results Although PCOS patients were more obese and had higher blood pressure and insulin resistance index than the age-matched controls, the CIMT was not different between the two groups (0.49 ± 0.09 mm in PCOS patients vs. 0.50 ± 0.11 mm in controls, respectively, p = 0.562). When the CIMT in the control group was compared with hyperandrogenic and non-hyperandrogenic PCOS groups, also no significant differences were found. Conclusion Despite the significant differences in some vascular risk factors between women with PCOS and controls, PCOS patients did not have a significantly higher CIMT (even in the hyperandrogenic subgroups). Although our study did not show the increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in PCOS patients, the role of CIMT continues to be investigated considering the importance of screening and monitoring CVD risk factors in women with PCOS. PMID:24328010

Kim, Jin Ju; Kang, Jin Hwa; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Chae, Soo Jin; Kim, Sun Mie; Ku, Seung Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu; Moon, Shin Yong

2013-01-01

209

A fuzzy approach to elevator group control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elevator group control systems are the control systems that manage systematically, three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport the passengers. In the elevator group control system, the area-weight which determines the load biases of elevators is a control parameter closely related to the system performance. This correspondence proposes a fuzzy model based method to determine the area

Chang Bum Kim; K. A. Seong; Hyung Lee-Kwang; J. O. Kim; Yong Bae Lim

1995-01-01

210

Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu  

PubMed Central

Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed. PMID:24696634

Bhattathiry, Malini M.; Ethirajan, Narayanan

2014-01-01

211

Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:…

Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

2007-01-01

212

Group Therapy within the NHS V: Patients' Views on the Benefit of Group Therapy for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a study of how members of a slow-open analytic group for women survivors of childhood sexual abuse felt about the helpfulness of the group. The respondents' views and comments are analysed and related to their age, their termination of the group, length of follow-up, number of sessions, final stage of depression and overall change in depression

Zaida Hall; Elizabeth King

1997-01-01

213

Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B) and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A). Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC):HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01). Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively). Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08), BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01). Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients. PMID:25685394

Ismail, Suriani; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Latiff, Khalib A.; Saad, Hazizi A.; Majid, Latifah A.; Othman, Fadlan M.

2015-01-01

214

Simple Food Group Diversity Indicators Predict Micronutrient Adequacy of Women’s Diets in 5 Diverse, Resource-Poor Settings1234567  

PubMed Central

Women of reproductive age living in resource-poor settings are at high risk of inadequate micronutrient intakes when diets lack diversity and are dominated by staple foods. Yet comparative information on diet quality is scarce and quantitative data on nutrient intakes is expensive and difficult to gather. We assessed the potential of simple indicators of dietary diversity, such as could be generated from large household surveys, to serve as proxy indicators of micronutrient adequacy for population-level assessment. We used 5 existing data sets (from Burkina Faso, Mali, Mozambique, Bangladesh, and the Philippines) with repeat 24-h recalls to construct 8 candidate food group diversity indicators (FGI) and to calculate the mean probability of adequacy (MPA) for 11 micronutrients. FGI varied in food group disaggregation and in minimum consumption required for a food group to count. There were large gaps between intakes and requirements across a range of micronutrients in each site. All 8 FGI were correlated with MPA in all sites; regression analysis confirmed that associations remained when controlling for energy intake. Assessment of dichotomous indicators through receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed moderate predictive strength for the best choice indicators, which varied by site. Simple FGI hold promise as proxy indicators of micronutrient adequacy. PMID:20881077

Arimond, Mary; Wiesmann, Doris; Becquey, Elodie; Carriquiry, Alicia; Daniels, Melissa C.; Deitchler, Megan; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Joseph, Maria L.; Kennedy, Gina; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Torheim, Liv Elin

2010-01-01

215

Motivational Groups Support Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and use of Risk Reduction Behaviors in HIV Positive Nigerian Women: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Nigerian women comprise the fastest growing group of persons with AIDS in Africa. Antiretroviral therapy has transformed the course of HIV/AIDS to a treatable, chronic illness worldwide. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a group intervention using motivational interviewing (MI) to promote adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and use of risk reduction behaviors (RRB) among HIV-infected women in Nigeria. Recruited participants (n=60) were randomly assigned to the motivational group or the health promotion program (HPP) control group. The 6 month follow-up results indicate that, compared to the control group, MI participants reported significantly higher levels of adherence to ART, higher knowledge of HIV, higher use of condoms/protection during sexual encounters and decision-making not to have sex when no protection was available. The MI participants also had fewer mean number of sexual partners. MI in group format shows promise in promoting adherence to ART and use of RRB in HIV-infected Nigerian women. PMID:23437496

Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Essien, James E.; Ekong, Ernest; Higgins, Melinda; Teplinskiy, Ilya; Adewuyi, Modupe Falilatu

2013-01-01

216

Food Group and Micronutrient Intake Adequacy among Children, Adults and Elderly Women in Greece.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to record the percentage of children, adults and elderly women in Greece meeting food and micronutrient intake recommendations. Additionally, the present study was aiming to identify the main food contributors of micronutrient intakes and assess the degree up to which meeting food intake recommendations also ensures micronutrient intake adequacy. Dietary intake data from three studies conducted in Greece (on 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were used to estimate mean intakes, the percentages of subjects meeting food and nutrient intake recommendations and the contribution of six core food groups to nutrient intake adequacy. The present study showed that more than 50% of children, adults and elderly women were failing to consume the recommended portions of vegetables, dairy and grains. Furthermore, children and adults consuming the recommended portions of individual core food groups had significantly lower percentages of inadequate micronutrient intakes compared to their counterparts not meeting food intake recommendations (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, even among those consuming the recommended portions from a specific core food group, the recommended intake of the corresponding micronutrient (for which this food group is the main contributor) was not always met. Indicatively, 18.2%-44.1% and 4.2%-7.0% of the populations under study were not meeting calcium and vitamin C intake recommendations, although they were consuming the recommended portions of dairy and fruits, respectively. In conclusion, these findings highlight the importance for public health policy makers to take all necessary initiatives to support the population in achieving the recommended intakes from all core food groups, but also emphasize on food variety to ensure adequate intake for all micronutrients. PMID:25768954

Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Ellen Ghm; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cecile

2015-01-01

217

Daughters of Abya Yala: Native Women Regaining Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book compiles testimonies of the struggles, everyday life, and accomplishments of Indian women from Central and South America. Following an introduction to the increasing role of Indian women in international forums and indigenous organizations, the words of individual women describe the problems that affect them and their determination to…

Alderete, Wara, Ed.; And Others

218

Women's Ways of Leading: A Qualitative Content Analysis to Determine Leadership Messages Contained in Literature of National Panhellenic Conference Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study documented the leadership messages sent to women in 16 of the National Panhellenic Conference groups' official literature. The purpose of the study was to provide detailed descriptive analysis using excerpts from the official literature to show both traditional and non-traditional (women's ways of leading) theoretical themes as well as…

Fechner, Andrea M.

2000-01-01

219

War against Rape (WAR): The Experience of an Activist Group in Karachi in Raising Awareness of Sexual Crimes against Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the experiences of an activist group in Karachi (Pakistan) in raising awareness of sexual crimes against women, pursuant to a rape of a professional woman which occurred during an armed robbery. It describes how, since rape was regarded as rare or nonexistent in a conservative, Islamic society, the efforts of the Women's…

Zaman, Riffat Moazam

220

Breast self-examination practices among women from six ethnic groups and the influence of cancer worry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Diverse samples of women (N = 1364) from Brooklyn, New York, were interviewed regarding their breast cancer screening practices. Of interest here is the relation between cancer worry and adherence to breast self-examination (BSE) guidelines among the six ethnic groups identified – European American, African American, Haitian, Dominican and English-speaking Caribbean women. There was a significant difference in cancer

Elizabeth Kudadjie-Gyamfi; Nathan Consedine; Carol Magai; Michael Gillespie; Jessy Pierre-Louis

2005-01-01

221

STD 105: Process Groups as an Instructional Medium for Re-entry Women at Paul D. Camp Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective team-based, group-oriented personal development from a woman's perspective course explores the effects of several issues on the re-entry woman: the role that society and culture play in influencing women's vocational choices; women's roles; the economic necessity of work; stress; and relationships. A team-based approach provides a…

Creamer, Elizabeth; Duggin, Molly; Kidd, Ronald

1999-01-01

222

Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ESR-1) Associations with Psychological Traits in Women with PMDD and Controls  

PubMed Central

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a mood disorder affecting about 5% of women and is associated with substantial morbidity. Albeit inconsistently, PMDD is described as being characterized by heritable personality traits. Although PMDD is a heritable disorder, it is unclear whether any of the heritable susceptibility to PMDD resides in heritable personality traits. In groups of carefully characterized women with PMDD (n=68) and controls (n=56), we attempted to determine whether diagnosis-related traits could be confirmed, as well as to determine whether such traits were associated with SNPs in estrogen receptor alpha (ESR-1) that we previously demonstrated were associated with PMDD. We observed 7/25 traits to be significantly different in patients and controls and further showed that 11/12 significant associations observed between these 7 traits and 16 ESR-1 SNPs involved the intron 4 SNPs previously shown to be the locus of the association with PMDD. While several interactions between genotype and diagnosis were observed, the effect of genotype in most instances was in the same direction in patients and controls. These data demonstrate affective state-independent personality traits that distinguish patients with PMDD from controls and further support the relevance of ESR-1 polymorphic variants in the regulation of non-reproductive behaviors. PMID:20172536

Miller, Alexandra; Vo, Hoa; Huo, Liang; Roca, Catherine; Schmidt, Peter J.; Rubinow, David R.

2010-01-01

223

Space, Agency, and Withdrawal: Birth Control Choices of Women in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Withdrawal (WD) is not a reliable method for preventing unwanted pregnancies, yet it is still a very popular form of birth control in many societies, including Turkey. We look at the relationship between women's agency and physical space in relation to birth control choices of women in Turkey. Agency in our context refers to a woman's ability to resist domination

Ibrahim Sirkeci; Dilek Cindoglu

2012-01-01

224

Controlling Images, Media, and Women's Development: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Myths, stereotypes, and controlling images are embedded in the cultural textbook of cinema. Women are disempowered and marginalized by these images, and it is important to explore the existence and prevalence of these images in order to examine their effects on women's development. A review of the literature concerning controlling images and the…

Hammer, Tonya R.

2009-01-01

225

Determinants of Weight Gain Prevention in Young Adult and Midlife Women: Study Design and Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of overweight and obesity through body weight reduction has been monumentally ineffective as few individuals are able to sustain weight loss. Rather than treating weight gain once it has become problematic, prevention of weight gain over time may be more effective. Objective The aim of this research is to preclude the burden of adult obesity in women by identifying the determinants of weight gain prevention. The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to compare a weight gain prevention intervention delivered by the registered dietitian versus counselor. Methods This is a 12-month parallel-arm weight gain prevention RCT designed to increase self-efficacy, self-regulation, outcome expectations and family and social support through the use of a nutrition education intervention in women, aged 18-45 years, from the Urbana-Champaign (Illinois, USA) area. Women have been randomized to registered dietitian, counselor or wait-list control groups (August 2014) and are undergoing weekly nutrition education sessions for four months, followed by monthly sessions for eight months (through August 2015). Outcome measures, including: (1) dietary intake, (2) physical activity, (3) anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, (4) biochemical markers of health, (5) eating behaviors and health perceptions, and (6) mediators of behavior change, were collected before the intervention began (baseline) and will be collected at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of the study. Results In total, 87 women have been randomized to intervention groups, and 81 women have completed first week of the study. Results are expected in early 2016. Conclusions This RCT is one of the first to examine weight gain prevention in women across normal, overweight, and obese body mass index categories. Results of this research are expected to have application to evidence-based practice in weight gain prevention for women and possibly have implication for policy regarding decreasing the encumbrance of overweight and obesity in the United States. PMID:25831450

2015-01-01

226

Abstracting women: essentialism in women's health research.  

PubMed

Women's desire to take control of their own bodies creates a natural affinity between the projects of feminism and women's health research. Feminists have used the categories of woman/women, gender, and sex as foundation terms to designate the subject of feminist theories. Universal categories, which have been exposed as essentialist by postmodern and poststructural critiques, create falsely unified subject positions that fail to account for the diversity of women and also fail to acknowledge the situated interests of the dominant groups whose perspectives they reflect. Because it adopts these same categories, research in women's health is also permeated with this essentialized understanding, whether or not it is overtly feminist. In this paper, we point out the dangers of the unreflective use of woman/women, gender, and sex in women's health research. We conclude, that for political purposes, however, a carefully considered "strategic essentialism" can be warranted in research aimed at improving women's health. PMID:9849195

McCormick, J; Kirkham, S R; Hayes, V

1998-01-01

227

Innovative psycho-educational program to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a before and after controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Universal interventions to prevent postnatal mental disorders in women have had limited success, perhaps because they were insufficiently theorised, not gender-informed and overlooked relevant risk factors. This study aimed to determine whether an innovative brief psycho-educational program for mothers, fathers and first newborns, which addressed salient learning needs about infant behaviour management and adjustment tasks in the intimate partner relationship, prevented postpartum mental health problems in primiparous women. Methods A before and after controlled study was conducted in primary care in seven local government areas in Victoria, Australia. English-speaking couples with one-week old infants were invited consecutively to participate by the maternal and child health nurse at the universal first home visit. Two groups were recruited and followed sequentially: both completed telephone interviews at four weeks and six months postpartum and received standard health care. Intervention group participants were also invited to attend a half-day program with up to five couples and one month old infants, facilitated by trained, supervised nurses. The main outcome was any Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) diagnosis of Depression or Anxiety or Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Anxiety, or Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood in the first six months postpartum. Factors associated with the outcome were established by logistic regression controlling for potential confounders and analysis was by intention to treat. Results In total 399/646 (62%) women were recruited; 210 received only standard care and 189 were also offered the intervention; 364 (91%) were retained at follow up six months postpartum. In women without a psychiatric history (232/364; 64%), 36/125 (29%) were diagnosed with Depression or Anxiety or Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Anxiety, or Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood in the control group, compared with 16/107 (15%) in the intervention group. In those without a psychiatric history, the adjusted odds ratio for diagnosis of a common postpartum mental disorder was 0.43 (95% CI 0.21, 0.89) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusions A universal, brief psycho-educational group program for English-speaking first time parents and babies in primary care reduces de novo postpartum mental disorders in women. A universal approach supplemented by an additional program may improve effectiveness for women with a psychiatric history. Trial registration ACTRN 12605000567628. PMID:20653934

2010-01-01

228

SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Methods A five group design included a comparison group and a 2?×?2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison groups. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. Results At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison group. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention group, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Conclusions Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial intervention period, but only dietary changes persisted Enhanced social support and the ability to interact with others during the show were not effective complementary intervention components as conducted in this trial. Future research to strengthen the ability of this approach to achieve long term effects may offer even more promising outcomes. PMID:24373253

2013-01-01

229

Decreased maximal aerobic capacity with use of a triphasic oral contraceptive in highly active women: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Oral contraceptives are commonly used by women athletes. However, their effect on athletic performance is unclear. Objectives: To examine the effects of a moderate dose, triphasic oral contraceptive on measures of athletic performance in highly trained women athletes. Methods: This is a double blind, placebo controlled trial in 14 women with ovulatory menstrual cycles and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2MAX) ?50 ml/kg/min. Four measures of athletic performance were tested: VO2MAX, anaerobic capacity (anaerobic speed test), aerobic endurance (time to fatigue at 90% of VO2MAX), and isokinetic strength (Cybex II dynamometer). Height, weight, and six skinfold measurements were also recorded. All these observational tests were completed during both the follicular and mid-luteal phases of an ovulatory menstrual cycle. Cycle phases were confirmed by assaying plasma oestradiol and progesterone. Participants were subsequently randomly assigned to either a tricyclic oral contraceptive or placebo and retested in identical fashion (oral contraceptive phase). Results: Absolute and relative changes in VO2MAX from follicular to oral contraceptive phase decreased in the oral contraceptive group by 4.7%, whereas the placebo group showed a slight increase (+1.5%) over the same time period. Two of the women taking oral contraceptive had decreases of 4 and 9 ml/kg/min. In contrast, most women in the placebo group improved or maintained VO2MAX. There was also a significant increase in the sum of skinfolds in women taking oral contraceptive compared with those taking placebo (p<0.01). There were no significant changes in other physiological variables (maximum ventilation, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio, packed cell volume) or measures of performance (anaerobic speed test, aerobic endurance, isokinetic strength) as a function of oral contraceptive treatment. Conclusions: The decrease in VO2MAX that occurs when oral contraceptive is taken may influence elite sporting performance in some women. Further studies are required to determine the mechanisms of this change. PMID:12893716

Lebrun, C; Petit, M; McKenzie, D; Taunton, J; Prior, J

2003-01-01

230

Taking pictures to take control: Photovoice as a tool to facilitate empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic minority women with HIV  

PubMed Central

Poor and racial/ethnic minority women comprise the majority of women living with HIV (WLH) in the United States. Race, gender, class, and HIV-based stigmas and inequities limit women’s powers over their health and compromise their quality of life. To help WLH counter this powerlessness, we implemented a photovoice project called Picturing New Possibilities (PNP), and explored how women experienced empowerment through photovoice. PNP participants (N = 30) photographed their life experiences, attended 3 group discussions and a community exhibit of their photos, and completed a follow-up interview. We used strategies of Grounded Theory to identify key empowerment themes. Participants described empowerment through enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, critical thinking skills, and control. Our findings suggest that photovoice is an important tool for WLH. It offers women a way to access internal strengths and use these resources to improve their quality of life and health. PMID:24064314

Teti, Michelle; Pichon, Latrice; Kabel, Allison; Farnan, Rose; Binson, Diane

2013-01-01

231

ATB0 Engineering Document -Controller SCALE Group  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.10 User pin control module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.3.1 Accessing the user pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Helper modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3

232

Effect of life-style modification on postmenopausal overweight and obese Indian women: A randomized controlled 24 weeks preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the effect of life-style modification on postmenopausal (PM) overweight and obese Indian women in a randomized controlled 24 week study. Materials and Methods: Two groups were formed Group I (n = 30) was designated as intervention (dietary and exercise group) and Group II (n = 24) served as control. Comparison of weight, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were made and compared among two groups at 4, 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Results: Mean age at menopause was 48.35 years versus 49.65 years; mean number of menopausal symptoms were 5.70 ± 1.76 versus 5.10 ± 1.56 and mean duration since menopause was 2.70 versus 2.90 years in Groups I and II respectively. When the effect of Group I and control on weight was compared at 4, 8, 16 and 24 weeks, there was no significant difference between them up to 8 week. At 8 weeks Group I caused a significant decrease in weight (P ? 0.05) when compared with control arm and which continued throughout the study period (P < 0.05) at both 16 and 24 weeks. Group I produced a significant reduction in WC from 8 weeks onwards up to 24 weeks (P ? 0.05). BMI was statistically significant in Group I and the effect started at 4th week (P ? 0.05) and the differences in BMI reduction were highly significant at 16th and 24th weeks (P ? 0.001). Conclusion: The results of the present study strongly recommend the life-style management to be incorporated in daily style of postmenopausal women under controlled supervision. PMID:24672202

Tandon, Vishal R.; Sharma, Sudhaa; Mahajan, Annil; Mahajan, Shagun

2014-01-01

233

Findings from Focus Groups Indicating what Chinese American Immigrant Women Think about Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Screening.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: To explore beliefs of Chinese American, immigrant women related to breast cancer and mammography. DESIGN: Qualitative description with semistructured focus groups. SETTING: Metropolitan Portland, Oregon. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty eight foreign-born Chinese women, age 40 and older, in five focus groups. METHODS: Focus group discussions in Chinese were audiotaped, transcribed, and translated into English. Using a process of directed content analysis, group transcripts were coded for themes based on the discussion guide. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged from the analysis: knowledge and beliefs; support, communication, and educational needs; and access to care. Subthemes included beliefs such as barriers and facilitators to screening and perceptions about personal breast cancer risk. Several women were profoundly affected by the negative breast cancer-related experiences of relatives and friends. Some common myths remain about causes and treatment of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Although Chinese American immigrant women share beliefs with other minority women in the United States, some culturally related barriers such as alienation due to cultural reasons for not sharing diagnosis with anyone and beliefs about the efficacy of Eastern versus Western medicine may affect adherence to screening and treatment. Facilitators included being told to get the test and getting screened for the sake of the family, whereas erroneous information about the cause of breast cancer such as diet and stress remained. Primary care providers such as advanced practice nurses should take into account culturally driven motivations and barriers to mammography adherence among Chinese American immigrant women. Provider/client interactions should involve more discussion about women's breast cancer risks and screening harms and benefits. Such awareness could open a dialogue around breast cancer that is culturally sensitive and nonthreatening to the patient. Information may need to be tailored to women individually or targeted to subethnic groups rather than using generic messages for all Asian immigrant women. PMID:22537294

Lee-Lin, Frances; Menon, Usha; Nail, Lillian; Lutz, Kristin F

2012-04-26

234

Effects of oral contraceptives on selected parameters of the homeostatic control system in young women having a sudden disorder of the auditory and/or balance system.  

PubMed

The purpose of the paper was to assess the effects of oral contraceptives on selected parameters of the homeostatic control system in women having a sudden disorder of the auditory and/or balance system. The study included 105 young women divided into two groups: Group I--52 women with the disorder of the auditory and/or balance system using hormonal contraceptives for at least 2 months, aged 20-49; and Group II--53 women without any disorder of the auditory and/or balance system using hormonal contraceptives for at least 2 months, aged 18-40. The patients included in the study underwent a full otoneurological evaluation, detailed laryngological diagnostics and an evaluation of selected parameters of the homeostatic control system--fibrinogen level, D-dimer level, evaluation of APTT and PT indicator, plasma estradiol and progesterone with the Roche Cobas analyser by means of chemiluminescence. The vertigo occurring in the study group was most often central (59.6% of cases), mixed with compensation in 36.6% of cases, and peripheral only in 3.8% of cases, indicating labyrinth damage in 40.4% of cases. An analysis of the progesterone level, considering the menstrual cycle phase in the group, showed that its value was abnormal in 51.0% of women in the study group and 47.1% in the control group. In their own studies, the authors observed that the estradiol level in the plasma, considering the menstrual cycle phase in the study group, was abnormal in 41.2% of women and that the differences in its concentration were statistically significant in the study and control groups (p = 0.005), which may have a negative impact on the possibility of a thromboembolic episode. PMID:24337825

Urbaniak, Joanna; Zieli?ska-Bli?niewska, Hanna; Mi?o?ski, Jaros?aw; Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Ku?mierczyk, Krzysztof; Olszewski, Jurek

2015-02-01

235

Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.  

PubMed

"Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts. PMID:11161200

Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

2001-01-19

236

Strength training induced adaptations in neuromuscular function of premenopausal women with fibromyalgia: comparison with healthy women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo investigate the effects of 21 weeks' progressive strength training on neuromuscular function and subjectively perceived symptoms in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia (FM).METHODSTwenty one women with FM were randomly assigned to experimental (FMT) or control (FMC) groups. Twelve healthy women served as training controls (HT). The FMT and HT groups carried out progressive strength training twice a week for 21

A Häkkinen; K Häkkinen; P Hannonen; M Alen

2001-01-01

237

27 CFR 46.237 - Controlled group member.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.237 Controlled group member. If the dealer is a member of a controlled...

2010-04-01

238

Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race. PMID:21666779

Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

2011-01-01

239

Exploring Iranian Women's Perceptions regarding Control and Prevention of Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian women's perceptions, behaviors, and beliefs related to breast cancer screening, breast cancer, and follow up care. A qualitative descriptive inquiry with both individual and focus group interviews was conducted in Tehran with 31 Farsi-speaking women, age 35 to 65 years of age. A constant comparison…

Thomas, Eileen; Escandon, Socorro; Lamyian, Minoor; Ahmadi, Fazlolah; Setoode, Sam Mohammad; Golkho, Shokoofe

2011-01-01

240

The Influence of the Caregiving Relationship on HIV Positive African American Women's Level of disease Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to CDC statistics, African American women are one of the fastest growing population groups to contract HIV. These women face health disparities, social stigmas, fear of disclosure and the majority lack a trusted support system. As healthcare providers we have a responsibility to assess what influences the client's healthcare decisions. Mutual trust is needed to encourage and set the

Sanda McFadden

241

Assessing the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior studies have shown that imprisonment is a major risk factor for hepatitis C infection, with the risk of infection directly proportional to the length of incarceration. Women are at least twice as likely as men to contract HCV as they have limited access to information, health services and safe intravenous drug injecting equipments. We develop a mathematical model to assess the impact of educational campaigns on controlling HCV among women in prison settings. Equilibria for the model are determined and their stability are examined. Population-level effects of increased educational campaigns to encourage safe injecting practices among women in prison are evaluated through numerical simulations. The results suggest that educating women prisoners about abstaining from intravenous drug misuse may significantly reduce HCV prevalence among women in prison settings. Targeted education campaigns, which are effective at stopping transmission of HCV more than 80% of the time, will be highly effective at controlling the disease among women in prisons.

Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.; Smith?, Robert J.

2012-04-01

242

DCCPS: TCRB: TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Low SES Women and Girl  

Cancer.gov

Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Home TReND: Low SES Women and Girls Project (Phase I): The Effects of Tobacco Control

243

A case-control study of thyroid cancer in women under age 55 in Shanghai (People's Republic of China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population-based interview study of 207 case-control pairs investigated reproductive, dietary, and other factors thought likely to increase thyroid cancer risk among women of reproductive age in Shanghai. Of particular interest were factors that might help explain the striking female over male excess in this age group. Risk was strongly associated with prior goiter or benign nodules (odds ratio [OR]=7.0,

Susan Preston-Martin; Fan Jin; Marysia J. Duda; Wendy J. Mack

1993-01-01

244

Mindfulness Training Reduces the Severity of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Women: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:This prospective, randomized controlled trial explored the feasibility and efficacy of a group program of mindfulness training, a cognitive-behavioral technique, for women with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The technique involves training in intentionally attending to present-moment experience and non-judgmental awareness of body sensations and emotions.METHODS:Seventy-five female IBS patients were randomly assigned to eight weekly and one half-day intensive sessions of

Susan A Gaylord; Olafur S Palsson; Eric L Garland; Keturah R Faurot; Rebecca S Coble; J Douglas Mann; William Frey; Karyn Leniek; William E Whitehead

2011-01-01

245

Diet and lifestyle interventions in postpartum women in China: study design and rationale of a multicenter randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background "Doing the month", or "sitting month", is a traditional practice for postpartum women in China and other Asian countries, which includes some taboos against well-accepted healthy diet and lifestyles in general population. Previous studies have shown this practice may be associated with higher prevalence of postpartum problems. The current multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate outcomes of diet and lifestyle interventions in Chinese postpartum women. Methods/Design The current multicenter RCT will be conducted in three representative areas in China, Shandong province, Hubei province and Guangdong province, which locate in northern, central and southern parts of China, respectively. Women who attend routine pregnancy diagnosis in hospitals or maternal healthcare centers will be invited to take part in this study. At least 800 women who meet our eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention group (n > = 400) and the control group (n > = 400). A three-dimension comprehensive intervention strategy, which incorporates intervention measures simultaneously to individual postpartum woman, their family members and community environment, will be utilized to maximize the effectiveness of intervention. Regular visiting and follow-up will be done in both group; nutrition and health-related measurements will be assessed both before and after the intervention. Discussion To our knowledge, this current study is the first and largest multicenter RCT which focus on the effectiveness of diet and lifestyle intervention on reducing the incidence rate of postpartum diseases and improving health status in postpartum women. We hypothesize that the intervention will reduce the incidence rates of postpartum diseases and improve nutrition and health status due to a balanced diet and reasonable lifestyle in comparison with the control condition. If so, the results of our study will provide especially important evidence for changes in both the concept and action of traditional postpartum practice in China. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01039051. PMID:20187965

2010-01-01

246

Emotion-focused group therapy for women with symptoms of bulimia nervosa.  

PubMed

This study provides outcome pilot data for an outpatient emotion-focused therapy group for 12 women with DSM-IV diagnoses of binge-eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified. The emotion-focused therapy group involved 16 weekly sessions that targeted problematic emotions connected to eating disorder symptoms. Semi-structured clinical interviews were conducted pre- and post-treatment and self-report questionnaires were administered. From pre- to post-treatment, changes in binge eating and scores on self-report measures were statistically significant. Participants reported a decrease in the frequency of binge episodes, improvements in mood, and improvements in emotion regulation and self-efficacy. PMID:25329045

Wnuk, Susan M; Greenberg, Les; Dolhanty, Joanne

2015-01-01

247

Educational attainment, perceived control and the quality of women's diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Data from the Southampton Women's Survey have established that women of lower educational attainment have poorer quality diets than those of higher educational attainment. This relationship is strong and graded such that for every increase in level of educational qualification, there is an increase in the likelihood that a woman will have a better quality diet. It is not

Mary Barker; Wendy Lawrence; Sarah Crozier; Siân Robinson; Janis Baird; Barrie Margetts; Cyrus Cooper

2009-01-01

248

Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control

Sherryl H. Goodman; Eileen L. Cooley; Daniel R. Sewell; Naomi Leavitt

1994-01-01

249

Safety and efficacy of a lifestyle intervention for pregnant women to prevent excessive maternal weight gain: a cluster-randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with short- and long-term health problems among mothers and their offspring. There is a strong need for effective intervention strategies targeting excessive GWG to prevent adverse outcomes. Methods We performed a cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial in eight gynecological practices evaluating the feasibility and effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention presented to all pregnant women; 250 healthy, pregnant women were recruited for the study. The intervention program consisted of two individually delivered counseling sessions focusing on diet, physical activity, and weight monitoring. The primary outcome was the proportion of pregnant women exceeding weight gain recommendations of the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Secondary outcome variables were maternal weight retention and short-term obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Results The intervention resulted in a lower proportion of women exceeding IOM guidelines among women in the intervention group (38%) compared with the control group (60%) (odds ratio (OR): 0.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3 to 0.9) without prompting an increase in the proportion of pregnancies with suboptimal weight gain (19% vs. 21%). Participants in the intervention group gained significantly less weight than those in the control group. Only 17% of the women in the intervention group showed substantial weight retention of more than 5 kg compared with 31% of those in the control group at month four postpartum (pp) (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9). There were no significant differences in obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Conclusions Lifestyle counseling given to pregnant women reduced the proportion of pregnancies with excessive GWG without increasing suboptimal weight gain, and may exert favorable effects on pp weight retention. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003801. PMID:23865624

2013-01-01

250

The Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women: Report to the President and the Commission for Women--Recommendation Package #3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document presents partial recommendations of a Pennsylvania State University Study Group on the Status of Women at the University. Recommendations concern "chilly" classroom climate, dual career recruitment and retention, and employee relations and representation. Among specific recommendations are the following: (1) study the classroom…

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

251

The Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women: Report to the President and the Commission for Women--Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final report of the Pennsylvania State University Strategic Study Group on the Status of Women describes activities and presents recommendations concerned with the broad areas of leadership share, structure and quality of University worklife, and structure and quality of the academic environment. Recommendations address the following specific…

Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

252

Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control  

PubMed Central

Introduction At the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, adolescent girls and young women aged 15–24 contribute a disproportionate ~30% of all new infections and seroconvert 5–7 years earlier than their male peers. This age–sex disparity in HIV acquisition continues to sustain unprecedentedly high incidence rates, and preventing HIV infection in this age group is a pre-requisite for achieving an AIDS-free generation and attaining epidemic control. Discussion Adolescent girls and young women in southern Africa are uniquely vulnerable to HIV and have up to eight times more infection than their male peers. While the cause of this vulnerability has not been fully elucidated, it is compounded by structural, social and biological factors. These factors include but are not limited to: engagement in age-disparate and/or transactional relationships, few years of schooling, experience of food insecurity, experience of gender-based violence, increased genital inflammation, and amplification of effects of transmission co-factors. Despite the large and immediate HIV prevention need of adolescent girls and young women, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to reduce their risk. The exclusion of adolescents in biomedical research is a huge barrier. School and community-based education programmes are commonplace in many settings, yet few have been evaluated and none have demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Promising data are emerging on prophylactic use of anti-retrovirals and conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention in these populations. Conclusions There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural interventions are urgently needed for epidemic control. In the interim, a pragmatic approach of integrating existing HIV prevention efforts into broader sexual reproductive health services is a public health imperative. PMID:25724504

Dellar, Rachael C; Dlamini, Sarah; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

2015-01-01

253

The Effect of Fathers’ Training Regarding Attachment Skills on Maternal-Fetal Attachments among Primigravida Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Fathers’ cooperation has been less taken into account in the process of pregnancy. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of training the fathers regarding attachment skills on maternal-fetal attachment in primigravida women in 2013. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 150 qualified pregnant women’s husbands. The intervention group took part in four 90-minute sessions of maternal-fetal attachment training held once a week. On the other hand, the control group received the routine pregnancy care. Both groups completed Spielberger’s anxiety scale and Cranley’s questionnaire before and after the intervention. Then, the data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test. Besides, P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The intervention group’s mean score of attachment was 55.98±6.99 and 61.90±5.41 before and after the intervention, respectively. The results of paired t-test revealed a significant difference between the intervention and the control group regarding their mean scores of attachment before and one month after the intervention (P<0.001). Additionally, the results of independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the five dimensions of the questionnaire, namely interaction with the baby (P<0.001), acceptance of maternal role (P<0.001), differentiation between oneself and the baby (P<0.001), attribution of some features to the baby (P=0.01), and self-devotion (P=0.01). Conclusion: Training the fathers regarding the attachment behaviors and skills led to an increase in the maternal-fetal attachment scores. Thus, paternal training should be considered in pregnancy care programs. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012091910886N1 PMID:25349869

Akbarzade, Marzieh; Setodeh, Sara; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Zare, Najaf

2014-01-01

254

Effect of potassium citrate supplementation or increased fruit and vegetable intake on bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alkali provision may explain why fruit and vegeta- bles benefit bone health. Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of alkali-providing potassium citrate (double-blind) and fruit and vegetable intake (single-blind) on bone turnover over 2 y. Design: We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 276 postmenopausal women (aged 55- 65 y). Women were randomly assigned to 4 groups: high-dose

Helen M Macdonald; Alison J Black; Lorna Aucott; Garry Duthie; Susan Duthie; Rena Sandison; Antonia C Hardcastle; Susan A Lanham; William D Fraser; David M Reid

255

Telemetry, Tracking, and Control Working Group report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After assessing the design implications and the criteria to be used in technology selection, the technical problems that face the telemetry, tracking, and control (TTC) area were defined. For each of the problems identified, recommendations were made for needed technology developments. These recommendations are listed and ranked according to priority.

Campbell, Richard; Rogers, L. Joseph

1986-01-01

256

Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

257

Modern elevator group supervisory control systems and neural networks technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the application of neural networks to modern elevator group supervisory control systems is discussed. The significance of introducing neural networks is presented. Artificial neural networks and fuzzy neural networks are described for turning the status of elevator running speciality, elevator equipment and building speciality into training data of elevator group supervisory control systems. Practical application shows that

Zhu Dewen; Jiang Li; Zhou Yuwen; Shan Guanghui; He Kai

1997-01-01

258

Feasibility, acceptability, and effects of gentle Hatha yoga for women with major depression: Findings from a randomized controlled mixed-methods study  

PubMed Central

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, debilitating chronic condition in the United States and worldwide. Particularly in women, depressive symptoms are often accompanied by high levels of stress and ruminations, or repetitive self-critical negative thinking. There is a research and clinical imperative to evaluate complementary therapies that are acceptable and feasible for women with depression and that target specific aspects of depression in women, such as ruminations. To begin to address this need, we conducted a randomized, controlled, mixed-methods community-based study comparing an 8-week yoga intervention with an attention-control activity in 27 women with MDD. After controlling for baseline stress, there was a decrease in depression over time in both the yoga group and the attention-control group, with the yoga group having a unique trend in decreased ruminations. Participants in the yoga group reported experiencing increased connectedness and gaining a coping strategy through yoga. The findings provide support for future large scale research to explore the effects of yoga for depressed women and the unique role of yoga in decreasing rumination. PMID:23706890

Kinser, Patricia Anne; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Whaley, Diane; Hauenstein, Emily; Taylor, Ann Gill

2013-01-01

259

Academic detailing and adherence to guidelines for Group B streptococci prenatal screening: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) recommend universal prenatal screening for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) to identify candidates for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent early onset neonatal GBS infection. Interventions to promote physician adherence to these guidelines are imperative. This study examined the effectiveness of academic detailing (AD) of obstetricians, compared with CPG mailshot and no intervention, on the screening of pregnant women for GBS. Methods A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in the medical cooperative of Porto Alegre, Brazil. All obstetricians who assisted in a delivery covered by private health insurance managed by the cooperative in the 3 months preceding the study (n = 241) were invited to participate. The obstetricians were randomized to three groups: direct mail (DM, n = 76), AD (n = 76) and control (C, n = 89, no intervention). Those in the DM group were sent guidelines on GBS. The AD group received the guidelines and an educational visit detailing the guidelines, which was conducted by a trained physician. Data on obstetrician age, gender, time since graduation, whether patients received GBS screening during pregnancy, and obstetricians who requested screening were collected for all participant obstetricians for 3 months before and after the intervention, using database from the private health insurance information system. Results Three months post-intervention, the data showed that the proportion of pregnant women screened for GBS was higher in the AD group (25.4%) than in the DM (15.9%) and C (17.7%) groups (P = 0.023). Similar results emerged when the three groups were taken as a cluster (pregnant women and their obstetricians), but the difference was not statistically significant (Poisson regression, P = 0.108). Additionally, when vaginal deliveries were analyzed separately, the proportion screened was higher in the AD group (75%) than in the DM group (41.9%) and the C group (30.4%) (chi-square, P < 0.001). Conclusions The results suggest that AD increased the prevalence of GBS screening in pregnant women in this population. PMID:23510061

2013-01-01

260

Mammographic Density Change with One Year of Aerobic Exercise Among Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention (ALPHA) Trial examined the influence of aerobic exercise on biologic factors that are associated with breast cancer risk. Mammographic density, a secondary outcome, is reported here. Methods The ALPHA Trial was a parallel group randomized controlled trial conducted between May 2003 and July 2007. Postmenopausal, sedentary women aged 50 to 74 years (n = 320) were evenly randomized to aerobic exercise (45 minutes, 5 days per week) or control (usual lifestyle) for one year. Dense fibroglandular tissue and nondense fatty tissue were measured from mammograms at baseline and one year using computer-assisted thresholding software for area measurements and a new technique that relies on the calibration of mammography units with a tissue-equivalent phantom for volumetric measurements. Results Nondense volume decreased in the exercise group relative to the control group (difference between groups = ?38.5 cm3; 95% confidence interval = ?61.6 to 15.4; P = 0.001). Changes in total body fat accounted for this decrease. Changes in dense area and dense volume, measures that have previously been associated with breast cancer risk, were not significantly different between the groups (P ? 0.36). Conclusions To achieve changes in mammographic measures may require more exercise or a study population with higher baseline levels of sex hormones or a wider range of mammographic density. The data from this study, however, suggest that the protective effect of exercise on breast cancer risk may operate through a mechanism other than mammographic density. PMID:20332266

Woolcott, Christy G.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Boyd, Norman F.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Terry, Tim; McTiernan, Anne; Brant, Rollin; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Irwin, Melinda L.; Jones, Charlotte A.; Brar, Sony; Campbell, Kristin L.; McNeely, Margaret L.; Karvinen, Kristina H.; Friedenreich, Christine M.

2010-01-01

261

Women of Courage: A Personal Account of a Wilderness-Based Experiential Group for Survivors of Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adventure-based therapy has grown in both scope and popularity. These groups are frequently utilized in the treatment of adolescents with behavioral or substance abuse issues. Less evident is the use of this modality with other populations. Described here is a personal account of the author's participation in a wilderness-based group for women.…

Kelly, Virginia A.

2006-01-01

262

Change in emotion-regulation strategy for women with metastatic breast cancer following supportive-expressive group therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four relatively independent emotion-regulation constructs (suppression of negative affect, restraint, repression, and emotional self-efficacy) were tested as outcomes in a randomized trial of supportive- expressive group therapy for women with metastatic breast cancer. Results indicate that report of suppression of negative affect decreased and restraint of aggressive, inconsiderate, impulsive, and irresponsible behavior increased in the treatment group as compared with

Janine Giese-Davis; Cheryl Koopman; Lisa D. Butler; Catherine Classen; Matthew Cordova; Pat Fobair; Jane Benson; Helena C. Kraemer; David Spiegel

2002-01-01

263

Simple food group diversity indicators predict micronutrient adequacy of women's diets in 5 diverse, resource-poor settings.  

PubMed

Women of reproductive age living in resource-poor settings are at high risk of inadequate micronutrient intakes when diets lack diversity and are dominated by staple foods. Yet comparative information on diet quality is scarce and quantitative data on nutrient intakes is expensive and difficult to gather. We assessed the potential of simple indicators of dietary diversity, such as could be generated from large household surveys, to serve as proxy indicators of micronutrient adequacy for population-level assessment. We used 5 existing data sets (from Burkina Faso, Mali, Mozambique, Bangladesh, and the Philippines) with repeat 24-h recalls to construct 8 candidate food group diversity indicators (FGI) and to calculate the mean probability of adequacy (MPA) for 11 micronutrients. FGI varied in food group disaggregation and in minimum consumption required for a food group to count. There were large gaps between intakes and requirements across a range of micronutrients in each site. All 8 FGI were correlated with MPA in all sites; regression analysis confirmed that associations remained when controlling for energy intake. Assessment of dichotomous indicators through receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed moderate predictive strength for the best choice indicators, which varied by site. Simple FGI hold promise as proxy indicators of micronutrient adequacy. PMID:20881077

Arimond, Mary; Wiesmann, Doris; Becquey, Elodie; Carriquiry, Alicia; Daniels, Melissa C; Deitchler, Megan; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Joseph, Maria L; Kennedy, Gina; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Torheim, Liv Elin

2010-11-01

264

Psychological Separation, Self-Control, and Weight Preoccupation among Elite Women Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined weight preoccupation among 55 elite women swimmers from 5 universities. Results showed that 10.9% of respondents could be characterized as "weight preoccupied," a percentage comparable to general population of college women. Athletes reported using significantly more benign than punitive self-control strategies, suggesting for them,…

Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Friedlander, Myrna L.

1994-01-01

265

Effect of dietary intervention on serum lignan levels in pregnant women - a controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mother's diet during pregnancy is important, since plant lignans and their metabolites, converted by the intestinal microflora to enterolignans, are proposed to possess multiple health benefits. Aim of our study was to investigate whether a dietary intervention affects lignan concentrations in the serum of pregnant women. METHODS: A controlled dietary intervention trial including 105 first-time pregnant women was conducted

Riitta Luoto; Elham Kharazmi; Niina M Saarinen; Annika I Smeds; Sari Mäkelä; Mahdi Fallah; Jani Raitanen; Leena Hilakivi-Clarke

2010-01-01

266

Influence of resistance exercise training on glucose control in women with type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of acute and chronic resistance training on glucose and insulin responses to a glucose load in women with type 2 diabetes. Subjects consisted of type 2 diabetic women (n = 7) and age-matched controls (n = 8) with normal glucose tolerance. All subjects participated in 3 oral glucose tolerance tests:

L. M Fenicchia; J. A Kanaley; J. L Azevedo; C. S Miller; R. S Weinstock; R. L Carhart; L. L Ploutz-Snyder

2004-01-01

267

Birth Control and Low-Income Mexican-American Women: The Impact of Three Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineth-nine Mexican-American women who were identified as either high or low acculturated responded to questionnaires assessing the relationship between birth control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and the values ascribed to motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Using a multiple regression analysis, a significant positive relationship was found for both high and low acculturated women with respect to their attitudes toward

Silvia Ortiz; Jesus Manuel Casas

1990-01-01

268

Coercive control and abused women's decisions about their pets when seeking shelter.  

PubMed

The importance of pets in families, especially during major life stressors, is well documented. Research suggests links between pet ownership and intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored abused women's decisions about pets when seeking help from a shelter. Interviews were conducted with 19 women who were pet owners. Using grounded theory methods, two patterns emerged surrounding abusers' treatment of pets, bonds to pets, women's decisions about pets upon seeking shelter, and future plans for pets. The presence of coercive control was central to these patterns. Women also discussed their experiences with and needs from shelter professionals and veterinarians with implications for practice. PMID:23670287

Hardesty, Jennifer L; Khaw, Lyndal; Ridgway, Marcella D; Weber, Cheryl; Miles, Teresa

2013-09-01

269

Scaling up community mobilisation through women's groups for maternal and neonatal health: experiences from rural Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Program coverage is likely to be an important determinant of the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. Rigorous examination and documentation of methods to scale-up interventions and measure coverage are scarce, however. To address this knowledge gap, this paper describes the process and measurement of scaling-up coverage of a community mobilisation intervention for maternal, child and neonatal health in rural Bangladesh and critiques this real-life experience in relation to available literature on scaling-up. Methods Scale-up activities took place in nine unions in rural Bangladesh. Recruitment and training of those who deliver the intervention, communication and engagement with the community and other stakeholders and active dissemination of intervention activities are described. Process evaluation and population survey data are presented and used to measure coverage and the success of scale-up. Results The intervention was scaled-up from 162 women's groups to 810, representing a five-fold increase in population coverage. The proportion of women of reproductive age and pregnant women who were engaged in the intervention increased from 9% and 3%, respectively, to 23% and 29%. Conclusions Examination and documentation of how scaling-up was successfully initiated, led, managed and monitored in rural Bangladesh provide a deeper knowledge base and valuable lessons. Strong operational capabilities and institutional knowledge of the implementing organisation were critical to the success of scale-up. It was possible to increase community engagement with the intervention without financial incentives and without an increase in managerial staff. Monitoring and feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to successful scale-up and require programmatic and operational flexibility. PMID:22273440

2012-01-01

270

Greater anterior insula activation during anticipation of food images in women recovered from anorexia nervosa versus controls  

PubMed Central

Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) restrict food consumption and become severely emaciated. Eating food, even thinking of eating food, is often associated with heightened anxiety. However, food cue anticipation in AN is poorly understood. Fourteen women recovered from AN and 12 matched healthy control women performed an anticipation task viewing images of food and object images during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing anticipation of food versus object images between control women and recovered AN groups showed significant interaction only in the right ventral anterior insula, with greater activation in recovered AN anticipating food images. These data support the hypothesis of a disconnect between anticipating and experiencing food stimuli in recovered AN. Insula activation positively correlated with pleasantness ratings of palatable foods in control women, while no such relationship existed in recovered AN, which is further evidence of altered interoceptive function. Finally, these findings raise the possibility that enhanced anterior insula anticipatory response to food cues in recovered AN could contribute to exaggerated sensitivity and anxiety related to food and eating. PMID:23993362

Oberndorfer, Tyson; Simmons, Alan; McCurdy, Danyale; Strigo, Irina; Matthews, Scott; Yang, Tony; Irvine, Zoe; Kaye, Walter

2013-01-01

271

Nutrient and food group intakes of women with and without Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder during pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known concerning the dietary habits of eating disordered women during pregnancy that may lie in the causal pathway of adverse birth outcomes. Objective To examine the nutrient and food group intake of women with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) during pregnancy and compare their intake to women with no eating disorders. Design Data on 30,040 mother-child pairs are from the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was used in cross-sectional analyses. Dietary information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire during the first half of pregnancy. Statistical testing by eating disorder categories with the non-eating disorder category as the referent group were conducted using log (means) adjusted for confounding and multiple comparisons. Food group differences were conducted using a Wilcoxon two-sided normal approximation test also adjusting for multiple comparisons. Results Women with BED before and during pregnancy had higher intakes of total energy, total mono-saturated and saturated fat, and lower intakes of folate, potassium, and vitamin C compared to the referent (p<.02). Women with incident BED during pregnancy had higher total energy and saturated fat intake compared to the referent (p=.01). Several differences emerged in food group consumption between women with and without eating disorders including intakes of artificial sweeteners, sweets, juice, fruits and fats. Conclusions Women with BN before and during pregnancy and those with BED before pregnancy exhibit dietary patterns different from women without eating disorders, that are reflective of their symptomatology, and may influence pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18469258

Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert; Torgersen, Leila; Knopf-Berg, Cecilie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M

2009-01-01

272

Birth control counseling for HIV seropositive pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing for HIV antibody at the antenatal clinic in Siriraj Hospital started on 1 July 1991. It was found that the percentage of HIV seropositive pregnant women rapidly increased from 1.2% in 1992 to 1.9% in 1993. During those 2 years, 487 seropositive women were admitted for delivery or abortion; 23.8% were adolescents and 47.0%, young adults. Prevention of HIV

M. Piya-Anant; R. Atisook; P. Ratananikom

1995-01-01

273

Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity  

PubMed Central

Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent and sustained use of these water treatment products. PMID:22957043

Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

2012-01-01

274

Preventing weight gain: a population cohort study of the nature and effectiveness of mid-age women's weight control practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine women's weight control practices and their effectiveness in preventing weight gain.Design:Retrospective cohort study of weight control practices and 2-year weight change among mid-age women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH).Subjects:11 589 Australian women (aged 47–52 years).Measurements:The prevalence and types of self-reported weight control practices used were assessed by a nine-item instrument. Two-year weight change

L Williams; J Germov; A Young

2007-01-01

275

Group-velocity control by quadratic nonlinear interactions.  

PubMed

We give direct experimental evidence that the group velocity of ultrashort pulses can be controlled through chi(2)-cascaded interactions, under the condition of large group-velocity mismatch. The group velocity can be finely tuned by acting on pulse intensity and phase mismatch. Group-delay shifts up to 50 fs are achieved by propagating 40 fs pulses around 1400 nm in a 25 mm long periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal. PMID:16496911

Marangoni, Marco; Manzoni, Cristian; Ramponi, Roberta; Cerullo, Giulio; Baronio, Fabio; De Angelis, Costantino; Kitamura, Kenji

2006-02-15

276

Group-velocity control by quadratic nonlinear interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give direct experimental evidence that the group velocity of ultrashort pulses can be controlled through chi(2)-cascaded interactions, under the condition of large group-velocity mismatch. The group velocity can be finely tuned by acting on pulse intensity and phase mismatch. Group-delay shifts up to 50 fs are achieved by propagating 40 fs pulses around 1400 nm in a 25 mm long periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal.

Marangoni, Marco; Manzoni, Cristian; Ramponi, Roberta; Cerullo, Giulio; Baronio, Fabio; de Angelis, Costantino; Kitamura, Kenji

2006-02-01

277

Low fat diet and skin cancer risk: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Large cohort studies have reported no relationship between dietary fat and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), although a low-fat diet intervention reduced NMSC risk in a small clinical trial. In animal studies, skin tumor development has been reduced by low-fat diet. We evaluated the effect of a low-fat dietary pattern on NMSC and melanoma in the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification trial. Methods Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years (N=48,835) were randomly assigned to the low-fat dietary pattern intervention (N=19,541) or comparison group (N=29,294). The intervention goals included decreasing fat intake to ?20% of calories, increasing vegetable and fruit intake, and increasing grain intake. Self-reported incident NMSC (N=4,907) and physician-adjudicated incident melanoma (N=279) were ascertained every 6 months. Results Over 8.1 years of follow-up, the low-fat diet intervention did not affect overall incidence of NMSC (hazard ratio [HR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92–1.04) or melanoma (HR 1.04, 95% CI: 0.82–1.32). In subgroup analyses of melanoma risk, baseline fat intake interacted significantly with group assignment (Pinteraction=0.006). Among women with higher baseline fat intake, the dietary intervention significantly increased risk (HR 1.48; 95% CI: 1.06–2.07), whereas, among women with lower baseline fat intake, the intervention tended to reduce melanoma risk (HR 0.72, 95% CI: 0.50–1.02). Conclusions In this large randomized trial, a low-fat dietary pattern did not affect overall incidence of NMSC or melanoma. Impact A low-fat diet does not reduce incidence of NMSC, but an interaction between baseline fat intake and dietary intervention on melanoma risk warrants further investigation. PMID:23697610

Gamba, Christina S.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Shikany, James M.; Larson, Joseph; Linos, Eleni; Sims, Stacy T.; Marshall, James; Van Horn, Linda; Zeitouni, Nathalie; Tang, Jean Y.

2013-01-01

278

A randomized control trial of a chronic care intervention for homeless women with alcohol use problems.  

PubMed

A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n=82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a primary care provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a care manager (CM) for 6months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest that screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

2015-04-01

279

Design and implementation of a fuzzy elevator group control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevator group control systems (EGCSs) are the control systems that systematically manage three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport passengers. Most EGCSs have used the hall call assignment method to assign elevators in response to passengers' calls. This paper proposes a control strategy generation method, a hall call assignment method based on the fuzzy theory, and then the

Changbum Kim; Kyoung A. Seong; Hyung Lee-kwang; Jeong O. Kim

1998-01-01

280

Design and implementation of FEGCS: fuzzy elevator group control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elevator group control systems (EGCS) are the control systems that manage systematically three or more elevators in order to efficiently transport the passengers. Most of the EGCS's have used the hall call assignment method to assign elevators in response to passenger's calls. This paper proposes a control strategy generation method, a hall call assignment method based on fuzzy theory

Chang Bum Kim; Kyoung A Seong; Hyung Lee-Kwang; Jeong O Kim

1996-01-01

281

Novel RS-FNN control policy in hybrid elevator group control system with destination registration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevator group control system with destination registration (DR-EGCS) has become hotter in these years. This paper analyzes and obtains the new characteristic attribution in destination registration elevator group control system, firstly builds up a new hybrid elevator group control system with destination registration model is built up based on hybrid system theory and cellular automata. And then aiming at the

Yuge Xu; Fei Luo

2008-01-01

282

From Isolation to Connection: Understanding a Support Group for Hispanic Women Living with Gender-based Violence in Houston, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the benefits of support groups to prevent gender-based violence in Hispanics. The article describes\\u000a a Houston area community-based organization that assists immigrant Hispanic women exposed to gender-based violence and\\/or\\u000a abuse. Internal documents, participant observation, and in-depth interviews were used to examine the support group. Thirty\\u000a interviews were conducted with support group participants. Interviews were analyzed to

Daisy Y. Morales-Campos; Myriam Casillas; Sheryl A. McCurdy

2009-01-01

283

Explaining the impact of a women's group led community mobilisation intervention on maternal and newborn health outcomes: the Ekjut trial process evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Few large and rigorous evaluations of participatory interventions systematically describe their context and implementation, or attempt to explain the mechanisms behind their impact. This study reports process evaluation data from the Ekjut cluster-randomised controlled trial of a participatory learning and action cycle with women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in Jharkhand and Orissa, eastern India (2005-2008). The study demonstrated a 45% reduction in neonatal mortality in the last two years of the intervention, largely driven by improvements in safe practices for home deliveries. Methods A participatory learning and action cycle with 244 women's groups was implemented in 18 intervention clusters covering an estimated population of 114 141. We describe the context, content, and implementation of this intervention, identify potential mechanisms behind its impact, and report challenges experienced in the field. Methods included a review of intervention documents, qualitative structured discussions with group members and non-group members, meeting observations, as well as descriptive statistical analysis of data on meeting attendance, activities, and characteristics of group attendees. Results Six broad, interrelated factors influenced the intervention's impact: (1) acceptability; (2) a participatory approach to the development of knowledge, skills and 'critical consciousness'; (3) community involvement beyond the groups; (4) a focus on marginalized communities; (5) the active recruitment of newly pregnant women into groups; (6) high population coverage. We hypothesize that these factors were responsible for the increase in safe delivery and care practices that led to the reduction in neonatal mortality demonstrated in the Ekjut trial. Conclusions Participatory interventions with community groups can influence maternal and child health outcomes if key intervention characteristics are preserved and tailored to local contexts. Scaling-up such interventions requires (1) a detailed understanding of the way in which context affects the acceptability and delivery of the intervention; (2) planned but flexible replication of key content and implementation features; (3) strong support for participatory methods from implementing agencies. PMID:20969787

2010-01-01

284

Effectiveness of a Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program for Ethnic Groups in Two Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Objective As young women from certain ethnic minority groups have reported less pursuit of the thin ideal and body dissatisfaction than European American young women we tested whether a dissonance-based prevention program designed to reduce thin-ideal internalization among women with body dissatisfaction is less effective for the former relative to the later groups. We also tested whether intervention effects are larger when participants from minority groups worked with a facilitator matched versus not matched on ethnicity. Method In Study 1, 426 female undergraduates (M age = 21.6, SD = 5.6) were randomized to clinician-led Body Project groups or an educational control group. In Study 2, 189 female undergraduates were randomized to peer-led Body Project groups or a waitlist control condition. Results Although there was some variation in risk factor scores across ethnic groups, ethnic minority participants did not demonstrate consistently higher or lower risk relative to European American participants. Intervention effects did not significantly differ for participants from minority groups versus European American participants in either trial. There was no evidence that effects were significantly larger when minority participants and facilitators were matched on ethnicity. Conclusions Results suggest that the Body Project is similarly effective for African American, Asian American, European American, and Hispanic female college students, and when participants and facilitators are matched or not on minority ethnicity status, implying that this prevention program can be broadly disseminated in this population. PMID:24655465

Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Cheng, Zhen Hadassah

2014-01-01

285

Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

2015-01-01

286

Adverse pregnancy outcomes with assisted reproductive technology in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate adverse pregnancy outcomes in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with obese-PCOS and control groups. Methods Women with PCOS who underwent assisted reproductive technology (ART) from August, 2003 to December, 2007, were considered. A total of 336 women with PCOS were included in the study group and 1,003 infertile women who had tubal factor as an indication for ART were collected as controls. They were divided into four groups: a non-obese PCOS group, obese-PCOS group, non-obese tubal factor group, and obese tubal factor group, with obesity defined by a body mass index over 25 kg/m2, and reviewed focusing on the basal characteristics, ART outcomes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Results There was no difference among the groups' the clinical pregnancy rate or live birth rate. Regarding adverse pregnancy outcomes, the miscarriage rate, multiple pregnancy rate, and prevalence of preterm delivery and pregnancy induced hypertension were not different among the four groups. The incidence of small for gestational age infant was higher in the PCOS groups than the tubal factor groups (p<0.02). On the other hand, the morbidity of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was not high in the non-obese PCOS group but was in the obese groups. And in the obese PCOS group, the newborns were heavier than in the other groups (p<0.02). Conclusion Non-obese PCOS presents many differences compared with obese PCOS, not only in the IVF-parameters but also in the morbidity of adverse pregnancy outcomes, especially in GDM and fetal macrosomia. PMID:22384427

Han, Ae Ra; Cha, Sun Wha; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jin Yeong; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Inn Soo

2011-01-01

287

Experience with a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist prior to myomectomy--comparison of twice- vs thrice-monthly doses and a control group.  

PubMed

The aim of this randomised prospective study was to investigate the impact of preoperative gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) compared with a control group with myomectomy. A total of 36 women (n = 36, group 1) with fibroids were randomised to receive either two monthly doses (n = 18/36, group 1a) or three monthly doses of goserelin (n = 18/36, group 1b) prior to myomectomy. The 32 women who received no treatment (group 2) comprised the controls. All patients had similar demographic features. There were no significant differences among the three groups with respect to: (1) mean intraoperative blood loss; (2) preoperative and postoperative blood transfusion or (3) length of hospital stay. The only advantage of administering GnRHa prior to myomectomy for symptomatic fibroids in our population was a higher haemoglobin level prior to surgery among the women who received three doses of the drug. PMID:24678813

Bassaw, B; Mohammed, N; Jaggat, A; Singh-Bhola, M; Ramkissoon, A; Singh, P; Jones, K; Maharaj, S; Ramsewak, S

2014-07-01

288

Ties that Bind: Cultural Referent Groups and Coping Strategies of Adult Women as Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter examines the cultural influences and applications of women's social capital networks on women's knowledge construction, community development, and autonomy within their cultures and the adult learning context.

Nanton, Carmela R.

2009-01-01

289

Reducing HIV and partner violence risk among women with criminal justice system involvement: A randomized controlled trial of two Motivational Interviewing-based interventions  

PubMed Central

Women with histories of incarceration show high levels of risk for HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial with women at risk for HIV who had recent criminal justice system involvement (n=530) evaluated two interventions based on Motivational Interviewing to reduce either HIV risk or HIV and IPV risk. Baseline and 3, 6, and 9-month follow-up assessments measured unprotected intercourse, needle sharing, and IPV. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the intervention groups had significant decreases in unprotected intercourse and needle sharing, and significantly greater reductions in the odds and incidence rates of unprotected intercourse compared to the control group. No significant differences were found in changes in IPV over time between the HIV and IPV group and the control group. Motivational Interviewing-based HIV prevention interventions delivered by county health department staff appear helpful in reducing HIV risk behavior for this population. PMID:18636325

Weir, Brian W.; O’Brien, Kerth; Bard, Ronda S.; Casciato, Carol J.; Maher, Julie E.; Dent, Clyde W.; Dougherty, John A.; Stark, Michael J.

2010-01-01

290

Comparing SF36 scores across three groups of women with different health profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The widespread use of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) facilitates the comparison of health-related quality of life (HRQL) across independent studies. Objectives: To compare the scores of eight scales and two summary scales of the SF-36 across participants in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) trial, the Women’s Health Initiative-Dietary Modification trial (WHI-DM),

Kathleen J. Yost; Mary N. Haan; Richard A. Levine; Ellen B. Gold

2005-01-01

291

Knowledge, barriers, and motivators related to cervical cancer screening among Korean-American women. A focus group approach.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is a significant health problem for Korean-American women. It currently is the number one female cancer diagnosed among women in South Korea. Despite this fact, Korean-American women have very low rates of cervical cancer screening. The purpose of this research were to gain an understanding of Korean women's knowledge about cervical cancer, and to identify major barriers to early screening for cervical cancer and the motivators for prevention and early detection. It is hoped that the findings will guide the development of community-based cervical cancer education and screening programs for adult Korean-American women. The health belief model (HBM) provided the theoretical basis for the study. A qualitative study with eight focus groups (n = 102) was conducted using 11 questions derived from the HBM. Focus group discussions revealed that there was misinformation and a lack of knowledge about cervical cancer. The women therefore were confused about the causative factors and preventive strategies related to cervical cancer. The findings showed that major structural barriers were economic and time factors along with language problems. Many participants were recent immigrants with no medical insurance and long work hours. The main psychosocial barriers were fear/fatalism, denial, and Confucian thinking. Participants stated that medical advice and education would influence them most to undergo a Pap test. Recommendations were made to reduce certain barriers and to increase knowledge and motivations. PMID:10851767

Lee, M C

2000-06-01

292

Role of Health Locus of Control Beliefs in Cancer Screening of Elderly Hispanic Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the health locus of control beliefs of elderly Hispanic women and relation between frequency of breast self-examination (BSE), attention to health-related information, and recency of Pap smear and physician breast examination. As hypothesized, holding a belief that health outcomes are controlled by oneself (internal control) was positively related to screening behaviors over which one has a high

Nancy I. Bundek; Gary Marks; Jean L. Richardson

1993-01-01

293

[Women and smoking. A challenge for the tobacco control policy in Germany].  

PubMed

In Germany, smoking rates among women have been slightly declining since 2003. However, smoking rates among young women and girls are high and are reaching the smoking rates of their male counterparts. Only about half of pregnant smokers below the age of 25 stop smoking. Women and girls with low education and low level jobs, those who are unemployed, as well as single parents have the highest smoking rates. The tobacco industry promotes smoking behavior of women and girls through marketing campaigns, thus, systematically counteracting smoking prevention activities. Within the framework of the annual conference 2008 of the Federal Drug Commissioner on the theme of "Women and Smoking", recommendations for a gender-specific tobacco control policy in Germany were developed. The main demands relate to the necessity of a targeted policy approach which takes into account the needs and life circumstances of women and girls, the development of integrated prevention programs for pregnant women, improved medical and preventive care, the involvement of women from the media and culture, from health professions and politics to promote a smoke-free culture, gender-specific research, and the improvement of tobacco control legislation. FACT (Frauen aktiv contra Tabak e.V.) actively supports the implementation of these policy recommendations. PMID:20069267

Fleitmann, S; Dohnke, B; Balke, K; Rustler, C; Sonntag, U

2010-02-01

294

A Group-Based Program of Emotional Recovery for Younger Women Following Myocardial Infarction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heart disease is the leading cause of illness, disability, and death among women in Canada. Myocardial infarction (MI) accounts for almost half of these deaths yearly. The purpose of this study was to understand younger women's experience of recovery from MI. A purposive sample consisting of six younger women diagnosed with MI participated in …

Bowers, Michele J.; Buchanan, Marla J.

2007-01-01

295

Maternal Fetal Attachment, Locus of Control and Adherence to STI/HIV Prevention and Prenatal Care Promotion Behaviors in Urban Women  

PubMed Central

Young women of childbearing age are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. In particular, young women have more frequent and more serious health problems from STI or HIV infection than men, and among women, African American women have especially high rates of infection. Pregnancy is an important time for beginning or continued STI and HIV prevention behaviors as discontinuing condom use when the contraceptive motivation is gone puts women and their fetuses at risk for contraction of STIs and HIV if they remain sexually active. There are many personal attributes that predict adherence to STI risk reduction behaviors including health related locus of control. The current study surveyed a group of 100 low-income, urban dwelling minority women during their pregnancies to determine whether maternal-fetal attachment, a characteristic specific to pregnancy, favorably influences pregnant women’s health related locus of control such that women might be more inclined to engage in preventative STI/HIV risk reduction behaviors. Our findings revealed that while our sample has very high levels of MFA despite the high rate of unplanned pregnancy, condom use is not the method used to reduce the risk of contracting STIs/HIV. Rather, women are more likely to limit their number of sexual partners during pregnancy. While this is beneficial, pregnant women in non-monogamous relationships may discount the importance of condom use during pregnancy. Prenatal care providers can provide education about condom use as a beneficial prenatal care behavior similar to taking prenatal vitamins. PMID:25729776

Kornfield, Sara L.; Geller, Pamela A.; Epperson, C. Neill

2015-01-01

296

Preliminary Efficacy of Group Medical Nutrition Therapy and Motivational Interviewing among Obese African American Women with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess the efficacy and acceptability of a group medical nutritional therapy (MNT) intervention, using motivational interviewing (MI). Research Design & Method. African American (AA) women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participated in five, certified diabetes educator/dietitian-facilitated intervention sessions targeting carbohydrate, fat, and fruit/vegetable intake and management. Motivation-based activities centered on exploration of dietary ambivalence and the relationships between diet and personal strengths. Repeated pre- and post-intervention, psychosocial, dietary self-care, and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed using generalized least squares regression. An acceptability assessment was administered after intervention. Results. Participants (n = 24) were mostly of middle age (mean age 50.8 ± 6.3) with an average BMI of 39 ± 6.5. Compared to a gradual pre-intervention loss of HbA1c control and confidence in choosing restaurant foods, a significant post-intervention improvement in HbA1c (P = 0.03) and a near significant (P = 0.06) increase in confidence in choosing restaurant foods were observed with both returning to pre-intervention levels. 100% reported that they would recommend the study to other AA women with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion. The results support the potential efficacy of a group MNT/MI intervention in improving glycemic control and dietary self-care-related confidence in overweight/obese AA women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25243082

Miller, Stephania T.; Oates, Veronica J.; Brooks, Malinda A.; Shintani, Ayumi; Jenkins, Darlene M.

2014-01-01

297

Primary prevention of gestational diabetes for women who are overweight and obese: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) has well recognised adverse health implications for the mother and her newborn that are both short and long term. Obesity is a significant risk factor for developing GDM and the prevalence of obesity is increasing globally. It is a matter of public health importance that clinicians have evidence based strategies to inform practice and currently there is insufficient evidence regarding the impact of dietary and lifestyle interventions on improving maternal and newborn outcomes. The primary aim of this study is to measure the impact of a telephone based intervention that promotes positive lifestyle modifications on the incidence of GDM. Secondary aims include: the impact on gestational weight gain; large for gestational age babies; differences in blood glucose levels taken at the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and selected factors relating to self-efficacy and psychological wellbeing. Method/design A randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted involving pregnant women who are overweight (BMI >25 to 29.9 k/gm2) or obese (BMI >30?kgm/2), less than 14 weeks gestation and recruited from the Barwon South West region of Victoria, Australia. From recruitment until birth, women in the intervention group will receive a program informed by the Theory of Self-efficacy and employing Motivational Interviewing. Brief ( less than 5 minute) phone contact will alternate with a text message/email and will involve goal setting, behaviour change reinforcement with weekly weighing and charting, and the provision of health information. Those in the control group will receive usual care. Data for primary and secondary outcomes will be collected from medical record review and a questionnaire at 36 weeks gestation. Discussion Evidence based strategies that reduce the incidence of GDM are a priority for contemporary maternity care. Changing health behaviours is a complex undertaking and trialling a composite intervention that can be adopted in various primary health settings is required so women can be accessed as early in pregnancy as possible. Using a sound theoretical base to inform such an intervention will add depth to our understanding of this approach and to the interpretation of results, contributing to the evidence base for practice and policy. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12613000125729 PMID:23497264

2013-01-01

298

Effect of omega-3 dietary supplements with different oxidation levels in the lipidic profile of women: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The oxidation level of omega-3 fatty acid supplements commercialized in capsules may be a risk to consumers' health. For this purpose, we have designed a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in which 52 women participated. Volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups consuming: (1) less oxidized oil pills, (2) highly oxidized oil pills and (3) no capsules. All groups consumed a fish-rich diet. Circulating glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were determined at the beginning and end (30 days) of the study. As a result, the ingestion of less oxidized ?-3 supplements reduced circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels, as opposed to the highly oxidized omega-3 capsules, which had a negative effect on cholesterol levels. In conclusion, the level of oxidation of the supplements is a key factor in controlling circulating lipid profile. Therefore, manufacturers must pay attention to the quality of the prime product prior to encapsulation. PMID:23863036

García-Hernández, V M; Gallar, M; Sánchez-Soriano, J; Micol, V; Roche, E; García-García, E

2013-12-01

299

Formation Control of a Group of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs)  

E-print Network

,munel}@sabanciuniv.edu Abstract--Coordinated motion of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has been a growing research interestFormation Control of a Group of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) Mehmet Ali Guney and Mustafa Unel trajectories for each aerial vehicle in the group. Thus, we extend some of our earlier work ( [13], [15], [16

Yanikoglu, Berrin

300

Data Maintenance and Control Strategy of Group Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the actual operation of ERP system, data management must adhere to the principle of data-centric, data standardization, improved data optimization, and data maintenance work should attach great importance to the accuracy, completeness and timeliness of data. In this paper, group enterprise data standardization and group management and control are analyzed and researched on data maintenance strategy and core master

Yuchun Zhang; Zhiqiang Ye

2011-01-01

301

An energy-aware elevator group control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the trend for mega high-rise buildings continues, efficient scheduling of group elevator systems is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we present a new elevator group control system. Its objectives are minimizing energy consumption as well as minimizing passengers' waiting time. Since both objectives sometimes conflict, we try to reduce energy consumption within tolerable average waiting time. Experimental results

Soyoon Lee; Hyokyung Bahn

2005-01-01

302

Disparities in mammographic screening for Asian women in California: a cross-sectional analysis to identify meaningful groups for targeted intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among the rapidly growing population of Asian Americans; it is also the most common cause of cancer mortality among Filipinas. Asian women continue to have lower rates of mammographic screening than women of most other racial\\/ethnic groups. While prior studies have described the effects of sociodemographic and other characteristics of women

Scarlett Lin Gomez; Susanna Tan; Theresa HM Keegan; Christina A Clarke

2007-01-01

303

Different labour outcomes in primiparous women that have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse or rape in adulthood: a case–control study in a clinical cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the duration and outcome of the first labour in women who have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and women who have been raped in adulthood (RA). Design Case–control study in a clinical cohort. Setting University Hospital of North Norway. Sample In all, 373 primiparas: 185 subjected to CSA, 47 to RA and 141 controls without a history of abuse. Methods Data on birth outcomes were retrieved from the patient files. Information on sexual abuse was reported in consultation with specialised midwives in the mental health team. Birth outcomes were analysed by multinominal regression analysis. Main outcome measures Vaginal births, delivery by caesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and duration of labour. Results As compared with controls, the RA group showed a significantly higher risk for caesarean section (adjusted OR 9.9, 95% CI 3.4–29.4) and operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 12.2, 95% CI 4.4–33.7). There were no significant differences between the CSA and the control group. The RA group displayed significantly longer duration of labour in all phases as compared with the control and CSA groups. Conclusions There were major differences in the duration of labour and birth outcomes in the two abuse groups. Despite a higher proportion of obstetric risk factors at onset of labour in the CSA group, women subjected to CSA had shorter labours and less risk for caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries than women subjected to RA. The best care for birthing women subjected to sexual abuse needs to be explored in further studies. PMID:23157417

Nerum, H; Halvorsen, L; Straume, B; Sørlie, T; Øian, P

2013-01-01

304

Creatine supplementation and resistance training in vulnerable older women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation, associated or not with resistance training, in vulnerable older women. A 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed. Sixty subjects were assigned to compose the following groups: placebo (PL), creatine supplementation (CR), placebo with resistance training (PL+RT), and creatine supplementation with resistance training (CR+RT). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after 24weeks. The primary outcome was muscle strength, as assessed by one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests. Secondary outcomes included appendicular lean mass, bone mass, biochemical bone markers, and physical function tests. The changes in 1-RM leg press were significantly greater in the CR+RT group (+19.9%) than in the PL (+2.4%) and the CR groups (+3.7%), but not than in the PL+RT group (+15%) (p=0.002, p=0.002, and p=0.357, respectively). The CR+RT group showed superior gains in 1-RM bench press (+10%) when compared with all the other groups (p?0.05). The CR+RT group (+1.31%) showed greater appendicular lean mass accrual than the PL (-1.2%), the CR (+0.3%), and the PL+RT groups (-0.2%) (p?0.05). The CR and the PL+RT groups experienced comparable gains in appendicular lean mass (p=0.62), but superior to those seen in the PL group. Changes in fat mass, bone mass and serum bone markers did not significantly differ between the groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, creatine supplementation combined with resistance training improved appendicular lean mass and muscle function, but not bone mass, in older vulnerable women. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01472393. PMID:24530883

Gualano, Bruno; Macedo, André Regis; Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Takayama, Liliam; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lucia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues

2014-05-01

305

The power of women on April 27.  

PubMed

Women make up 54% of voters in South Africa. A delegation of 80 groups representing 2 million women under the Women' National Coalition delivered many research reports on women's issues (e.g., rape, violence, women's status, women workers' rights) to the Transitional Executive Council. If political parties want women to support them, they need to address the inequalities and discrimination women encounter at work, in their homes, and in society. The research findings were a result of 23 focus groups and will be used to draft a Women's Charter. The Coalition will use the Charter to bring about maximum equality within the constitutional framework. The research revealed that sexual harassment at work was more common than was recognized. Black women reported that men of all races in responsible positions seek sex for jobs or for promotion. 50% of women are raped. 1 of 6 women are beaten by their partner. In the past, women's groups were not well supported because White women tended to be satisfied with the status quo. Specifically, they had a servant, leisure time, and a high standard of living. Women are starting to understand that they can be forces of change. A common thread among the diversity of women in the research was a desire for control of their lives. Other issues emerging from the research were women and law, women at work, women and violence, and political awareness among women. The women call for changes in marital law to make sure that women are considered as majors. For example, they should be able to buy property and sign contracts. Women want equal pay for work of equal value, equal treatment when applying for a job. Women want society, including family members, not to ignore domestic violence. They also call on authorities and police to respond more vigorously to domestic violence. Women are becoming more involved in politics, locally, regionally, and nationally. PMID:12287660

Khumalo, B

1994-04-01

306

Efficacy and safety of Baweidihuang-wan in women with overactive bladder: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify the efficacy and safety of Baweidihuang-wan (BWDH) in women with overactive bladder (OAB) and to investigate whether BWDH is more effective in OAB diagnosed as kidney yang deficiency pattern by the Korean medical pattern identification. The design of this study was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. One hundred eighty-six women with OAB were randomized to treatment (n=93) or control group (n=93). Participants received BWDH or placebo three times a day for eight weeks. Efficacy was assessed by overactive bladder symptom score and 3-day bladder diary. Subgroup analysis was conducted between kidney yang deficiency pattern and other patterns according to the Korean medical pattern identification. One hundred sixty-four participants completed this trial. The treatment group has improved in OABSS score, Total micturitions per 24 hr, Daytime micturitions per 24 hr, Total count of urgency, and Total urgency score over the control group, but differences were not statistically significant. By a subgroup analysis, OABSS score, total micturitions per 24 hr, total count of urgency and total urgency score improved most in the treatment group with the kidney yang deficiency pattern but this was also not statistically significant. No obvious adverse events were found in the use of BWDH. In conclusion, this trial did not show significant difference between BWDH and placebo in women with OAB. However BWDH tended to improve urinary frequency and urgency in OAB, especially diagnosed as kidney yang deficiency pattern. Further additional research will be needed. PMID:25356135

Kim, Dongil; Choi, Changmin; Ahn, Insuk; Ryu, Ikhan; Choi, Minsun; Lee, Younsuk; Lee, Myeong Soo

2014-01-01

307

Feasibility of an exercise intervention for women with postnatal depression: a pilot randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Postnatal depression is a serious mental health problem that may be reduced by exercise. Aim This study examined the feasibility of an exercise intervention for women with postnatal depression, and assessed which methods of recruitment are most effective. Design of study Randomised controlled trial. Setting General practice and the community. Method Participants were recruited from various sources and randomised to an exercise intervention or usual care with follow-up at 12 weeks. As well as assessing feasibility, other trial outcomes included exercise participation and self-efficacy for exercise. Levels of depression were assessed but the study was not powered to show a difference in this. Results The recruitment rate of eligible patients was 23.1%. The highest recruitment rate was via referral from the psychiatric mother and baby unit (9/28; 32.1%), followed by invitation letters from GPs (24/93; 25.8%). Thirty-eight eligible participants were randomised. At follow-up there was no significant difference in exercise participation between groups. The intervention group reported significantly higher self-efficacy for exercise compared to usual care, but depression scores did not differ. Conclusion Exercise participation over the 12-week period was not significantly increased, possibly because it is difficult to motivate women with postnatal depression to exercise, or the intervention was not sufficiently intensive. Eligible patients were recruited into this study but response rates were low. Optimum methods of recruitment in this difficult-to-reach population are required prior to a substantive trial. Further research is imperative given poorly-evidenced recommendations by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence to consider this treatment. PMID:18399022

Daley, Amanda J; Winter, Heather; Grimmett, Chloe; McGuinness, Mary; McManus, Richard; MacArthur, Christine

2008-01-01

308

2006 Nature Publishing Group A trehalose metabolic enzyme controls  

E-print Network

© 2006 Nature Publishing Group A trehalose metabolic enzyme controls inflorescence architecture Inflorescence branching is a major yield trait in crop plants controlled by the developmental fate of axillary (inflorescences) and affect crop yield by influencing seed number or harvesting ability2,3 . Several growth

Jackson, David

309

Elevator Group Control System Based on Information Fusion Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elevator group control system based on information fusion is presented in this paper. The control system is consisting of data processing unit and elevator dispatching unit mainly. A fuzzy ANN based on data fusion technology is proposed in the data processing unit to process state signals, and the fusion result is used as the input of elevator dispatching unit.

Liting Cao; Jingwen Tian; Zhaoli Zhang

2008-01-01

310

Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and  

E-print Network

1 Elevator Group Supervisory Control of Double-Deck and Multi-Car Elevator Systems using Genetic Control Systems EGSCS 1970 Artificial Intelligence AI) Double-Deck Elevator Systems DDES Multi-Car Elevator Systems MCES DDES MCES AI AI GA Neural Network NN Fuzzy Logic FL Genetic Network Programming GNP

Fernandez, Thomas

311

Elevator group control system with a fuzzy neural network model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a high-performance elevator group control system EJ-1000FN with a performance tuning function, which employs a fuzzy neural network as a performance forecasting model of the elevator system. The performance tuning function utilizes the forecasting model in order to search the optimal control parameters which give the best system performance in the present traffic situation

S. Nakai; S. Kubo; N. Imasaki; T. Yoshitsugu; J.-I. Kiji; T. Endo

1995-01-01

312

Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial)  

PubMed Central

Background More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. Methods/Design The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Discussion The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance education program that can be adopted by universities, to assess whether aspects of the program need to be strengthened, and also to indicate how long the effects of the program last and at which point in time refresher sessions may be necessary. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01338428 PMID:23702221

2013-01-01

313

Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

2009-01-01

314

Application We are looking for a group of dedicated men and women to be a part of our  

E-print Network

, eating disorders, and poor nutrition as well as related issues as necessary. PACT members learn how on issues of sexual or relational violence, eating disorders and nutrition, mental health or other healthApplication We are looking for a group of dedicated men and women to be a part of our campus peer

Dennett, Daniel

315

Do You See What I See? Effects of Group Consciousness on African American Women's Attributions to Prejudice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of three types of group consciousness among African American women ("ethnic," "feminist," and "womanist") on prejudice attributions and appraised personal significance ("centrality") of a negative intergroup event. African American female college students (N = 123) imagined themselves in an audiotaped scenario in…

King, Kimberly R.

2003-01-01

316

Everyday Conflict and Stress among Older African American Women: Findngs from a Focus Group Study and Pilot Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three focus groups examined stress and conflict among 30 older African American women in Boston. Stress stemmed from worries about functional disability, accessing transportation, conflicts with family and peers, and grandchildren's lack of respect. Participants tended to use avoidant strategies to deal with stress and conflict. A training program…

Weitzman, Patricia Flynn; Dunigan, Robert; Hawkins, Robert L.; Weitzman, Eben A.; Levkoff, Sue E.

2002-01-01

317

Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program on International Women's Studies Seminar on Changing Status Roles in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In July 1988, 14 Florida scholars traveled to India on a 6-week followup of a 1976 project on the status of women in India. Headquartered in Madras (India), the group also studied in 12 other locations. A pre-departure orientation program included lectures on health and related issues, a discussion of life in an Indian village, films, and slides…

Hoder-Salmon, Marilyn

318

One Size Fits All? Explaining U.S.-Born and Immigrant Women's Employment across 12 Ethnic Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leading explanations for ethnic disparities in U.S. women's employment derive largely from research on men. Although recent case studies of newer immigrant groups suggest that these explanations may be less applicable than previously believed, no study to date has assessed this question systematically. Using 2000 Census data, this study tests the…

Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Cohen, Philip N.

2007-01-01

319

Women and children in a neighborhood advocacy group: engaging community and refashioning citizenship at the United States–Mexico border  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the community participation of recent Latina immigrant mothers and their children in a neighborhood advocacy group near the US–Mexico border. It documents the work that women and children do as they struggle to become involved in their new community and improve their quality of life – despite legal, social, economic and cultural obstacles. Local context, family

Fernando J. Bosco; Stuart C. Aitken; Thomas Herman

2011-01-01

320

What I Need to Know about Bladder Control for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... does the bladder work? Parts of the bladder control system. The bladder is a balloon-shaped organ that ... ready to release it. Parts of the bladder control system. Several body systems must work together to control ...

321

Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

2014-01-01

322

Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system. PMID:25024731

Choi, Seo Yeon; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

2014-01-01

323

The Effect of Prenatal Education on Mother’s Quality of Life during First Year Postpartum among Iranian Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Antenatal educations provide information regarding pregnancy, birth, infant care and early parenthood. The purpose of this study was to determine effect of prenatal education on mother’s quality of life during first year after childbirth among Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This single-blind randomized control trial study was performed on 160 first-time pregnant women; with a singleton fetus; aged 18 to 35; without history of medical, psychological, and infertility diseases; as well as with at least eight prenatal visits during pregnancy. Participants were invited into two groups of intervention (n=80) and control (n=80). The antenatal education classes were consisted of eight sessions, and then, mother’s quality of life was evaluated during first year after childbirth. Data was analyzed using t test, chi-square, and Mann-Withney. Results: The interventional group demonstrated higher scores of quality of life domains than the control group (p<0.05). The interventional group (at one year postpartum) demonstrated significantly higher scores for quality of life in the physical health, psychological health, and environmental health domains compared to the control group. In addition, the interventional group showed a significant increase in the mean scores for the domains of physical, psychological, and environmental health from 6-8 weeks to 1 year postpartum. Conclusion: The study showed that women receiving prenatal education had higher level of happiness and satisfaction in their overall quality of life and health, respectively (Registration Number: IRCT201101115571N2). PMID:24520482

Bahrami, Nosrat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Bahrami, Somayeh

2013-01-01

324

Treatment of condylomata acuminata with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in pregnant women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of treatment of condylomata acuminata of the anogenital region in pregnant women are presented. All patients were treated between the 28th and 35th weeks of gestation. The laser surgery was done in 23 patients. One laser procedure was done in 14 women. In 5 patients we performed two and in 4 women 3 laser therapies. Complete destruction of pathological changes was obtained and no recurrences were diagnosed. There were no clinical signs of HPV infection in all neonates. In the authors' opinion the use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control is an efficient and safe method in the treatment of condylomata acuminata in pregnant women. Colposcopic control allows us to discover and coagulate the bleeding spots using the defocused laser beam with low power density.

Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

1996-03-01

325

The IDEAL study: investigation of dietary advice and lifestyle for women with borderline gestational diabetes: a randomised controlled trial - study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The Australian Carbohydrate Intolerance Study in Pregnant Women (ACHOIS) showed that treatment of pregnant women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus is beneficial for both women and their infants. It is still uncertain whether there are benefits of similar treatment for women with borderline gestational diabetes. This trial aims to assess whether dietary and lifestyle advice and treatment given to pregnant women who screen for borderline gestational diabetes reduces neonatal complications and maternal morbidities. Methods/design Design: Multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Inclusion criteria: Women between 240 and 346 weeks gestation with a singleton pregnancy, a positive oral glucose challenge test (venous plasma glucose ?7.8 mmol/L) and a normal oral 75 gram glucose tolerance test (fasting venous plasma glucose <5.5 mmol/L and a 2 hour glucose <7.8 mmol/L) with written, informed consent. Trial entry and randomisation: Women with an abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (fasting venous plasma glucose ?5.5 mmol/L or 2 hour glucose ?7.8 mmol/L) will not be eligible and will be offered treatment for gestational diabetes, consistent with recommendations based on results of the ACHOIS trial. Eligible women will be randomised into either the ‘Routine Care Group’ or the ‘Intervention Group’. Study groups: Women in the ‘Routine Care Group’ will receive routine obstetric care reflecting current clinical practice in Australian hospitals. Women in the ‘Intervention Group’ will receive obstetric care, which will include dietary and lifestyle advice, monitoring of blood glucose and further medical treatment for hyperglycaemia as appropriate. Primary study outcome: Incidence of large for gestational age infants. Sample size: A sample size of 682 women will be sufficient to show a 50% reduction in the risk of large for gestational age infants (alpha 0.05 two-tailed, 80% power, 4% loss to follow up) from 14% to 7% with dietary and lifestyle advice and treatment. Discussion A conclusive trial outcome will provide reliable evidence of relevance for the care of women with borderline glucose intolerance in pregnancy and their infants. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12607000174482 PMID:23046499

2012-01-01

326

Morinda citrifolia (Noni) as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

Introduction. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been used for many years as an anti-inflammatory agent. We tested the efficacy of Noni in women with dysmenorrhea. Method. We did a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 100 university students of 18 years and older over three menstrual cycles. Patients were invited to participate and randomly assigned to receive 400?mg Noni capsules or placebo. They were assessed for baseline demographic variables such as age, parity, and BMI. They were also assessed before and after treatment, for pain, menstrual blood loss, and laboratory variables: ESR, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume. Results. Of the 1027 women screened, 100 eligible women were randomized. Of the women completing the study, 42 women were randomized to Noni and 38 to placebo. There were no significant differences in any of the variables at randomization. There were also no significant differences in mean bleeding score or pain score at randomization. Both bleeding and pain scores gradually improved in both groups as the women were observed over three menstrual cycles; however, the improvement was not significantly different in the Noni group when compared to the controls. Conclusion. Noni did not show a reduction in menstrual pain or bleeding when compared to placebo. PMID:23431314

Fletcher, H M; Dawkins, J; Rattray, C; Wharfe, G; Reid, M; Gordon-Strachan, G

2013-01-01

327

Changes in Body Mass Index across Age Groups in Iranian Women: Results from the National Health Survey.  

PubMed

Background. To investigate the associations between some factors with weight gain across age groups in Iranian women. Methods. Proportional odds model was used to estimate the probability of BMI categorized as a function of education, economic index, workforce, smoking, marital status, and place of residence adjusted for age, using data from the "National Health Survey in Iran" database. It included 14176 women aged 20-69 years. Results. For all covariates, age was directly associated with overweight and obesity before 60 years of age. Among women aged 20-40 years, the rates of change in probabilities of overweight and obesity were highest. Among women, being inactive, with high economic index, married, being nonsmoker, in an urban residence, with lower educational attainment, all increased the probabilities of overweight and obesity. Conclusions. Women aged 20-40 years gained weight faster than other groups. They may need additional information and more support on how to reduce their risk for weight gain through positive health behaviors. PMID:22523675

Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Seifi, Behjat; Biglarian, Akbar; Mohammad, Kazem

2012-01-01

328

Changes in Body Mass Index across Age Groups in Iranian Women: Results from the National Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background. To investigate the associations between some factors with weight gain across age groups in Iranian women. Methods. Proportional odds model was used to estimate the probability of BMI categorized as a function of education, economic index, workforce, smoking, marital status, and place of residence adjusted for age, using data from the “National Health Survey in Iran” database. It included 14176 women aged 20–69 years. Results. For all covariates, age was directly associated with overweight and obesity before 60 years of age. Among women aged 20–40 years, the rates of change in probabilities of overweight and obesity were highest. Among women, being inactive, with high economic index, married, being nonsmoker, in an urban residence, with lower educational attainment, all increased the probabilities of overweight and obesity. Conclusions. Women aged 20–40 years gained weight faster than other groups. They may need additional information and more support on how to reduce their risk for weight gain through positive health behaviors. PMID:22523675

Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Seifi, Behjat; Biglarian, Akbar; Mohammad, Kazem

2012-01-01

329

Impact of an Educational Intervention on Women's Knowledge and Acceptability of Human Papillomavirus Self-Sampling: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Objective Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) may be used as a primary cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setting. Our aim was to evaluate whether an educational intervention would improve women's knowledge and confidence in the Self-HPV method. Method Women aged between 25 and 65 years old, eligible for cervical cancer screening, were randomly chosen to receive standard information (control group) or standard information followed by educational intervention (interventional group). Standard information included explanations about what the test detects (HPV), the link between HPV and cervical cancer and how to perform HPV self-sampling. The educational intervention consisted of a culturally tailored video about HPV, cervical cancer, Self-HPV and its relevancy as a screening test. All participants completed a questionnaire that assessed sociodemographic data, women's knowledge about cervical cancer and acceptability of Self-HPV. Results A total of 302 women were enrolled in 4 health care centers in Yaoundé and the surrounding countryside. 301 women (149 in the “control group” and 152 in the “intervention group”) completed the full process and were included into the analysis. Participants who received the educational intervention had a significantly higher knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer than the control group (p<0.05), but no significant difference on Self-HPV acceptability and confidence in the method was noticed between the two groups. Conclusion Educational intervention promotes an increase in knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. Further investigation should be conducted to determine if this intervention can be sustained beyond the short term and influences screening behavior. Trials Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Register ISRCTN78123709 PMID:25333793

Sossauer, Gaëtan; Zbinden, Michel; Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Fosso, Gisèle K.; Untiet, Sarah; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick

2014-01-01

330

Frequency and Severity of Premenstrual Symptoms in Women Taking Birth Control Pills  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study of a wide range of premenstrual symptomatology using the Premenstrual Assessment Form found little difference between women taking a low-dose birth control pill and non-pill-takers. These data are in keeping with older, but narrower, studies of women taking high-dose pills and raise questions about mechanisms of symptomatic and subclinical premenstrual changes.Copyright © 1991 S. Karger AG, Basel

V. J. Yuka; C. E. Cumming; E. E. Fox; D. C. Cumming

1991-01-01

331

De?constructing ‘choice’: The social imperative and women's use of the birth control pill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the social construction of ‘choice’ in women's use of the oral contraceptive birth control pill. Using social and historical critiques of neo?liberalism, it is argued that the contemporary priority placed on ‘choice’ positions women in contradictory ways–requiring them to be both ‘choosing’ reproductive subjects and reproductive subjects with very few options. The paper works to de?construct contemporary

Kara Granzow

2007-01-01

332

The effects of psychological inoculation on cognitive barriers against condom use in women with HIV: A controlled pilot study.  

PubMed

Past studies have shown that in attempts to prevent HIV, health education yields little change in condom use. The reason may be that education fails to target barriers for changing behaviour. The present controlled pilot study tested whether psychological inoculation (PI) reduces such barriers for using male condoms. Twenty-two Nigerian women with HIV were randomly assigned to receive PI or health education (control). In the PI condition, women learned to refute sentences reflecting barriers against condom use, while controls learned how to use condoms and the consequences of their non-use. Barriers for condom use, self-efficacy to negotiate condom use with partners and actual condom use were self-reported before and one week after interventions. Results revealed that only in the PI group were there statistically significant increases in condom use negotiating self-efficacy and reductions in barriers concerning motivation, sexual satisfaction and partners. Controls reported no statistically significant changes. However, actual reported condom use was unchanged in both groups. Thus, it is feasible to conduct PI interventions in an African sample of HIV patients. Furthermore, PI can reduce cognitive barriers for condom use, while health education yields little changes in such outcomes over time. If replicated in larger samples with longer follow-ups, these findings could eventually have implications for HIV prevention in several world regions. PMID:23237643

Olley, Benjamin; Abbas, Moyosola; Gidron, Yori

2011-01-01

333

Internet-Based Video-Group Delivery of Healthy Relationships—a “Prevention with Positives” Intervention: Report on a Single Group Pilot Test among Women Living with HIV  

PubMed Central

Women living with HIV (WLH) face challenges related to stigma, disclosure of HIV status, and negotiating safer sex. Several effective behavioral interventions, such as Healthy Relationships (HR), help WLH address these challenges and are disseminated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) project. However, many WLH living in poor urban or rural locations cannot access interventions such as HR, because implementation is not feasible. Video-conferencing technology holds promise for expanding access to effective behavioral interventions for WLH. Following a systematic adaptation to the video-conferencing format, this pilot study tested the delivery of HR via video-group (VG) among WLH. The video-conferencing based intervention, HR-VG, consisted of six, two-hour sessions led by two facilitators, and used structured activities and video-clips to build disclosure and safer sex skills. Four minority WLH received HR-VG at four different community-based intervention sites in a private room equipped with a video-phone (VP) for participating in HR-VG and a desktop computer for completing assessments via Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview (ACASI). Participants completed a baseline assessment prior to HR-VG, and post-session assessment after each HR-VG session. The post-intervention assessment and video-focus group were completed following the last HR-VG session. Facilitators completed an assessment after each HR-VG session and an open-ended questionnaire following HR-VG. HR-VG was implemented in its entirety with minimal challenges. Both participants and facilitators reported feeling either “very comfortable” or “completely comfortable” with the technology and the overall intervention. Participants also reported high levels of unity and togetherness among the group. These preliminary findings suggest VG delivery of HR for WLH is both feasible and highly valued by participants. A follow-up randomized controlled trial is underway to test the feasibility and efficacy of HR-VG with a larger sample of WLH. PMID:23713756

Marhefka, Stephanie L.; Iziduh, Sharon; Fuhrmann, Hollie J.; Lopez, Bernice; Glueckauf, Robert; Lynn, Vickie; Baldwin, Julie

2013-01-01

334

The Effect of Acupressure at GB-21 and SP-6 Acupoints on Anxiety Level and Maternal-Fetal Attachment in Primiparous Women: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Delivery is one of the most stressful events in women’s life. Excessive anxiety, in turn, increases delivery and pregnancy complications. Mother’s positive experience of delivery leads to more effective maternal-fetal attachment in the first few hours of birth. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of acupressure at two different acupoints on anxiety level and maternal-fetal attachment in primiparous women. Materials and Methods: In this study, 150 primiparous women were allocated to acupressure at GB-21 acupoint, acupressure at SP-6 acupoint, and control group. The women in their active phase of delivery were enrolled in the study and pressure was applied to the acupoints for 20 minutes. Mother’s anxiety level was assessed using Spielberger’s questionnaire before and one hour after the intervention. In addition, maternal-fetal attachment behaviors were evaluated using Avant’s questionnaire during the first breastfeeding. Then the data were introduced to the SPSS (v. 13) and were analyzed using t test and one way ANOVA. Results: The results revealed no significant difference among the three groups regarding the anxiety level before the intervention (P > 0.05). One hour after the intervention, this measure was significantly lower in the intervention groups in comparison to the control group (P < 0.001). However, no significant difference was found between the two intervention groups in this regard (P > 0.05). Moreover, maternal-fetal attachment was higher in the intervention groups in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Acupressure at both acupoints reduced anxiety level and increased maternal-fetal attachment. This method can be easily used in the delivery room. PMID:25699279

Moradi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Moradi, Parvin; Toosi, Monieh; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad

2014-01-01

335

Effect of selenium on markers of risk of pre-eclampsia in UK pregnant women: a randomised, controlled pilot trial.  

PubMed

Pre-eclampsia is a serious hypertensive condition of pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Se intake or status has been linked to the occurrence of pre-eclampsia by our own work and that of others. We hypothesised that a small increase in the Se intake of UK pregnant women of inadequate Se status would protect against the risk of pre-eclampsia, as assessed by biomarkers of pre-eclampsia. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial, we randomised 230 primiparous pregnant women to Se (60 ?g/d, as Se-enriched yeast) or placebo treatment from 12 to 14 weeks of gestation until delivery. Whole-blood Se concentration was measured at baseline and 35 weeks, and plasma selenoprotein P (SEPP1) concentration at 35 weeks. The primary outcome measure of the present study was serum soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1), an anti-angiogenic factor linked with the risk of pre-eclampsia. Other serum/plasma components related to the risk of pre-eclampsia were also measured. Between 12 and 35 weeks, whole-blood Se concentration increased significantly in the Se-treated group but decreased significantly in the placebo group. At 35 weeks, significantly higher concentrations of whole-blood Se and plasma SEPP1 were observed in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group. In line with our hypothesis, the concentration of sFlt-1 was significantly lower at 35 weeks in the Se-treated group than in the placebo group in participants in the lowest quartile of Se status at baseline (P= 0·039). None of the secondary outcome measures was significantly affected by treatment. The present finding that Se supplementation has the potential to reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women of low Se status needs to be validated in an adequately powered trial. PMID:24708917

Rayman, Margaret P; Searle, Elizabeth; Kelly, Lynne; Johnsen, Sigurd; Bodman-Smith, Katherine; Bath, Sarah C; Mao, Jinyuan; Redman, Christopher W G

2014-07-14

336

Attitudes of women from five European Countries regarding tobacco control policies  

PubMed Central

Aims Tobacco related cancers and, in particular, lung cancer still represents a substantial public health epidemic across Europe as a result of high rates of smoking prevalence. Countries in Europe have proposed and implemented tobacco control policies to reduce smoking prevalence, with some countries being more progressive than others. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influenced women's attitudes across five European countries relative to comprehensive smokefree laws in their countries. Methods A cross-sectional landline telephone survey on attitudes towards tobacco control laws was conducted in five European countries: France, Ireland, Italy, the Czech Republic, and Sweden. Attitudinal scores were determined for each respondent relative to questions about smokefree laws. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results A total of 5,000 women were interviewed (1,000 women from each country). The majority of women, regardless of smoking history, objected to smoking in public buses, enclosed shopping centers, hospitals and other indoor work places. More women who had quit smoking believed that new tobacco control laws would prompt cessation – as compared to women who still smoked. Conclusions In general, there is very high support for national smokefree laws that cover bars, restaurants and public transport systems. As such laws are implemented, attitudes do change as demonstrated by the differences between countries such as Ireland and the Czech Republic. Implementing comprehensive smokefree laws will gain high approval and will be associated with prompting people to quit. PMID:23160317

Dresler, Carolyn; Wei, Mei; Heck, Julia E.; Allwright, Shane; Haglund, Margaretha; Sanchez Bengtsson, Sara; Kralikova, Eva; Stücker, Isabelle; Tamang, Elizabeth; Gritz, Ellen R.; Hashibe, Mia

2014-01-01

337

Women and postfertilization effects of birth control: consistency of beliefs, intentions and reported use  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study assesses the consistency of responses among women regarding their beliefs about the mechanisms of actions of birth control methods, beliefs about when human life begins, the intention to use or not use birth control methods that they believe may act after fertilization or implantation, and their reported use of specific methods. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered in

Huong M Dye; Joseph B Stanford; Stephen C Alder; Han S Kim; Patricia A Murphy

2005-01-01

338

A randomised controlled trial on hypolipidemic effects of Nigella Sativa seeds powder in menopausal women  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increased tremendously among menopausal women, and there is an increasing demand for alternative therapies for managing factors like dyslipidemia that contribute to CVD development. Methods In this study, Nigella sativa was evaluated for its hypolipidemic effects among menopausal women. In a randomised trial, hyperlipidemic menopausal women were assigned to treatment (n?=?19) or placebo groups (n?=?18), and given N. sativa or placebo for two months after their informed consents were sought. At baseline, blood samples were taken and at one month intervals thereafter until one month after the end of the study. Results The results showed that N. sativa significantly improved lipid profiles of menopausal women (decreased total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride, and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol) more than the placebo treatment over 2 months of intervention. One month after cessation of treatment, the lipid profiles in the N. sativa-treated group tended to change towards the pretreatment levels. Conclusions N. sativa is thought to have multiple mechanisms of action and is cost-effective. Therefore, it could be used by menopausal women to remedy hypercholesterolemia, with likely more benefits than with single pharmacological agents that may cause side effects. The use of N. sativa as an alternative therapy for hypercholesterolemia could have profound impact on the management of CVD among menopausal women especially in countries where it is readily available. PMID:24685020

2014-01-01

339

Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls.  

PubMed

This study had two purposes: (i) to explore differences in sexual function between women with gynecological or rectal cancer after related pelvic-area treatments and women without cancer; and (ii) to investigate the relationships among body image, anxiety and depression, sexual relationship power, sexual self-schema, and female sexual function. The participants (n?=?139) were recruited through Internet cancer support groups and women's health organizations in the USA. Six structured questionnaires were mailed, and the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that women with gynecological or rectal cancer had significantly worse sexual function than women without cancer. Having gynecological/rectal cancer and a negative sexual self-schema were significantly related to poor sexual function. Furthermore, sexual self-schema moderated the relationship between sexual relationship power and female sexual function. Healthcare providers could give more attention to sexual issues in women who have undergone treatment for gynecological or rectal cancer, especially for those with a negative sexual self-schema and high sexual relationship power, which might improve these women's quality of life. PMID:25417724

Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Chen, Lynn

2014-11-23

340

Effect of combined exercise training on bone, body balance, and gait ability: a randomized controlled study in community-dwelling elderly women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a 48-week multicomponent exercise program could improve the risk factors\\u000a for fall and hip fracture. Fifty elderly women 65–70 years of age participated. These participants were divided into an exercise\\u000a group (25 subjects) that attended an exercise program and a control group (25 subjects) that did not. The exercise program\\u000a included

Kang Jung Kim; Taiki Komatsu; Sang Kab Park; Yoshiteru Mutoh

2008-01-01

341

Prevalence of Group B Streptococcus serotypes III and V in pregnant women of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

PubMed Central

GBS serotypes III and V were the most prevalent in pregnant women and exhibited resistance to tetracycline, clindamycin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Serotype III showed high sialic acid content and PFGE analysis discerned 33 heterogeneous profiles. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization could be relevant to control GBS infections unaffected by intra-partum chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24516454

Soares, Georgia Cristina Tavolaro; Alviano, Daniela Sales; da Silva Santos, Gabriela; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Nagao, Prescilla Emy

2013-01-01

342

A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South  

PubMed Central

Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n = 355) provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10), and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall) data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5?kg/m2) and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16) and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group). Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.

Carson, Tiffany L.; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Sharonda; Townsend, Sh'Nese; Ard, Jamy D.; Meneses, Karen; Partridge, Edward E.; Baskin, Monica L.

2015-01-01

343

Macrolide- and tetracycline-resistance determinants of colonizing group B streptococcus in women in Egypt.  

PubMed

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a commensal bacterium of the human gastrointestinal and genital tracts. It is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, and has also been recognized as an important pathogen in pregnant women and the elderly. We investigated mechanisms of macrolide and tetracycline resistance in GBS colonizing women in Egypt. A total of 100 isolates were screened using standard antibiotic susceptibility tests. A multiplex PCR assay was used to detect macrolide- and tetracycline-resistance determinants. All isolates were uniformly susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, cefotaxime, vancomycin and levofloxacin. The resistance rates to erythromycin, clindamycin, azithromycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol were 17, 14, 16, 98 and 1?%, respectively. Among the erythromycin-resistant isolates, 82.4?% had constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (cMLSB) resistance, 5.9?% had inducible MLSB (iMLSB) resistance and 11.8?% had M phenotype resistance. Among the cMLSB phenotypes, 64.3?% of isolates harboured the ermB gene and 35.7?% of isolates harboured none of the investigated macrolide-resistance genes. The single strain expressing the iMLSB phenotype possessed the ermA gene. Of the two strains with the M phenotype, only one possessed the mefA/E gene. Conversely, seven macrolide-sensitive strains (MIC <0.03 µg ml(-1)) were ermB positive and one macrolide-sensitive strain (MIC <0.03 µg ml(-1)) harboured mefA/E. Tetracycline resistance was predominantly due to tetM, which was detected alone (83.7?%) or in association with tetL (12.2?%), tetK (1?%) or tetO (1?%). One strain carried tetM associated with both tetL and tetK, and another strain carried tetO alone. The tetO strains were positive for the mefA/E gene, and the tetL and tetK carrier strains harboured the ermB gene. Susceptible strains harbouring but not expressing an antibiotic-resistance gene should be regarded as potentially resistant. These results emphasize the need to monitor the epidemiology of GBS antibiotic resistance in Egypt. PMID:25053798

Shabayek, Sarah; Abdalla, Salah

2014-10-01

344

The Development of Guidelines for Community College Peer Group Counseling Evolving From a Study of Programs for Adult Re-Entry Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of peer group counseling on self-concept among adult re-entry women in Women's Education Development Incentive (WENDI) programs and other related programs was studied to develop a set of guidelines for community college peer group counseling. The study involved using the Adult Nowicke-Strickland Internal-External Scale for pre-…

Elledge, Muriel K.

345

Body Image and Quality of Life in a Group of African American Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American (AA) women's preference for a larger body size and underestimation of their body weight may affect the relationship between their body weight and weight-related quality of life (QOL). We wanted to examine the relationship between weight-related QOL and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of overweight AA women. Thirty-three…

Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks; Thomas, Dana-Marie; Ard, Jamy D.

2010-01-01

346

Health and Beauty Magazine Reading and Body Shape Concerns among a Group of College Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three potential factors that might mediate the relationship between reading women's magazines and body shape and size concern. Finds that health and fitness magazine reading by college-aged women was linked directly to body shape concerns, indirectly through beliefs about men's thinness expectations. Explains that beauty and fashion…

Thomsen, Steven R.

2002-01-01

347

Lessons learned from the Philadelphia Collaborative Preterm Prevention Project: the prevalence of risk factors and program participation rates among women in the intervention group.  

PubMed

BackgroundWomen who deliver preterm infants are at a much greater risk for repeating a preterm birth (PTB), compared to women without a history of PTB. However, little is known about the prevalence of the risk factors which account for this markedly increased risk. Moreover, little or nothing is known about the feasibility of providing treatments and services to these women, outside of the context of prenatal care, during the inter-conception period, which provides the best opportunity for successful risk-reduction interventions.MethodsThe Philadelphia Collaborative Preterm Prevention Project (PCPPP), a large randomized control trial designed to identify and reduce six major risk factors for a repeat preterm birth among women immediately following the delivering of a preterm infant. For the women assigned to the PCPPP treatment group, we calculated the prevalence of the six risk factors in question, the percentages of women who agreed to receive high quality risk-appropriate treatments or services, and the of rates of participation among those who were offered and eligible for these treatments or services.ResultsUrogenital tract infections were identified in 57% of the women, while 59% were found to have periodontal disease. More than 39% were active smokers, and 17% were assessed with clinical depression. Low literacy, and housing instability were identified in, 22 and 83% of the study sample, respectively. Among women eligible for intervention, the percentages who accepted and at least minimally participated in treatment ranged from a low of 28% for smoking, to a high of 85% for urogenital tract infection. Most PCPPP enrollees (57%) had three or more major risk factors. Participation rates associated with the PCPPP treatments or services varied markedly, and were quite low in some cases, despite considerable efforts to reduce the barriers to receiving care.ConclusionThe efficacy of individual level risk-reduction efforts designed to prevent preterm/repeat preterm in the pre- or inter-conception period may be limited if participation rates associated with interventions to reduce major risk factors for PTB are low. Achieving adequate participation may require identifying, better understanding, and eliminating barriers to access, beyond those associated with cost, transportation, childcare, and service location or hours of operation.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01117922). PMID:25361563

Webb, David A; Mathew, Leny; Culhane, Jennifer F

2014-11-01

348

The knowledge and use of birth control in the year 2000: the future needs of minority women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the knowledge, main complaints, side effects, and satisfaction of minority women using various methods of birth control (BC).Methods: Three hundred thirty randomly selected charts of women using various BC methods were reviewed retrospectively. The study population consisted mainly of African-American (AA) and Hispanic (HP) women.Results: The most common methods of BC used by AA and HP women

Danny W. Shaban; May R. Shaban; Prabhudas R. Palan; Magdy S. Mikhail

2001-01-01

349

Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus among pregnant women and control subjects in China.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E infection, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is an important global public health concern, with particularly high mortality in pregnant women. China is generally judged to be an HEV-endemic area, but epidemiological data for HEV among pregnant women are limited. Between June 2011 and July 2013, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by pregnant women in China. Nine-hundred and ninety pregnant women who visited hospitals for antenatal follow-up or medication in Qingdao and Weihai and 965 control subjects matched by age, gender and residence were examined for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme immunoassays. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in all 1,955 samples was 20.7%. In pregnant women, 16.2% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive whereas, in control subjects 25.3% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive, (P?women and control subjects was 2.6% and 3.6%, respectively. Age, contact with cats, contact with pigs and exposure to soil were found to be associated with HEV infection. These findings demonstrated the high prevalence of HEV and the considerable potential for the transmission of HEV infection in pregnant women in China. PMID:25164987

Cong, Wei; Sui, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Qian, Ai-Dong; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2015-03-01

350

Patient and Physician Decision Styles and Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Use in Older Women: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Protocol 369901  

PubMed Central

Purpose Physician and patient decision styles may influence breast cancer care for patients ? 65 years (“older”) because there is uncertainty about chemotherapy benefits in this group. We evaluate associations between decision-making styles and actual treatment. Methods Data were collected from women treated outside of clinical trials for newly diagnosed stage I to III breast cancer (83% response) from January 2004 through April 2011 in 75 cooperative group sites. Physicians completed a one-time mailed survey (91% response), and clinical data were abstracted from charts. Patient decision style was measured on a five-point scale. Oncologists' preference for prescribing chemotherapy was based on standardized vignettes. Regression and multiple imputation were used to assess associations between chemotherapy and other variables. Results There were 1,174 women seen by 212 oncologists; 43% of women received chemotherapy. One-third of women preferred to make their own treatment decision. Patient and physician decision styles were independently associated with chemotherapy. Women who preferred less physician input had lower odds of chemotherapy than women who preferred more input (odds ratio [OR] = 0.79 per 1-point change; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.97; P = .02) after considering covariates. Patients whose oncologists had a high chemotherapy preference had higher odds of receiving chemotherapy (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.80 to 3.89; P < .001) than those who saw oncologists with a low preference. Conclusion Physicians' and older patients' decision styles are each associated with breast cancer chemotherapy use. It will be important to re-evaluate the impact of decision styles when there is greater empirical evidence about the benefits and risks of chemotherapy in older patients. PMID:22614985

Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; Faul, Leigh Anne; Luta, George; Makgoeng, Solomon B.; Isaacs, Claudine; Taylor, Kathryn; Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Tallarico, Michelle; Barry, William T.; Cohen, Harvey J.

2012-01-01

351

Patient and physician decision styles and breast cancer chemotherapy use in older women: Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 369901.  

PubMed

PURPOSE Physician and patient decision styles may influence breast cancer care for patients ? 65 years ("older") because there is uncertainty about chemotherapy benefits in this group. We evaluate associations between decision-making styles and actual treatment. METHODS Data were collected from women treated outside of clinical trials for newly diagnosed stage I to III breast cancer (83% response) from January 2004 through April 2011 in 75 cooperative group sites. Physicians completed a one-time mailed survey (91% response), and clinical data were abstracted from charts. Patient decision style was measured on a five-point scale. Oncologists' preference for prescribing chemotherapy was based on standardized vignettes. Regression and multiple imputation were used to assess associations between chemotherapy and other variables. Results There were 1,174 women seen by 212 oncologists; 43% of women received chemotherapy. One-third of women preferred to make their own treatment decision. Patient and physician decision styles were independently associated with chemotherapy. Women who preferred less physician input had lower odds of chemotherapy than women who preferred more input (odds ratio [OR] = 0.79 per 1-point change; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.97; P = .02) after considering covariates. Patients whose oncologists had a high chemotherapy preference had higher odds of receiving chemotherapy (OR = 2.65; 95% CI, 1.80 to 3.89; P < .001) than those who saw oncologists with a low preference. CONCLUSION Physicians' and older patients' decision styles are each associated with breast cancer chemotherapy use. It will be important to re-evaluate the impact of decision styles when there is greater empirical evidence about the benefits and risks of chemotherapy in older patients. PMID:22614985

Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Faul, Leigh Anne; Luta, George; Makgoeng, Solomon B; Isaacs, Claudine; Taylor, Kathryn; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Tallarico, Michelle; Barry, William T; Cohen, Harvey J

2012-07-20

352

Evaluation of reproductive function in women treated for bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the reproductive function of women with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls. Methods Women diagnosed with BD and healthy controls with no psychiatric history ages 18 to 45 years were recruited from a university clinic and surrounding community. Participants completed a baseline reproductive health questionnaire, serum hormone assessment, and ovulation tracking for three consecutive cycles using urine luteinizing hormone (LH)-detecting strips with a confirmatory luteal-phase serum progesterone. Results Women with BD (n = 103) did not differ from controls (n = 36) in demographics, rates of menstrual abnormalities (MA), or number of ovulation-positive cycles. Of the women with BD, 17% reported a current MA and 39% reported a past MA. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and 17-hydroxyprogresterone were higher in controls (p = 0.052 and 0.004, respectively), otherwise there were no differences in biochemical levels. Medication type, dose, or duration was not associated with MA or biochemical markers, except those currently taking an atypical antipsychotic indicated a greater rate of current or past MA (80% versus 55%, p = 0.013). In women with BD, 22% reported a period of amenorrhea associated with exercising or stress, versus 8% of controls (p = 0.064). Self-reported rates of bulimia and anorexia nervosa were 10% and 5%, respectively. Conclusions Rates of MA and biochemical levels did not significantly differ between women with BD and controls. Current atypical antipsychotic use was associated with a higher rate of current or past MA and should be further investigated. Incidence of stress-induced amenorrhea should be further investigated in this population, as should comorbid incidence of eating disorders. PMID:24262071

Reynolds-May, Margaret F; Kenna, Heather A; Marsh, Wendy; Stemmle, Pascale G; Wang, Po; Ketter, Terence A; Rasgon, Natalie L

2013-01-01

353

Women's status and health of two ethnic groups inhabiting a periurban habitat of Kolkata City, India: a micro-level study.  

PubMed

We studied the interrelationship of women's status in terms of socioeconomic inequality and its effect on women's health at micro level between two ethnic groups in a periurban area of Kolkata City, India. One-hundred twenty-seven women who belong to a tribal population (Munda) and 174 women who belong to a caste population (Poundrakshatriya) participated in this study. We found significant differences between various (socioeconomic, demographic, diet intake, and body mass index [BMI] factors among the two ethnic groups that indicated a better situation for the Pod women. The number of live births, dietary intake and BMI of the women of the two ethnic groups varied differentially among socioeconomic factors, such as women's education and working pattern and poverty level of the household, which are the most recognized measures of women's status. Thus, the diverse socioeconomic status in various cultural groups in traditional Indian societies reflects a more complex situation of women's status and their health. Different factors were responsible for the differential health status of women, which is culture and location specific. Women who are more educated and employed are not necessarily more healthy, since poverty remains an integral factor, base on which literacy and employment status of women in India is determined. Furthermore, suppression of women is rooted in the very fabric of the Indian society, in tradition, in religious doctrine and practices, within the educational systems, and within the families. Along with education, therefore, income-generating schemes for the women of the economically deprived population should be strengthened to bring equality in overall health status of a region that consists of diverse cultural populations with vast economic disparity. PMID:15804693

Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda

2005-03-01

354

Characterization of a Normal Control Group: Are they Healthy?  

PubMed Central

We examined the health of a control group (18–81 years) in our aging study, which is similar to control groups used in other neuroimaging studies. The current study was motivated by our previous results showing that one third of the elder control group had moderate to severe white matter hyperintensities and/or cortical volume loss which correlated with poor performance on memory tasks. Therefore, we predicted that cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, high cholesterol) within the control group would account for significant variance on working memory task performance. Fifty-five participants completed 4 verbal and spatial working memory tasks, neuropsychological exams, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and blood tests to assess vascular risk. In addition to using a repeated measures ANOVA design, a cluster analysis was applied to the vascular risk measures as a data reduction step to characterize relationships between conjoint risk factors. The cluster groupings were used to predict working memory performance. The results show that higher levels of systolic blood pressure were associated with: 1) poor spatial working memory accuracy; and 2) lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple brain regions. In contrast, higher levels of total cholesterol corresponded with increased accuracy in verbal working memory. An association between lower FA values and higher cholesterol levels were identified in different brain regions from those associated with systolic blood pressure. The conjoint risk analysis revealed that Risk Cluster Group 3 (the group with the greatest number of risk factors) displayed: 1) the poorest performance on the spatial working memory tasks; 2) the longest reaction times across both spatial and verbal memory tasks; and 3) the lowest FA values across widespread brain regions. Our results confirm that a considerable range of vascular risk factors are present in a typical control group, even in younger individuals, which have robust effects on brain anatomy and function. These results present a new challenge to neuroimaging studies both for defining a cohort from which to characterize `normative' brain circuitry and for establishing a control group to compare with other clinical populations. PMID:24060318

Aine, CJ; Sanfratello, L; Adair, JC; Knoefel, JE; Qualls, C; Lundy, SL; Caprihan, A; Stone, D; Stephen, JM

2013-01-01

355

Impact of divorce on locus of control orientation in adult women: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the relation between getting divorced and changes in the individual's locus of control orientation using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience. The sample contained 1,814 White women aged 32–46 yrs who were in their 1st marriage in 1969. Marital status and locus of control (an 11-item abbreviated version of Rotter's Internal–External Locus of Control

William J. Doherty

1983-01-01

356

Separate and Unsanitary: African American Women Railroad Car Cleaners and the Women's Service Section, 1918–1920  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Women's Service Section (WSS) investigated federally controlled railroad stations and yards at the end of World War I. Few women worked in car cleaning before the war, and railroad management preferred to block women workers, especially African Americans, from gaining any kind of foothold in railroad work. African American women were the single largest group of railroad car cleaners

Robin Dearmon Muhammad

2011-01-01

357

Separate and Unsanitary: African American Women Railroad Car Cleaners and the Women's Service Section, 1918–1920  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The Women's Service Section (WSS) investigated federally controlled railroad stations and yards at the end of World War I. Few women worked in car cleaning before the war, and railroad management preferred to block women workers, especially African Americans, from gaining any kind of foothold in railroad work. African American women were the single largest group of railroad car cleaners

Robin Dearmon Muhammad

2011-01-01

358

Cognitive behavioural treatment for women who have menopausal symptoms after breast cancer treatment (MENOS 1): a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Hot flushes and night sweats (HFNS) affect 65–85% of women after breast cancer treatment; they are distressing, causing sleep problems and decreased quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy is often either undesirable or contraindicated. Safe, effective non-hormonal treatments are needed. We investigated whether cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can help breast cancer survivors to effectively manage HFNS. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, we recruited women from breast clinics in London, UK, who had problematic HFNS (minimum ten problematic episodes a week) after breast-cancer treatment. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either usual care or usual care plus group CBT (1:1). Randomisation was done in blocks of 12–20 participants, stratifying by age (younger than 50 years, 50 years or older), and was done with a computer-generated sequence. The trial statistician and researchers collecting outcome measures were masked to group allocation. Group CBT comprised one 90 min session a week for 6 weeks, and included psycho-education, paced breathing, and cognitive and behavioural strategies to manage HFNS. Assessments were done at baseline, 9 weeks, and 26 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome was the adjusted mean difference in HFNS problem rating (1–10) between CBT and usual care groups at 9 weeks after randomisation. Analysis of the primary endpoint was done by modified intention to treat. The trial is registered, ISRCTN13771934, and was closed March 15, 2011. Findings Between May 5, 2009, and Aug 27, 2010, 96 women were randomly allocated to group CBT (n=47) or usual care (n=49). Group CBT significantly reduced HFNS problem rating at 9 weeks after randomisation compared with usual care (mean difference ?1·67, 95% CI ?2·43 to ?0·91; p<0·0001) and improvements were maintained at 26 weeks (mean difference ?1·76, ?2·54 to ?0·99; p<0·0001). We recorded no CBT-related adverse events. Interpretation Group CBT seems to be a safe and effective treatment for women who have problematic HFNS after breast cancer treatment with additional benefits to mood, sleep, and quality of life. The treatment could be incorporated into breast cancer survivorship programmes and delivered by trained breast cancer nurses. Funding Cancer Research UK. PMID:22340966

Mann, Eleanor; Smith, Melanie J; Hellier, Jennifer; Balabanovic, Janet A; Hamed, Hisham; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Hunter, Myra S

2012-01-01

359

Lifestyle interventions for hypertension treatment among Iranian women in primary health-care settings: Results of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Lifestyle factors such as weight, salt intake, and physical activity have shown to be important in treating hypertension. The object of this study was to describe feasibility and to assess the effectiveness of a multicomponent lifestyle intervention on high blood pressure (BP) of Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in four health centers by recruiting 161 women aged 35-65 years with high BP and randomizing them to a 4-week lifestyle modification (n = 80) or control group (n = 81). BP level and other health behavioral factors were assessed before and after the 4-week intervention and also after 6 months. Results: The mean systolic BP changed from 158.8 (±8.1) mmHg to 153.2 (±6.4) mmHg during 4-week and to 145.5 (±4.6)) mmHg after 6 months in the intervention group (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between two groups of study after 4-week mean = 5.6 (confidence interval [CI] = 5.1-6.6) and 6 months follow mean (CI = 12.3-14.6).(P < 0.001) A significant correlation was detected between systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) with weight, body mass index, waist circumference, salt intake, and physical activity level (P < 0.001). Stepwise regression analyses indicated that the weight, dietary salt intake, and physical activity level were significant predictors of SBP and DBP. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that lifestyle modification program is associated with improvements in BP level in Iranian women.

Hasandokht, Tolou; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Paknahad, Zamzam; Rajati, Fatemeh

2015-01-01

360

2006 Nature Publishing Group Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic  

E-print Network

© 2006 Nature Publishing Group Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human. To translate preclinical results from intact animals to a clinically useful NMP, movement signals must persist in cortex after spinal cord injury and be engaged by movement intent when sensory inputs and limb movement

Vilis, Tutis

361

Summary of beam quality diagnostics and control working group  

SciTech Connect

The working group on beam quality, diagnostics, and control at the 12th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held a series of meetings during the Workshop. The generation of bright charged-particle beams (in particular electron and positron beams), along with state-of-the-art beam diagnostics and synchronization were discussed.

Lewellen, John; /Argonne; Piot, Philippe; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

2006-09-01

362

FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

Children Today, 1987

1987-01-01

363

2006 Nature Publishing Group Electrical signals control wound healing through  

E-print Network

© 2006 Nature Publishing Group Electrical signals control wound healing through. Forrester1 , Henry R. Bourne3 , Peter N. Devreotes6 , Colin D. McCaig1 & Josef M. Penninger2 Wound healing to be important in wound healing1­3 . The identity of signalling pathways that guide both cell migration

Devreotes, Peter

364

Local control strategies for groups of mobile autonomous agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of achieving a specified formation among a group of mobile autonomous agents by distributed control is studied. If convergence to a point is feasible, then more general formations are achievable too, so the focus is on convergence to a point (the agreement problem). Three formation strategies are studied and convergence is proved under certain conditions. Also, motivated by

Zhiyun Lin; Mireille Broucke; Bruce Francis

2004-01-01

365

Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

1974-01-01

366

Control of complex, physically simulated robot groups David C. Brogan  

E-print Network

Control of complex, physically simulated robot groups David C. Brogan University of Virginia Charlottesville, Virginia ABSTRACT Actuated systems such as robots take many forms and sizes but each requires, herds, swarms 1. INTRODUCTION Animated characters are needed to play the role of teachers or guides

Brogan, David

367

Design and Implementation of Modern Elevator Group Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and implementation of a modern elevator group control system (EGCS) is introduced in this paper. The basic considerations of designing an EGCS are discussed, including related system parameters, evaluation criterions and traffic patterns. Least squares support vector machine algorithm is employed for traffic prediction. Using multi-support vector machine, the traffic pattern recognition is accomplished, then based on that

Zhi-Ming Chen; Fei Luo; Yu-Ge Xu; Jian-Zhong Cao

2006-01-01

368

Long-Term Effects of Self-Control on Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior among Urban Minority Young Women  

PubMed Central

High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners) in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample) reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19%) reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8%) reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and sexual behaviors. PMID:22470274

Griffin, Kenneth W.; Scheier, Lawrence M.; Acevedo, Bianca; Grenard, Jerry L.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

2011-01-01

369

Communication control and leadership in telecommunications by small groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This experiment examined the effect of communication control on the telecommunications of four subject problem solving groups, and on the emergence of leaders within the groups. Sixteen four-subject teams solved four realistic problems, one on each of four days, by communicating over a closed-circuit television system with an added audio capacity. Teams were assigned to communication systems which either did or did not have centrally controlled switching so that only one person could talk at a time, and to systems in which either (1) one subject was appointed to perform some of the experimenter's tasks or (2) no group member was so designated. Four degrees of control over communication thus ranged from no control (communication was not centrally switched, no appointed helper) to absolute control (appointed helper who switched the communication). The subject who switched the communication and/or helped the experimenter was chosen at random by the experimenter prior to the start of the first experimental session and remained the same throughout the remaining sessions. Teams were paid a bonus of up to $2.60 for each problem solution. The size of a team's bonus depended on how well the team solved each problem as determined by comparing their solutions with criterion solutions. Dependent measures include the time to solution, a measure of the quality of solution based on the size of the bonus, measures of verbal communication, and questionnaire responses.

Pagerey, P. D.

1980-06-01

370

The demand-control-support model and health among women and men in similar occupations.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the main and the interaction effects of the demand-control-support (DCS) model on women's and men's health in a Swedish telecom company. According to the DCS model, work that is characterized by high demands, low decision latitude, and low support decreases health and well-being. Furthermore, control and support are assumed to interact in protecting against adverse health effects of stress. Earlier studies have failed to consider occupational status and gender simultaneously. Questionnaire data from 134 female and 145 male employees in similar occupations were collected. Correlational analysis supported the main effect hypotheses irrespective of gender. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that only demands predicted women's health, whereas both demands and lack of social support predicted men's health. However, no interaction effects were found for either women or men. Further studies should probe the relevance of the model while considering gender and occupational status. PMID:14677214

Muhonen, Tuija; Torkelson, Eva

2003-12-01

371

Effects of Acute 60 and 80% V[o.sub.2]max Bouts of Aerobic Exercise on State Anxiety of Women of Different Age Groups across Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on state anxiety of women while controlling for iron status (hemoglobin and serum ferritin). Participants were 24 active women, ages 18-20 years (n=12) and 35-45 years (n=12). In addition to a nonexercise control condition, participants completed one…

Cox, Richard H.; Thomas, Tom R.; Hinton, Pam S.; Donahue, Owen M.

2004-01-01

372

Effects of growth hormone in women with abdominal adiposity: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective Abdominal adiposity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of GH in abdominally obese women on body composition and cardiovascular risk markers. Materials and Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 79 obese premenopausal women received GH vs. placebo for six months. Primary endpoints were: 1) total abdominal (TAT) fat by CT (body composition) and 2) high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (cardiovascular risk marker). Body composition was assessed by CT, DXA and proton MR spectroscopy. Serum cardiovascular risk markers, carotid intima-media thickness and endothelial function were measured. Results Mean 6-month GH dose was 1.7±0.1 mg/day, resulting in a mean IGF-1 SDS increase from ?1.7±0.08 to ?0.1±0.3 in the GH group. GH administration decreased TAT and hsCRP compared with placebo. In addition, it increased thigh muscle mass and lean body mass, and decreased subcutaneous abdominal and trunk fat, tPA, apoB, and apoB/LDL compared with placebo. Visceral adipose tissue decreased and IMCL increased within the GH group. Six-month change in IGF-1 levels was negatively associated with 6-month decrease in TAT and VAT. One subject had a 2-hour glucose >200 mg/mL at 3 months; four subjects, three of whom were randomized to GH, had 2-hour glucose levels >200 mg/mL at study end. Conclusion GH administration in abdominally obese premenopausal women exerts beneficial effects on body composition and cardiovascular risk markers, but is associated with a decrease in glucose tolerance in a minority of women. PMID:22275471

Bredella, Miriam A.; Lin, Eleanor; Brick, Danielle J.; Gerweck, Anu V.; Harrington, Lindsey M.; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J.; Hemphill, Linda C.; Wu, Zida; Rifai, Nader; Utz, Andrea L.; Miller, Karen K.

2013-01-01

373

ShopSmart 4 Health – Protocol of a skills-based randomised controlled trial promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need for evidence on the most effective and cost-effective approaches for promoting healthy eating among groups that do not meet dietary recommendations for good health, such as those with low incomes or experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. This paper describes the ShopSmart 4 Health study, a randomised controlled trial conducted by Deakin University, Coles Supermarkets and the Heart Foundation, to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a skill-building intervention for promoting increased purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables amongst women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods/design ShopSmart 4 Health employed a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18–60 years, holding a Coles store loyalty card, who shopped at Coles stores within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and met low-income eligibility criteria were invited to participate. Consenting women completed a baseline survey assessing food shopping and eating habits and food-related behaviours and attitudes. On receipt of their completed survey, women were randomised to either a skill-building intervention or a wait-list control condition. Intervention effects will be evaluated via self-completion surveys and using supermarket transaction sales data, collected at pre- and post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Process evaluation will be undertaken to identify perceived value and effects of intervention components. Discussion This study will provide data to address the currently limited evidence base regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skill-building intervention strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, a target group at high risk of poor diets. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN48771770 PMID:23668896

2013-01-01

374

Associations among body size dissatisfaction, perceived dietary control, and diet history in African American and European American women  

Microsoft Academic Search

European American (EA) women report greater body dissatisfaction and less dietary control than do African American (AA) women. This study investigated whether ethnic differences in dieting history contributed to differences in body dissatisfaction and dietary control, or to differential changes that may occur during weight loss and regain. Eighty-nine EA and AA women underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body

Paula C. Chandler-Laney; Gary R. Hunter; Nikki C. Bush; Jessica A. Alvarez; Jane L. Roy; Nuala M. Byrne; Barbara A. Gower

2009-01-01

375

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade to control blood pressure in postmenopausal women: Influence of hormone replacement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade to control blood pressure in postmenopausal women: Influence of hormone replacement.BackgroundHypertension is twice as common in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) with candesartan cilexetil (CC) to control blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive menopausal women, and the influence of hormone replacement therapy

Francisco Fernández-Vega; José Abellán; Onofre Vegazo; Soledad García De Vinuesa; José Carlos Rodríguez; Benito Maceira; Saturnino Sanz De Castro; Roberto Robles Nicolás; José Luño

2002-01-01

376

Genitourinary tract infections in pregnancy and low birth weight: case-control study in Australian aboriginal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the association between genital and urinary tract infections in pregnant Aboriginal women and low birth weight. DESIGN--Retrospective case-control study controlling for potential confounding variables. SETTING--Western Australia from 1985 to 1987. SUBJECTS--All Aboriginal women (n = 269) who had given birth to singleton infants weighing 2250 g or less (cases), and 269 randomly selected Aboriginal women who had given

R Schultz; A W Read; J A Straton; F J Stanley; P Morich

1991-01-01

377

Art therapy for women with breast cancer: The therapeutic consequences of boundary strengthening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 2001 and 2004, 42 women with breast cancer (20 women in the study group and 22 women in the control group) participated in an intervention study involving art therapy. This article elaborates on previous quantitative results, taking a discursive approach and drawing on gender theories in analyzing the women's use of interpretative repertoires in interviews and diaries and their

Inger Öster; Eva Magnusson; Karin Egberg Thyme; Jack Lindh; Sture Åström

2007-01-01

378

Massage therapy effects on depressed pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-four depressed pregnant women were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy and randomly assigned to a massage therapy group, a progressive muscle relaxation group or a control group that received standard prenatal care alone. These groups were compared to each other and to a non-depressed group at the end of pregnancy. The massage therapy group participants received two 20

T. Field; M. A. Diego; M. Hernandez-Reif; S. Schanberg; C. Kuhn

2004-01-01

379

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Iranian Women: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Tabriz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Purpose Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death among women. In Asian countries such as Iran, the incidence of breast cancer is increasing. The present study aimed to assess the risk factors for breast cancer of women in Tabriz, Iran. Methods A hospital-based case-control study was undertaken to identify breast cancer risk factors. The study consisted of 140 cases confirmed via histopathological analysis and 280 group-matched controls without any malignancy. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods via the SPSS software version 18. Results In a multivariate analysis, educational level (odds ratio [OR], 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11-10.83), menopausal status (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.41-4.59), a high-fat diet (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.51-5.04), abortion (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.20-3.79), passive smoking (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.51-5.04), oral contraceptive use (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.80-5.59), stress (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.74-5.36), and migration (OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.39-6.90) were factors associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer. Breastfeeding (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.97) and a diet containing sufficient fruit and vegetables (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.12-0.39) had protective roles against breast cancer. Conclusion The study revealed that the risk factors for breast cancer among women in the Tabriz area of Iran are related to the lifestyle. Therefore, the provision of education to change unhealthy lifestyle choices and periodic check-ups for early breast cancer detection are recommended. PMID:25320621

Hosseinzadeh, Mina; Eivazi Ziaei, Jamal; Aghajari, Parvaneh; Vahidi, Maryam; Fateh, Alaviehe; Asghari, Elnaz

2014-01-01

380

Effect of different types of exercise on postural balance in elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Different types of exercise are indicated for the elderly to prevent functional capacity limitations due to aging and reduce the risk of falls. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different exercises (mini-trampoline, MT; aquatic gymnastics, AG and general floor gymnastics, GG) on postural balance in elderly women. Seventy-four physically independent elderly women, mean age 69±4 years, were randomly assigned to three intervention groups: (1) MT (n=23), (2) AG (n=28), and (3) GG (n=23). Each group performed physical training, including cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and sensory-motor exercises for 12 weeks. To determine the effects on each intervention group, five postural balance tasks were performed on a force platform (BIOMEC 400): the two-legged stand with eyes open (TLEO) and two-legged stand with eyes closed (TLEC); the semi-tandem stand with eyes open (STEO) and semi-tandem stand with eyes closed (STEC) and the one-legged stand. Three trials were performed for each task (with 30s of rest between them) and the mean was used to compute balance parameters such as center of pressure (COP) sway movements. All modalities investigated such as the MT, AG and GG were significantly (P<0.05) efficient in improving the postural balance of elderly women after 12 weeks of training. These results provide further evidence concerning exercise and balance for promoting health in elderly women. PMID:25239512

de Oliveira, Marcio R; da Silva, Rubens A; Dascal, Juliana B; Teixeira, Denilson C

2014-01-01

381

An elevator group control system with floor attribute control method and system optimization using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept is proposed for an elevator group control system which can change control settings according to individual floor utilization situations. The floor attribute based control method uses a combination of floor attribute based evaluation and car attribute based evaluation. Computer simulations show it can improve multiple preferential floor simulations at the same time. Additionally, an on-line parameter tuning

Atsuya Fujino; Toshimitsu Tobita; Kazuhiro Segawa; Kenji Yoneda; Akihiro Togawa

1995-01-01

382

Falls prevention over 2 years: a randomized controlled trial in women 80 years and older  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: after 1 year, a home-based programme of strength and balance retraining exercises was effective in reducing falls and injuries in women aged 80 years and older. The exercise programme had been individually prescribed by a physiotherapist during the first 2 months of a randomized controlled trial. Objective: we aimed to assess the effectiveness of the programme over 2 years.

A. JOHN CAMPBELL; M. C LARE ROBERTSON; M ELINDA M. GARDNER; N. NORTON; DAVID M. BUCHNER

1999-01-01

383

Birth Control for Women Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2  

E-print Network

The Pill Birth Control for Women Approved by the UHS Patient Education Committee Page 1 of 2. However, failure rate with typical use is 8%. Other Medications and the Pill The following medications first develop in a lower leg and are a potentially life threatening side effect which can lead to heart

Yener, Aylin

384

Eating Problems and Related Weight Control Behaviour in Adult Japanese Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fewer studies concerning eating problems have been conducted in adult than in adolescent female populations. The aims of this study are to ascertain the proportion of eating problems and clarify weight control behaviour in adult Japanese women. Methods: This study employed a questionnaire survey with a cross-sectional design. Subjects were adult females aged 20–39 years, working in a computer

Kazutoshi Nakamura; Yoshihiko Hoshino; Atsushi Watanabe; Kyoichi Honda; Shinichi Niwa; Masaharu Yamamoto

1999-01-01

385

The outcome of pregnancy in women suffering from migraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive histories of 777 women suffering from migraine were compared with 182 non-migrainous women. The incidence of miscarriage, stillbirth and toxaemia of pregnancy was very similar in both groups and there was no increase in the number of congenital malformations in the children born to women who suffered from migraine compared with the control group or with the national

G. Wainscott; F. M. Sullivan; G. N. Volans; M. Wilkinson

1978-01-01

386

Serum anti-Mullerian hormone levels during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in women with polycystic ovaries with and without hyperandrogenism  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is expressed in pre- and small-antral follicles. High serum levels are found in women with polycystic ovaries (PCO), accordant with their increased content of small follicles. To evaluate the relationship between AMH, folliculogenesis and hyperandrogenism, we compared serum AMH levels between women with PCO with and without hyperandrogenism and normal controls during controlled ovar- ian hyperstimulation

Talia Eldar-Geva; Ehud J. Margalioth; Michael Gal; Avraham Ben-Chetrit; Nurit Algur; Baruch Brooks; Michael Huerta; Irving M. Spitz

387

Antiobesity Effect of Caraway Extract on Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30?mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377. PMID:24319489

Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A.

2013-01-01

388

Results of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Buprenorphine For Opioid Dependent Women in the Criminal Justice System  

PubMed Central

Aims Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of both methadone and buprenorphine when used with opioid dependent men transitioning from prison to the community, but no studies have been conducted with women in the criminal justice (CJ) system. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of buprenorphine for relapse prevention among opioid dependent women in the CJ system transitioning back to the community. Methods 36 women under CJ supervision were recruited from an inpatient drug treatment facility that treats CJ individuals returning back to the community. Nine were enrolled in an open label buprenorphine arm then 27 were randomized to buprenorphine (n=15) or placebo (n=12; double-blind). All women completed baseline measures and started study medication prior to release. Participants were followed weekly, provided urine drug screens (UDS), received study medication for 12 weeks, and returned for a 3 month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses were performed for all time points through end-of-treatment (EOT). Results The majority of participants were Caucasian (88.9%), young (M±SD=31.8±8.4 years), divorced/separated (59.2%) women with at least a high school/GED education (M±SD =12±1.7 years). GEE analyses showed that buprenorphine was efficacious in maintaining abstinence across time compared to placebo. At End of Treatment, 92% of placebo and 33% of active medication participants were positive for opiates on urine drug screen (Chi-Square = 10.9, df=1; p<0.001). However, by the three month follow-up point, no differences were found between the two groups, with 83% of participants at follow-up positive for opiates. Conclusions Women in the CJ system who received buprenorphine prior to release from a treatment facility had fewer opiate positive UDS through the 12-weeks of treatment compared to women receiving placebo. Initiating buprenorphine in a controlled environment prior to release appears to be a viable strategy to reduce opiate use when transitioning back to the community. PMID:21782352

Cropsey, Karen L.; Lane, Peter S.; Hale, Galen J.; Jackson, Dorothy O.; Clark, C. Brendan; Ingersoll, Karen S.; Islam, M. Aminul; Stitzer, Maxine L.

2011-01-01

389

Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.

Khan, S.; Maibodi, M. [Bechtel Power corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Srivastava, R. [and others

1997-12-31

390

Predictors of Irrational Parenthood Cognitions in an Iranian Group of Infertile Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate possible predictors of irrational parenthood cognitions among infertile women seeking treatment. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 300 women who visited an Infertility Center in Iran during 2010 were studied. A pre-validated inventory was used to assess irrational parenthood cognitions. Potential predictors of the total irrational parenthood cognitions score were assessed. Results Mean irrational parenthood cognition score was 39.7(Range 0–56). Through bivariate analysis, the score on irrational parenthood cognition was inversely correlated with age and positively correlated with length of time seeking for infertility treatment and length of time expecting pregnancy. In a multivariate model, infertile women with higher education, especially academic education, or those with higher economic status were less likely to have irrational parenthood cognitions. However, higher motherhood motivation, no previous experience of pregnancy and being under social pressure, from others around, increased the likelihood of having irrational parenthood cognitions. Conclusions Some variables such as female spouse’s educational level and being under social pressure can independently predict irrational parenthood cognitions among infertile women that may be of use in designing health promotion plans in order to target the vulnerable women. PMID:25756990

Farzadi, Laya; Ghasemzadeh, Aliyeh; Bahrami-asl, Zahra; Shirdel, Hossein

2015-01-01

391

IMPACT OF LAPARASCOPIC OVARIAN ELECTROCAUTERY ON DOPPLER INDICES WOMEN STROMAL BLOOD FLOW IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycystic ovary syndrom (PCOS) is characterized by infertility, oligomenorrhea, and hyperandrogenism. Clomiphene citrate (CC), an antiestrogen, is first-line treatment for PCOS, if CC fails to induce ovulation, laparascopic electrocautery of the ovaries is offered. In this prospective controlled study, 52 women with clomiphen-resistant PCOS (group 1) and 46 women with regular menstrual cycles as a control group (group 2) were

L. Safdarian; L. Eslamian; M. Adineh; M. Aghahoseini; A. Aleyasin; H. Saidi

392

[Aggression and group dependence in asthmatic children and a control group].  

PubMed

We studied a group of 60 boys and girls, 30 were asthmatics and 30 were controls in order to know more about factors that influenced the psychodynamics of the asthmatic and non asthmatic child. Both groups received the child's Thematic Aperception Test. Human version (CAT-H) and its supplement (CAT-S). No significant statistical differences were observed in relation to aggression but there was a significant difference in dependence (p.05). There results suggest us that the asthmatic child has lack of self confidence and has to look for support in other people. PMID:8963643

de Hinojosa Vallejo, P; Wakida Kusinoki, G; González Núnez, J J; Bustos de la Tijera, L; Cuevas Abad, M; Rodríguez González, R E

1996-01-01

393

Individual Versus Individual and Group Therapy Regarding a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Battered Women in a Community Setting.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to test the clinical effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program for battered women in a community setting and to find out whether effectiveness of individual therapy can be improved in conjunction with group therapy. One hundred sixteen treatment-seeking battered women were assigned either to CBT on an individual basis or an individual and group basis. Psychological treatment, focused on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), emotional discomfort, and impaired functioning, comprised a 17-session program, including emotional expression, psychoeducation, trauma re-exposure, coping skills, and problem-solving training. Although most treated patients in both groups improved in all variables (PTSD, emotional discomfort, and impaired functioning) at all assessments, the combined individual and group therapy did better than the individual therapy regarding PTSD symptoms and impaired functioning at follow-up assessments. These findings partially support the beneficial effects of group CBT as adjunctive therapy to individual CBT. Implications of this study for clinical practice and future research in this field are commented on. PMID:24368675

Echeburúa, Enrique; Sarasua, Belén; Zubizarreta, Irene

2013-12-24

394

The Impact of Trauma-Focused Group Therapy upon HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network “Women and Trauma” Multi-Site Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women in drug treatment struggle with co-occurring problems, including trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which\\u000a can heighten HIV risk. This study examines the impact of two group therapy interventions on reduction of unprotected sexual\\u000a occasions (USO) among women with substance use disorders (SUD) and PTSD. Participants were 346 women recruited from and receiving\\u000a treatment at six community-based drug treatment

Denise A. Hien; Aimee N. C. Campbell; Therese Killeen; Mei-Chen Hu; Cheri Hansen; Huiping Jiang; Mary Hatch-Maillette; Gloria M. Miele; Lisa R. Cohen; Weijin Gan; Stella M. Resko; Michele DiBono; Elizabeth A. Wells; Edward V. Nunes

2010-01-01

395

The Self-in-Relation Theory and Women for Sobriety: Female-Specific Theory and Mutual Help Group for Chemically Dependent Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special issues faced by chemically dependent women are reviewed. Self-in-Relation Theory, a model of psychological development for women, is discussed; the approach of Women for Sobriety is presented. When these two approaches are related, an alternative way of understanding and supporting chemically dependent women in recovery is provided. (EMK)

Manhal-Baugus, Monique

1998-01-01

396

The effectiveness of critical time intervention for abused women and homeless people leaving Dutch shelters: study protocol of two randomised controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Background One of the main priorities of Dutch organisations providing shelter services is to develop evidence-based interventions in the care for abused women and homeless people. To date, most of these organisations have not used specific intervention models and the interventions which have been implemented rarely have an empirical and theoretical foundation. The present studies aim to examine the effectiveness of critical time intervention (CTI) for abused women and homeless people. Methods In two multi-centre randomised controlled trials we investigate whether CTI, a time-limited (nine month) outreach intervention, is more effective than care-as-usual for abused women and homeless people making the transition from shelter facilities to supported or independent housing. Participants were recruited in 19 women’s shelter facilities and 22 homeless shelter facilities across The Netherlands and randomly allocated to the intervention group (CTI) or the control group (care-as-usual). They were interviewed four times in nine months: once before leaving the shelter, and then at three, six and nine months after leaving the shelter. Quality of life (primary outcome for abused women) and recurrent loss of housing (primary outcome for homeless people) as well as secondary outcomes (e.g. care needs, self-esteem, loneliness, social support, substance use, psychological distress and service use) were assessed during the interviews. In addition, the model integrity of CTI was investigated during the data collection period. Discussion Based on international research CTI is expected to be an appropriate intervention for clients making the transition from institutional to community living. If CTI proves to be effective for abused women and homeless people, shelter services could include this case management model in their professional standards and improve the (quality of) services for clients. Trial registration NTR3463 and NTR3425

2013-01-01

397

Sexual responsiveness in diabetic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Sexual responsiveness in 82 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic women was compared with that of 47 normal control subjects, using an interview method for rating various aspects of sexual response, and attitude questionnaires. The diabetic women were questioned about symptoms of autonomic neuropathy, and cardiovascular autonomic nerve function tests were performed. There were differences between the two groups in the reports

G. Tyrer; J. M. Steel; D. J. Ewing; J. Bancroft; P. Warner; B. F. Clarke

1983-01-01

398

Clomiphene citrate versus high doses of gonadotropins for in vitro fertilisation in women with compromised ovarian reserve: a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the present randomised controlled non-inferiority trial is to test whether in women with compromised ovarian reserve requiring in vitro fertilisation, a protocol of ovarian stimulation using exclusively clomiphene citrate performs similarly to a regimen with high doses of gonadotropins. Methods Women with day 3 serum FSH > 12 IU/ml on at least two occasions or previous poor response to hyper-stimulation were recruited at four Italian infertility units. Selected women were allocated to clomiphene citrate 150 mg/day from day 3 to day 7 of the cycle (n=145) or to a short protocol with GnRH agonist 0.1 mg and recombinant FSH 450 IU daily (n=146). They were randomised by means of a computer-generated list into two groups. The study was not blinded. The main outcome of the study was the delivery rate per started cycle. Results The study was interrupted after the scheduled two years of recruitment before reaching the sample size. 148 women were allocated to clomiphene citrate and 156 to the short protocol with high doses of gonadotropins; 124 and 125 participants were analysed in the groups, respectively. Women allocated to high doses of gonadotropins retrieved more oocytes and had a higher probability to perform embryo-transfer. However, the chances of success were similar. The delivery rate per started cycle in women receiving clomiphene citrate and high-dose gonadotropins was 3% (n=5) and 5% (n=7), respectively (p=0.77). The mean estimated cost per delivery in the two groups was 81,294 and 113,107 Euros, respectively. No side-effects or adverse events were observed. Conclusions In women with compromised ovarian reserve selected for in vitro fertilisation, ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate or high-dose gonadotropins led to similar chances of pregnancy but the former is less expensive. Trial registration Trial registered on http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01389713) PMID:23249758

2012-01-01

399

PTS performance by flight- and control-group macaques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.

Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.

2000-01-01

400

77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products to the Department of Defense (DoD), and GPS simulator users, both government and DoD contractors, that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on 14 December 2012 from 0900-1600 PST at Los Angeles Air Force Base. The purpose of this meeting is to disseminate......

2012-11-26

401

78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products to the Department of Defense (DoD), and GPS simulator users, both government and DoD contractors, that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on 1 November 2013 from 0900-1300 PST at Los Angeles Air Force Base. The purpose of this meeting is to disseminate......

2013-10-24

402

Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

Jones, Jayatta D.

2012-01-01

403

[Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area. PMID:24080893

Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

2013-09-01

404

Nutrition Knowledge and Milk and Milk Product Consumption in a Group of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the relationship between nutrition knowledge and milk/milk product consumption by women, data were collected from 457 female office employees. Statistically significant relationships were found between level of nutrition knowledge and age, education, and occupation. No statistically significant relationships between nutrition knowledge…

Forster-Coull, Lisa; Sabry, Jean Henderson

1993-01-01

405

Premenstrual syndrome in a group of hysterectomized women of reproductive age with intact ovaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this prospective study 13 women of reproductive age, unselected with regard to the presence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and hysterectomized but with intact ovaries, eight variables were rated as indicative of PMS on visual analog scales (VAS) for 35 consecutive days. Their menstrual cycles were subsequently reconstructed in relation to the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge as pin-pointed in urine

M. Silber; K. Carlström; B. Larsson

1989-01-01

406

The Acculturation of a Group of Lithuanian Women: A Follow-Up Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study of Lithuanian refugees involving 24 women and spanning 16 years, from the original study done in 1957 in Chicago, to the follow-up study of 14 of the same respondents done in 1973-74. Describes their process of acculturation in different life areas, their attitudes, and their associations. (Executive Office of the AABS, 231 Miller…

Cernius, Vytautas J.

1980-01-01

407

Role of Group Affiliation and Gender on Attitudes Toward Women in the Military  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined attitudes of West Point cadets (N = 218), Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets (N = 509), and non-military-affiliated students from civilian colleges (N = 598) toward a variety of roles that women may serve in the military. Respondents were queried whether a woman “should” or “should not” serve in the following military jobs: jet fighter

Michael D. Matthews; Morten G. Ender; Janice H. Laurence; David E. Rohall

2009-01-01

408

Gender, Discrimination Beliefs, Group-Based Guilt, and Responses to Affirmative Action for Australian Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Views of a selection committee's decision to promote a woman over a man on the basis of affirmative action were studied in a random sample of Australians (118 men and 111 women). The relations between perceptions of workplace gender discrimination, feelings of collective responsibility and guilt for discrimination, and judgments of entitlement to…

Boeckmann, Robert J.; Feather, N. T.

2007-01-01

409

Attitudes Toward Women's Rights: Relationships with Social Dominance Orientation and Political Group Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed the extent to whichattitudes toward women's rights are predicted by socialdominance orientation (SDO) and the political groupidentities socialist and capitalist. Respondents were 181 Australian undergraduates (54 males, 127females), most of whom were of European descent. Theresults of multiple regression analyses suggested thatSDO was the most consistent predictor of negative attitudes, although the extent to which itunderpins attitudes

Patrick C. L. Heaven

1999-01-01

410

Women's health  

MedlinePLUS

Women's health refers to the branch of medicine that focuses on the treatment and diagnosis of diseases and ... Women's health includes a wide range of specialties and focus areas, such as: Birth control, sexually transmitted infections ( ...

411

The Soy Isoflavones for Reducing Bone Loss (SIRBL) Study: a 3-y randomized controlled trial in postmenopausal women1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Our previous study indicated that soy protein with isoflavones lessened lumbar spine bone loss in midlife women. Objective: We examined the efficacy of isoflavones (extracted from soy protein) on bone mineral density (BMD) in nonosteoporotic postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that isoflavone tablets would spare BMD, with biological (age, body weight, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) and lifestyle (physical activity, dietary intake) factors modulating BMD loss. Design: Our double-blind, randomized controlled trial (36 mo) included healthy postmenopausal women (aged 45.8–65.0 y) with intent-to-treat (n = 224) and compliant (n = 208) analyses. Treatment groups consisted of a placebo control group and 2 soy isoflavone groups (80 compared with 120 mg/d); women received 500 mg calcium and 600 IU vitamin D3. Outcomes included lumbar spine, total proximal femur, femoral neck, and whole-body BMD. Results: Analysis of variance for intent-to-treat and compliant (?80%) models, respectively, showed no treatment effect for spine (P = 0.46, P = 0.21), femur (P = 0.86, P = 0.46), neck (P = 0.17, P = 0.14), or whole-body (P = 0.86, P = 0.78) BMD. From baseline to 36 mo, BMD declined regardless of treatment. In intent-to-treat and compliant models, respectively, BMD decreases were as follows: spine (?2.08%, ?1.99%), femur (?1.43%, ?1.38%), neck (?2.56%, ?2.51%), and whole body (?1.66%, ?1.62%). Regression analysis (compliant model) indicated that age, whole-body fat mass, and bone resorption were common predictors of BMD change. After adjustment for these factors, 120 mg (compared with placebo) was protective (P = 0.024) for neck BMD. We observed no treatment effect on adverse events, endometrial thickness, or bone markers. Conclusion: Our results do not show a bone-sparing effect of extracted soy isoflavones, except for a modest effect at the femoral neck. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00043745. PMID:19906801

Van Loan, Marta D; Koehler, Kenneth J; Hanson, Laura N; Stewart, Jeanne W; Hanson, Kathy B; Kurzer, Mindy S; Peterson, C Theodore

2010-01-01

412

The mPED randomized controlled clinical trial: applying mobile persuasive technologies to increase physical activity in sedentary women protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the significant health benefits of regular physical activity, approximately half of American adults, particularly women and minorities, do not meet the current physical activity recommendations. Mobile phone technologies are readily available, easily accessible and may provide a potentially powerful tool for delivering physical activity interventions. However, we need to understand how to effectively apply these mobile technologies to increase and maintain physical activity in physically inactive women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design and protocol of the mPED (mobile phone based physical activity education) randomized controlled clinical trial that examines the efficacy of a 3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and compares two different 6-month maintenance interventions. Methods A randomized controlled trial (RCT) with three arms; 1) PLUS (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month mobile phone diary maintenance intervention), 2) REGULAR (3-month mobile phone and pedometer based physical activity intervention and 6-month pedometer maintenance intervention), and 3) CONTROL (pedometer only, but no intervention will be conducted). A total of 192 physically inactive women who meet all inclusion criteria and successfully complete a 3-week run-in will be randomized into one of the three groups. The mobile phone serves as a means of delivering the physical activity intervention, setting individualized weekly physical activity goals, and providing self-monitoring (activity diary), immediate feedback and social support. The mobile phone also functions as a tool for communication and real-time data capture. The primary outcome is objectively measured physical activity. Discussion If efficacy of the intervention with a mobile phone is demonstrated, the results of this RCT will be able to provide new insights for current behavioral sciences and mHealth. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov#:NCTO1280812 PMID:22168267

2011-01-01

413

Cambodian Women's Health Project  

Cancer.gov

Increasing the regular use of Pap testing by underserved populations has been identified as a national research priority. Southeast Asian immigrants to the United States have high rates of invasive cervical cancer and demonstrate low use of Pap testing compared to other groups. However, there is little information concerning the control of cancer in Southeast Asian populations. Harborview Medical Center and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center are working together on the Cambodian Women’s Health Project.

414

Efficacy of metformin in pregnant obese women: a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Increasing evidence suggests obesity has its origins prior to birth. There is clear correlation between maternal obesity, high birthweight and offspring risk of obesity in later life. It is also clear that women who are obese during pregnancy are at greater risk of adverse outcomes, including gestational diabetes and stillbirth. The mechanism(s) by which obesity causes these problems is unknown, although hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are strongly implicated. We present a protocol for a study to test the hypothesis that metformin will improve insulin sensitivity in obese pregnant women, thereby reducing the incidence of high birthweight babies and other pregnancy complications. Methods and analysis The Efficacy of Metformin in Pregnant Obese Women, a Randomised controlled (EMPOWaR) trial is a double-masked randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine whether metformin given to obese (body mass index >30?kg/m2) pregnant women from 16?weeks’ gestation until delivery reduces the incidence of high birthweight babies. A secondary aim is to test the mechanism(s) of any effect. Obese women with a singleton pregnancy and normal glucose tolerance will be recruited prior to 16?weeks’ gestation and prescribed study medication, metformin or placebo, to be taken until delivery. Further study visits will occur at 28 and 36?weeks’ gestation for glucose tolerance testing and to record anthropometric measurements. Birth weight and other measurements will be recorded at time of delivery. Anthropometry of mother and baby will be performed at 3?months postdelivery. As of January 2014, 449 women had been randomised across the UK. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice. A favourable ethical opinion was obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee, reference number 10/MRE00/12. Results will be disseminated at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number ISRCTN51279843. PMID:25588785

Chiswick, Carolyn A; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Denison, Fiona C; Whyte, Sonia A; Drake, Amanda J; Newby, David E; Walker, Brian R; Forbes, Shareen; Murray, Gordon D; Quenby, Siobhan; Wray, Susan; Norman, Jane E

2015-01-01

415

The Effects of a Gentle Yoga Program on Sleep, Mood, and Blood Pressure in Older Women with Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS): A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine the effects of yoga versus an educational film program on sleep, mood, perceived stress, and sympathetic activation in older women with RLS. Methods. Participants were drawn from a larger trial regarding the effects of yoga on cardiovascular disease risk profiles in overweight, sedentary postmenopausal women. Seventy-five women were randomized to receive either an 8-week yoga (n = 38) or educational film (n = 37) program. All 75 participants completed an RLS screening questionnaire. The 20 women who met all four diagnostic criteria for RLS (n = 10 yoga, 10 film group) comprised the population for this nested study. Main outcomes assessed pre- and post-treatment included: sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), mood (Profile of Mood States, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), blood pressure, and heart rate. Results. The yoga group demonstrated significantly greater improvements than controls in multiple domains of sleep quality and mood, and significantly greater reductions in insomnia prevalence, anxiety, perceived stress, and blood pressure (all P's?0.05). Adjusted intergroup effect sizes for psychosocial variables were large, ranging from 1.9 for state anxiety to 2.6 for sleep quality. Conclusions. These preliminary findings suggest yoga may offer an effective intervention for improving sleep, mood, perceived stress, and blood pressure in older women with RLS. PMID:22474497

Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit

2012-01-01

416

Pantoea agglomerans lipopolysaccharide maintains bone density in premenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharide fromPantoea agglomerans (LPSp) facilitates Ca and P turnover in chicken calvaria and femurs. This study investigated osteoporosis prevention by the oral administration of LPSp in mice and in double-blind clinical tests. Using ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis mice model, we investigated the effects of LPSp on the bone density and Ca concentration after ingesting LPSp-containing water for 4 weeks. Oral administration of LPSp tended to suppress the decline in the bone density and the cortical bone thickness in the OVX mice. Moreover, the Ca concentrations were maintained in the OVX-LPSp mice. The effects of LPSp on bone turnover were tested in randomized and double-blind clinical test subjects, who were healthy women aged 40-79 years. The subjects ingested either soy milk without LPSp (control group) or with LPSp (LPSp group) for 3 months. The results showed that the LPSp group on premenopause maintained their bone density compared with the control group pre- and postmenopause. Moreover, these effects were maintained for 2 months postobservation. LPSp maintains bone volume and density in vivo. Thus, a combination of soy milk and LPSp may be useful for osteoporosis prevention. PMID:25493180

Nakata, Kazue; Nakata, Yoko; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takeru; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

2014-11-01

417

An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

Jeffries, Sherryl A. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Calgary Health Region Chronic Pain Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Robinson, John W. [Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Program in Clinical Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada) and Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S. [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Keats, Melanie R. [Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

2006-06-01